Steady State Transient Analysis for 2x25kv

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Steady State Transient Analysis for 2x25kv

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1

L. Battistelli, M. Pagano D.Proto, 2A. Amendola, L. Cundurro, A. Pignotti

Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy 1;

Ansaldo Segnalamento Ferroviario,Napoli, Italy 2

Abstract

In the paper, a detailed model for the short circuit analysis of the AC 2x25 kV-50 Hz traction

system has been derived and implemented. Two different methods have been used: the time

domain and frequency domain approaches. The two approaches are discussed and numerical

applications are reported. In particular, in order to assess the feasibility of both the two

methodologies, the results have been compared in steady state condition. Then a transient

analysis has been performed by means of the time domain simulator evidencing the short circuit

current transient behavior.

Introduction

The 2x25 kV feeding system is considered an optimal solution for high speed railways. The

reduction in the number of electric substations as well as a greater efficiency due to the use of

higher transmission voltages (50 kV supply between catenary and return feeder) with lower

currents and lower voltage locomotive traction equipment (25 kV rail-catenary voltage) are the

main advantages of the system [1]. Moreover, other advantages are related to the reduction of

electromagnetic interference between traction converters and adjacent telecommunications

circuits as well as the reduction of voltage drops.

Notwithstanding, critical operating conditions related to short circuit events can occur interfering

with the traction system components so compromising the functionality of the whole system.

The short circuit levels are particularly critical also due to the presence of the autotransformers

that increases the fault currents. Short-circuit analysis is important not only for determining the

rating of power equipment and the setting of protection devices but also for checking the voltage

profiles of the network and of the buses near the fault as well as the electromagnetic

compatibility with adjacent circuits. Thus, a detailed short-circuit study is required in both steady

state and transient condition [2-3].

The accuracy of the system components is an important concern for the short circuit analysis

since it significantly affects the simulation results. A critical issue, for example, is the

identification of the impedances of the system components and the configuration of the network

since they mainly determine the short-circuit results. Particular attention must be paid to an

accurate modeling of the autotransformers as well as of both self and mutual impedances of the

contact wire, rails and feeder.

In this paper the 2x25 kV electric railway system has been modeled in order to perform detailed

steady state and transient short-circuit analyses. The steady state model has been implemented

by means of a sequence of impedance matrices (chain matrices) representing each component

[4-5].

The same system has been implemented also by using computer simulations developed in time

domain by means of Matlab Power System Blockset, allowing to easily evaluate complex

system behavior by representing each power system component by an equivalent block. The

toolbox is suitable for efficient time-domain simulations, allowing to capture the functional

dependence of system characteristics on time and various interest parameters. Through the

time domain simulation, the short circuit analysis has been performed in transient condition.

In the paper the description of the considered traction system and of the problem formulation as

well as the description of both the two proposed methodologies has been detailed. Both steady

state and transient conditions have been investigated. Some experimental results on a

measurement campaign conducted on the actual Italian system validate the results obtained in

the simulation procedure.

Problem Description

In the 2x25 kV traction system the substation transformer feeds the overhead contact wire that

supplies the trains as well as the feeder wire that runs along the track. The voltage of the

overhead contact wire and feeder are respectively +25 kV and -25 kV. Autotransformers spaced

along a section of track connect the contact wire, feeder and rails through a median tap. The

electrical substations are equipped with 2 single phase transformers, each one feeding a railway

line section of about 25 km. Autotransformers distanced by approximately 12 km divide the line

sections in cells. In this configuration the current flows through the contact line and the feeder

and there is no current in the rails except in the cell occupied by the train. The simplified

scheme of the system operating condition (100 A traction load) is shown in Fig.1.

- 25 kV FEEDER

50A

+ 25 kV CONTACT WIRE

50A

A 12 km cell contains all the basic elements constituting the 2x25 kV traction system:

- the substation equipped with two single phase 60 MVA transformers;

- the parallel post (PP) equipped with two single phase 15 MVA autotransformers;

- the supply circuit containing messenger wires, contact lines, feeders and rails;

- the earth circuit containing the protection and buried earth conductors.

- capacitive compensators, located between the rails every 100 m;

- inductive bonds, connecting the rails to the earth circuit for interference mitigation, located

every 1500 m.

The transversal section of Fig.2 shows 14 conductors: the double track system wires (2 contact

lines, 2 feeders, 2 messenger wires, 4 rail tracks, 2 buried earth conductors, 2 overhead earth

conductors).

Two alternative implementations have been considered for short-circuit analysis. The former is

performed by means of the frequency domain algorithm. The latter is performed by means of

time domain simulation.

Feeder Feeder

Protection Protection

wire wire

Rails Rails

To perform the analyses in the frequency domain, each element is represented by means of an

equivalent impedance matrix. The system is solved by means of algebraic matrix operations.

In the time domain simulation, each component is represented by its differential equations.

Finally, the system is represented by the whole set of the differential equations.

In the following the system modeling for both the two approaches is briefly discussed [6].

Solving Procedures

Frequency domain model This algorithm starts representing the traction system by the node

impedance matrix through inspection and, then, it deduces the fault current in each branch of

the traction network as well as the curve of fault current versus fault location. The algorithm has

the following advantages:

- all system components are described in exactly the same manner by defining their "primitive

Z-node matrix";

- some more complex cases that often require "approximations" in classical methods can be

handled in a clean manner without numerical difficulties.

The basic idea of the frequency domain model is the representation of the whole system

through a sequence of impedance matrices (chain matrices) representing each component.

According to the aim of the approach, each element is represented by a chain matrix, which

relates the output voltages and currents to the input values:

⎢ I ⎥ = [A ] ⋅ ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢ A ⋅

A 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ I in ⎥⎦

(1)

⎣ out ⎦ ⎣ in ⎦ ⎣ 3

where Vout (Iout) is the [nx1] output voltage (current) vector, Vinp (Iinp) is the [nx1] input voltage

(current) vector, and A is the [2nx2n] chain matrix. Matrix A can be divided in four submatrices

of [nxn], where, in particular, A2 is the impedance matrix, and A3 is the admittance matrix.

Chain matrices can be calculated as the product of the matrices of each individuated element.

Aim of the model is the identification of voltage and current phasors at all the system locations.

It is worth noting that the model of the system components significantly affects the level of

accuracy of the simulations.

In the following a description of each component’s frequency domain model is detailed.

Substation model. The substation model is basically constituted by the single phase

transformer and the substation earth circuit. Fig.4 shows the equivalent circuit model adopted

for the substation transformer.

Z2 Messanger

wires

Z1 Contact

wires

Z3

Feeders

VS

Buried and

overhead

earth

conductors

Rails

RT

For this representation 14 equivalent circuit equations and the corresponding matrix equation

have been derived:

The substation model is represented by a [14x1] matrix. VS assumes value of +25kV for

messenger and contact wires, -25kV for feeder; ZS is derived from the equivalent circuit of the

figure.

Parallel post model. The parallel post is constituted by the autotransformer whose equivalent

circuit is shown in Fig.5. The characteristic chain matrix is:

[V( x)] = [Z pp ]⋅ [I( x)] (3)

Messanger Messanger

wires wires

Contact Contact

wires wires

Z1 Buried and

Buried and Zm overhead

overhead earth

earth conductors

conductors

Rails

Rails Z2

ZT

Feeders Feeders

Multi-conductor line model. The line section is modeled according to the method proposed in

[7]. The model includes 14 conductors whose auto and mutual impedances have been

considered. The governing multi transmission line (MTL) equations are a coupled set of first-

order partial differential equations:

∂ ∂

V ( z , t ) = RI ( z , t ) − L I ( z , t )

∂z ∂z (4)

∂ ∂

I ( z , t ) = GV ( z , t ) − C V ( z , t )

∂z ∂z

where V contains the line voltages with respect to the reference conductor; I contains the line

currents; and R, L, G, and C denote the per-unit-length parameters. The parameters are

calculated from the geometry of the multi-conductor line configuration and the physical

characteristics of the conductors.

The solution of the general phasor MTL equations for a line of length A can be written in the

chain matrix form as:

⎢ I( A) ⎥ = ⎢Θ ( A) Θ ( A)⎥ ⋅ ⎢ I(0) ⎥ (5)

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 21 22 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

Signalling track circuit element model. Two main components have to be considered for an

accurate modelling of the system behaviour: the capacitive compensators and the inductive

bonds.

a) Capacitive compensator

The chain sub-matrices of the element are calculated by output-input relations derived

according to the circuit of Fig.7:

⎡ V1C ⎤ ⎡ I 1C ⎤ ⎡ A C1 A C 2 ⎤ ⎡ I 1C ⎤

⎢V ⎥ = [A C ]⋅ ⎢I ⎥ = ⎢ A ⋅

A C 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣I 2C ⎥⎦

(6)

⎣ 2C ⎦ ⎣ 2C ⎦ ⎣ C3

⎡0 0 .. 0 .. 0 .. 0 0⎤

⎢0 0 .. 0 .. 0 .. 0 0⎥⎥

⎢

⎢.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢0 0 .. − jωC .. jωC .. 0 0⎥

[A& ]

C3 = ⎢..

⎢

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..⎥

⎥

⎢0 0 .. jω C .. − jωC .. 0 0⎥

⎢.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢0 0 .. 0 .. 0 .. 0 0⎥

⎢0 0 .. 0 .. 0 .. 0 0⎥⎦

⎣

.

.

.

⎡ V1C ⎤ ⎡V2 C ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎣ I1C ⎦ ⎣ I 2C ⎦

rail

rail

b) Inductive bond

Similarly, the chain submatrices of the inductive bond are calculated by output-input relations

derived according to the circuit of Fig.8.

.

.

.

Earth conductors

L

rails

⎡ V1i ⎤ ⎡ V2 i ⎤

⎢I ⎥ ⎢I ⎥

⎣ 1i ⎦ ⎣ 2i ⎦

rails

L

Earth conductors

Time domain model. The time domain simulations are developed by means of Matlab Power

System Blockset (PSB). Each component is represented by a block, suitable to physically

represent the behaviour of the component.

In the following the description of each component’s time domain model is detailed.

Substation model. The substation model is a 14 output line block basically composed by a

single phase three windings transformer whose secondary windings are connected to feeders,

contact wires and rails, Fig.9.

Fe 1

SSE 60 MVA, 50 kV

1

2

Fe 2

3

FP 1

AC 4

LDC1

5

FP 2

6

LDC 2

7

rot ext 1

8

rot int 1

9

rot int 2

10

rot ext 2

11

Cdt 1

12

Disp 1

13

RT Cdt 2

14

Disp 2

Parallel post model. For the autotransformer model, a 14 I/O line block composed by a single

phase three windings transformer connected as represented in Fig.10 has been used.

Multi-conductor line model. The multi-conductor line has been implemented by the PSB

Distributed Parameters Line Block, that implements a N-phase distributed parameter line model

with lumped losses. The resistance R, inductance L, capacitance C line parameters are

specified in [nxn] matrices.

Signalling track circuit elements model. To reproduce the effects of capacitive compensators

and inductive bonds, equivalent electrical lumped elements have been introduced in the model,

according to the data reported in Tab.1.

Inductive bond (rail to buried earth 1.2 mH

conductor)

It can be noted that the time domain model allows to perform analyses in both steady state and

transient conditions. The frequency domain model is an optimal tool for performing steady state

analysis and is particularly suitable for harmonic studies [7,8]. It can be also used to analyze

transients subject to the limitations of the superposition principle (applicable to linear systems).

In the current paper the following assumptions have been made:

- According to the technical literature [8,9], the electromagnetic fields have TEM structure,

which corresponds to the assumption of planewave propagation along the line.

- The multi conductor line representation does not take into account the inequalities in the

earth’s surface and its lack of conductive homogeneity whose estimation can be found in [10]

- According to [11], for short circuit analyses, the lumped compensator capacitors have been

neglected.

Numerical Applications

In order to test the two implemented simulation methods for the short circuit analysis, several

system configurations have been considered. In the following the results obtained for two

system configurations: a single cell of 12 km and a 4-cell system of about 50 km.

The first case implemented consists of a short circuit (between the overhead catenary and rail)

located at 0.7 km far from the substation. The single cell is included between the substation and

the parallel post. The short circuit has been simulated with a resistance of 0.001 Ω. Tab. I

shows the numerical results in steady state conditions.

Monitored RMS Distances from Time Frequency

values the substation Domain domain

[A] [km]

If 0.7 9973 9597

Icl 12 936.7 844.7

Ife 12 924.1 868.3

Irail 12 414.6 473.2

Icl 0 9036 8753

Ife 0 923.5 867.7

Irail 0 6652 7518

Table 2: Comparison of the results of the steady state short circuit analysis [6]

Tab. 2 evidences that the two models give similar results. A slightly higher fault current can be

observed in the time domain simulation.

In order to test the system in transient condition a 50 km traction system has been considered.

The system of 4 cells includes 1 feeding substation and 4 parallel posts. The short circuit is

located at the distance of 50 km from the substation in correspondence of the fourth parallel

post. The short circuit occurs at 0.5 ms between overhead and buried earth wires.

Fig. 11 shows the instantaneous waveform of the peak fault current.

Fig. 11: Waveform of the fault current in case of overhead-buried earth wire short circuit

By the analysis of the figure it can be noted that the system is characterized by a typical first

order dynamic where the peak value depends on the instantaneous system conditions when the

short circuit occurs. The time constant is a function of the system parameters and for severe

short circuit it very slightly depends on the short circuit resistance value. To focus on the

transient in Fig. 12 the positive peak values of the fault current are reported.

Fig. 12: Positive fault current peak values

Conclusions

Two methodologies for short circuit current calculation in the 2x25 kV traction system have been

proposed. The two approaches are performed in frequency and time domains. They both

represent the physical components by means of respectively the chain matrix and partial

differential equation mathematical models.

The numerical application reported investigates on steady state and transient operating

conditions. The results of the application are able to assess the suitability to perform short circuit

analyses by both the two models.

Future works will be aimed at validating the numerical applications with experimental results

obtained through a measurement campaign.

References

[1] I. Senol, H. Gorgun, M.G. Aydeniz: “General comparison of the electrical transportation

systems that are fed with 1×25 kV or 2×25 kV and expectations from these systems”,

Electrotechnical Conference, 1998 MELECON 98, 9th Mediterranean, Vol.2, 18-20 May 1998

Page(s): 885 – 887.

[2] T. H. Chen, Y. F. Hsu, “Systematized short-circuit analysis of a 2x25 kV electric traction

network”, Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 47, 1998, pp. 133-142.

[3] P.C. Coles, M. Fracchia, R.J. Hill, P. Pozzobon, A. Szelag: “Identification of catenary

harmonics in 3 kV DC railway traction systems”, Proceedings of the 7th Mediterranean

Electrotechnical Conference, Vol. 2, April 1994, pp. 825 -828.

[4] Clayton R. Paul: “Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines”, John Wiley & Sons,

November 2007.

[5] J. Arillaga, N.R. Watson, S. Chen: “Power System Quality Assessment”, John Wiley and

Sons, 2000 pp.171-228.

[6] A. Amendola, L.Battistelli, L.Cundurro, M.Pagano, D.Proto: “Short Circuit Modelling and

Simulation of 2x25 kV High Speed Railways”, accepted to the 10th International Confeence on

Computer Modelling and Simulation, 1-3 April 2008.

[7] R. Cella, G. Giangaspero, A. Mariscotti, A. Montepagano, P. Pozzobon, M. Ruscelli, and M.

Vanti: “Measurement of AT Electric Railway System Currents at Power-Supply Frequency and

Validation of a Multiconductor Transmission-Line Model”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,

Vol. 21, N.3, 2006, pp. 1721-1726.

[8] A. Mariscotti, P. Pozzobon: “Determination of the electrical parameters of railway traction

lines: Calculation, measurement and reference data”, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 19, no. 4,

Oct. 2004, pp. 1538–1546.

[9] R.J. Hill, D.C. Carpenter: “Rail track distributed transmission line impedance and admittance:

theoretical modeling and experimental results”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology,

Vol. 42, Issue 2, May 1993, pp. 225 -241.

[10] J.R.Carson: “Wave propagation in overhead wires with ground return”, The Bell System

Technical Journal, Vol. 5, 1926, pp. 539-544.

[11] CEI EN 60909-0, “Correnti di cortocircuito nei sistemi trifasi in corrente alternata”, 2001-12.

Appendix

The results reported are obtained for following parameters of the traction system:

Substation transformer parameters

Power: 60 MVA, voltage ratio: 132/2x27.5 kV, short circuit voltage: 10%

Auto-transformer Parameters

Power: 15 MVA, voltage ratio: 27.5/0/-27.5 kV, short circuit voltage: 1%.

Multi conductor line parameters

Tab. A shows the materials, resistivity (Ω/km), sections and positions of all the conductors

involved in the systems.

Resistance Section X Y

Description Material

[Ω/km] [mm2] [m] [m]

Left side track system

Feeder Al 0,109 307 -6,60 8,00

Messanger Cu 0,15 120 -2,50 6,55

Contact line Cu 0,12 150 -2,50 5,30

External Rail UNI60 -3,26 0,01

Internal Rail UNI60 -1,74 0,01

Buried earth wire Cu 0,19 95 -5,00 -1,12

Protection wire Al 0,225 150 -6,12 5,50

Right side track system

Feeder Al 0,109 307 6,60 8,00

Messanger Cu 0,15 120 2,50 6,55

Contact line Cu 0,12 150 2,50 5,30

External Rail UNI60 3,26 0,01

Internal Rail UNI60 1,74 0,01

Buried earth wire Cu 0,19 95 5,00 -1,12

Protection wire Al 0,225 150 6,12 5,50

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