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Avances en Matemática Educativa.

Tecnología y matemáticas

PROGRAMA EDITORIAL DEL


PROGRAMA DE MATEMÁTICA EDUCATIVA
PROME

AVANCES EN MATEMÁTICA EDUCATIVA

TECNOLOGÍA Y MATEMÁTICAS
NO. 1

Alejandro Miguel Rosas Mendoza


Editor

i
Avances en Matemática Educativa. Tecnología y matemáticas

Avances en Matemática Educativa. Tecnología y matemáticas.


© Alejandro Miguel Rosas Mendoza

D. R. © Editorial Lectorum, S. A. de C.V., 2016


Batalla de Casa Blanca Manzana 147 Lote 1621
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Tel. 5581 3202
www.lectorum.com.mx
ventas@lectorum.com.mx

Programa de Matemática Educativa


www.matedu.cicata.ipn.mx

Primera Edición: Agosto de 2016


ISBN: 978-607-457-578-1

Responsable Comité Evaluador: Dr. Apolo Castañeda Alonso


Corrección Ortográfica y de Estilo: Dr. Alejandro Miguel Rosas Mendoza
Logística y Edición: Dr. Alejandro Miguel Rosas Mendoza
Diseño de Portada: Ing. Fausto Manuel Hernández Sierra

Prohibida la reproducción total o parcial de este libro, por cualquier medio electrónico,
mecánico por fotocopia, por registro u otros métodos, sin la autorización escrita del editor.

Hecho en México

ii
 
Índice  
 
 
Integración  de  la  tecnología  escolar  en  el  aprendizaje  y  enseñanza   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   1  
de  las  matemáticas:  perspectivas,  complejidades  y  aportes  
Eduardo  Carlos  Briceño  Solís  

La  Integración  De  Los  Dispositivos  Móviles.  Una  Estrategia   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   3  


Didáctica  Para  El  Estudio  De  Las  Matemáticas  En  El  Nivel  Medio  
Superior  
Francisco  Javier  Jara  Ulloa  

Enseñanza  De  Las  Matemáticas  Discretas  Utilizando  Software  Libre   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   8  


José  Francisco  Villalpando  Becerra,  Rafael  Pantoja  Rangel  

Registros  De  Representación  Para  La  Resolución  De  Ecuaciones   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   24  


Diferenciales  Ordinarias  De  Primer  Orden  
Abel  Medina  Mendoza,  Carlos  Medina  Tello,  Marisa  Guadalupe  Flores  Aguilar  

Estrategias  Pedagógicas  Con  TIC´S  Para  Enseñanza  De  La  Física  En   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   42  
Nivel  Medio  
Julio  Ricardo  Torres,  Mariana  Gabriela  Torres  

Evaluación  En  Escenarios  Tecnológicos:  Una  Propuesta  Alternativa   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   55  


Horacio  Saúl  Sostenes  González  

Elementos  Constitutivos  En  El  Planteamiento  De  La  Investigación   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   62  


En  Matemática  Educativa  
Alma  Rosa  Pérez  Trujillo  

Seminario  Repensar  Las  Matemáticas:  Vinculación  Docencia-­‐‑ .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   64  


Investigación  
Claudia  Flores  Estrada,  Adriana  Gómez  Reyes,  José  Luis  Torres  Guerrero  

Potencial  Educativo  De  La  Aritmética  Mapuche  En  Chile   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   72  


Sonia  Salas  ,  Juan  D.  Godino  

Diseño  De  Acciones  Formativas  Para  La  Enseñanza  De  Matemática   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   85  


Cristina  V.  Varas,  Gabriela  Vilanova  

Relación  Entre  Capital  Cultural  Y  La  Manera  En  Que  Enfrentan   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   92  


Diversas  Dificultades  Los  Jóvenes  Migrantes  De  Localidades  
Rurales  En  Las  Materias  De  Matemáticas  Cuando  Cursan  La  
Licenciatura  De  Ingeniería  Civil  De  La  Universidad  Autónoma  De  
Chiapas  (UNACH)  
Erivan  Velasco  Núñez,  Jesús  Abidán  Ramos  Salas,  Alma  Rosa  Pérez  Trujillo  

Tendencias  Formativas  En  Matemática  Educativa.  El  Discurso   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   103  


Docente  Universitario  
Rita  Angulo  Villanueva  

Evaluación  De  Aprendizajes  En  Ambientes  Virtuales   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   115  


Laura  Lezcano  

Jerarquización  De  Competencias  Usando  Matrices  De  Morganov-­‐‑ .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   137  

iii  
 
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Heredia  
Mario  H.  Ramírez  
Enseñanza  De  Las  Propiedades  De  Unión,  Intersección  Y   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   140  
Complemento  De  Un  Evento  En  Probabilidad,  Una  Propuesta  Desde  
El  Análisis  Didáctico  
Nicole  Astudillo  Cabrera,  Daniela  Aros  Ibaceta,  Elisabeth  Ramos  Rodriguez  

Enseñanza  de  la  Matemática  y  estilos  de  aprendizaje   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   155  


predominantes.  Un  estudio  de  caso  
Mario  Di  Blasi  Regner,  Silvia  Santos,  Andrea  Comerci  

La  compresión  de  la  derivada  y  sus  significados.  Un  estudio  de  caso   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   169  
con  profesores  de  bachillerato  
Miguel  Díaz  Chávez  

Procesos  Cognitivos  En  La  Resolución  De  Problemas  Matemáticos   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   182  


Contextualizados  
Elia  Trejo  Trejo,  Patricia  Camarena  Gallardo,  Natalia  Trejo  Trejo  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

iv  
 
Avances  en  Matemática  Educativa.  Tecnología  y  matemáticas  

PRÏLOGO

¿Cómo te imaginas un aula de clase en el año 2100?. A finales del siglo XIX
Jean Marc Côte se propuso responder una pregunta similar y elaboró un
grabado en el que plasma una escena en una clase en el año 2000. En la
imagen se observa un grupo de estudiantes, un profesor y diversos artefactos
que son empleados para transmitir los conocimientos. Destacan, una
máquina que es alimentada con libros y unas líneas que conducen el
conocimiento desde la máquina hasta la cabeza de los estudiantes. Mientras
tanto los estudiantes aguardan pasivos en sus respectivos lugares,
concentrados quizá, a la HVSHUDGHTXHHOFRQRFLPLHQWRIOX\D\DOFDQFHQ³HO
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VLJOR;;,,>DTXtHVGRQGHHOOHFWRUHPSLH]DDLPDJLQDU«@

Existen una expectativa positiva sobre la incorporación de recursos


tecnológicos de última generación a los procesos educativos, muchos
estudios en el campo educativo aseguran que los alumnos mejoran su
desempeño académico cuando utilizan herramientas más sofisticadas, sin
embargo, esto parece ser una consecuencia lógica y predecible pues las
herramientas más complejas ofrecen funcionalidades adicionales que ayudan
a que las personas a realicen sus tareas de forma más rápida, aunque es
claro que la rapidez no garantiza la eficacia.

Pero, la experiencia de usar una herramienta cambia la perspectiva de las


cosas, el usuario reinterpreta su entorno a partir de su nivel de
instrumentalización. Puede ver cosas que antes no veía, puede crear nuevos
procedimientos, puede combinar herramientas, incluso, puede pensar en
nuevos usos. No estoy sugiriendo colocar en el centro de la discusión a la
herramienta, de hecho, admito que la herramienta toma sentido cuando
existen ciertas condiciones didácticas que le dan sentido, cuando se hacen
las preguntas correctas y cuando se le da un rol específico dentro de un
diseño didáctico.

En el área de la enseñanza de las matemáticas, hemos observado cómo el


tema de la visualización ha tomado mucha fuerza, en parte debido a las
capacidades gráficas de las tecnologías para representar relaciones, formas
y figuras. Varios estudios señalan que la experiencia de aprendizaje es más
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comportamientos, que, difícilmente son percibidos en papel. Sin embargo,
estos contextos para el aprendizaje pueden detonas nueva e inesperadas
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³TXp LPSOLFDFLRQHV WLHQH OD IXQFLyQ ³]RRP´ FXDQGR VH DQDOL]DQ JUiILFDV
DOUHGHGRUGHXQDYHFLQGDG´

Pero entonces, ¿las personas aprenden de diferente forma cuando emplean


dispositivos tecnológicos que cuando no los usan?. Esta es un pregunta
sumamente complicada, ya que los procesos de pensamiento no son
lineales, o al menos, no dependen de un solo estímulo.

v  
Avances  en  Matemática  Educativa.  Tecnología  y  matemáticas  

Sería muy ingenuo pensar que la disponibilidad de un recurso tecnológico es


directamente proporcional a un logro educativo más alto. De hecho, la
disponibilidad tecnológica de los últimos años ha permitido que los
estudiantes de hoy, tengan acceso a materiales y recursos tecnológicos que
antes no era posible tener, y sin embargo, la percepción sobre el logro
académico no es favorable, pareciera que ha ido en retroceso. Entonces, a
pesar de que los estudiantes pueden visualizar los comportamientos gráficos
de una función en la pantalla de computadora, sus habilidades matemáticas
no le permiten resolver problemas que estudiantes de otros países si lo
pueden hacer.

A pesar de que se invierten cifras millonarias para dotar de nuevas


tecnologías a las escuelas, los problemas en el aprendizaje de las
matemáticas no se han resuelto, incluso se han diversificado. Existe entonces
un problema notablemente evidente de falta de resultados, porque
posiblemente porque no hemos podido utilizar estas herramienta
adecuadamente. Por cierto, no sé qué significa usar una "herramienta
adecuadamente"

Muchos creemos que algunos políticos han mitificado las tecnologías y les
han atribuido poderes especiales para resolver el problema del bajo
desempeño escolar. Pero la verdad es que los problemas no están
propiamente en las tecnologías. Sin embargo, es necesario investigar cómo
podemos aprovechar sus ventajas. Una tarea que sin lugar a dudas no es
fácil.

Apolo Castañeda Alonso

vi  
 
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Invierno en Matemática Educativa. La Profesionalización Docente
desde los Posgrados de Calidad en Matemática Educativa 2D[DFD
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Resumen
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Objeto de investigación.

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Campo de acción.

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Objetivo

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Hipótesis

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Conceptos y/o variables principales de la investigación.

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Las estrategias de aprendizaje son una serie de operaciones cognoscitivas y


afectivas que el estudiante lleva a cabo para aprender, con las cuales puede
planificar y organizar sus actividades de aprendizaje. Las estrategias de
enseñanza se refieren a las utilizadas por el profesor para mediar, facilitar,
promover, organizar aprendizajes, esto es, en el proceso de enseñanza
(Campos, 2012, p1).

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VARIABLES DEFINICIÓN DEFINICIÓN


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34  
 
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9 $OLJXDOTXHORUHSRUWDGRHQOD$FWLYLGDGHOGHORVHVWXGLDQWHV
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Representación V er bal

Representación N umérica

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Figura 8.5HSUHVHQWDFLRQHV9HUEDO1XPpULFD\$OJHEUDLFDGHOSUREOHPD

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Representación A lgebraica

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9 /D UHVROXFLyQ GH HMHUFLFLRV \ SUREOHPDV GH DSOLFDFLyQ GH PDQHUD


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DOJHEUDLFD D OD VROXFLyQ JUiILFD Acta Latinoamérica de Matemática
Educativa

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aprendizajes intelectuales.&DOL8QLYHUVLGDGGHO9DOOH&RORPELD

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Educativa

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Introducción

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XWLOL]DFLyQGHOVRIWZDUH$TXtVHLQWHQWDUDH[SRQHUORTXHVHOOHYyDGHODQWHHQ

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2OLYLD

2. Planteamiento del Problema llevado al aula.

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2.1 Objetivo General.

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3. Marco de referencia.

3.1 Marco histórico.

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3.2 Marco Teórico.

3.2.1 Cinemática.

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FLQHPiWLFDVRQHOHVSDFLRHOWLHPSR\XQPyYLO

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Fundamento de la cinemática clásica.

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4. Desarrollo de la Experiencia y análisis de los resultados.

Desarrollo de la Actividad.

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/RV UHVXOWDGRV UHIOHMDQ TXH ORV HVWXGLDQWHV VH VLHQWHQ JXVWRVRV \ DVLJQDQ
SXQWDMHVDOWRVDOWUDEDMRTXHVHGHVDUUROOyFRQ*HR*HEUD

Conclusiones

/D HYDOXDFLyQ HQ HVFHQDULRV WHFQROyJLFRV FRQVLGHUDGD GHVGH ORV SXQWRV


DQDOL]DGRV DQWHULRUPHQWH QRV SHUPLWH YLVXDOL]DU D OD WHFQRORJtD FRPR XQ
LQVWUXPHQWR D QXHVWUR IDYRU /RV HVWXGLDQWHV VH VLHQWHQ D JXVWR FRQ OD
XWLOL]DFLyQGHOVRIWZDUH\VHORJUDQFXPSOLUORVDSUHQGL]DMHVHVSHUDGRVGHORV
WHPDVHVWXGLDGRV

&RQVLGHUDQGRODLGHDGH:HLVV& S XQHVWXGLRGHHYDOXDFLyQQR


GHVHPERFDHQODREWHQFLyQGHGDWRVGHFLVLYRVHLQHTXtYRFRVDFHUFDGHOYDORU
GH XQ SURJUDPD 6H QHFHVLWD XQ HVWXGLR FRQWLQXR D OR ODUJR GHO WLHPSR \
FRPSDUDFLyQ GH SUR\HFWRV SDUD KDEODU GH p[LWR R IUDFDVR $Vt TXH ORV
DYDQFHV ORJUDGRV VH FRQVLGHUDQ GHVGH XQ SXQWR FXDOLWDWLYR FRPR
DSUR[LPDFLRQHVDODPHMRUDGHODGLGiFWLFDGH0DWHPiWLFDVGRQGHHOUHWRGH
XVRGHODVWHFQRORJtDVKDJHQHUDGRFDPELRVGHODGLGiFWLFD

'H PDQHUD HVSHFtILFD ORV DOXPQRV ORJUDQ GHVDUUROODU ORV DSUHQGL]DMHV


HVSHUDGRVSDUDHOWHPDWUDWDGRODU~EULFD\OLVWDGHFRWHMRQRVSHUPLWHQWHQHU
XQUHJLVWURSDUDYDORUDUHOSURFHVR\DYDQFHVGHODSUHQGL]DMHGHORVDOXPQRV
/D HYDOXDFLyQ GLQiPLFD SHUPLWH D ORVDOXPQRV LQWHUDFWXDU\ IRUPDUOD]RV GH
WUDEDMR FRPR ORV TXH IXWXUDPHQWH WHQGUiQ SDUD FXPSOLU XQD WDUHD HQ
GHWHUPLQDGDHPSUHVDFXDOVHDDVtPLVPRSHUPLWHDSUHFLDUHOGHVHPSHxRGH
FDGDLQWHJUDQWH\ODVFDSDFLGDGHVTXHWLHQH

Referencias

&i]DUHV O \ &XHYDV -   Planeación y evaluación basadas en


competencias: Fundamentos y prácticas para el desarrollo de
competencias docentes, desde preescolar hasta el posgrado. 0p[LFR
7ULOODV

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)HUQiQGH] 5   Competencias profesionales del docente en la


sociedad del siglo XXI. 5HFXSHUDGR HO  GH 0DU]R GH  GH
KWWSZZZXFOPHVSURIHVRUDGRULFDUGRFXUVRVFRPSHWHQFLDSURIHVLRQDOH
VSGI

/ySH] % \ +LQRMyVD (   (YDOXDFLyQ GHO DSUHQGL]DMH $OWHUQDWLYDV \


QXHYRVGHVDUUROORV0p[LFR7ULOODV

0DWHR $   La evaluación educativa, su práctica y otras metáforas.


%DUFHORQD$OIDRPHJD

3LPLHQWD-  Evaluación de los Aprendizajes. Un enfoque basado en


competencias SS 0p[LFR3HDUVRQ

6DLGyQ / 1HJUR * \ %HUW~D -   3HUVSHFWLYDV GH H[SORUDFLyQ GH
SUREOHPDV FOiVLFRV FRQ QXHYDV KHUUDPLHQWDV 5HFXSHUDGR HO  GH
RFWXEUHGHGHKWWSZZZJHRJHEUDWXEHRUJPDWHULDOVKRZLG

:HLVV &   Investigación Evaluativa. Métodos para determinar la


eficiencia de los programas en acción0p[LFR7ULOODV





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(Q0DWHPiWLFD(GXFDWLYD

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DOPDUSW#KRWPDLOFRP

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SODQWHDPLHQWR GH OD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ HQ 0DWHPiWLFD (GXFDWLYD 0( VL ELHQ HV
FLHUWR HVWRV HOHPHQWRV QR VRQ H[FOXVLYRV GH HVWD GLVFLSOLQD PHUHFHQ VHU
UHYLVDGRV GHVGH HOOD DGHPiV TXH SRQJDPRV DWHQFLyQ HQ OD FODULGDG GH VX
FRQVWUXFFLyQ VREUH WRGR FXDQGR VRQ WUDEDMDGRV FRQ HVWXGLDQWHV TXH HVWiQ
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TXH PXFKRV GH HVWRV HVWXGLDQWHV QR WLHQHQ H[SHULHQFLD HQ HO iPELWR GH OD
LQYHVWLJDFLyQ

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PRVWUDUHVWRV HOHPHQWRV TXH FRQVLGHUR FRQVWLWXWLYRV HQHOSODQWHDPLHQWRGH
ODLQYHVWLJDFLyQHQODSULPHUDSDUWHKDUpUHIHUHQFLDDODSODQHDFLyQ\GLVHxR
GH OD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ OD VHJXQGD D DVSHFWRV UHOHYDQWHV HQ HVH SODQWHDPLHQWR
WHRUtDV \ PHWRGRORJtDV  \ OD WHUFHUD SDUWH \ ~OWLPD HVWi FRPSXHVWD SRU XQD
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QHFHVDULDPHQWHWLHQHQTXHOOHYDUVHDFDERGHHVDPDQHUD\DHQHOHMHUFLFLR
GH OD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ GH PDQHUD SDUWLFXODU FRQVLGHUR TXH HVWD HVWUXFWXUD TXH
FRPSRQHDODLQYHVWLJDFLyQHVGLQiPLFDHLQWHJUDGDSRUXQFRQMXQWRGHWDUHDV
TXHVHHQFXHQWUDQHVWUHFKDPHQWHUHODFLRQDGDV

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pQIDVLVHQODUHODFLyQTXHGHEHQJXDUGDUORVVXSXHVWRVSUHJXQWDV\REMHWLYRV
GHODLQYHVWLJDFLyQ0HGHWHQGUpHQREMHWRGHHVWXGLRSDUDDFODUDUODXWLOLGDG
GH VX GHILQLFLyQ GHVGH HO GLVHxR GH OD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ HVWR VHUYLUi GH
SUHiPEXORSDUDKDEODUGHODLPSRUWDQFLDTXHWLHQHQODHOHFFLyQGHODWHRUtDD
XVDUDVtFRPRGHODUHODFLyQHVWUHFKDTXHGHEHJXDUGDUODPHWRGRORJtDFRQ
HOODKDUppQIDVLVHQODXWLOLGDGODWHRUtD\ODPHWRGRORJtDHQODLQYHVWLJDFLyQ
SDUD OXHJR PRVWUDU XQ UHFRUULGR SRU ODV WHRUtDV PiV XVXDOHV HQ 0( \ ODV
PHWRGRORJtDVDFRUGHVDpVWDV




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6HPLQDULR5HSHQVDU/DV0DWHPiWLFDV9LQFXODFLyQ'RFHQFLD
,QYHVWLJDFLyQ

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cfloreses@ipn.mx; orodelsilencio@yahoo.com.mx; jeluistg@yahoo.com.mx

Resumen
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HGXFDWLYD TXH WLHQH FRPR SURSyVLWR OD YLQFXODFLyQ GH OD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ
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FODVHV (Q FDGD XQD GH ODV VHVLRQHV VH WLHQH FRPR SURGXFWR XQ PyGXOR
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VREUH ORV UHVXOWDGRV GH LQYHVWLJDFLyQ VH FRQVLGHUD XQ GRFXPHQWR FRPR
DUWtFXOR FDStWXOR GH OLEUR OLEUR R WHVLV TXH FRQWLHQH ORV WUDEDMRV GH
LQYHVWLJDFLyQHOFXDOVLUYHGHUHIHUHQFLDDOGLiORJR\ODVLQWHUDFFLRQHVHQIRURV
GHGLVFXVLyQGHORVSDUWLFLSDQWHV

Palabras clave: ,QQRYDFLyQ(GXFDWLYDYLQFXODFLyQLQYHVWLJDFLyQGRFHQWH

Introducción

/DV7HFQRORJtDVGHOD,QIRUPDFLyQ\OD&RPXQLFDFLyQ 7,& VRQXQSRWHQFLDO


SDUD WUDQVIRUPDU OD HGXFDFLyQ VX HPSOHR FUHD DPELHQWHV YLUWXDOHV
HQULTXHFLGRVTXHHQIUHQWDQFRQp[LWRORVUHWRVGHODHFRQRPtDJOREDOL]DGDGH
OD VRFLHGDG GHO FRQRFLPLHQWR \ GH LQQRYDFLRQHV WHFQROyJLFDV ([LVWH XQD
QHFHVLGDGGHDFRUWDUWLHPSRV\GLVWDQFLDHQWUHODREWHQFLyQGHUHVXOWDGRVGH
ODSUiFWLFDHGXFDWLYD\VXDSOLFDFLyQHQODGRFHQFLD

(O6HPLQDULR5HSHQVDUODV0DWHPiWLFDV 650 HVXQSUR\HFWRGHLQQRYDFLyQ


HGXFDWLYD TXH WLHQH FRPR SURSyVLWR OD YLQFXODFLyQ GH OD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ
HGXFDWLYD FRQ OD GRFHQFLD HQ HO iUHD GH PDWHPiWLFDV SDUD TXH HO GRFHQWH
GLDORJXH VREUH UHVXOWDGRV GH LQYHVWLJDFLyQ \ ORV DSURYHFKH HQ HO VDOyQ GH
FODVHV &DGD VHVLyQ WLHQH FRPR SURGXFWR XQ PyGXOR 7RUUHV 6XiUH] \
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5DPtUH] FRPSXHVWRSRUHOYLGHRGHXQGLiORJRHQWUHXQHVSHFLDOLVWD\
XQ SURIHVRU VREUH ORV UHVXOWDGRV GH LQYHVWLJDFLyQ REWHQLGRV SRU HO
HVSHFLDOLVWD XQ GRFXPHQWR TXH FRQWLHQH ORV WUDEDMRV GH LQYHVWLJDFLyQ TXH
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SDUWLFLSDQWHV

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Matemáticas

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WUDQVIRUPDFLyQGHO,31, se KDQLQVWUXPHQWDGRHVWUDWHJLDVSDUDGDULPSXOVRDO
FDPELR HGXFDWLYR SDUD OD FRQFUHFLyQ GHO 0RGHOR (GXFDWLYR ,QVWLWXFLRQDO \ HO
0RGHORGH,QWHJUDFLyQ6RFLDO Suárez, Ortega y Ramírez, 2011).

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TXHVHGHVDUUROODQQXHYDVKDELOLGDGHVFRQRFLPLHQWRVDFWLWXGHVDSWLWXGHV\
YDORUHV/HVSHUPLWHVHUDXWyQRPR\WUDEDMDUGHIRUPDFRODERUDWLYDWDQWRDO
GRFHQWH FRPR GLVFHQWH  \ HO LQYHVWLJDGRU D WUDYpV GH ORV DUWtFXORV GHO
LQYHVWLJDGRUHOIRURGHGLVFXVLyQ\ODYLGHRFRQIHUHQFLD

(VQHFHVDULRKDFHUKLQFDSLpHQTXHODWHFQRORJtDSRUVtPLVPDQRJHQHUDXQ
DPELHQWHGHDSUHQGL]DMHVLQRTXHpVWHGHEHFUHDUVHHLQVWUXPHQWDUVHGHVGH
XQD FRQFHSFLyQ SHGDJyJLFD \ GLGiFWLFD TXH VH FRQFUHWL]D HQ HVWUDWHJLDV \
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Figura 1. Investigador, docente y participantes durante la sesión

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matemáticas

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Figura 2.Resultados de investigación en la didáctica de la matemática

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Conclusiones

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Bibliografía

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OD ,QQRYDFLyQ HQ HO ,QVWLWXWR 3ROLWpFQLFR 1DFLRQDO 0HPRULDV GH 9LUWXDO
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Resumen
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LQYHVWLJDFLyQ VREUH OD PDWHPiWLFD GHO SXHEOR 0DSXFKH HQ &KLOH
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GHVFULSFLyQPRUIRVLQWiFWLFD\HODQiOLVLVGHODHVWUXFWXUDPRUIRPDWHPiWLFDGH
ORV Q~PHURVHQ FDVWHOODQR \ PDSXQ]XJXQ1XHVWUR DQiOLVLVVH FHQWUD HQ ORV
FRQIOLFWRV VHPLyWLFRV TXH VXSRQH XQ DSUHQGL]DMH GHVFRQWH[WXDOL]DGR TXH QR
FRQVLGHUD HO FRQRFLPLHQWR PDWHPiWLFR GH RULJHQ GHO HVWXGLDQWH PDSXFKH
SUHVHQWHHQVXVSUiFWLFDVPDWHPiWLFDVFRWLGLDQDV/RVSULQFLSDOHVUHVXOWDGRV
GDQ FXHQWD GH OD H[LVWHQFLD GH OD DULWPpWLFD PDSXFKH UHFRQRFLGDV SRU OD
LQVWLWXFLRQDOLGDG \ ODV SRWHQFLDOLGDGHV HGXFDWLYDV GH OD QXPHUDFLyQ HQ
PDSXQ]XJXQ &RQFOXLPRV HVWH HVWXGLR FRQ XQD UHIOH[LyQ FUtWLFD VREUH HO
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PDWHPiWLFDHVFRODUHQ FRQWH[WR PDSXFKH OD TXH HYLGHQFLD OD QHFHVLGDGGH
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ORV SULPHURV QLYHOHV GH OD HGXFDFLyQ REOLJDWRULD $O PLVPR WLHPSR
SODQWHDPRV SUHJXQWDV DELHUWDV D IXWXUDV LQYHVWLJDFLRQHV GHVGH OD GLGiFWLFD
GH ODV PDWHPiWLFDV TXH UHTXLHUHQ KHUUDPLHQWDV WHyULFDV TXH SHUPLWDQ
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PDWHPiWLFDHVFRODU\ODPDWHPiWLFDPDSXFKH

Palabras clave (WQRPDWHPiWLFD (GXFDFLyQ LQWHUFXOWXUDO ELOLQJH 1~PHURV


HQ PDSXQ]XJXQ $QiOLVLV PRUIRVLQWiFWLFR $QiOLVLV PRUIRPDWHPiWLFR
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Abstract

                                                                                                               
1 Máster en Didáctica de la Matemática. Corporación Municipal Quilpué. Chile. Email:
sbsalass@gmail.com
2 Doctor por la Universidad de Granada. Granada. España. Email: jgodino@ugr.es

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Keywords(WKQRPDWKHPDWLFV,QWHUFXOWXUDOELOLQJXDOHGXFDWLRQ0DSXQ]XJXQ
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Introducción

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Resultados

Potencial educativo de la numeración en mapunzugun.

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$O LQLFLR GH ODV DFWLYLGDGHV TXH SURSRQH HVWH GRFXPHQWR HQFRQWUDPRV OD
DFWLYLGDG JHQpULFD  TXH SODQWHD «  El profesor pide a los niños que
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orejas, cinco dedos etc.). 0LQLVWHULRGH(GXFDFLyQS (VWRLQGLFD

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SURSRQH

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número, en ambas lenguas. Lo escribe en la pizarra, pidiéndole que lo
representen con los dedos de sus manos. Si pedimos un número
menor que 3, uno o dos niños no aportan dedo, con lo que
expresamos la idea de que un niño no aporta nada, introduciendo el
concepto de cero, sustentado sobre algo concreto 0LQLVWHULR GH
(GXFDFLyQS 

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SODQWHDDOGRFHQWH

« Es importante para el profesor observar con detalle las respuestas


que darán los alumnos a la pregunta ¿qué otros nombres pueden tener
los números once, doce, trece, catorce y quince? Se esperaran
UHVSXHVWDV WDOHV FRPR ³GLHFLXQR´ ³GLHFLGRV´ /R DQWHULRU LQGLFD TXH
los niños están entendiendo la estructura de formación de números de
dos cifras y están incorporando el nuevo conocimiento 0LQLVWHULR GH
(GXFDFLyQS 

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- ¢4Xp FRQIOLFWRV VHPLyWLFRV HPHUJHQ HQ OD DFWXDFLyQ GHO HVWXGLDQWH


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Referencias

&LG ( *RGLQR - ' \ %DWDQHUR &   Sistemas numéricos y su
didáctica para maestros 8QLYHUVLGDG GH *UDQDGD 'LVSRQLEOH HQ
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HWQRPDWHPiWLFDNúmeros  

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QXPEHUEducational Studies in Mathematics, 61  

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PDWHPiWLFD Recherches en didactique des Mathématiques 22  


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ORV REMHWRV PDWHPiWLFRV Recherches en didactique des
Mathématiques14  

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FRQRFLPLHQWR \ OD LQVWUXFFLyQ PDWHPiWLFD ='0 The International
Journal on Mathematics Education

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OHDUQLQJ RI HOHPHQWDU\ DULWKPHWLF FRQFHSWV GLIILFXOW" 6HPLRWLF WRROV IRU
XQGHUVWDQGLQJWKHQDWXUHRIPDWKHPDWLFDOREMHFWVEducational Studies
in Mathematics77  

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6DQWLDJR&KLOH

4XLQWULTXHR6\7RUUHV+  &RQVWUXFFLyQGH&RQRFLPLHQWR0DSXFKH


\ VX UHODFLyQ FRQ HO &RQRFLPLHQWR (VFRODU Estudios pedagógicos,
39  

6DODV 6 6   Etnomatemática y multiculturalidad en la educación


básica en Chile. El caso de la aritmética mapuche 7HVLV GH 0iVWHU
8QLYHUVLGDGGH*UDQDGD(VSDxD

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Revista Latinoamericana de Etnomatemática  

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HWKQRPDWKHPDWLFV
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QXHYDPHQWHQRVUHILHUHTXH³cuando se focaliza el tema de la juventud rural,
una problemática aparece recurrente, la tendencia migratoria de jóvenes,
justificada en gran parte por una visión negativa de la actividad agrícola y sus
beneficios asociados a ella´

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HVWDLQYHVWLJDFLyQWHQGUtDSRUREMHWLYRevidenciar la relación del capital
cultural inherente en los alumnos provenientes de las localidades rurales y la
manera en superan o no los problemas en las materias de contenido
matemático, cuando cursan los primeros semestres de la carrera de IC en la
UNACH. 

Posibles dificultades que pueden enfrentar estos jóvenes


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³En sí misma la transición a la universidad es un proceso complejo,
multifactorial, que requiere del estudiante, significativos y múltiples cambios,
adaptaciones, comprendiendo un periodo, aproximado de dos años´

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3  Según
la definición de INEGI (2014), una localidad rural es aquella con una población menor a 2,500
habitantes. Aunque en un documento de la OCDE (2007, p. 39), la Secretaría de Agricultura,
Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación (SAGARPA) usa un umbral hasta de 20,000
habitantes para definir una población como rural. Para efectos de esta investigación se tomará el dato
de la SAGARPA como criterio de definición del contexto de procedencia de los estudiantes de IC de la
UNACH.  

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una región
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Figura   3   Fuente:   Elaboración   propia.   Se   consultó  


la   página  
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chiapas_en_M%
C3%A9xico.svg

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en el rendimiento escolar de niños originarios de las diferentes clases
VRFLDOHV«´


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Referencias bibliográficas
$JXLODU0GHO&  La transición a la vida universitaria. Éxito, fracaso,
cambio y abandono,9(QFXHQWUR1DFLRQDOGH'RFHQWHV8QLYHUVLWDULRV
&DWyOLFRV(1'8&,9³8QLYHUVLGDG\1DFLyQ&DPLQRDOELFHQWHQDULR´
5HFXSHUDGRGHKWWSZZZHQGXFRUJDUHQGXFWUDEDMRVWFSGI

$18,(6  Anuario Educación Superior ± Licenciatura.5HFXSHUDGR


GHKWWSZZZDQXLHVP[LQIRUPDFLRQ\VHUYLFLRVLQIRUPDFLRQ
HVWDGLVWLFDGHHGXFDFLRQVXSHULRUDQXDULRHVWDGLVWLFRGHHGXFDFLRQ
VXSHULRU

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11  , 5HFXSHUDGRHOGH2FWXEUHGHOGHVGH
KWWSZZZSVLFRSHUVSHFWLYDVFOLQGH[SKSSVLFRSHUVSHFWLYDVDUWLFOHYLHZ
)LOH

&UX]-5REOHGR* 'HO&DUSLR&  Las migraciones internas de los


pueblos indígenas de Chiapas.(OFROHJLRGHOD)URQWHUD6XU\
8QLYHUVLGDG,QWHUFXOWXUDOGH&KLDSDV0p[LFR

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estructuración. %XHQRV$LUHV$PRUURUWX(GLWRUHV

*LOL9  Percepciones y representaciones de jóvenes horticultores


acerca del trabajo agrícola y el medio rural.9,,&RQJUHVR
/DWLQRDPHULFDQRGH6RFLRORJtD5XUDO3RUWRGH*DOLQKDV3UHQDPEXFR
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Ingeniería Civil7HVLVGH'RFWRUDGR8QLYHUVLGDG$XWyQRPDGH&KLDSDV
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0D\D9  /DHGXFDFLyQGHODVPXMHUHVHQHOPHGLRUXUDOConvergencia


con Europa y cambio en la universidadXI Conferencia de Sociología de
la Educación: Santander, 22, 23, y 24 de septiembre de 2006
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/D(GXFDFLRQ'H/DV0XMHUHV(Q(O0HGLR5XUDO  SGI

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0(;,&22(&'

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SURFHVRVVRFLDOHVRevista Interamericana de Planificación.9RO;9,,
1R0p[LFR3S

3LQLOORV0  ,QWHUYHQFLyQSVLFRVRFLDO\HGXFDWLYDSDUDSUHYHQFLyQGH


ULHVJRVDVRFLDGRVDSURFHVRVPLJUDWRULRVRevista Latinoamericana de
Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud,   SS

7RUUHV-  Globalización e interdisciplinariedad: el curriculum integrado.


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Bibliografía

$QJXOR5   La estructura conceptual científico didáctica. 0p[LFR3OD]D


\9DOGpV

'H $OED $   Expectativas Docentes ante la Problemática y los


Desafíos del Curriculum Universitario en México (Tomo 1). Tesis para
optar por el título de Doctor en Pedagogía. Madrid: Universidad
Nacional de Educación a Distancia.

&KHYDOODUG < (1985/1997). La transposición didáctica: del saber sabio al


saber enseñado. Buenos Aires: Aique.

Díaz-Barriga, A. (2013). Secuencias de aprendizaje. ¿Un problema del


enfoque de competencias o un reencuentro con perspectivas
didácticas? En Revista del curriculum y formación del profesorado, pp.
11-33, Vol. 17, Nº 3, (sept.-diciembre). Granada, España: Universidad

113  
 
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de Granada. [Consultado el 17 de enero del 2014] en


http://www.ugr.es/~recfpro/rev173ART1.pdf

Foucault, M. (1969/79). La Arqueología del saber. México: Siglo veintiuno


editores.

Godino, J. (1991). Hacia una teoría de la didáctica de la matemática, en


Gutiérrez, A. Área de conocimiento: Didáctica de la Matemática, pp.
105-148. Madrid: Síntesis.

Jodelet, D. (1993). La representación social: fenómenos, concepto y teoría,


en S. Moscovici (comp.), Psicología social II. Pensamiento y vida
social. Psicología social y problemas sociales, 469-494. Barcelona:
Paidós.

(2000). Representaciones sociales: constribución a un saber social sin


fronteras, en D. Jodelet y A. Guerrero (comps.) Develando la cultura.
Estudios en representaciones sociales, 7-30. México: Universidad
Nacional Autónoma de México.

Lundgren, U. P. (1991). Teoría del curriculum y escolarización. Madrid:


Morata.

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-HUDUTXL]DFLyQ'H&RPSHWHQFLDV8VDQGR0DWULFHV'H0RUJDQRY
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&LHQFLD$SOLFDGD\7HFQRORJtD$YDQ]DGD,QVWLWXWR3ROLWpFQLFR1DFLRQDO
PUDPLUH]G#LSQP[

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(Q ORV ~OWLPRV DxRV VH KD EXVFDGR LPSODQWDU HO PRGHOR HGXFDWLYR SRU
FRPSHWHQFLDVHQORVSODQHV\SURJUDPDVGHHVWXGLR$QLYHOLQWHUQDFLRQDOVH
WLHQHQHVWiQGDUHVSDUDODVFRPSHWHQFLDVHVSHFtILFDVDGHVDUUROODUHQHOQLYHO
XQLYHUVLWDULRHQWUH ORV HMHPSORV PiV LPSRUWDQWHV VH HQFXHQWUD HO ³3UR\HFWR
7XQLQJ $PpULFD /DWLQD´ 3pUH]7UHMR HW DO   6LQ HPEDUJR QR HV
VXILFLHQWH FRQRFHU XQLFDPHQWH ODV FRPSHWHQFLDV VLQR TXH VH WLHQH TXH
FRQRFHUODMHUDUTXtDGHODVPLVPDVGHWDOPDQHUDTXHORVSURIHVRUHVSXHGDQ
SODQLILFDU XQ RUGHQ SDUD GHVDUUROODUODV (Q HVWH WUDEDMR VH XWLOL]D OD OODPDGD
PDWUL] GH 0RUJDQRY+HUHGLD SDUD REWHQHU XQD MHUDUTXL]DFLyQ GH ODV
FRPSHWHQFLDV HVSHFtILFDV SDUD HO JUDGXDGR XQLYHUVLWDULR HQ SDUWLFXODU VH
SUHVHQWDHOFDVRGHItVLFD 5DPtUH]HWDO 

/DHQVHxDQ]DEDVDGDHQFRPSHWHQFLDVHVWDEOHFHODSRVLELOLGDGGHRUJDQL]DU
ORV FRQWHQLGRV GH DSUHQGL]DMH HQ XQLGDGHV GH VLJQLILFDGR FRPSOHWR
UHVROYLHQGR XQ SUREOHPD D OD YH] FRQ IXHUWHV LQWHUUHODFLRQHV HQWUH VXV
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H LQWHJUDGRV SDUD HO GHVDUUROOR GH ODV FRPSHWHQFLDV (Q HO 0DQXDO
0HWRGROyJLFRGHOD6HFUHWDUtDGH(GXFDFLyQ3~EOLFDGH0p[LFR 6(3 
VHSURSRQHTXHSDUDGDUXQRUGHQGLGiFWLFRDODVFRPSHWHQFLDVHVSHFtILFDV\
SRGHUDVXYH]YLQFXODUODVFRQORVWHPDV\VXEWHPDVGHDSUHQGL]DMHHQXQD
XQLGDG GH DSUHQGL]DMH VH KDJD SRU SDUHV OD VLJXLHQWH SUHJXQWD 3DUD
GHVDUUROODUODFRPSHWHQFLD;¢HVQHFHVDULRDQWHVGHVDUUROODUODFRPSHWHQFLD
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(QEDVHDODSUHJXQWDDQWHULRUVHXELFDQODVFRPSHWHQFLDVHQXQDUUHJORGH
UHQJORQHV\FROXPQDVIRUPDQGRODPDWUL]GH0+(QFDGDFDVLOODGHODPDWUL]

137  
 
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VH FRQVLGHUD OD UHVSXHVWD D OD SUHJXQWD IRUPXODGD DQWHULRUPHQWH WRPDQGR


FRPR³XQR´XQDUHVSXHVWDSRVLWLYD\FRPR³FHUR´HOFDVRFRQWUDULR(QHOFDVR
GHVHUODPLVPDFRPSHWHQFLDWDQWRHQODILODFRPRHQODFROXPQDQRVHKDFH
FRPSDUDFLyQ GDGR TXH pVWD QR SXHGH VHU UHTXLVLWR GH Vt PLVPD 8QD YH]
REWHQLGD OD PDWUL] GH 0+ HO VLJXLHQWH SDVR SDUD OD MHUDUTXL]DFLyQ HV
FRQWDELOL]DU ORV ³XQRV´ HQ FDGD UHJOyQ SDUD ODV FRPSHWHQFLDV \ RUGHQDU
HQWRQFHVGHVGHODFRPSHWHQFLDTXHWXYRHOPHQRUQ~PHURGHHOORVDOPD\RU
SDUDREWHQHUHORUGHQGLGiFWLFRGHGHVDUUROORGHODVFRPSHWHQFLDV(QHOFDVR
GH TXH H[LVWDQ FRPSHWHQFLDV FRQ HO PLVPR Q~PHUR GH ³XQRV´ HO 0DQXDO
0HWRGROyJLFRSURSRQHTXHORVHVSHFLDOLVWDVGHFLGDQFXDOYDSULPHUR

/D VHFXHQFLD MHUiUTXLFD GH ODV FRPSHWHQFLDV SHUPLWH YHU GH PDQHUD FODUD
TXH SDUD XQ JUDGXDGR HV LPSRUWDQWH GHVDUUROODU KDELOLGDGHV YDORUHV \
DFWLWXGHVHQXQRUGHQTXHORVSODQHV\SURJUDPDVGHHVWXGLRQRHVSHFLILFDQR
SURSRQHQ (Q HO FDVR GH OD SUHVHQWH SURSXHVWD VH SXHGH SDUWLU GH XQD
FRPSHWHQFLD ³%DVH´ TXH SHUWHQHFH D OD FDWHJRUtD GH ODV FRPSHWHQFLDV
ODERUDOHV \ VRFLDOHV GHVDUUROODU FRPSHWHQFLDV PHWRGROyJLFDV KDVWD OOHJDU D
XQDFRPSHWHQFLD³0HWD´GHODFDWHJRUtDGHODVFRPSHWHQFLDVFRJQLWLYDV

8Q SXQWR LPSRUWDQWH D VHxDODU HV TXH HVWD MHUDUTXL]DFLyQ GH FRPSHWHQFLDV
QRHVXQDSURSXHVWDGHHVWUDWHJLDGLGiFWLFDSDUDODFRQVWUXFFLyQ\GHVDUUROOR
GHWDOHVFRPSHWHQFLDVHQHODXODVLQRTXHPXHVWUDXQDPHWRGRORJtDSDUDOD
FRQVWUXFFLyQGHXQRUGHQHQHOGHVDUUROORGHODVPLVPDV2WURDVSHFWRHVHO
KHFKRGHTXHUHVXOWDVXEMHWLYRODFRQVLGHUDFLyQGHTXpFRPSHWHQFLDVVRQODV
LPSRUWDQWHVSDUDORVSURIHVRUHV\DTXHVHSXHGHHQWUDUHQSROpPLFDDFHUFD
GH ¢3RU TXp HV LPSRUWDQWH WDO R FXDO FRPSHWHQFLD" 6LWXDFLyQ TXH QR VH
SUHWHQGLyDERUGDUHQHVWHWUDEDMR

Palabras Clave: Modelo Educativo por Competencias, Aprendizaje de la


Física, Proyecto Tuning, Matriz de Morganov-Heredia.

Referencias

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$PpULFD /DWLQD ,QIRUPH )LQDO 3UR\HFWR 7XQLQJ SDUD $PpULFD /DWLQD
´%LOEDR3XEOLFDFLRQHVGHOD8QLYHUVLGDGGH'HXVWR  

3pUH]7UHMR/0pQGH]6iQFKH]$5DPtUH]02OYHUD0\*RQ]iOH]$
³3HUFHSFLyQ GH SURIHVRUHV GH ItVLFD \ PDWHPiWLFDV VREUH HO PRGHOR
HGXFDWLYREDVDGRHQFRPSHWHQFLDV´/DW$P-3K\V(GXF9RO1R
  

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GH OD (VFXHOD 6XSHULRU GH )tVLFD \ 0DWHPiWLFDV GHO ,310p[LFR
XWLOL]DQGRODPDWUL]GH0RUJDQRY+HUHGLD´)RUPDFLyQ8QLYHUVLWDULD9RO
    

6(3  '*&)7 6(3   ³/D 7pFQLFD GH 0RUJDQRY+HUHGLD SDUD OD
RUJDQL]DFLyQ VHFXHQFLDO GH PDWHULDV \ FRQWHQLGRV HQ 0DQXDO
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'LGiFWLFD (GXFDFLyQ %DVDGD HQ &RPSHWHQFLD´ 0p[LFR 'H
KWWSLQWUDQHWGJFIWVHSJREP[XSORDGV0DQXDO0HWRGRO&%JLF
R\GH3URFHGLPLHQWRVSDUDOD(ODERUDFL&%
QGH3DTXHWHU&$GD'LG&$FWLFDSGI$FFHVR
GHDJRVWR  

139  
 
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(QVHxDQ]D'H/DV3URSLHGDGHV'H8QLyQ,QWHUVHFFLyQ<
&RPSOHPHQWR'H8Q(YHQWR(Q3UREDELOLGDG8QD3URSXHVWD
'HVGH(O$QiOLVLV'LGiFWLFR

1LFROH$VWXGLOOR&DEUHUD'DQLHOD$URV,EDFHWD(OLVDEHWK5DPRV5RGULJXH]
3RQWLILFLD8QLYHUVLGDG&DWyOLFD'H9DOSDUDtVR
QDOHMDQGUD#JPDLOFRP±
GDQLHODDURV#RXWORRNHVPDLOWRGDQLHODDURV#RXWORRNHV±
HOLVDEHWKUDPRV#SXFYFO


Resumen

(YLWDU OD PHPRUL]DFLyQ GH DOJRULWPRV SDUD OD RSWLPL]DFLyQ GHO WLHPSR HQ OD
UHVROXFLyQ GH SUREOHPDV SULRUL]DQGR HO UD]RQDPLHQWR HV XQ WHPD GH LQWHUpV
HQ OD DFWXDOLGDG *yPH]   3RU HOOR QRV SODQWHDPRV FRPR REMHWLYR
GLVHxDUHLPSOHPHQWDUXQDSURSXHVWDGHDXODSDUDHYLWDUHODEXVRHQHOXVR
GH ODV IyUPXODV GH XQLyQ LQWHUVHFFLyQ \ FRPSOHPHQWR GH XQ HYHQWR HQ
SUREDELOLGDG

(VWD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ FRQVLGHUD GRV PDUFRV WHyULFRV FRQVROLGDGRV GH OD


GLGiFWLFDGHODPDWHPiWLFDOD756 'XYDO \OD76' &KDYDUUtD 
/D 756 SDUD SRWHQFLDU OD XWLOL]DFLyQ GH UHJLVWURV GH UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ SDUD OD
FRPSUHQVLyQ GHO REMHWR PDWHPiWLFR HQ HO GLVHxR GH OD WDUHD $VLPLVPR OD
FODVHHQGRQGHVHSUHVHQWDUiODSURSXHVWDVHUiRUJDQL]DGDEDMRODVIDVHVGH
OD76'FRQVLGHUDQGRODVOLPLWDFLRQHVGHDSUHQGL]DMHGHYHODGDVDSDUWLUGHO
DQiOLVLVGLGiFWLFR *yPH] OOHYDGRDFDERSRUODVLQYHVWLJDGRUDVFRPR
XQ DVSHFWR QHFHVDULRSDUD SUHYHUVLWXDFLRQHV TXH SXHGHQ RFXUULU GXUDQWH OD
LPSOHPHQWDFLyQ

%DMR HO SDUDGLJPD FXDOLWDWLYR DQDOL]DPRV ORV GDWRV FRQVWDWDQGR TXH ORV
HVWXGLDQWHV XWLOL]DQ HO UHJLVWUR QXPpULFR \ YHUEDO SRU VREUH RWURV UHJLVWURV
SXGLHQGRVXJHULUTXHQRFRQVLGHUDQRWUDVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVSDUDIDYRUHFHUOD
FRPSUHQVLyQ %DWDQHUR*yPH] FRPRSRUHMHPSORHOHPSOHRGHO
GLDJUDPDGH9HQQ

140  
 
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6RVWHQHPRVTXHHVLQGLVSHQVDEOHTXHHOGRFHQWHOOHYHDFDERXQDQiOLVLVGH
ODVGLILFXOWDGHV\HUURUHVDVRFLDGDVDOXVRGHGLYHUVRVUHJLVWURVDOGLVHxDUXQD
SURSXHVWD GH DXOD (VWR SHUPLWH WHQHU XQ REMHWLYR FODUR \ GHILQLGR HYLWDQGR
DPELJHGDGHV UHFRQRFLHQGR TXH XQD DFWLYLGDG QR SXHGH HVWDU H[HQWD GH
OLPLWDFLRQHV

Palabras claves: análisis didáctico, limitaciones de aprendizaje, propiedades


de probabilidad, registros de representación, tarea de aprendizaje

Introducción y objetivo de investigación

(O FRQFHSWR GH SUREDELOLGDG KR\ HQ GtD HV PX\ XWLOL]DGR HQ VLWXDFLRQHV GHO
GLDULRYLYLUVLQHPEDUJRHQWUHJDUXQDGHILQLFLyQPDWHPiWLFDYiOLGDGHGLFKR
FRQFHSWR HQ WRGDV ODV iUHDV HQ TXH VH LQYROXFUD UHVXOWD GLItFLO $GHPiV
FRPR PHQFLRQD*yPH]  SUHVHQWDUXQ SODQWHDPLHQWR D[LRPiWLFR GH OD
SUREDELOLGDG FRQ WRGD VX FRPSOHMLGDG GH SHQVDPLHQWR DEVWUDFWR EDVDGR HQ
D[LRPDVFRURODULRV\GHPRVWUDFLRQHVGHORVPLVPRVUHVXOWDGLItFLOPiVD~Q
VL GHVHD HVWXGLDUVH HQ HQVHxDQ]D PHGLD HV SRU HOOR TXH HQ HO SURFHVR GH
HQVHxDQ]D DSUHQGL]DMH DO HVWXGLDQWH VH OH GLILFXOWD OD FRPSUHQVLyQ GH HVWH
REMHWRPDWHPiWLFR

6LQ HPEDUJR H[LVWHQ RWUDV GLILFXOWDGHV DVRFLDGDV DO HVWXGLR GH ODV
SUREDELOLGDGHVSRUHMHPSORVHH[SRQHTXH³ODSUREOHPiWLFDGHODHQVHxDQ]D
\HODSUHQGL]DMHGHOD(VWDGtVWLFD\GHOD3UREDELOLGDG « VHYHDIHFWDGRSRU
HOiUHDGHIRUPDFLyQGHOGRFHQWH\SRUHOHVFDVRGHVDUUROORGHKHUUDPLHQWDV
PHWRGROyJLFDV´ 2VRULR 6XDUH] \ 8ULEH  SiJ   GHELGR D HVWR VH
KDFH QHFHVDULR TXH ORV GRFHQWHV D WUDYpV GH XQ WUDEDMR FROHJLDGR ORJUHQ
FUHDU \ GHVDUUROODU WDUHDV GH DSUHQGL]DMHV TXH SULRULFHQ OD FRPSUHQVLyQ GHO
REMHWRPDWHPiWLFR

$Vt HO GRFHQWH GHEH HYLWDU XQ ³DSUHQGL]DMH PHUDPHQWH PHPRUtVWLFR ±


ªKHFKRVQRPEUHV\IyUPXODVª±\IRPHQWDUHQpOXQDSUHQGL]DMHFRPSUHQVLYR
\ DQDOL]DGRU ±ªHQVHxDU D SHQVDUª± HV GHFLU XQ DSUHQGL]DMH VLJQLILFDWLYR´
*yPH]  SiJ   ORJUDQGR GDU VHQWLGR DO REMHWR GH HVWXGLR HVWR
VXFHGHVRORVLVHDSOLFDXQDDGHFXDGDWDUHDGHDSUHQGL]DMH&RQGLFKDWDUHD
ORV HVWXGLDQWHV WDO \ FRPR PHQFLRQD %DWDQHUR   XWLOL]DQ REMHWRV

141  
 
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RVWHQVLYRV TXH OHV SHUPLWDQ FRPSUHQGHU HO REMHWR PDWHPiWLFR HQ


SURIXQGLGDG

(Q IXQFLyQ GH ORV DQWHFHGHQWHV DQWHULRUPHQWH SUHVHQWDGRV LGHQWLILFDPRV OD


SUREOHPiWLFD GH HVWXGLR FRPR HO XVR GH DOJRULWPRV SDUD OD RSWLPL]DFLyQ GHO
WLHPSRHQODUHVROXFLyQGHSUREOHPDVGHMDQGRDXQODGRODFRPSUHQVLyQGHO
REMHWR PDWHPiWLFR 3RU HOORV FRPR REMHWLYR JHQHUDO VH SODQWHD 'LVHxDU H
LPSOHPHQWDU XQD SURSXHVWD GH DXOD SDUD HYLWDU HO DEXVR HQ HO XVR GH ODV
IyUPXODVGHXQLyQLQWHUVHFFLyQ\FRPSOHPHQWRGHXQHYHQWRHQSUREDELOLGDG

Marco de referencia

(O PDUFR GH UHIHUHQFLD EDMR HO TXH VH VXVWHQWD HVWH HVWXGLR FRQVLGHUD WUHV
DVSHFWRV HO DQiOLVLV GLGiFWLFR OD WHRUtD GH UHJLVWURV VHPLyWLFRV 756  \ OD
WHRUtDGHVLWXDFLRQHVGLGiFWLFD 76' 

(O $QiOLVLV 'LGiFWLFR HV XQD KHUUDPLHQWD PHWRGROyJLFD SDUD SODQLILFDU FRQ
SURIXQGLGDG \D TXH HQWUHJD DO GRFHQWH XQD YLVLyQ GH FyPR GLVHxDU
LPSOHPHQWDU\OXHJRHYDOXDUORVUHVXOWDGRVGHWDUHDVGHDSUHQGL]DMHVTXHVH
FRQIHFFLRQDQHQIXQFLyQGHXQREMHWRPDWHPiWLFRHVSHFtILFR(VWHPDUFRVH
HVWUXFWXUD FRPR XQ SURFHVR TXH SRVHH FXDWUR HWDSDV R VXE DQiOLVLV \ VH
GHVFULEHQGHODVLJXLHQWHPDQHUDVHJ~Q*yPH]  

142  
 
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3RU RWUD SDUWH SDUD OD FRQIHFFLyQ GH WDUHDV GH DSUHQGL]DMH TXH SULRULFHQ OD
FRPSUHQVLyQ GHO REMHWR PDWHPiWLFR VH FRQVLGHUDUi OD 7HRUtD GH 5HJLVWURV
6HPLyWLFRV 756  GH 'XYDO TXLHQ H[SRQH TXH OD FRPSUHQVLyQ GH XQ
FRQWHQLGR UHSRVD HQ OD FRRUGLQDFLyQ GH DO PHQRV GRV UHJLVWURV GH
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQHVGHFLUHOHVWXGLDQWHGHEHVHUFDSD]GHUHFRQRFHUHOREMHWR
PDWHPiWLFR HQ VXV GLVWLQWDV UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV VLQ TXH VHD  FRQIXQGLGR \
GHEH UHDOL]DU FDPELRV GH UHJLVWUR VLQ ROYLGDU TXH OD HVHQFLD GHO REMHWR
PDWHPiWLFR HV PiV TXH SRU HMHPSOR OD H[SUHVLyQ DOJHEUDLFD TXH OR GHILQH
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PHQFLRQDQ TXH OD 756 FRQVWLWX\H XQ PDUFR WHyULFR DGHFXDGR SDUD DQDOL]DU
ODV UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV TXH ORV DOXPQRV HPSOHDQ SDUD UHVROYHU XQ SUREOHPD
SHUPLWLHQGR UHFRQRFHU GLIHUHQWHV HUURUHV TXH VH SXHGDQ FRPHWHU HQ HO
SURFHVR\DVtPHMRUDUODWDUHDGHDSUHQGL]DMHSURSXHVWD

)LQDOPHQWH VH FRQVLGHUDUi XQ VHJXQGR PDUFR WHyULFR OD 7HRUtD GH
6LWXDFLRQHV 'LGiFWLFDV GH %URXVVHDX 76'  FRQ HO FXDO VH WUDEDMDUiQ

143  
 
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ODVFXDOHVVHJ~QORH[SRQH&KDYDUUtD  

(O GRFHQWH
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GHWHUPLQDQGR HO SDSHO TXH MXHJDQ ORV HVWXGLDQWHV \ HO GRFHQWH HQ HO
GHVDUUROORGHODDFWLYLGDGGHDSUHQGL]DMHSDUDHOORJURGHORVREMHWLYRV

Metodología

$O UHDOL]DU XQD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ HV QHFHVDULR GHWHUPLQDU OD PHWRGRORJtD GH
WUDEDMRDXWLOL]DUORTXHLQFOX\HHQSULPHUOXJDUGHILQLUHOPpWRGRGHDQiOLVLV
GH LQIRUPDFLyQ TXH HQ HVWH FDVR HV GHOWLSR FXDOLWDWLYR GHVFULSWLYR VLPSOHH
LQWHUSUHWDWLYR SXHVWR TXH FRPR H[SRQHQ +HUQiQGH] )HUQiQGH] \ %DSWLVWD
  VH H[SORUDQ \ GHVFULEHQ VLWXDFLRQHV D ODV TXH VH HQIUHQWD XQ JUXSR
GHWHUPLQDGRGHLQGLYLGXRVHQGRQGHWDPELpQVHFRQVLGHUDQODVH[SHULHQFLDV
GH ORV SURSLRV LQYHVWLJDGRUHV $Vt ORV UHVXOWDGRV \ VX SRVWHULRU DQiOLVLV QR
VHUiQ REMHWLYRV \ WDPSRFR VH SRGUiQ JHQHUDOL]DU SDUD JUXSRV FRQ RWUDV
FDUDFWHUtVWLFDV

&RQVLGHUDQGR OR DQWHULRU SDUD HIHFWRV GH HVWH HVWXGLR HO FRQWH[WR HVFRJLGR
HV XQ JUXSR GH  HVWXGLDQWHV GH WHUFHU DxR PHGLR ORV TXH SHUWHQHFHQ DO
&ROHJLR 6DQ 9LFHQWH XELFDGR HQ 9DOSDUDtVR 'LFKR HVWDEOHFLPLHQWR HV
SDUWLFXODU VXEYHQFLRQDGR H LPSDUWH (GXFDFLyQ 3DUYXODULD HQ HO 6HJXQGR
1LYHO GH WUDQVLFLyQ (GXFDFLyQ %iVLFD \ (QVHxDQ]D 0HGLD &LHQWtILFR

144  
 
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+XPDQLVWD )LQDOPHQWH SDUD HO DQiOLVLV GH OD LQIRUPDFLyQ UHFRJLGD VH
XWLOL]DURQWUHVLQVWUXPHQWRV

D *UDEDFLRQHVGHYLGHRTXHSHUPLWLHURQWHQHUXQDPLUDGDSDQRUiPLFDGHOD
LPSOHPHQWDFLyQGHOSODQGHDFFLyQ

E  %LWiFRUDV UHIHULGDV D OD GHVFULSFLyQ GHO FRQWH[WR \ DPELHQWH GRQGH VH


GHVDUUROOD OD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ OOHYDQGR D FDER XQD VHFXHQFLD GH KHFKRV R
FURQRORJtDGHVXFHVRV\FRPRHYLGHQFLDVHVFULWDV

F  +RMDV GH UHVSXHVWDV GRQGH VH H[SRQH OD WDUHD GH DSUHQGL]DMH \ HQ ODV
FXDOHVORVHVWXGLDQWHVGHEHUiQSODVPDUVXVHVWUDWHJLDVGHUHVROXFLyQ

Resultados, desarrollo del análisis didáctico

A. Análisis del contenido

$QWHVGHHODERUDUXQSODQGHDFFLyQSDUDVXEVDQDUODSUREOHPiWLFDHQHO
DSUHQGL]DMH GH ODV SURSLHGDGHV GH SUREDELOLGDG HV QHFHVDULR FRQRFHU HO
REMHWR PDWHPiWLFR HQ SURIXQGLGDG (V SRU HVWR TXH VH DQDOL]D OD HVWUXFWXUD
FRQFHSWXDO GHO FRQWHQLGR LQYROXFUDGR HQ HO HVWXGLR D FRQWLQXDFLyQ VH
SUHVHQWDDJUDQGHVUDVJRVGLFKDHVWUXFWXUD

,PDJHQ(VWUXFWXUD&RQFHSWXDO3UREDELOLGDG
3RURWURSDUWHVHDQDOL]DODIHQRPHQRORJtDGHHVWHFRQWHQLGRFRQVLGHUDQGR
FRQWH[WRV \ VLWXDFLRQHV HQ ODV TXH VH OHV GD VHQWLGR D ODV SURSLHGDGHV

145  
 
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7DPELpQVHGHVFULEHQGLIHUHQWHVVLVWHPDVGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQEDMRORVFXDOHV
HVSRVLEOHHVWXGLDUGLFKDVSURSLHGDGHVDVDEHU

Conjuntist
a  

Algebraic
o  
Simbólico  
Numérico  
Simbólico  

Natural  

Pictórico  

)LQDOPHQWH VH FRPSDUDQ ODV GHILQLFLRQHV PDWHPiWLFDV GH ODV SURSLHGDGHV


UHIHULGDV D WHRUHPDV FRQ VXV UHVSHFWLYDV GHPRVWUDFLRQHV FRQ ODV
GHILQLFLRQHV TXH VH GDQ D QLYHO HVFRODU ODV TXH VH H[SRQHQ PHGLDQWH XQD
H[SUHVLyQDOJHEUDLFD

B. Análisis cognitivo

(O GRFHQWH GHVFULEH FyPR ORV HVWXGLDQWHV SURJUHVDQ HQ OD FRQVWUXFFLyQ GHO
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6XDUH]\8ULEHSiJ 

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VXHOHVHUHQHOOHQJXDMHQDWXUDO$VtSXHGHQSHQVDUTXHVLGHFLPRVTXHXQD
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HOHVWXGLDQWHQRLQWHUSUHWDGHPDQHUDDGHFXDGDODRSHUDWRULDFRQFRQMXQWRV

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HVFRODUHVSRUORFXDOHVQHFHVDULRUHDOL]DUXQDQiOLVLVFXUULFXODUTXHDEDUFD
GHVGH WHUFHUR EiVLFR D FXDUWR PHGLR UHFRQRFLHQGR ORV FRQWHQLGRV SUHYLRV
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DVtSRGHURULHQWDUHOORJURGHORVREMHWLYRVSURSXHVWRV

C. Análisis de instrucción

(OWHQHUHQFXHQWDWRGRHOSURFHVRTXHYLYH HOREMHWRPDWHPiWLFRGHVGHVX
SULPHU HVWXGLR D QLYHO HVFRODU FRQVLGHUDQGR WRGRV ORV FRQFHSWRV TXH OR
DUWLFXODQ QRV SHUPLWH GLVHxDU XQ SODQ GH DFFLyQ TXH WHQJD XQD PD\RU
FRQVLVWHQFLD(QHVWHFDVRVHGLVHxDUiXQDFODVHFX\RVREMHWLYRVVRQ

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(QGLFKDFODVHVHSUHVHQWDUiXQDWDUHDGHDSUHQGL]DMHRULHQWDGDDOORJURGH
ORVREMHWLYRVODFXDOVHLOXVWUDHQOD)LJXUD

El dueño de un minimarket ha observado que de sus


potenciales clientes consumidores de fruta, el 0,6 prefiere
comprar frutillas; por otra parte, un 0,3 prefiere ciruelas,
mientras que sólo un 0,15 prefiere ambas frutas. Si se
selecciona aleatoriamente un comprador de fruta, resuelva las
siguientes preguntas mediante dos estrategias distintas.

a) ¿Cuál es la probabilidad que no prefiera frutilla?

b) ¿Cuál es la probabilidad de que prefiera ambas?

c) ¿Cuál es la probabilidad que prefiera al menos un tipo de


fruta?

/D WDUHD SUHVHQWDGD SURPXHYH FRPR PtQLPR HO XVR GH GRV UHJLVWURV GH
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ VHPLyWLFD SDUD GDU UHVSXHVWD D ODV LQWHUURJDQWHV SODQWHDGDV
$ PRGR JHQHUDO VH HVSHUD TXH HO HVWXGLDQWH DSOLTXH XQ UHJLVWUR GH
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQGLVWLQWRDODOJHEUDLFRHVSHFtILFDPHQWHHOXVRGHOGLDJUDPDGH
9HQQ\DTXHPHGLDQWHHVWHUHJLVWURHVSRVLEOHGHGXFLUDOJXQDVSURSLHGDGHV

149  
 
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TXH QR VRQ REYLDV IDYRUHFLHQGR DVt OD FRPSUHQVLyQ SRU VREUH OD
PHPRUL]DFLyQGHODVH[SUHVLRQHV

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GLYHUVRV IDFWRUHV TXH SRGUtDQ UHWUDVDU DOJXQR GH VXV PRPHQWRV SDUD OD
GLVWULEXFLyQ GHO WLHPSR &RPR VH PHQFLRQy DQWHULRUPHQWH OD FODVH VH
RUJDQL]DUD HQ IXQFLyQ GH ODV IDVHV TXH SURSRQH OD 76' D FRQWLQXDFLyQ VH
GHVFULEHORTXHGHEHUtDVXFHGHUHQFDGDXQDGHHOODV

D. Análisis de actuación

/XHJRGHODLPSOHPHQWDFLyQVHSXGRQRWDUTXHODDFWLYLGDGHQVtQHFHVLWDOD
VHFXHQFLD HQ OD TXH VH SUHVHQWDQ ODV SUHJXQWDV SDUD OD PHMRU FRPSUHQVLyQ
GH ODV GRV SUHJXQWDV ILQDOHV OD FXDO QR HUD UHVSHWDGD SURGXFLpQGRVH XQ
GHVRUGHQ \ FRQIXVLyQ DO PRPHQWR GH UHVROYHUODV &RQ UHVSHFWR D ODV
HVWUDWHJLDV XWLOL]DGDV HVWDV VH DJUXSDURQ HQ WUHV FDWHJRUtDV TXH VH
SUHVHQWDQHQOD7DEOD

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7DEOD&DWHJRUL]DFLyQGHUHVXOWDGRV

(VWUDWHJLDVGH (YLGHQFLDV
5HVROXFLyQ

 

5HJLVWUR

&RQMXQWLVWD


5HJLVWUR1XPpULFR
6LPEyOLFR



5HJLVWUR1DWXUDO

 

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6HREVHUYyTXHVyORFXDWURDOXPQRVGHXQWRWDOGHUHFXUULHURQDOUHJLVWUR
JUiILFR FRPR XQD HVWUDWHJLD GH UHVROXFLyQ HQ FRPSDUDFLyQ FRQ HO UHVWR GHO
FXUVRTXHSUHILULHURQH[SUHVDUODUHVSXHVWDHQOHQJXDMHQDWXUDO\GHQXPpULFD
VLPEyOLFD3RURWURODGRDSHVDUGHQRSRVHHUORVFRQRFLPLHQWRVSUHYLRV
DOXPQRV IXHURQ FDSDFHV GH GDU UHVSXHVWDV D ODV LQWHUURJDQWHV GH PDQHUD
FRUUHFWD DXQTXH QR XWLOL]DURQ HO GLDJUDPD GH 9HQQ FRPR HVWUDWHJLD VLHWH
KLFLHURQ OD UHVROXFLyQ HQ UHJLVWUR DOJHEUDLFRQDWXUDO \ FLQFR HQ UHJLVWUR
DOJHEUDLFRSLFWyULFR

7HQLHQGR HQ FRQVLGHUDFLyQ ORV UHVXOWDGRV \ VX SRVWHULRU DQiOLVLV VH SODQWHD
UHIRUPXODU OD WDUHD GH DSUHQGL]DMH LQYROXFUDGD HQ OD FODVH HV UHOHYDQWH
HQWRQFHVLQFOXLUHQHOSUREOHPDXQHVTXHPDGHOGLDJUDPDGH9HQQHQEODQFR
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TXH OHV SHUPLWLUi GHGXFLU ODV H[SUHVLRQHV GH ODV SURSLHGDGHV OR TXH VH
EXVFDEDGHVGHXQSULQFLSLRFRQQXHVWUDDFWLYLGDG3RURWUDSDUWHVHSUHWHQGH
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LQVWLWXFLRQDOL]DFLyQORFDOHVGHFLUSUHVHQWDUiXQHMHPSORGHOXVRGHOGLDJUDPD
GH9HQQ

Conclusiones y comentarios finales

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UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ GLVWLQWR DO DOJHEUDLFR HYLWDQGR TXH OD HQVHxDQ]D GHO REMHWR
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UHILHUHHOFRPSOHPHQWRGHXQHYHQWR(VLPSRUWDQWHGHVWDFDUTXHODWDUHDGH
DSUHQGL]DMH SURSXHVWD SXHGH VHU PiV RULHQWDGRUD DXQ SDUD HO ORJUR GH ORV
REMHWLYRVVLVHLQFOX\HUDXQHVTXHPDFRQHOGLDJUDPDGH9HQQHQEODQFRGH
WDO IRUPD TXH HO HVWXGLDQWH LQPHGLDWDPHQWH HQIRTXH VXV HVWUDWHJLDV GH
UHVROXFLyQDHVWHVLVWHPDGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQRSWLPL]DQGRHOWLHPSRGHWUDEDMR
\UHGXFLHQGRODVSRVLELOLGDGHVGHTXHORVHVWXGLDQWHVVHGHVYtHQGHOREMHWLYR
GHODFODVH

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ORVHVWXGLDQWHV

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GH ODV SURSLHGDGHV GH XQLyQ LQWHUVHFFLyQ \ FRPSOHPHQWR GH XQ HYHQWR HQ
SUREDELOLGDGSXHVWRTXHVHFRQFLEHDOHVWXGLDQWHFRPRXQSDUWLFLSDQWHDFWLYR
GH VX SURFHVR GH DSUHQGL]DMH GRQGH HO GRFHQWH DFW~D FRPR JXtD GH GLFKR
SURFHVRSRWHQFLDQGRODFRPSUHQVLyQGHXQFRQWHQLGRPDWHPiWLFRSRUVREUH
OD UHSOLFDFLyQ GH DOJRULWPRV 6H GHVHD WDPELpQ LQFHQWLYDU D ODV IXWXUDV
JHQHUDFLRQHVDGLVHxDUWDUHDVGHDSUHQGL]DMHTXHSURPXHYDQODFRPSUHQVLyQ
GHXQREMHWRPDWHPiWLFRDXQFXDQGRHVWHHVWLORGHFODVHVWRPDPiVWLHPSR
GHORQRUPDOFRPRGRFHQWHVQRVDVHJXUDPRVGHTXHHOHVWXGLDQWHUHDOPHQWH
HVWiORJUDQGRXQDSUHQGL]DMHVLJQLILFDWLYRVLQREYLDUODVFRPSOLFDFLRQHVTXH
SXHGHQVXUJLUSXHVWRTXHVRQLQKHUHQWHVDODUHDOLGDGFKLOHQDHQHODXOD

Referencias
153  
 
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%DWDQHUR &   Significado de la probabilidad en la educación


secundaria 5HYLVWD ODWLQRDPHULFDQD GH LQYHVWLJDFLyQ HQ PDWHPiWLFD
HGXFDWLYD 1RYLHPEUH 9RO  Qƒ FRPLWp /DWLQRDPHULFDQR GH
PDWHPiWLFDHGXFDWLYD0p[LFR

&KDYDUUtD -   Teoría de las situaciones didácticas 5HFXSHUDEOH HQ


LQWHUQHW
 KWWSZZZXQLJHFKIDSVHFOLGLWH[WRVWHRULDGHODVVLWXDFLRQ
HVGLGDFWLFDVSGI8QLYHUVLGDGGH*LQHEUD6XL]D

*yPH] 6   ¿Para qué enseñar fórmulas pudiendo enseñar


procedimientos?8QD SURSXHVWD GLGiFWLFD SDUD HO WUDWDPLHQWR GH
OD3UREDELOLGDGHQ%DFKLOOHUDWR6XPD 

*yPH] 3   El análisis didáctico en la formación inicial de profesores


de matemática de secundaria.

+HUQiQGH] 5 )HUQiQGH] & %DSWLVWD 3   0HWRGRORJtD GH OD
 ,QYHVWLJDFLyQ&DQDGi

-LPpQH] / \ 5XSLQ 3   Guía didáctica del docente 0DWHPiWLFD
VHJXQGRDxR PHGLR

Osorio, M., Suarez, A. y Uribe, C. (2011) Revisión de aspectos asociados a la


problemática del aprendizaje de la Probabilidad. Fundación
Universitaria Católica del Norte. Medellín, Colombia.

9DUHWWRQL 0 (OLFKLULEHKHW\ ,   Los registros de representación que


emplean docentes de Educación Primaria: un estudio exploratorio.
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91ƒ$UJHQWLQD

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SUHGRPLQDQWHV8QHVWXGLRGHFDVR

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PDULRGLEODVL#JPDLOFRPVLOYLDVDQWRV#OLYHFRPDUDFRPHUFL#IUJSHGXDU

Resumen

/RV (VWLORV GH $SUHQGL]DMH ($  VRQ ³ORV UDVJRV FRJQLWLYRV


DIHFWLYRV\ILVLROyJLFRVTXHVLUYHQFRPRLQGLFDGRUHVUHODWLYDPHQWH
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FRQFHSWRHOLSVHFRQWHQLGRFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHDODPDWHULDÈOJHEUD\
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SUHGRPLQDQWHTXHSXHGDSUHVHQWDUFDGDHVWXGLDQWH

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(VWUDWHJLDVGHHQVHxDQ]DÈOJHEUD,QJHQLHUtD

1 Introducción

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HQFRQWUDPRVSRUXQODGRFRQODQHFHVLGDGGHUHVSRQGHUDORV
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SUHHVWDEOHFLGRSRUODLQVWLWXFLyQ\SRUHORWURUHSDUDUHQODPHGLGDGHOR
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GHODSUREOHPiWLFDTXHQRVSODQWHDPRVODVPLVPDVYLHQHQGHODPDQRGHOD
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HQIRTXHVTXHFDGDLQVWLWXFLyQGHVHDSURPRYHU $PDJR 

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DSUHQGHQFRQPiVHIHFWLYLGDGFXDQGRVHOHVHQVHxDVREUHODEDVHGHVXV
(VWLORVGH$SUHQGL]DMHSUHGRPLQDQWHV $JXLOHUD\2UWL] 

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Referencias

$JXLOHUD3(2UWL]7(  La caracterización de perfiles de estilos de


aprendizaje en la educación superior, una visión integradora5HYLVWD
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Procedimientos de diagnóstico y mejora.0HQVDMHUR

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diagnosticarlos, cómo mejorar el propio Estilo de Aprendizaje.
0HQVDMHUR

$PDJR/  Principales dificultades de los alumnos que ingresan a la


universidad. Estudio preliminar sobre el estado del conocimiento
8QLYHUVLGDG1DFLRQDOGH*HQHUDO6DUPLHQWR

$QLMRYLFK50RUD6  Estrategias de enseñanzaOtra mirada al


quehacer en el aula$LTXHSS

$UFKHQWL10DUUDGL$3LRYDQL-  Metodología de la Investigación


Social(PHFpSS

&DUQHOOL*  Perspectiva integrada de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje


de la matemática: una mirada a la Educación Matemática8QLyQ
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Síntesis del estudio

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Análisis de la pregunta 1.

E: 4XLVLHUD VDEHU WX RSLQLyQ DFHUFD GHO H[DPHQ ODV  GLILFXOWDGHV TXH
HQIUHQWDVWH D OD KRUD GH UHVROYHUOR \ FyPR ODV HQIUHQWDVWH ¢&XiO IXH WX
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A 1: Fue por deducción, resolví todo ese bloque de ejercicios sólo me


faltó el trigonométrico al ver único inciso que quedaba libre (de
relacionarlo con la respuesta correcta) supuse que esa sería la respuesta.
No tuve idea de cómo se resolvía.

A 2: Primero me sentí muy nerviosa y cuando me siento nerviosa,


regularmente se me olvidan las respuestas, así es que estuve resolviendo,
empecé por resolver todo lo que sabía y dejar hasta lo último las cosas
que se me hacían difíciles.

mmmm bueno pues en sí, al resolver todos los problemas de ese bloque
de ejercicios, el limite trigonométrico fue el único que me quedaba por
resolver, así es que relacione la única respuesta que me quedaba libre,
creo que obligue el resultado, siento que no lo razoné, esos temas de
senos y cosenos fue lo que se me hizo más difícil en la clase, los límites
trigonométricos al momento de resolverlos se me olvidó todo, totalmente
lo de límites trigonométricos quise resolverlo con el uno especial pero no
me acorde. 6HUHILHUHDOYLGHRGHOtPLWHVHVSHFLDOHV 

A 3: La verdad me confundí mucho en esa, llegue al resultado correcto


porque resolví todos y, ese me sobró y lo acomode en el inciso que hacía
falta rellenar, no lo resolví de acuerdo a un procedimiento.

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Análisis de la pregunta 3

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A 1: Al sustituir el valor de uno en la función, me percaté de que se me


daba 0/0 es decir una indeterminación, es por ello que racionalicé y me
dio el valor de ½, lo sustituí en la función y no se indeterminó, ese valor
hizo que la función se hiciera continua en ese punto, es decir, al iniciar el
ejercicio en la función había un hueco, el ½ hizo que se rellenara ese
hueco, se remueve la discontinuidad.

A 2:Como la función es discontinua, busqué la forma de hacerla continua


y solo sustituí el valor que me daban como opción, es decir en ½, en la
función y así comprobé que en ese punto la función no se indeterminaba,
es decir, se hacía continua.Solo por intuición vi que el un medio (½) que
me daban como opción de respuesta al sustituirlo en la función no se me
indeterminaba, supe que ese sería el resultado.

A 3: Por qué se indeterminaba con el uno, y tenía que hacerla por el


conjugado del numerador y así salió. Puueess hicimos que la
indeterminación en 1 pasará por ½ (resultado obtenido) para hacerla
continua.

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Análisis de la pregunta 5.

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A 1. La estrategia para resolver el problema fue graficando, de acuerdo a


las gráficas me daba una idea de dónde más o menos se presentaba una
discontinuidad.

A 2: Ese tema también se me hizo muy complicado, discontinuidad


infinita y salto finito. La estrategia que usé fue la de primero hacer los
dibujos, los bosquejos GHODJUiILFDDVtPHLEDJXLDQGR\SXHV««ORV
demás los hice por lógica, imaginando cómo serían las gráficas de las
funciones, me ayudó mucho practicar en WinPlot, así me di cuenta de las
formas de las funciones, los errores que tuve fue en las gráficas de valor
absoluto. Estaba tan nerviosa que no recordé la forma de sus gráficas y
tampoco pude graficar tabulando por el tiempo, es que si estaba muy
nerviosa por el examen.

A 3: 0HFRQIXQGLyTXHGLMHUD³[PD\RURLJXDOTXHFHUR´ x t 0 ) \³[PHQRU
TXHFHUR´ x  0 ). Yo dije no tiene continuidad y me confundí, la forma de
resolver para algunas fue graficando y me ayudó mucho, la que me
saqué mal no la grafiqué, solo intuí que ese sería el resultado.

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OD FRPSUHQVLyQ GH HVWH WHPD DXQTXH QR DUURMDQ PXFKD LQIRUPDFLyQ ODV
UHVSXHVWDV(QHOFDVRGHORVDOXPQRV\UHFXUUHQDODSDUWHJUiILFDFRPR
D\XGD SDUD HPLWLU VXV UHVSXHVWDV DFHUFDPLHQWRV TXH VH LQFOX\HURQ HQ HO
HVWXGLRFRQORVYLGHRV\FRQHO:LQ3ORW

174  
 
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Preguntas abiertas o de por qué.

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ORVFRQFHSWRVPDWHPiWLFRVLQFOXLGRVHQHOHVWXGLRDVDEHUOtPLWHDVtQWRWD\
FRQWLQXLGDG

E. 'LPH WRGR OR TXH YLHQH D  WX PHQWH FXDQGR GLJR  OtPLWH  DVtQWRWDV \
FRQWLQXLGDG

A 1: Límites; lo primero que se me viene a la cabeza, lo primero que pienso


es a lo que se aproxima un valor, lo máximo que se pueda acercar.
Asíntotas; lo primero que pienso es la discontinuidad.

A 2: Limite: funciones, derivadas, gráficas en la cual podemos expresar el


acercamiento de un número, aproximaciones. Asíntotas: son líneas que me
hacen regiones donde puedo encontrar un límite. Continuidad: Cuando un
límite no es interrumpido, cuando es continuo va seguido.

E4XLVLHUDVDJUHJDUDOJRPiV

Pues, se me hizo muy interesante la clase, así como usted la dio, en un


principio yo estuve en contra de los videos porque me dije: yo no quiero
videos yo ocupo la explicación de la maestra, pero conforme fue
trascurriendo las clases me di cuenta que cuando veía los videos en mi
casa y después llegaba a clase entendía mejor la clase. Por los videos me
daba noción del tema que veríamos y reafirmaba más mis conocimientos
los videos me hicieron razonar y me hicieron independiente del maestro, yo
era una chava que dependía mucho de los maestros y ahora ya no, trato de
ser más independiente.

A 3: Límite: Es cuando una función tiene un límite o sea va a llegar a un


cierto punto, pero no lo va a tocar; se acerca a ese número, pero no lo toca.
Asíntotas son rectas que cortan al eje de las x o de las y, son asíntotas
verticales u horizontales; Continuidad; una gráfica que es continua.

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HQ PDWHPiWLFDV DVt TXH D SULRUL VH VDEtD TXH QR OHV UHVXOWDUtD IiFLO

175  
 
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H[SUHVDUOR WDO \ FRPR VXFHGLy SHUR HV GH DSUHFLDUVH VXV UHVSXHVWDV D VX
QLYHO \ FRQ VX OHQJXDMH (Q HVWH PLVPR VHQWLGR VXFHGH FRQ ODV DVtQWRWDV \
FRQODFRQWLQXLGDG

E: 3RU~OWLPR¢WHJXVWyODIRUPDGHWUDEDMR"¢ORVYLGHRV"¢HOZLQSORW"¢HO
WUDEDMRHQHTXLSR"

A 1: Sí, todo me gustó, sobre todo el WinPlot porque a partir de mis


respuestas o resultados, yo comprobaba con WinPlot para ver si era
correcto, comprobaba mis resultados y a partir de eso, me daba cuenta
si está mal o bien, el trabajo en equipo me ayudó mucho, pues también
aprendía mucho cuando trataba de explicarles algo.

A 2: Para mí, la verdad me gustó mucho la forma de dar su clase, el


WinPlot me ayudó mucho, porque podía ver cómo era el límite, no lo vi
como cuentas, como fórmulas, lo vi físicamente, a muchas personas nos
ayuda mucho el ver lo que hacemos; con respecto al equipo, también
me gustó mucho porque compartimos ideas, conclusiones, aparte nos
explicábamos unos con otros, y así como lo hicimos al interior del
equipo, también al exterior con otros equipos discutíamos las ideas.
Sentí como si todo el grupo fuéramos un equipo me divertí mucho.

A 3: Si, lo único que no me gustó mucho fueron los videos porque no


se entendía, además, iba muy rápido, me gustó mucho el trabajo en
equipo, porque todos nos ayudamos, porque lo que yo no sabía, algún
compañero lo sabía y me lo explicaba, nos ayudamos mucho entre sí,
además de que era muy divertido.

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HODSUHQGL]DMHSRUTXHHQODSURSXHVWDVHSODQHyTXHORVFRQVXOWDUDQHQFDVD
\ HQ JUXSR FRQ OD ILQDOLGDG GH TXH VH DSURSLDUDQ GH ORV FRQRFLPLHQWRV
SUHYLRVGHOtPLWHVSHURHQFODVHVHOHVSUHJXQWyVLKDEtDQFXPSOLGRFRQHVWD
DFWLYLGDG OD UHVSXHVWD JHQHUDO IXH TXH QR DVt TXH VH WXYLHURQ TXH YHU HQ
FODVH FRQ HO DX[LOLR GHO SURIHVRU (O :LQ3ORW VL OHV JXVWy \ DOJR PX\
LPSRUWDQWH GHVGH HO DVSHFWR FXDOLWDWLYR \ TXH QR VH SURSLFLD HQ HO DXOD HV

176  
 
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TXH PDQLILHVWDQ XQD VDWLVIDFFLyQ SRU OD IRUPD GH OD SXHVWD HQ HVFHQD GH OD
SURSXHVWD

Análisis de la entrevista al alumno 4.

E:(ODOXPQRDODKRUDGHODHQWUHYLVWDJXDUGyVLOHQFLRSRUXQWLHPSRQLLGHD
%XHQR¢3XHGHVGHFLUPHODHVWUDWHJLDTXHXVDVWHSDUDUHVROYHUHOLQFLVRG"

A 4: Para sacar el límite teníamos que hacer según la variable la que no


FRQRFHPRVTXHWHQJDPD\RUH[SRQHQWHORGLYLGtDPRVHQWUHHVH«HO
número.

E:¢4XpSUREOHPDVHWHFRPSOLFyPiV"\¢&XiOIXHODHVWUDWHJLD"

A 4: A mí lo que se me complicaron fueron las asíntotas oblicuas ejercicio


número 3,

E:'LPHWRGRORTXHYLHQHDWXPHQWHFXDQGRGLJROtPLWHDVtQWRWDV\
FRQWLQXLGDG

A 4: Límite pues según yo es un punto límite, es una función donde llega a


XQSXQWRTXH««« Asíntotas son para dividir regiones, la recta que pasa
cerca de una función pero no lo toca. Continuidad son las funciones
continuas y las funciones continuas son funciones infinitas.

E:4XLVLHUDVDJUHJDUDOJRPiV

A 4: No.

E:3RU~OWLPR¢7HJXVWyODIRUPDGHWUDEDMR"¢/RVYLGHRV"¢(O:LQ3ORW"
¢(OWUDEDMRHQHTXLSR"

A 4: A mí lo que me gustó fue trabajar en el WinPlot y lo que no me gustó


fueron los videos porque no les entendía.

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FRQWUDVWH WDQ PDUFDGR FRQ ODV DSRUWDFLRQHV GH ORV WUHV SULPHURV
HQWUHYLVWDGRV $XQTXH HQ OD IDVH H[SHULPHQWDO HO SURIHVRU WXYR FXLGDGR GH
TXH WRGRV ORV DOXPQRV WUDEDMDUDQ GH PDQHUD LQGLYLGXDO \ FRODERUDWLYD HVWH

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DOXPQRUHIOHMDXQSREUHDSUHQGL]DMHGHOtPLWHVTXHGHQRVHUSRUODHQWUHYLVWD
FOtQLFDTXHVHOHVDSOLFyDORVFXDWURHVWXGLDQWHVHOSURIHVRUSHQVDUtDTXHOD
SURSXHVWD HV XQ p[LWR VLWXDFLyQ TXH QR FRLQFLGH FRQ ORV FRPHQWDULRV GHO
HVWXGLDQWH

Conclusiones

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VHQWLU GHO HVWXGLDQWH FRPR SRU HMHPSOR OD VDWLVIDFFLyQ SRU KDEHU ORJUDGR
DSUHQGL]DMHRVXPDOHVWDUSRUQRUHVROYHUDOJXQDSUHJXQWDGHOH[DPHQ'HOD
PLVPDIRUPDHVXQPHGLRSDUDHVFXGULxDUVREUHDVSHFWRVTXHSRUORUHJXODU
HQHODXODVRQROYLGDGRVTXHLQIOX\HQHQHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGHORVDOXPQRV
VREUHWRGRHQODHQVHxDQ]DGHODVPDWHPiWLFDV\DTXHDOSURIHVRUOHHVPX\
GLItFLO FRQVLGHUDU TXp YDORUHV GHO VHU KXPDQR LQIOX\HQ GH PDQHUD QRWDEOH
VREUHHODSUHQGL]DMH

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WUDEDMRFRODERUDWLYRSURPRYLyHODSUHQGL]DMHVRFLDOTXHORVYLGHRVGLJLWDOHVD
XQRV OHV SURGXMR VDWLVIDFFLyQ PLHQWUDV TXH D RWURV QR OHV LQWHUHVy TXH HO
VRIWZDUH:LQ3ORWHVXQDEXHQDKHUUDPLHQWDSDUDDSUHQGHU

&RQUHVSHFWRGHOH[DPHQODHQWUHYLVWDFOtQLFDSHUPLWLyLQGDJDUORVSURFHVRV
FRJQLWLYRV TXH HO HVWXGLDQWH GHVDUUROOy HQ ODV DFWLYLGDGHV SODQWHDGDV DVt
FRPRGHOFRQRFLPLHQWRDGTXLULGRVREUHORVFRQFHSWRVGHOtPLWH\FRQWLQXLGDG

x $WHQFLyQ HVSHFLDOPHUHFHQ ORV OtPLWHV WULJRQRPpWULFRV \D TXH HQ HO DXOD
VRQUHOHJDGRVDVHJXQGRSODQRDVtTXHQRHVQRYHGDGHOKHFKRGHTXH
ORVDOXPQRVQRORVSXHGDQVROXFLRQDU

x /D SURSXHVWD IXH GH VX DJUDGR \ GHVFULEHQ YHUEDOPHQWH HO OtPLWH GHVGH
VX SREUH PDQHMR GHO OHQJXDMH SHUR VH QRWD TXH SODQWHDQ DUJXPHQWRV
YiOLGRVSDUDGHIHQGHUVXFRQRFLPLHQWRVREUHOtPLWHV\FRQWLQXLGDG

&RQ UHVSHFWR D ORV YLGHRV HQ XQ SULQFLSLR OHV JXVWDURQ \ VH QRWDEDQ
PRWLYDGRV SHUR GH YLYD YR] ORV DOXPQRV DUJXPHQWDURQ TXH QR ORV
HQWLHQGHQ SRU OR TXH VH VXJLHUH FRQVXOWDUORV FRQ HO SURIHVRU

178  
 
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TXLHQ SXHGH PDQLSXODU HO YLGHR \ UHVSRQGHU ODV GXGDV JHQHUDGDV HQ HVH
PRPHQWR /DVLWXDFLyQ HV TXH ORV YLGHRV VH FRQVWUX\HURQ FRQ OD ILQDOLGDG
GH TXH HO DOXPQR DGTXLHUD FRQRFLPLHQWRV SUHYLRV DO WHPD \ DVt OD
GLVFXVLyQ HQ FODVH VH HQULTXH]FD SRUTXH GH OR FRQWUDULR DO LQLFLR GH XQ
WHPD QXHYR HV XQ SRFR LQFLHUWR TXH HO DOXPQR SXHGD SDUWLFLSDU
DFWLYDPHQWHHQODVGLVFXVLRQHV

6H DILUPD TXH ORV YDORUHV VRQDVSHFWRVPX\ LPSRUWDQWHV FXDQGRVH LQFOX\H


HQ HO GLVHxR LQVWUXFFLRQDO OD PRWLYDFLyQ SDUD DSUHQGHU HV XQR GH ORV
SULPHURV YDORUHV D SURPRYHU HQ HO DXOD DO LJXDO TXH OD KRQHVWLGDG OD
SXQWXDOLGDG\HOUHVSHWR

Referencias bibliográficas

$XVXEHO'1RYDN-\+DQHVLDQ+  Psicología Educativa. Un punto


de vista cognoscitivo0p[LFR7ULOODV

%DOOHVWHU$  El aprendizaje significativo. Cómo hacer el aprendizaje


significativo en el aula.5HFXSHUDGRGH
KWWSZZZDSUHQGL]DMHVLJQLILFDWLYRHVPDWV(OBDSUHQGL]DMHBVLJQLILFDWLY
RBHQBODBSUDFWLFDSGI'HSyVLWR/HJDO30(VSDxD

&RQFHSFLyQ0''XHxDV$  /DHQWUHYLVWDFOtQLFDXQUHFXUVRSDUD


DQDOL]DUORVSURFHVRVFRJQLWLYRVGHODSUHQGL]DMHGHOiOJHEUDActas del
VII CIBEM Instituto Superior de Investigación y Docencia para el
Magisterio, Escuela Normal Manuel Ávila Camacho,661

)LJXHUDV2&RUWLQD-/$ODWRUUH65RMDQR7 6HS~OYHGD$ (GV 


 0DWKHPDWLFDO,GHDV+LVWRU\(GXFDWLRQDQG&RJQLWLRQ
,QWHUQDWLRQDO*URXSIRUWKH3V\FKRORJ\RI0DWKHPDWLFV(GXFDWLRQ
3URFHHGLQJVRIWKH-RLQW0HHWLQJRI30(DQG30(1$;;;9RO
0p[LFR&,19(67$98061+5HFXSHUDGRGHKWWSZZZSPH
QDRUJP[,661;

)LOOR\(\5RMDQR7  )URPDQDULWKPHWLFDOWRDQDOJHEUDLFWKRXJKW $


FOLQLFDOVWXG\ZLWK\HDUROGV Proceedings of the Sixth Annual

179  
 
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Meeting of Psychology of Mathematics Education-North American


Chapter:LVFRQVLQ8QLYHUVLW\0DGLVRQ(8$SiJV

/ySH]\0RWD$'  Volumen 7: Saberes Científicos, Humanísticos y


Tecnológicos (Tomo I)&RQVHMR0H[LFDQRGH,QYHVWLJDFLyQ(GXFDWLYD
$&0p[LFR*5832,'(2*5$0$(',725(6,6%1
ǦǦǦ5HFXSHUDGRGH
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BWSGI

0DUWtQH]5'0RQWHUR<+\3HGURVD0(  /DFRPSXWDGRUD\


ODVDFWLYLGDGHVGHODXOD$OJXQDVSHUVSHFWLYDVHQODHGXFDFLyQJHQHUDO
EiVLFDGHODSURYLQFLDGH%XHQRV$LUHVRevista Electrónica de
Investigación Educativa, 3  ,6615HFXSHUDGRGH
KWWSUHGLHXDEFP[YROQRFRQWHQLGRYLGDOKWPO

1~xH]-  Representación de superficies con WinPlot5HFXSHUDGR


GHKWWSVHPDQDPDWXVRQP[0HPRULDV;9,,;,QXQLH]BMDFRERSGI

2UWHJD0,3DQWRMD50HQGR]D6  /tPLWHV\FRQWLQXLGDGHQXQ


DPELHQWHSDUDDSUHQGL]DMHFRQYLGHRGLJLWDO\:LQSORWHQOD
8QLYHUVLGDG$XWyQRPDGH1D\DULWRevista Fuente$xR1R,661
±5HFXSHUDGRGH
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3DQWRMD5/ySH]$2UWHJD0,+HUQiQGH]-&  'LVHxR


LQVWUXFFLRQDOSDUDHODSUHQGL]DMHGHOFRQFHSWRGHOtPLWH8QHVWXGLRGH
FDVRHQHO,7&*OD8-('OD8$6/3\OD8$1UNIÓN: Revista
Iberoamericana de Educación Matemática,661

6LQJK3  8QGHUVWDQGLQJWKH&RQFHSWVRI3URSRUWLRQDQG5DWLR


&RQVWUXFWHGE\7ZR*UDGH6L[6WXGHQWVEducational Studies in
Mathematics9RO1RSS3XEOLVKHGE\6SULQJHU
5HFXSHUDGRGHKWWSZZZMVWRURUJVWDEOH

180  
 
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=D]NLV5+D]]DQ2  ,QWHUYLHZLQJLQ0DWKHPDWLFV(GXFDWLRQ


5HVHDUFK&KRRVLQJWKH4XHVWLRQVJournal of Mathematical Behavior
  ,661

181  
 
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0DWHPiWLFRV&RQWH[WXDOL]DGRV

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8QLYHUVLGDG7HFQROyJLFD'HO9DOOHGHO0H]TXLWDO
,QVWLWXWR3ROLWpFQLFR1DFLRQDO

Resumen

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JUXSR GH HQIRTXH DQWH SUREOHPDV PDWHPiWLFRV FRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV 6H
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OD0DWHPiWLFDHQHO&RQWH[WRGHODV&LHQFLDV/RVUHVXOWDGRVVRQH[SOLFDGRV
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Introducción

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Planteamiento del problema de investigación

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3DUD HO GHVDUUROOR GH OD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ VH WRPDQ FRPR IXQGDPHQWRV GH OD
FRQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQ\GHODQiOLVLVODWHRUtDGHOD0DWHPiWLFDHQHO&RQWH[WRGH
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MARCOS TEÓRICOS

Matemática en Contexto

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HYHQWR R IHQyPHQR FRQWH[WXDOL]DGR  'HWHUPLQDFLyQ GH ODV YDULDEOHV


GHSHQGLHQWHVLQGHSHQGLHQWHV\FRQWURODGDV \ODVFRQVWDQWHVGHOSUREOHPD
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ODVGLVFLSOLQDVGHOFRQWH[WR'HVFRQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQGHORVFRQFHSWRV\WHPDV
DWUDWDUVHHQHOFXUVR

Campos Conceptuales de Vergnaud

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FRQMXQWR GH VLWXDFLRQHV SUREOHPD TXH FRQVWLWX\HQ OD UHIHUHQFLD GH VXV
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VHQWLGRGHOFRQFHSWRPDWHPiWLFRVHDGTXLHUHDWUDYpVGHORVHVTXHPDV
HYRFDGRVSRUHOVXMHWRLQGLYLGXDOSDUDUHVROYHUXQDVLWXDFLyQSUREOHPD

/RV HVTXHPDV SXHGHV VHU HVWXGLDGRV D WUDYpV GH ODV UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV


9HUJQDXGPHQFLRQDTXHHOHVWXGLDQWHWUDQVIRUPDXQDDFFLyQVREUHHOREMHWR
PDWHPiWLFRHVWDEOHFLHQGRFRQWUROVREUHVtPLVPRPHGLDQWHODVUHODFLRQHV\
FODVLILFDFLRQHV HQ VX UHDOLGDG GH WDO PRGR TXH VH YDQ SUHVHQWDQGR
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UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVSDUD 9HUJQDXG VRQ WRGDVDTXHOODV KHUUDPLHQWDV FXDOTXLHU
QRWDFLyQ VLJQR R FRQMXQWR GH VtPERORV TXH UHSUHVHQWD DOJXQD FRVD TXH
FRQVWLWX\HWtSLFDPHQWHDOJ~QDVSHFWRGHOPXQGRH[WHULRURGHOPXQGRLQWHULRU
GHOLQGLYLGXR LQFOXLGDODLPDJLQDFLyQ 

6HJ~Q )ORUHV   OD H[SOLFDFLyQ GH 9HUJQDXG VREUH HO HVTXHPD OOHYD DO
HQWHQGLPLHQWRGHODUHODFLyQHQWUHHOSUREOHPD\HOLQGLYLGXRTXHOHGDVHQWLGR
\ DFW~D HQ FRQVHFXHQFLD (O HVFODUHFLPLHQWR GH FyPR VH FRRUGLQDQ \
DUWLFXODQ ORVHVTXHPDV HVWi GDGRSRUOD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ TXHIRUPD SDUWHGHO
SURFHVR GH GDU VLJQLILFDGR \ VROXFLRQDU XQ SUREOHPD 0HGLDQWH UHJODV GH
DFFLyQHLQIHUHQFLDVVHLGHQWLILFDHOSUREOHPDGHTXHVHWUDWD\FXiOHVVRQODV
YDULDEOHV FRQRFLGDV \ GHVFRQRFLGDV GDQGR RULJHQ DO HVTXHPD GH
HQWHQGLPLHQWRDSDUWLUGHOFXDOVHOOHJDDOHVTXHPDGHVROXFLyQTXHDVXYH]

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FRQGXFHDODVROXFLyQGHOSUREOHPD&RQHVWDLGHDHOFRQFHSWRGHHVTXHPD
GH9HUJQDXGVHDQDOL]DWHQLHQGRHQFXHQWDORVHVTXHPDVGHHQWHQGLPLHQWR\
VROXFLyQTXHSURSRQH)ORUHV  

MÉTODO

3DUD UHDOL]DU OD LQYHVWLJDFLyQ VREUH HO DQiOLVLV FRJQLWLYR GH ORV HVWXGLDQWHV
IUHQWH D SUREOHPDV PDWHPiWLFRV FRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV VH VHOHFFLRQDURQ WUHV
SUREOHPDV PLVPRV TXH KDQ VLGR WUDEDMDGRV SUHYLDPHQWH SRU XQ JUXSR GH
GRFHQWHV FXLGDQGR TXH ODV FRPSHWHQFLDV UHTXHULGDV SDUD VX VROXFLyQ VH
UHODFLRQHQ FRQ XQ VLVWHPD GH HFXDFLRQHV DOJHEUDLFDV OLQHDOHV \ EDODQFH GH
PDWHULD 7UHMR\&DPDUHQD (QHVHVHQWLGRORVSUREOHPDVRHYHQWRV
FRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV TXH SRVLELOLWDQ HO DQiOLVLV GH OD DFWLYLGDG FRJQLWLYD GH ORV
HVWXGLDQWHV VH PXHVWUDQ HQ OD ILJXUD  (V LPSRUWDQWH GHVWDFDU TXH ORV
SUREOHPDV FRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV VH DVRFLDQ FRQ XQ EDODQFH GH PDWHULD VH
UHVXHOYHQ PHGLDQWH XQ VLVWHPD GH HFXDFLRQHV DOJHEUDLFDV OLQHDOHV \ WLHQHQ
GLIHUHQWHJUDGRGHGLILFXOWDG

Figura 1. Problemas de contexto.

)XHQWH$GDSWDGRGH7UHMR\&DPDUHQD  

8QD YH] VHOHFFLRQDGRV ORV SUREOHPDV FRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV VH GHVDUUROODQ ODV


GRVHWDSDVVLJXLHQWHV

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  &RQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQ GH VLVWHPDV GH HFXDFLRQHV DOJHEUDLFDV OLQHDOHV HQ


HOEDODQFHGHPDWHULDXWLOL]DQGRODVHWDSDVGHFRQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQGHOD
PDWHPiWLFDHQFRQWH[WR
  &DUDFWHUL]DFLyQGHOSURFHVRFRJQLWLYRGHORVHVWXGLDQWHVDOWUDEDMDUFRQ
SUREOHPDV PDWHPiWLFRV FRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV PHGLDQWH HO DQiOLVLV GHO
DFWXDU GH ORV HVWXGLDQWHV D WUDYpV GH VXV UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV GH ODV
LQYDULDQWHV GH ORV HVTXHPDV GH HQWHQGLPLHQWR \ VROXFLyQ D ORV TXH
UHFXUUHQGXUDQWHODVROXFLyQGHODVVLWXDFLRQHVSUREOHPD
La muestra

6H WUDEDMD FRQ XQ JUXSR GH HQIRTXH GH WUHV HVWXGLDQWHV GHO SULPHU
FXDWULPHVWUH GH OD FDUUHUD GH 7pFQLFR 6XSHULRU 8QLYHUVLWDULR HQ 3URFHVRV
$OLPHQWDULRV ORV FXDOHV VH HQFXHQWUDQ FXUVDQGR XQD DVLJQDWXUD GH
PDWHPiWLFDV TXH LQFOX\H HO WHPD GH VLVWHPDV GH HFXDFLRQHV DOJHEUDLFDV
OLQHDOHV DVt FRPR XQ FXUVR GH TXtPLFD HQ HO TXH VH DERUGD HO WHPD GH
EDODQFH GH PDWHULD PHGLDQWH HO PH]FODGR GH VROXFLRQHV TXtPLFDV DPERV
FXUVRV HVWiQ GHVYLQFXODGRV FXUULFXODUPHQWH (O HYHQWR FRQWH[WXDOL]DGR TXH
YDQDHQIUHQWDUHVXQIHQyPHQRTXHVHHQFXHQWUDGHPDQHUDUHFXUUHQWHHQ
RSHUDFLRQHV HVSHFLILFDV GHO iUHD GH IRUPDFLyQ SURIHVLRQDO \ ODERUDO GHO
WpFQLFRHQDOLPHQWRV

Instrumentos de observación

/D REWHQFLyQ GH ORV GDWRV SDUD HO DQiOLVLV FRJQLWLYR VH KDFH PHGLDQWH OD
REWHQFLyQ GH VXV KRMDV GH WUDEDMR \ ILOPDFLRQHV TXH D\XGDQ D UHIXWDU R
FRQILUPDUHODQiOLVLVTXHVHHIHFW~DFRQODLQIRUPDFLyQHVFULWD(ODQiOLVLVHV
FXDOLWDWLYR \ DWLHQGH ODV GLIHUHQWHV UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV TXH KDFHQ ORV
HVWXGLDQWHVGHORVLQYDULDQWHVHQORVHVTXHPDVGHHQWHQGLPLHQWR\UHVROXFLyQ
TXHFRQVWUX\HQHQVXDFWXDUDQWHVLWXDFLRQHVSUREOHPD

Implementación de las situaciones problema

/DV VLWXDFLRQHV SUREOHPD VRQ OOHYDGDV D FDER SRU ORV HVWXGLDQWHV HQ HO
ODERUDWRULR GH FLHQFLDV HQ GLIHUHQWHV VHVLRQHV TXH FXEUHQ XQ WRWDO GH
GLHFLVpLVKRUDV

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RESULTADOS Y DISCUSIÓN

Contextualización de un sistema de ecuaciones algebraicas lineales con


un balance de materia

/DV HWDSDV GH FRQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQ GHVFULWDV HQ HO DSDUWDGR GHO PDUFR WHyULFR
TXH VH HQFXHQWUDQ LQPHUVDV HQ OD HVWUDWHJLD GLGiFWLFD GH OD PDWHPiWLFD HQ
FRQWH[WR FRQVWLWX\HQ HO SURFHVR PHWRGROyJLFR TXH VH XWLOL]D SDUD OD
FRQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQGHVLVWHPDVGHHFXDFLRQHVDOJHEUDLFDVOLQHDOHV 6(/ HQHO
EDODQFHGHPDWHULD %0 HQHYHQWRVFRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV VLWXDFLRQHVSUREOHPD 
GHPH]FODVGHVROXFLRQHV

(QODILJXUDVHPXHVWUDGHIRUPDUHVXPLGDHOSURFHVRGHFRQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQ
UHDOL]DGR SDUD ORV WUHV SUREOHPDV FRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV TXH HQ WpUPLQRV GH
9HUJQDXG VH GHILQHQ FRPR ODV VLWXDFLRQHV SUREOHPD (V VREUH HVWRV
SUREOHPDV PDWHPiWLFRV FRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV VREUH ORV TXH WUDEDMDQ ORV
HVWXGLDQWHV \ TXH SHUPLWLUiQ GHVFULELU HO DFWXDU GH ORV HVWXGLDQWHV IUHQWH DO
FDPSR FRQFHSWXDO GH VLVWHPD GH HFXDFLRQHV DOJHEUDLFDV OLQHDOHV HQ HO

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FRQWH[WRGHXQEDODQFHGHPDWHULD

Figura 2. Proceso de contextualización.

)XHQWH(ODERUDFLyQSURSLD  

(O SURFHVR GH FRQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQ GH VLVWHPDV GH HFXDFLRQHV DOJHEUDLFDV


OLQHDOHV HQ HO EDODQFH GH PDWHULD SHUPLWLy HVWDEOHFHU OD UHODFLyQ HQWUH
FRQFHSWRVTXHSHUWHQHFHQDGRViUHDVGHFRQRFLPLHQWRGLVWLQWDV\REVHUYDU
ODHVWUHFKDUHODFLyQTXHH[LVWHHQWUHDPEDV$VLPLVPRSHUPLWHLGHQWLILFDUODV
UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV TXH SXHGH JHQHUDU OD VLWXDFLyQ SUREOHPD \ SURSRUFLRQD D
ORV HVWXGLDQWHV XQ FRQMXQWR GH HOHPHQWRV TXH FRQVWLWX\HQ ORV VLJXLHQWHV
LQYDULDQWHVRSHUDFLRQDOHVSUHVHQWHVHQODVLWXDFLyQSUREOHPD

D  8Q VLVWHPD GH HFXDFLRQHV OLQHDOHV DOJHEUDLFDV FRQ GRV LQFyJQLWDV


GHWHUPLQDODUHODFLyQTXHH[LVWHQHQWUHGRVYDULDEOHV
E  (O EDODQFH GH PDWHULD VH PXHVWUD FRPR XQ VLVWHPD GH HFXDFLRQHV
OLQHDOHVDOJHEUDLFDVTXHGHEHPDQWHQHULJXDOODFDQWLGDGGHSURGXFWR
TXHHQWUD\ODTXHVDOHDVRFLiQGRORFRQHOVHQWLGRGHLJXDOGDG
'H LJXDO PRGR GXUDQWH OD FRQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQ VH LGHQWLILFDQ ORV FRQFHSWRV
PDWHPiWLFRV \ FRQWH[WXDOHV TXH HQWUDQ HQ MXHJR WDOHV FRPR HFXDFLyQ
DOJHEUDLFD HFXDFLyQ DOJHEUDLFD OLQHDO VLVWHPDV GH HFXDFLRQHV PpWRGRV GH
VROXFLyQ EDODQFH GH PDWHULD FRQFHQWUDFLRQHV \ PH]FODV GH VXVWDQFLDV
TXtPLFDV

Caracterización del proceso cognitivo de los estudiantes al resolver


problemas contextualizados

&RPRVHKDUHIHULGRVHWUDEDMyFRQXQJUXSRGHHQIRTXHGHHVWXGLDQWHVGHO
3URJUDPD (GXFDWLYR GH 7pFQLFR 8QLYHUVLWDULR HQ 3URFHVRV $OLPHQWDULRV /D
FDUDFWHUL]DFLyQ GHO SURFHVR FRJQLWLYR VH UHDOL]D PHGLDQWH HO DQiOLVLV GHO
DFWXDUGHORVHVWXGLDQWHVDWUDYpVGHODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVTXHKDFHQGHORV
LQYDULDQWHV HQ ORV HVTXHPDV TXH FRQVWUX\HQ HQ SDUWLFXODU HO HVTXHPD GH
HQWHQGLPLHQWR\HOHVTXHPDGHVROXFLyQVHJ~QORTXHSURSRQH)ORUHV  

(Q VHJXLGD VH GHVFULEHQ ORV UHVXOWDGRV REWHQLGRV GHVSXpV GH DQDOL]DU ORV
GRFXPHQWRVHVFULWRV\ODVILOPDFLRQHVGHODFWXDUGHOJUXSRGHHQIRTXH

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a) Adaptación de esquemas de entendimiento y solución


'XUDQWH HO DQiOLVLV GH UHVXOWDGRV VH KD YLVWR OD QHFHVLGDG GH DGDSWDU OD
SURSXHVWD GH ORV HVTXHPDV GH HQWHQGLPLHQWR \ VROXFLyQ GH )ORUHV  
GDGR TXH HVWRV KDQ VLGR LQVXILFLHQWHV DQWH OD VROXFLyQ GH  ORV SUREOHPDV
PDWHPiWLFRVFRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV

(QDWHQFLyQFRQORDQWHULRUHQODVFDWHJRUtDVUHVXOWDQWHVGHODLQYHVWLJDFLyQ
VHLGHQWLILFDQ

x 8Q HVTXHPD GH entendimiento canónico, HQ HO TXH VH REVHUYD OD
FRPSUHQVLyQSRUSDUWHGHOJUXSRGHHQIRTXHGHODVLWXDFLyQSUREOHPD
XWLOL]DQGRGHIRUPDDGHFXDGRORVSURSyVLWRVODVUHJODVGHDFFLyQODV
LQIHUHQFLDV\ODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVGHORVLQYDULDQWHVRSHUDWRULRV
x 8Qesquema algorítmicoSHUPLWHTXHHOJUXSRGHHQIRTXHUHFXUUDD
OD VLPEROL]DFLyQ \ HO SURFHGLPLHQWR FRQYHQFLRQDO GHO PHFDQLVPR TXH
VH YD D VHJXLU SDUD GDU VROXFLyQ D OD VLWXDFLyQ SUREOHPD (Q OD
LQYHVWLJDFLyQVHGLVWLQJXH
Aritmético, HV FXDQGR VH KDFH XVR GH RSHUDFLRQHV DULWPpWLFDV
SDUDODUHVROXFLyQGHODVVLWXDFLRQHVHQFRQWH[WR

Algebraico LGHQWLILFDGR FXDQGR VH UHFXUUH D OD QRWDFLyQ SURSLD


GHO OHQJXDMH DOJHEUDLFR HQ OD VROXFLyQ GH ODV VLWXDFLRQHV
SODQWHDGDV

&RQVHFXHQWHPHQWH VXUJHQ ODV FDWHJRUtDV GH UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ FDQyQLFD


DOJRUtWPLFD FDQyQLFD DOJRUtWPLFD DULWPpWLFD \ FDQyQLFD DOJRUtWPLFD
DOJHEUDLFD

b) Identificación de representaciones propias del contexto


'XUDQWH ODV DFWLYLGDGHV HQ ODV VLWXDFLRQHV SUREOHPDV TXH VXUJHQ GH OD
FRQWH[WXDOL]DFLyQ GH VLVWHPDV GH HFXDFLRQHV DOJHEUDLFDV OLQHDOHV FRQ HO
EDODQFH GH PDWHULD VH GHWHFWy HQ HO DFWXDU GH ORV HVWXGLDQWHV HO XVR
UHFXUUHQWH GH GLIHUHQWHV WLSRV GH UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV TXH VH FRQVLGHUDQ
HVSHFtILFDV \ SURSLDV GH OD YLQFXODFLyQ GH GRV iUHDV GHO FRQRFLPLHQWR HV
GHFLUTXHSXHGHQRQRVXUJLUHQRWUDVYLQFXODFLRQHV

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3RU FRQVLJXLHQWH DGHPiV GH ODV FDWHJRUtDV GH UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ DQDOL]DGDV


FRQ OD FODVLILFDFLyQ GH )ORUHV \ SRU OD LPSRUWDQFLD TXH WXYLHURQ ODV
UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV HQFRQWUDGDV SDUD OD FRQVWUXFFLyQ GHO FRQRFLPLHQWR GH GRV
FLHQFLDV YLQFXODGDV IXH QHFHVDULR GHILQLU XQD FODVLILFDFLyQ GH ORV WLSRV GH
UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVHQFRQWUDGRVTXHGDQGRGHVFULWDVFRPRD WLSRSURSRVLFLRQDO
3  E WLSR ILJXUDWLYD QR RSHUDWLYD )12  F  WLSR ILJXUDWLYD RSHUDWLYD )2  G 
WLSR DQDOyJLFD $1  \ H  WLSR VLPEyOLFD PDWHPiWLFD 0  /D ~OWLPD
FRQVLGHUDGD FRPR OD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ TXH SHUPLWH OD DSUHKHQVLyQ GHO
FRQRFLPLHQWR PDWHPiWLFR GH LQWHUpV VH FDUDFWHUL]y SRU GLVWLQJXLU WUHV
SURFHVRVSDUDVXFRQVWUXFFLyQ3URFHVRGHLQWHUSUHWDFLyQ\VHOHFFLyQGHOD
LQIRUPDFLyQ3URFHVRGHHVWUXFWXUDFLyQ\3URFHVRGHRSHUDFLRQDOL]DFLyQ

c) Procesos cognitivo al resolver problemas matemáticos


contextualizados
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FRJQLWLYR HQ ORV HVWXGLDQWHV DQWH OD VROXFLyQ GH SUREOHPDV PDWHPiWLFRV
FRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV ILJXUD FRPSUREDQGRORUHIHULGRSRU9HUJQDGHQUHODFLyQ
DO GRPLQLR JUDGXDO GH ORV
FRQRFLPLHQWRV

)LJXUD'RPLQLRJUDGXDOGHOFDPSRFRQFHSWXDOGHXQVLVWHPDGH
HFXDFLRQHVDOJHEUDLFROLQHDOHQHOFRQWH[WRGHXQEDODQFHGHPDWHULD

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d) Sobre las representaciones de los invariantes operatorios que


caracterizan el desarrollo del proceso cognitivo.
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UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ VLPEyOLFD PDWHPiWLFD DQDOtWLFD \ JUiILFD  FRUUHVSRQGLHQWH D
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CONCLUSIONES

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XQD PDWHPiWLFD FRQWH[WXDOL]DGD IXH QHFHVDULR GHILQLU WLSRV GH
UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV ORV FXDOHV VXUJLHURQ GH PDQHUD HVSRQWiQHD GXUDQWH HO
DFWXDUGHORVHVWXGLDQWHV

6L ELHQ DO ILQDO GH ODV VHVLRQHV ORV HVWXGLDQWHV GLVSRQHQ GH HVTXHPDV
DSURSLDGRV SDUD HQIUHQWDU HYHQWRV FRQWH[WXDOL]DGRV TXH UHTXLHUHQ VLVWHPDV
GH HFXDFLRQHV DOJHEUDLFDV OLQHDOHV HV QHFHVDULR H[SORUDU PiV DFHUFD GH
HVWRVREUHWRGRHQFRQWH[WRVGLIHUHQWHV

REFERENCIAS

&DPDUHQD * 3  ³(OFXUUtFXOR GH ODV PDWHPiWLFDV HQ LQJHQLHUtD´HQ
Memorias de las Mesas redondas sobre definición de líneas de
investigación en el IPN, 0p[LFR

193  
 
$YDQFHVHQ0DWHPiWLFD(GXFDWLYD7HFQRORJtD\PDWHPiWLFDV

&DPDUHQD * 3   ³/D HQVHxDQ]D GH ODV PDWHPiWLFDV HQ HO FRQWH[WR
GHODLQJHQLHUtD´SRQHQFLDSUHVHQWDGDHQHO;;9,,,&RQJUHVR1DFLRQDO
GH OD 6RFLHGDG 0DWHPiWLFD 0H[LFDQD 0p[LFR &DPDUHQD * 3
  ,QIRUPH GHO SUR\HFWR GH LQYHVWLJDFLyQ WLWXODGR ³(WDSDV GH OD
PDWHPiWLFDHQHOFRQWH[WRGHODLQJHQLHUtD´0p[LFR(6,0(,31

'XYDO 5   ³6HPLRVLV \ QRHVLV´ HQ ( 6iQFKH] \ * =XELHWD HGV 
Lecturas en didáctica de la matemática: Escuela Francesa, 0p[LFR
6HFFLyQGH0DWHPiWLFD(GXFDWLYDGHO&,19(67$9,31SS

)HXHUVWHLQ 5 < 5DQG 0 % +RIIPDQ \ 5 0LOOHU   Instrumental
Enrichment, %DOWLPRUH8QLYHUVLW\3DUN3UHVV

)ORUHV 5   El conocimiento matemático en problemas de adición y


sustracción: un estudio sobre las relaciones entre conceptos,
esquemas y representación, 7HVLV GH 'RFWRUDGR HQ (GXFDFLyQ
$JXDVFDOLHQWHV$JV0p[LFR

3LDJHW -   Introducción a la epistemología genética, el pensamiento


matemático, (VSDxD3DLGyV 3VLFRORJtD(YROXWLYD 

7UHMR 7 ( &DPDUHQD * 3   $QiOLVLV FRJQLWLYR GH VLWXDFLRQHV
SUREOHPD FRQ VLVWHPDV GH HFXDFLRQHV DOJHEUDLFDV HQ HO FRQWH[WR GHO
EDODQFHGHPDWHULD(GXFDFLyQ0DWHPiWLFD9RO1~PSS
*UXSR6DQWLOODQD0p[LFR

9HUJDQXG*  El niño, las matemáticas y la realidad: problemas de la


enseñanza de las matemáticas en la escuela primaria, 0p[LFR7ULOODV

9HUJDQXG *   ³7KH 7KHRU\ RI &RQFHSWXDO )LHOGV´ HQ / 6WHWWH 3
1HVKHU 3 &REE * $ *ROGLQ \ % *UHHU HGV  Theories of
Mathematical Learning, 0DKZDK1-/DZUHQFH(UOEDXPSS

194  
 

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