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‫ﻣﺣﺎﺿرات أﻧﺳﺟﺔ ﺣﯾوان‬

Types of animal tissues

1) Epithelial tissue 4) Nervous tissue

‫ اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺞ اﻟطﻼﺋﻲ‬2) Connective tissue 3) Muscular tissue ‫اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺞ اﻟﻌﺻﺑﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺞ اﻟﺿﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺳﺞ اﻟﻌﺿﻠﻲ‬

1) Proper 2) Skeletal ۳) Blood

b) Cardiac

a) Skeletal c) Smooth
a) Loose c) Fibrous b) Cartilage
b) Adipose a) Bone
Animal Tissues
 Histology ‫ ﻋﻠم اﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ‬is the study of plants and animal tissues by examining
‫ ﺑﻔﺣص‬tissues ‫ اﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ‬under a light microscope or an electron microscope.
 A tissue is a group of cells that carry out a particular function.
 Animals are multicellular organisms ‫ ﻛﺎﺋﻧﺎت ﻋدﯾدة اﻟﺧﻼﯾﺎ‬with their specialized
cells grouped into tissues.
 In most animals, combinations of various tissues make up functional units
called organs, and groups of organs that work together are called systems.
 For example, the animal digestive system ‫ اﻟﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﮭﺿﻣﻲ‬consists of a stomach,
small intestine, large intestine, and several other organs, each comprises of
different tissues.
 Organs in animals are composed of different types of tissues.
 Each tissue is composed of cells.

Level of organization ‫ اﻟﺗﻌظﻲ‬in animals:

Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organism body
‫ﺧﻼﯾﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺳﺟﺔ‬ ‫أﻋﺿﺎء‬ ‫أﺟﮭزة‬ ‫ﺟﺳم اﻟﻛﺎﺋن اﻟﺣﻲ‬
Types of Animals Tissues
 Different types of tissues have different structures and functions.
 A tissue may be held by a sticky extracellular matrix ‫ ﻣﺎدة ﺑﯾن ﺧﻠوﯾﺔ ﻟزﺟﺔ‬that
bind the cells together in a fabric of fibers (Tissue= cells + extracellular
Types of tissues

1) Epithelial tissue 4) Nervous tissue

‫اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺞ اﻟطﻼﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺞ اﻟﻌﺻﺑﻲ‬

2) Connective tissue 3) Muscular tissue

‫اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺞ اﻟﺿﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺳﺞ اﻟﻌﺿﻠﻲ‬
First: Epithelial tissues ‫اﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ اﻟطﻼﺋﯾﺔ‬
Characterized by ‫ﺗﺗﻣﯾز ﺑﻣﺎ ﯾﻠﻲ‬:
1. Cells tightly linked together.
2. The presence of a cell secretion called the basement membrane ‫اﻟﻐﺷﺎء اﻟﻘﺎﻋدي‬
3. Covers ‫ ُﺗﻐطﻲ‬and lines ‫ ُﺗﺑطن‬other tissues and organs.

Functions of Epithelium

Protection ‫اﻟﺣﻣﺎﯾﺔ‬ Absorption ‫اﻻﻣﺗﺻﺎص‬ Secretion ‫اﻻﻓراز‬

(skin) (Intestinal villi ‫)ﺧﻣﻼت‬ (glandular cells)

 Glands can be single epithelial cells, such as the

goblet cells ‫ اﻟﺧﻼﯾﺎ اﻟﻛﺄﺳﯾﺔ‬that found in the stomach
and intestines to secrete mucus ‫ اﻟﻣﺧﺎط‬.
 Multicellular glands ‫ اﻟﻐدد ﻋدﯾدة اﻟﺧﻼﯾﺎ‬include the
endocrine glands ‫اﻟﻐدد اﻟﺻﻣﺎء‬
Classification of epithelial tissues
 Epithelia are classified by the number of cell layers and the shape of cells
on the free surface.

Classification based on number

of cell layers:
1. Simple epithelium ‫ﺑﺳﯾط‬ is a
One layer of cells. ‫ﻋﻣودﯾﺔ ﻣﮭدﺑﺔ طﺑﻘﯾﺔ ﻛﺎذﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺣرﺷﻔﯾﺔ طﺑﻘﯾﺔ‬
2. Stratified epithelium ‫طﺑﻘﻲ‬
More than one layer of cells.
3. Pseudostratified epithelium ‫طﺑﻘﻲ ﻛﺎذب‬
One layer of cells but appear to form
‫ﻣﻛﻌﺑﺔ ﺑﺳﯾطﺔ‬ ‫ﺣرﺷﻔﯾﺔ ﺑﺳﯾطﺔ‬
two layers.

Classification based on cell shape:

1. Cuboidal = cube ‫ﻣﻛﻌﺑﺔ‬
2. Columnar = column ‫ﻋﻣودﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺷﺎء ﻗﺎﻋدي‬

3. Squamous = flat ‫ﺣرﺷﻔﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻣودﯾﺔ طﺑﻘﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻣودﯾﺔ ﺑﺳﯾطﺔ‬

Second: Connective tissues ‫اﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ اﻟﺿﺎﻣﺔ‬
Characterized by ‫ﺗﺗﻣﯾز ﺑﻣﺎ ﯾﻠﻲ‬
1. Cells widely separated from each other in a matrix ‫ ﻣﺎدة ﺧﻼﻟﯾﺔ‬that is
produced by the cells (cells are scattered ‫)ﻣﺑﻌﺛرة‬.
2. The matrix generally consists of fibers ‫أﻟﯾﺎف‬
3. The matrix may be solid (as in bone), gelatinous ‫ﺟﯾﻼﺗﯾﻧﻲ‬, or liquid (as
in blood).
4. The functions of connective tissues are to bind and support other
Types of Fibers in Connective Tissues
 There are three types of connective tissues fibers, which are all

1- Collagenous fibers (white) (‫اﻷﻟﯾﺎف اﻟﻛوﻻﺟﯾﻧﯾﺔ )اﻟﺑﯾﺿﺎء‬

Are thick and made of collagen and non-elastic ‫ﻏﯾر ﻣرﻧﺔ‬

2- Elastic fibers (Yellow) (‫اﻷﻟﯾﺎف اﻟﻣرﻧﺔ )اﻟﺻﻔراء‬

Are long threads ‫ ﺧﯾوط‬of elastin, which provide a rubbery quality.

3-Reticular fibers ‫اﻷﻟﯾﺎف اﻟﺷﺑﻛﯾﺔ‬

Are very thin and branched, and composed of collagen.
Types of Connective Tissues

1) Proper connective 2) Skeletal connective ۳) Blood

tissues tissues ‫اﻟدم‬
‫اﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ اﻟﺿﺎﻣﺔ اﻷﺻﯾﻠﮫ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ اﻟﺿﺎﻣﺔ اﻟﮭﯾﻛﻠﯾﺔ‬

a) Loose b) Adipose c) Fibrous

‫اﻟﻔﺟوي‬ ‫اﻟدھﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﯾﻔﻲ‬

a) Bone b) Cartilage
‫اﻟﻌظم‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺿروف‬
1- Proper Connective Tissues ‫اﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ اﻟﺿﺎﻣﺔ اﻷﺻﯾﻠﺔ‬
A- Loose Proper Connective Tissue ‫اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺞ اﻟﺿﺎم اﻷﺻﯾل اﻟﻔﺟوي‬
 Binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions a holding organs in place.
 It has all three fiber types.

It has two cell types:

1- Fibroblasts ‫ﺧﻼﯾﺎ ﻟﯾﻔﯾﺔ‬
Are responsible for making the
extracellular fibers.
2- Macrophages ‫ﺧﻼﯾﺎ ﺑﻠﻌﻣﯾﺔ‬
Are amoeboid cells ‫ ﺧﻼﯾﺎ أﻣﯾﺑﯾﺔ‬that
swallow and digest microbes, and
cellular debris ‫ ﺑﻘﺎﯾﺎ اﻟﺧﻼﯾﺎ اﻟﻣﯾﺗﺔ‬by
phagocytosis ‫اﻟﺑﻠﻌﻣﺔ‬.
B- Adipose Proper Connective Tissue ‫اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺞ اﻟﺿﺎم اﻷﺻﯾل اﻟدھﻧﻲ‬

 Function as storage cells for

adipose (lipids).
 Adipose cells ‫ اﻟﺧﻼﯾﺎ اﻟدھﻧﯾﺔ‬contain
a large vacuole which in the live
cell contains lipids.
 Cell nucleus and cytoplasm are
pushed out to edge of cell
C- Fibrous Proper Connective Tissue ‫اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺞ اﻟﺿﺎم اﻷﺻﯾل اﻟﻠﯾﻔﻲ‬

 It contains large number of

collagenous fibers.
 The functions of this tissue are to
attach muscles to bones (tendons
‫)اﻷوﺗﺎر‬, and connect bones to other
bones (ligaments ‫ )اﻷرﺑطﺔ‬at joints
2- Skeletal Connective Tissues ‫اﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ اﻟﺿﺎﻣﺔ اﻟﮭﯾﻛﻠﯾﺔ‬
A- Bone ‫اﻟﻌظم‬
 Produces solid matrix of calcium
phosphate and collagen fibers.
 Each osteon ‫( ﻣﺣﺎﻓظ ﻋظﻣﯾﺔ‬Haversian
systems) has a central canal containing
blood vessels and nerves.
 Bone is harder than cartilage.
 The functions of bone are support,
movement, protection of internal organs,
mineral storage (calcium, phosphate)
and blood cell development.
B- Cartilage ‫اﻟﻐﺿروف‬

 Support soft tissues (nose, ear, trachea

and vertebral discs).
 Sliding areas for joints, facilitate bone
 The mature cell in cartilage is a
chondrocyte ‫ﺧﻠﯾﺔ ﻏﺿروﻓﯾﺔ‬
 Cells are found in Lacunae (‫ﻓﺟوات )ﺛﻐور‬
within the matrix.
 Fibers may be elastic or non-elastic
3- Blood (Vascular Tissue) (‫اﻟدم )اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺞ اﻟوﻋﺎﺋﻲ‬
 The matrix is a liquid called plasma (55%):
 90% water
 10% proteins, hormones, vitamins,
nutrients etc.
 There are three types of blood cells (45%).

Blood cells Functions

1- Erythrocytes Carry oxygen
(Red Blood
2- Leucocytes Defense against
(White Blood microbe
3- Platelets: blood clotting
Third: Muscular tissues ‫اﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ اﻟﻌﺿﻠﯾﺔ‬
Characterized by ‫ﺗﺗﻣﯾز ﺑﻣﺎ ﯾﻠﻲ‬
1. Tissue with cells having muscle fibers ‫ أﻟﯾﺎف ﻋﺿﻠﯾﺔ‬specialized for
contraction ‫اﻻﻧﻘﺑﺎض‬.
2. It has large numbers of myofibrils ‫ ﻟُ َﯾﯾﻔﺎت ﻋﺿﻠﯾﺔ‬made of the contractile
proteins actin ‫ اﻷﻛﺗﯾن‬and myosin ‫اﻟﻣﯾوﺳﯾن‬
Types of Muscular Tissues
 There are three types of muscular tissues in the vertebrate body.
1- Skeletal Muscles ‫اﻟﻌﺿﻼت اﻟﮭﯾﻛﻠﯾﺔ‬
 It attaches to bones by tendons ‫اﻷوﺗﺎر‬
 Responsible for voluntary movements ‫اﻟﺣرﻛﺎت اﻹرادﯾﺔ‬
 Also called striated muscles ‫ﻋﺿﻼت ﻣﺧططﺔ‬
2- Cardiac muscles ‫اﻟﻌﺿﻼت اﻟﻘﻠﺑﯾﺔ‬
 It is found in the wall of the heart.
 Cardiac muscles are branched.
 Intercalated disc ‫اﻷﻗراص اﻟﺑﯾﻧﯾﺔ‬
3- Smooth muscles ‫اﻟﻌﺿﻼت اﻟﻣﻠﺳﺎء‬
 No striations.
 It is found in the walls of the digestive system, urinary bladder, arteries,
and other internal organs.
 The shape of the cells are spindle-shaped ‫اﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﻣﻐزﻟﻲ‬
Fourth: Nervous tissues ‫اﻷﻧﺳﺟﺔ اﻟﻌﺻﺑﯾﺔ‬
 Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system.
 The functional unit of nervous tissue is the neuron ‫اﻟﻧﯾورون‬, or
nerve cell.
 It consists of three parts: a cell body ‫ﺟﺳم اﻟﺧﻠﯾﺔ‬, a single axon ‫اﻟﻣﺣور‬
and dendrites ‫اﻟزواﺋد اﻟﻌﺻﺑﯾﺔ‬
 Dendrites transmit nerve impulses from their tips toward the
rest of the neuron.
 Axons transmit impulses toward another neuron, muscles or