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Lab 1

Observations:

Resistor Resistance LED Brightness Current (amps)

Brown Black Brown/100 Very Bright/ Probably the I = E/R


brightest it can be I= 5/100
I= 0.05 Amps

Yellow Violet brown/ 470 Bright not dull though I=E/R


I= 5/470
I= 0.010 Amps

Brown Black Red/ 1,000 Dull I=E/R


I= 5/1000
I= 0.005 Amps

Discussion:

1. The more resistance we had the more dull the LED became. (More resistance = Dimmer
light)
2. I think that the more resistance we add the more the Led would become duller

Summarize:
To conclude the more resistance we had the slower the current flow in the circuit was. The more
duller the light bulb got.

Lab 2
Observations:

Diode LED Diode Markings

1st position Silver side to the LED Somewhat bright, dull Silver side to the LED
away from Resistor away from Resistor

2nd position Silver side towards Doesn’t light up Silver side towards
the resistor the resistor

Discussion:
1. The changes in the brightness were that we reverse the diode the the Led doesn't light
up.
2. The possible observations that we made were that if both the LED and resistor were
reversed then the circuit wouldn't work because the LED has the negative side
connected to the positive side.
3. My hypothesis is that if the diode is reversed then the LED will more duller than if it was
connected in the normal position.

Lab 3:

Observations:

Circuit LED Brightness

A (Regular Resistor) Bright

B(Series) Somewhat bright/dull

C(PArallel) Bright

Discussion questions:

1. Describe the change in brightness of the LED for circuits (a), (b) and (c).

Circuit 3a, which had one (1) 470 ohm resistor, was used as a reference to the other two (2) circuits,
so comparisons could be made. Circuit 3a was normally bright. Circuit 3b had two (2) 470 ohm resistors
in series; this circuit was the dimmest compared to 3a and 3c. Finally, circuit 3c with two (2) 470 ohms
in parallel. This circuit's LED was the brightest.

2. Use the formula for resistors in series and parallel to explain the observations.

Resistors have two formulas to calculate vales; when in series and when in parallel. The value of resistors
in series can be calculated with: Rt=R1+R2+etc. This suggests that the total resistance is the total of all
resistors in series. The value of resistors in parallel can be calculated with: Rt=1/{(1/R1)+(1/R2)+etc.}.
This suggests that the value of the resistors is added up, then divided by one. This will produce a smaller
resistor value than in series. In our experiment, resistors in series would have a total of 940 ohms, and a
much dimmer LED compared to resistors in parallel, where the total resistance is 235 ohms; the brightest
LED.

3. Suggest how 3 resistors in series or parallel would affect the observations in circuits (b) and (c).

If there were 3 resistors in series (circuit 3b), the resistance would be higher than it currently is, therefore
a dimmer LED. However, if three resistors were placed in parallel (circuit 3c), the resistance would be
lower, therefore a brighter LED.

Lab 4a
Discussion:

1. Describe how the state of the input affects the LED.

The state of the input determines whether the LED is on or off. When the input is low (ground), the LED
is off. However, when the input is high (+5v), the LED is on.

2. Discuss how this circuit could be used to monitor the state of any point in a digital circuit.

This circuit could be used to determine what voltage is running through a digital circuit (Digital circuits
use either 5v or ground). If the LED turned on, it would show that the digital circuit has a 5v charge
running through it.

Lab 4b

Discussion:

1. Describe how the state of the input affects the LED.

The state of the input determines whether the LED is on or off. When the input is low (ground), the LED
is off. However, when the input is high (+5v), the LED is on.

2. Discuss how this circuit could be used to monitor the state of any point in the digital circuit.

This circuit could be used to determine what voltage is running through a digital circuit (Digital circuits
use either 5v or ground). If the LED turned on, it would show that the digital circuit has a 5v charge
running through it.

Lab 5
Observations:
Pin Number LED Segment on

1 a

2 f

3 Do Not Connect

6 Left dot

7 e

8 d

9 Eight dot

10 c

11 g

13 b

14 Do Not Connect

Lab 6

Discussion:
1. Describe the input states (voltages) required to obtain an output at 5 volts (LED - On).

To obtain an output of 5 volts, the inputs MUST both be the same. (a AND b)

2. Describe the input states (voltages) required to obtain an output at 0 volts (LED - Off).

To obtain an output of 0 volts, the inputs MUST both be different.

Conclusion:

Summarize how the output of an AND gate responds to its inputs.

When the input are both the same (a AND b), the output will be on. If in any other situation
(inputs are different voltages), the output will be off.

Note: 5 volts=high=state 1
0 volts=low=state 0

Lab 7
Observations:

Discussion:

1. Describe the input states (voltages) required to obtain an output at 5 volts (LED - On).

To obtain an output of 5 volts, the inputs MUST both be the same. (a AND b)

2. Describe the input states (voltages) required to obtain an output at 0 volts (LED - Off).
To obtain an output of 0 volts, the inputs MUST both be different.

Conclusion:

Summarize how the output of an AND gate responds to its inputs.

When the input are both the same (a AND b), the output will be on. If in any other situation
(inputs are different voltages), the output will be off.

Note: 5 volts=high=state 1
0 volts=low=state 0

Lab 8

Observations:

Discussion:

1. Suggest why a 7404 integrated circuit has been designed.

a 7404-Integrated Circuit has been designed for many purposes, one being to correct the image in a digital
tv.
When the image is scrambled, the data is inverted and displayed uncorrupted.

2. What output would occur if 2 inverters are used in series?

If two (2) inverters are used in series, the state (1 or 0) would remain unchanged at the final output. The
first inverter would swap the input, and the 2nd would swap it back.

Conclusion:
Summarize how an inverter functions in a circuit.

An inverter will take an input, and change it to the opposite. For instance, a high state (1) would become
low state (0) when passed through an inverter.

Lab 9

Observations:

Discussion:

1. Describe the input states (voltages) required to obtain an output at 5 volts (LED - On).

To obtain an output of 5 volts, at least one input must be low (state 0)

2. Describe the input states (voltages) required to obtain an output at 0 volts (LED - Off).

To obtain an output of 0 volts, neither input must be low (state 0). Both must be high (state 1).

3. What does the "N" stand for in NAND?

The N stands for Not in the word AND. (Not-AND)

4. What is the relationship between AND and NAND gates?

NAND Gates are the exact opposite of an AND Gate. When the output would be on with an AND gate, it
is off in the NAND Gate.

Conclusion:

Summarize how the output of a NAND gate responds to its inputs.


When at least one input is low (state 0), the output will be on. If both inputs are true (state 1; high), in
output will be off.

LAB 10

Input A Input B
Output LED

Low Low On

High low off

Low High off

high high off

Lab 11.

Input A Input B Output LED

Low Low off

High Low on

Low High on

High High off