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CHAPTER I

PROBLEM AND CONTEXT

This chapter presents the problem and background of this study. This is consisting

of the significance and context of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of

terms and organization of the study.

A. INTRODUCTION

Shabu in the Philippines has been one of the topmost issues our country has been

dealing with throughout the course of years. Although issues of illegal usage of drugs have

been tackled over the past regimes, our current government under President Rodrigo

Duterte was the first in prioritizing the problem, therefore declaring what we call as the

"War on drugs".

According to Duterte, the war on drugs is necessary and crucial to fight rampant

criminality and corruption across the country, thus, different strategies were being planned

and implemented to deal with the alarming number of users and pushers of shabu.

The government's war on drugs, popularly known as "Oplan Tokhang" has been

controversial from the very beginning since it's allegedly involved in the extrajudicial

killings of suspected drug peddlers and users. Tokhang is a process by which law enforces

identify and try to at least knock on the doors of those allegedly involved in drugs and

convince them to be escorted to the nearest police station.

Many voluntarily surrendered, yet some are reported to have tried evading the

authority. Police intensified Tokhang and produced a record number of killings in a matter

of days. The anti-drug operation has already killed 7,000 persons but some human rights
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groups believe that the number of drug-related killings could reach 12,000 if unreported

cases are to be included.

Albeit the rising public anger over the reported surge of extrajudicial killings that

have victimized several children and teenagers, police officials have consistently claimed

that rival drug gangs are behind the extrajudicial killings. They also insisted that state

forces are only forced to retaliate because suspects have been violently resisting arrests.

Unknowingly, Oplan Tokhang replenished a retroactive effect on the mind of the citizens.

It created a depressing view to the police and law forces involved in the said activity.

B. PROBLEMS OF THE STUDY

`This study attempts to recognize thethe Experiences of Police Operatives with

Confirmed Kills during Oplan Tokhang Operations”

It seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What are the experiences of Police Operatives during Oplan Tokhang Operations?

2. What are the psychological impact, social impact and moral impact of the Oplan

Tokhang operations as part of the duties to the Police Operatives?

C. SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTEXT OF THE STUDY

This research focuses on giving a deeper perceptive and explanations to the

experiences of the police operatives involved in oplan tokhang operation with confirmed

kill’s drug suspect. This will also perceive the impressions of the Police Operative towards

Drug Suspects, their experiences during Oplan Tokhang Operation, and the impact of this

operation to their psychological, social and moral aspects.


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The researchers will contribute to the readers’ awareness among police operatives

involved in oplan tokhang operations with confirmed kill’s drug suspects. The learning can

help people in the field of psychology, mainly the psychology majors, who are attracted in

conducting future studies about police operatives in the sense of oplan tokhang operation.

This study will enlighten the voice of the police operatives in regards to the oplan tokhang

operation, this will also provide a setting about police operatives.

This study serves as a method of obtaining something to the students in conducting

more qualitative study through the use of interaction with the participants or interview and

observation as the liable tools in gathering data collection.

This study will disburse the respect of the community consciousness about the

experiences of the police operatives involved in oplan tokhan operations with confirmed

drug suspects.

D. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This qualitative study is entitled“War on Drugs: The Experiences of Police

Operatives with Confirmed Kills during Oplan Tokhang Operations”a qualitative study

about the life and experiences of Police Operative that involve in Oplan Tokhang

Operations. It was conducted on the month of September, year 2017 to the month of

November, and year 2017 at the Police head quarters in Pasig City area. The qualitative

research sought to know the life, experiences, feelings and struggles that they are

encountering during and after the Oplan tokhang Operation.


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To determine participants for this research study, the Researchers used the

purposive sampling since there are only (3) participnts available for the interview. The

participants of this research study were the Police Operatives that are involved in Oplan

tokhang Operation with confirmed killed drug suspect. The researchers chose the police

headquarters in Pasig City area since they are willing to be the participants on the study.

E. DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following are operationally and conceptually defined within the context of the

study.

OplanTokhang - A project of Philippine National Police (PNP) called

“OplanTokhang” , a national law enforcement project was implemented all over the

country. A Visayan word, “TOKHANG” means to approach and talk. This was launched

as part of the campaign to warn illegal drug traffickers and users to stop their activities.

Police Operatives –

War on Drugs - the Philippine Drug War refers to the drug policy in

the Philippines initiated by the Philippine government under President Rodrigo Duterte. It

has been criticized locally and internationally for the number of deaths resulting from

police operations, and alleged summary executions.


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F. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

As for the organization of the study the study it was divided into three (5) chapters

and every chapter contains the following:

The first chapter includes and presents the problem and background of this study.

This is consisting of the significance and context of the study, scope and limitation of the

study, definition of terms and organization of the study.

The introduction gives the idea to the readers in regards the theme of this study.

This will encourage readers to read from the first part until the last portion of this study.

This explain the scope of research done. The introduction shows the background in regards

Oplan Tokhang Operation which is the topmost issues our country has been dealing with

troughout the course of years. Apart of it is about the operation that really created a

depressing view to the police and law forces involved in the said activity. Next is the

problems of the study on that part this represent what are features that the Researchers

wants to know including their experiences during Oplan Tokhang Operation with

confirmes kills and lastly the psychological impact, social impact and moral impact of the

operation as part of the duties of the police Operatives. This is the area of concern and a

troubling objectives that points to need for meaningful understanding and deliberate. The

significance and context of the study that shows how this study entitled War on Drugs:

the experiences of Police Operatives with confirmed kills during Oplan Tokhang Operation

will be beneficial or what will be the impact of this study to others in part or whole. This
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discuss what people might benefit from reading this study. This also helps readers to

understand what the studywouldn’t be able to comprehend, and make sense of outside

information. Scope and limitation of the study since the topic of the study is sensitive this

show the guide as to provide an advice on how to develop and organize the study. The

limitations of the study are those characteristics of design methodology that impacted of

influence the interpretation of findings. Definition of terms this is in the study or

dissertation in order to understand the key terms being used in the study. The definition

clearly defined depending how the Reasearchers used it in the study the terms include here

are Oplan Tokhang Operation, police operatives and war on drugs. Organizations of the

study this provide a definition in every part of the study this also a map that may guide the

reader’s trough reading and understanding of every chapters.

The second chapter discusses and reviews theoretical framework, related

literatures and related studies of the entire study that has the relation in Oplan Tokhang

Operation that supports the study.

Theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of the

study, the Researchers include the theory of Bandura which is the mral agency and the

redefinition of behavior and secondly the theory of Kohlberg stages of moral development.

Next is the related literature this contains of literature coming from the book and other

forms of materials coming from the local sources, this includes the drugs abuse and

addiction, issues of ejk, reports of high death tolls, stance of Police Operatives and
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President Roderigo Duterte towards Oplan Tokhang Operation and lastly on morality of

killing those literatures involved in the study is relevant and or applicable to the study.

The third chapter presents the methods used in the study, the description of the

participants, the instrument used in the study, the data compilation or the data gathering

procedures done, and the experiences of the researchers in the field while conducting the

study.

On that chapter methods used in the study is a key part of dissertation or the

methodology, this dscribes the philosophical underpinning to the chosen research methods,

this part shows the method used by the Researhers which is descriptive qualitative research,

this also shows how the researchers get their data by using content analysis and cross case

analysis that support the theme of the data gathered. Participants this shows the people

who the Researchers selects for their study which is the three Police Operatives. Next is

the instrument it contains the include measurement tools which is the Researchers-made

questionnaires with 25 questions and other follow up related questions that designed to

oobtain data on the interest from research subjects. The data collection shows how the

Researchers process to get their data. This includes how the Researchers include the

collection of data which can be interpreted or analyzed to frame answers to the questions

or increase knowledge of the study. And lastly the research field experience, this present

the ativities experiences while conducting including their struggles while doing the

research, cheerfulness and bedtimes moments.


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The fourth Chapter this chapter of the study discovered and describes the

experiences of the Police operatives during the Oplan Tokhang Operation with confirmed

drug suspect, what their impression towards drug suspect is, and how this operation affect

their psychological, social and moral aspects as perceived by the respondents.

Presentation of data this part is necessary to make use of collected data which

considered as a raw data that is processed to put for any use of the study this involves the

participant’s transcript in regards to their responds from the given questions. Together with

the responds of the three participants PO1 jack bauer, PO2 telles and PO1 john D + B.

The fifth Chapter this chapter is the culmination of the process used to analyze

open-ended interview and observation used for (3) Police Operatives involved in Oplan

Tokhang Operation with confirmed killed drug suspect. It deals with the analysis,

reflection, recommendation and the conclusion from the findings.

Analsis yit is a process of evaluating data using analytical and logical reasoning

that examine each component to the data provided. Data from various data gathered,

reviewed and then analyzed to form some sort of findings. The analyzed information is in

regard to what Researchers get from the data collected. Secondly is the reflection includes

the lesson that Researchers have learned while conducting this study this also belong the

Researchers realization for every moments they have encountered while doing this study.

Conclusion is the last part of something, its end or result in regards to the gathered data.

This includes the position or findings reach after consideration. And last to this chapter is
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the recommendation this illustrates what the action shoud be taken as a result of the

findings of this study.

Bibliography this belongs the list of sources that the Researchers used in the study

list of books or articles an author that has published on a specific subject.

Appendices this shows the collected supplementary materials including the

validated questionnaires, letter of permission, inform consent, photos of actual fieldwork

and lastly the curriculum vitae.


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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

(BANDURA’S MORAL AGENCY)

Moral agency has dual aspects manifested in both the power to refrain from

behaving inhumanely and the proactive power to behave humanely. Moral agency is

embedded in a broader socio-cognitive self-theory encompassing affective self-regulatory

mechanisms rooted in personal standards linked to self-sanction. Moral functioning is thus

governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. The

self-regulatory mechanisms governing moral conduct do not come into play unless they

are activated and there are many psychosocial mechanisms by which moral self-sanctions

are selectively disengaged from inhumane conduct. The moral disengagement may centre

on the cognitive restructuring of inhumane conduct into a benign or worthy one by moral

justiŽ cation, sanitizing language and exonerative social comparison; disavowal of

personal agency in the harm one causes by diffusion or displacement of responsibility;

disregarding or minimizing the injurious effects of one’s actions; and attribution of blame

to, and dehumanization of, those who are victimized. Social cognitive theory adopts an

integrationist perspective to morality in which moral actions are the products of the

reciprocal interplay of personal and social in• uences. Given the many mechanisms for

disengaging moral control at both the individual and collective level, civilized life requires,
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in addition to humane personal standards, safeguards built into social systems that uphold

compassionate behavior and renounce cruelty. (Stanford University, USA. 2002)

Redefine the Behavior

With redefinition of behavior, people justify otherwise reprehensible by a

cognitive restricting that allows them to minimize or escape responsibility. They can

relieve themselves of responsibility for their behavior by at least three techniques.

The first is moral justification, in which otherwise culpable behavior is made to

seem defensible or even noble. Bandura cited the example of World War I hero Sergeant

Alvin York who, as a conscientious objector, believed that killing was morally wrong.

After his battalion commander quoted from the Bible the conditions under which it was

morally justified to kill and after a long prayer vigil, York became convinced that killing

enemy soldiers was morally defensible. Following his redefining killing, York proceeded

to kill and capture more than 100 German soldiers and, as a result, became one of the

greatest war heroes in American history.

A second method of reducing responsibility through redefining wrongful behavior

is to make advantageous or palliative comparisons between that behavior and the even

greater atrocities committed by others. The child who vandalizes a school building uses the

excuse that others broke even more windows.

A third technique is redefining behavior is the use of euphemistic labels. Politicians

who have pledged not to raise taxes speak of “revenue enhancement” rather than taxes;

some Nazi leaders called the murder of millions of Jews the “purification of Europe” or

“the final solution”.


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Self-Regulation through Moral Agency

People also regulate their actions through moral standards of conduct. Bandura

(1999a) sees moral agency as having two aspects: (1) doing no harm to people and (2)

proactively helping people. Our self-regulative mechanisms, however, do not affect other

people until we act on them. We have no automatic internal controlling agent such as a

conscience or superego that invariably directs our behavior toward morally consistent

values. Bandura (2002a) insists that moral percepts predict moral behavior only when those

percepts are converted to action. In other words, self-regulatory influences are not

automatic but operate only if they are activated; a concept Bandura calls selective

activation.

How can people with strong moral beliefs concerning the worth and dignity of all

human kind behave inhumane manner to other humans? (Bandura’s, 1994) answer is that

“people do not ordinarily engage in reprehensible conduct until they have justified to

themselves the morality of their actions”. By justifying the morality of their actions, they

can separate or disengage themselves from consequences of their behavior, a concept

Bandura calls disengagement of internal control.

Disengagement techniques allow people, individually or working in concert with

others, to engage in humane behaviors while retaining their moral standards (Bandura,

2002). For example, politicians frequently convince their constituents of the morality of

war. Thus, wars are fought against “evil” people, people who deserve to be defeated or

even annihilated.
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Selective activation and disengagement of internal control allow people with the

same moral standards to behave quite differently, just as they permit the same person to

behave differently in different situations.

(KOHLBERG STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT)

(Level I: Pre conventional Morality) Stage 1: Punishment-avoidance and obedience

People make decisions based on what is best for themselves, without regard for others'

needs or feelings. They obey rules only if established by more powerful individuals; they

may disobey if they aren't likely to get caught. "Wrong" behaviors are those that will be

punished.

Stage 2: Exchange of favors People recognize that others also have needs. They may try

to satisfy others' needs if their own needs are also met ("you scratch my back, I'll scratch

yours"). They continue to define right and wrong primarily in terms of consequences to

themselves.

(Level II: Conventional Morality) Stage 3 People make decisions based on what actions

will please others, especially authority figures and other individuals with high status (e.g.,

teachers, popular peers). They are concerned about maintaining relationships through

sharing, trust, and loyalty, and they take other people's perspectives and intentions into

account when making decisions.

Stage 4: Law and order People look to society as a whole for guidelines about right or

wrong. They know rules are necessary for keeping society running smoothly and believe it
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is their "duty" to obey them. However, they perceive rules to be inflexible; they don't

necessarily recognize that as society's needs change, rules should change as well.

(Level II: Postconventional Morality) Stage 5: Social contract People recognize that

rules represent agreements among many individuals about appropriate behavior. Rules are

seen as potentially useful mechanisms that can maintain the general social order and protect

individual rights, rather than as absolute dictates that must be obeyed simply because they

are "the law." People also recognize the flexibility of rules; rules that no longer serve

society's best interests can and should be changed.

Stage 6: Universal ethical principle Stage 6 is a hypothetical, "ideal" stage that few people

ever reach. People in this stage adhere to a few abstract, universal principles (e.g., equality

of all people, respect for human dignity, commitment to justice) that transcend specific

norms and rules. They answer to a strong inner conscience and willingly disobey laws that

violate their own ethical principles. (Barger N. 2000)

• DRUG ABUSE AND ADDICTION

Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by

compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. It is considered a brain

disease because drugs change the brain—they change its structure and how it works. These

brain changes can be long-lasting, and can lead to the harmful behaviors seen in people

who abuse drugs. They also believe that People who take drugs are a person who wants to

feel good most abused drugs produce intense feelings of pleasure, second is to feel better

because some people who suffer from social anxiety, stress-related disorders, and

depression begin abusing drugs in an attempt to lessen feelings of distress, and lastly they
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want to do better because some people feel pressure to chemically enhance or improve

their cognitive or athletic performance, which can play a role in initial experimentation and

continued abuse of drugs such as prescription stimulants. Persons become addict in drugs

because of Curiosity and "because others are doing it." In this respect adolescents are

particularly vulnerable because of the strong influence of peer pressure. (Volkow, 2014)

According to HG Help Guide,Org. People experiment with drugs for many

different reasons. Many first try drugs out of curiosity, to have a good time, because friends

are doing it, in an effort to improve athletic performance or ease another problem, such as

stress, anxiety, or depression. Use doesn’t automatically lead to abuse, and there is no

specific point at which drug use moves from casual to problematic. Drug abuse and

addiction is less about the amount of substance consumed or the frequency, and more about

the reasons people turn to drugs in the first place as well as the consequences of their drug

use. If your drug use is causing problems in your life—at work, school, home, or in your

relationships—you likely have a drug abuse or addiction problem. Some drug users

become addicted because the following; family history of addiction, Abuse, neglect, or

other traumatic experiences, Mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, and Early

use of drugs. (Robinson et al, 2017)

• ISSUES OF EJK (Rowena Tiamson and Kian Delos Santos)

It is an observable common pattern in the reported extrajudicial killings. This is a

story about Rowena Tiamson a graduating honor student and choir member killed in oplan

tokhang operation but according to the families and friends that Rowena is not a drug
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pusher and just a victim of the so called EJK or extra judicial killing. The 22-year-old was

found lifeless in Barangay Parian in Manaoag, Pangasinan, with her hands tied and face

covered. Around her neck was a cardboard sign with the all-too-familiar phrase “Huwag

tularan, pusher ako (Don’t emulate me. I’m a pusher.)”. Family and friends insist that

Rowena was not in any way involved with illegal drugs. Tagging her as such is very unfair.

Before this happened she asked permission to fix school requirements because she’s a

graduating student, but Rowena’s body was found on July 19, 2016 hands tied and face

wrapped in packing tape. Around her neck was a cardboard sign with the all-too-familiar

phrase, “Huwag tularan, pusher (Don’t emulate me. I’m a pusher).” Her family insisted

she never used drugs. How does the public know it’s drug-related? Through a cardboard

bearing the words, “drug pusher ako, huwag tularan (I’m a drug pusher, don’t emulate

me).” They also see packets of shabu were found inside the pockets of the victims.

According to witnesses’ accounts, perpetrators were often armed men wearing civilian

clothes. They barged into the victims’ houses and emptied their magazines on them.

Sometimes, they dragged them out to narrow alleys. (Gavilan J, 2017)

The National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) on Thursday, August 31, filed a

complaint for murder and planting of evidence against Caloocan City policemen who killed

teenager Kian delos Santos during a drug raid on August 16. The NBI concluded that Delos

Santos' death was a case of intentional killing. "From the collective acts of herein police

officers prior, during, and after the incident, it is very evident that they have one single

purpose, that is to kill the victim,"Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre II said the case may

be consolidated with the earlier complaint filed by the Public Attorney's Office (PAO). The

PAO complaint was for murder and torture, while the NBI complaint also includes
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violation of Section 29 of Republic Act 9165 or planting of evidence. "Any person who is

found guilty of 'planting' any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential

chemical, regardless of quantity and purity, shall suffer the penalty of death," states the

law. The NBI also said the cops staged the arrest of the supposed witness who claimed that

Delos Santos was a drug runner. A certain Luberas, alias Nono, was arrested by Caloocan

City cops on August 17. Nono was subsequently presented to media in a briefing where he

claimed that the 17-year-old Delos Santos was involved in drug transactions."The alleged

arrest of Nono was only staged to conceal the crime these police officers have committed,"

stated the NBI.The NBI complaint is against the same 4 policemen: Police Officer 3

ArnelOares, Police Officer 1 Jerwin Cruz, Police Officer 1 Jeremias Pereda, and their

station commander, Chief Inspector Amor Cerillo. The DOJ earlier created a 3-man panel

to handle the Delos Santos case. The teenager's killing has prompted tough-talking

President Rodrigo Duterte to temper his remarks about his bloody war on drugs. (Buan,

2017)

• REPORTS OF HIGH DEATH TOLLS

The Philippine National Police said 103 people have died in police operations to

combat illegal drugs between May 10 and July 3, 2016. With the help of ABS-CBN they

monitored those 311 drug-related fatalities between May 10 and July 11, 2016. About 75

percent or 224 deaths resulted from police operations, often buy-bust operations that

allegedly escalated to shoot-outs with suspects, secondly about 72 percent or 224 deaths

resulted from police operations, often oplan tokhang operations that allegedly escalated to

shoot-outs with suspects, and lastly about 72 percent or 224 deaths resulted from police
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operations, often buy-bust operations that allegedly escalated to shoot-outs with suspects.

About 17 percent or 54 of the fatalities were gunned down by unidentified assailants, their

bodies left spread to the ground and lastly about 11 percent or 33 were "salvage victims",

their bodies carried from the crime scene and dumped elsewhere. Signs that identified them

as drug lords, drug pushers or drug users were often tacked onto their bodies. (ABS-CBN

Investigative and Research Group, 2016)

Exasperated by the illegal drugs menace in the country, President Rodrigo

Duterte has waged an all-out campaign against it since he assumed office. During the

operations there are 162 suspected drug personalities killed in police operations, since

March 1, 2017, 7, 080 a total number of people killed on war on drugs operation since july

1, 2016, 2,555 suspected drug personalities killed in police operations, as of January 31,

2017, 3,603 victims in cases of deaths under investigations as of January 9, 2017. And 922

victims in case where investigations has concluded as of January 9, 2017. (Bueza M. 2016)

The body of a suspected drug pusher is one of the several victims of

extrajudicial killings in recent weeks, lies on a Manila street. Violent death has become staple

news in and about the Philippines. It seems morbid to keep track of these incidents but since

President Rodrigo Duterte was sworn into office, at least 60 have been reportedly killed in police

encounters. Police say the suspects fought back. At the same time, around the country, bodies

have been found bloody, lifeless, and adorned with signs proclaiming their crimes. Nobody

knows who their murderers are. These days someone’s life has become the price of theft,

addiction, and drug pushing in the Philippines. This in a way is not surprising. Duterte ran
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on the promise that he would eradicate illegal drugs and criminality in the Philippines.

(Cornelio, 2016)

•POLICE OPERATIVES AND DUTERTE’S STANCE ON WAR ON DRUGS

ISSUES

Since When Rodrigo Duterte becoming a president of the Philippines in June

2016, Rodrigo Duterte has launched a war on drugs that has resulted in the extrajudicial

deaths of thousands of alleged drug dealers and users across the country. The Philippine

president sees drug dealing and addiction as “major obstacles to the Philippines’ economic

and social progress,” says John Gershman, an expert on Philippine politics. The drug war

is a cornerstone of Duterte’s domestic policy and represents the extension of policies he’d

implemented earlier in his political career as the mayor of the city of Davao.

When Rodrigo Duterte campaigned for president, he claimed that drug dealing and

drug addiction were major obstacles to the Philippines’ economic and social

progress. When Duterte became president in June, he encouraged the public to “go ahead

and kill” drug addicts. Since president duterte believes that war on drugs will help to lessen

the problems in drugs. He has the power to continue implementing this war on drug

campaign since he stands as a president of the Philippines. (Xu, 2016)

The Duterte administration's controversial war against illegal drugs is back,

and police assure it will be "less bloody." Philippine National Police Chief Director General

Ronald Dela Rosa announced on Monday the return of the government's anti-drug

campaign Oplan Tokhang, now relaunched as "Oplan Tokhang 2: Project Double Barrel

Reloaded." Police operatives especially Dela rosa wants this operations become bloodless
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campaign if ever but this is war so this will be less bloody. Dela Rosa in a press briefing,

flanked by police officers including Police Senior Superintendent Graciano Mijares, head

of the PNP's Drug Enforcement Group, which will focus on nabbing high-value targets. As

long as they don't resist arrest, it will be bloodless because they are not here to claim lives;

they are here to save lives. (Tan, 2017)

• ON MORALITY OF KILLING

There doesn’t seem to be any problem about killings. Most people would say that

it is wrong to kill and that’s all there is to it. The same opinion is proclaimed by many

members of the Christian religion. They say that ‘Thou shalt not kill’ is an absolute

command. But there are several issues involving the morality of killing where ordinary

men, secular and religious alike, make judgments or evince perplexity which reveals that

common sense morality is less clear about killing than it at first appears. Sometimes people

object to military service just on the grounds that it is wrong to kill (There are other

grounds, but these are beside the point). Suppose that by killing one person you can prevent

more people being killed in the long run. Killing is might to some, depending on the nature

of the action to be fought. Killing is just a physical act like shooting or stabbing or as also

including actions which have as remote but foreseeable consequences that people will die.

If we say that ‘killing is just a physical act, and then it follows at once that killing is

wrong’ is not an absolute rule. People would hold that in such a situation it is still true that

some actions are better than others. The nature of killing, the common sense morality of

killing cannot be summed up in the pristine simplicity of ‘killings is just (absolutely)

wrong. (Goodrich T. 1969)


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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methods are the various procedures, schemes and algorithms used in

research. All the methods used by a researcher during a research study are termed as

research methods. They are essentially planned, scientific and value-neutral. They include

theoretical procedures, experimental studies, numerical schemes, statistical approaches,

etc. Research methods help us collect samples, data and find a solution to a problem.

Particularly, scientific research methods call for explanations based on collected facts,

measurements and observations and not on reasoning alone. They accept only those

explanations which can be verified by experiments. Research methodology is a systematic

way to solve a problem. It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out.

Essentially, the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing,

explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology. It is also defined

as the study of methods by which knowledge is gained. Its aim is to give the work plan of

research

The purpose of the study is to explore the Phenomenological study of Police

Operatives involved inOplanTokhang Operation with Confirmed Kills drug suspects.

Qualitative research was used to search the phenomenological study of Police Operatives

engaging in OplanTokhang Operation, the study used a combination of interviews and

observation method including individual interview and Police Operatives’ communication

were also engaged to provide crucial, reliable and consistent data of the study.
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Qualitative data analysis associates with naturalistic inquiry and it deals with the

issue of human complexity by exploring it directly. This shape and create their experiences

with the subject matter and the idea the truth is a composite of realities.

A. METHOD

The researchers used the Descriptive qualitative, it is a study designed to depict the

participants in an accurate way. The three main ways to collect this information are:

Observational, defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants.

Case study, defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals.

The researchers used this because according to Polit & Hungler 1999, this involves

the collection of data that will provide an account or description of individuals, groups or

situations. The Instruments that the researchers use to obtain data in descriptive studies

include questionnaires, interviews, and observation

The researchers used the descriptive qualitative using content analysis, because

content analysis is a widely used in qualitative research technique. Rather than being a

single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches:

conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning

from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major

differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to

trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly

from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant

research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves
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counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation

of the underlying context. (Shannon E., 2005)

The researcher also used Cross case analysis as part of consensual qualitative

research, Cross-case analysis is a research method that can mobilize knowledge from

individual case studies. The authors propose that mobilization of case knowledge occurs

when researchers accumulate case knowledge, compare and contrast cases, and in doing

so, produce new knowledge. Cross-case analysis is a research method that facilitates the

comparison of commonalities and difference in the events, activities, and processes that

are the units of analyses in case studies. (Khan & VanWynsberghe, 2008)

The participants of the study describe their experiences about Oplan Tokhang

Operation without direct telling their description on the way they want. The researchers

motivate the respondents to broad their real experiences in regards to their experiences in

OplanTokhan Operation, they are free to express their feelings in responding the given

questions. The researcher’s need to clarify all the responds answer given by the participants

in which the experience occurred. The researchers ask for follow up questions the will give

a deep understanding about Their Experiences In OplanTokhan Operation, without

signifying what was expected to look.

B. PARTICIPANTS

The Researchers roamed around Pasig area, in C. Raymundo Ave,

Caniogan, Pasig, 1606 Metro Manila a Pasig City Police Headquarters, to look for willing

and possible participants for the study. The researchers involved (3) Police Operatives that

is part of Oplan Tokhang Operation with confirmed kills drug suspects.


24

INSTRUMENT

The instrument used is a researcher-made questionnaire with 25 questions and

other follow up related questions, these are in English but translated to Filipino to avoid

conflicts, this serves as a guide in the flow of the interview. The questionnaire is composed

of three factors that is being studied; (1) The impressions of the Police Operative towards

Drug Suspects, (2) The experiences of the Police Operatives during OplanTokhang

Operation, (3) The psychological, social and moral impact of their duties as perceived by

the respondents. Each of this were validated and signed by the validators.

It was a hard time for the Researchers to find a possible validators that is needed

for this instrument before to proceed in conducting interviews. Validating questionnaires

is a challenging part to the Researchers seens they need to wait for almost three weeks to

four weeks before to get the validated questions. The validators are Ms. Bernadette A.

Banares a psychometrician in National Center for Mental Health, Ms. Dynehgre Carasola

a registered psychometrician and instructor in Rizal Technological University, and lastly

Mr. Danilo E. Marcus an instructor in Rizal Technological University. They are about to

check if the questions in the questionnaires are accepted, reject and accept but revised and

if theres any comment in regards to the questionnaires the validators are free to write it on

the given questionnaires.


25

DATA COLLECTION

Data collection was conducted the study in Pasig area C.Raymundo Ave.,

Caniogan Pasig, 1606 Metro Manila the place where we conducted the interview session

were carefully chosen according to their willingness and approval to be as part of the study.

The Researchers explain the nature of the questionnaires to the participants before to start

the interview just to avoid conflict and misinterpretation. It is a hard time to the Researchers

to find the participants because the Researchers must follow the instruction of every district

before the interview that will serve as the Researher’s data.

The Researcher assigned from different task as an interviewer, audio recorder, the

Researchers include Field notes; in the process of gathering data, the researcher notes the

responds of the (3) Police Operatives according to the questions given by the interviewer.

So that the Researchers will have an answerable data. An interview was recorded in an

audio recorder. We also used camera of cell phones to capture the interview session with

their permission. Data from the conversation on audio are transcribed.

The Researchers code the data by hand and trough software program. Typically the

Researchers ue this for the explicit and iterative process to modify the analysis as reflected

by the data and as ideas imerge. The Researchers make the coding clear and concise

because this will be the foundation for the themes the Researchers make the coding clear

and concise because thi will be the foundation for the themes the Researchers used. The

Researchers read and re-read the data, double checking the codes for the consistency and

validation.
26

Apart of this the Researchers used the cross case analysis as to organize the

knowledge of the participants in regards to their responses. This also use to compare and

contrast their answers, this helps the Researchers to see the comparison of commonalities

and diference of their perception in regards to the questions given by the Researchers. This

serves as the merhod to get the themes of the participants responds.

To collect the predisposed data the Researhers finalizes the name of each theme the

Researchers writes its description and illustrate it with a few quotations from the original

txt to make this simple to the readers. Key quotes have been highlighted, coded nd

organized into themes.

The Researchers used thematic analysis which is one of the most common forms

of analysis in qualitative research. It emphasizes pinpointing, examining, and recording

patterns (or "themes") within data. Themes are patterns across data sets that are important

to the description of a phenomenon and are associated to a specific research question. The

themes become the categories for analysis. Thematic analysis is performed through the

process of coding in six phases to create established, meaningful patterns. These phases

are: familiarization with data, generating initial codes, searching for themes among codes,

reviewing themes, defining and naming themes, and producing the final report. Thematic

analysis can be used to make sense of seemingly unrelated material. It can be used to

analyze qualitative information and to systematically gain knowledge and empathy about

a person, an interaction, a group, a situation, an organization or a culture. (Komori, 2005)


27

Figure 2. Systematic Process of Theme Analysis

RESEARCH FIELD EXPERIENCE

It’s been a challenging to the Researchers conducting study regards on the life

experiences of the Police operatives who’s involved in Oplan Tokhang Operation with

confirmed kills drug suspect. Start from making the concept up to looking for the possible

participants plus revising and mixed emotions on the upcoming defense but the

Researchers need to manage to make a new and useful studies which can be publish on

Rizal Technological university our very own institution to give justification and answer to

the question regarding the life of the Police Operatives.

The Researchers ncountered lots of problem since the first day. Starts from looking

for the participants for the study, because of the sensitivity of the topic, but the Researchers
28

did not lose hope a side from the weather condition sometimes its sunny day suddenly it

will rained, but the Researchers need to go on. There is a time that the researchers need to

bring all the things that they need for the interview and collecting data. The times come

that the researchers feel so tired and hungry but the researchers need to keep on looking for

the participants of their study. The researchers have been looking through different police

station but they need to go through a lot of process before they could conduct an interview.

There are times that the researchers lose hope and got misunderstanding but still the

Researchers manage to go on. Part of this field experience the Researchers experience lack

of money for the transportation and for the foods. But still the Researcher’s prayer had

been answered when the police headquarters along C. Raymundo Ave., Pasig City let the

Researchers conduct an interview. But because it`s a sensitive issue that the researchers

need to come up they have to follow through a lot of process, first of the requirement is to

pass or submit an inform consent and part of it is the Researchers prayer to let us do the

interview. And God is good and they allow us to have an interview with their Police

Operatives. The interview gone smooth. As the Researchers conduct the interview the

participants are become friendly and responsive to whatever the Researchers asked to them.

Maybe because its part of their job to give importance to the student like us who wanted to

know the life of the police Operatives. Thhere are times that most of the participant back

out whenever the Researchers asked about Oplan Tokhang Operation maybe because they

are a fraid or as much as possible they don`t to remember what`s happened. For the reason

that it’s very controversial issue for everyone. The researchers conducted an interview for

almost four days just to get a deep understanding in regards to their experiences in Oplan

Tokhang Operation
29

Since Oplan tokhang is a very well-known issue. The researchers have a hard time

to find for the respondents because of the sensitivity of the study. The participants must

belong in Operatives and have experience in Oplan tokhang operation with confirmed kill’s

drug suspect.

For the first day the researcher went from different police district in Pasig area to

find the willing and ready police operatives to be the participants of the study. The

researchers attached a permission letter for the formality in conducting interviews since

this is one of their requirements. Apparently the approval will be approved by the

respective police officers so that the researchers need to wait for their signal and come back

to their police district for another day.

On the Second Day the researchers went to Pasig City Police Headquarters in C.

Raymundo Ave, Caniogan, Pasig, 1606 Metro Manila. The researchers attached also a

letter for this approval and we are grateful that they allow the researchers to conduct an

interview since the necessitate participants is only (3) Police Operatives involved in Oplan

tokhang operation with confirmed kill’s drug suspects. That day is also the start of the

interview, the interviewee ask for their safety and privacy that the responds they will give

to us should be secured. The researchers discuss the nature of the questions so that they

will be able to prepare their answers. Every participant consumed for almost 30 minutes to

1 hour because of the follow up questions and the several explanations just to make their
30

answers comprehensible. Only (2) participants are free to be part of our study because the

last participant is on duty so we need to come back for the second day.

The third day in conducting interview the researchers focus to the last participants.

Since we already have (2) respondents. Observably most of them have different way

answering the given questions as well as the way how they give justice to all the

information’s they have given to the researchers. One of the respondents shows to the

researchers on how is the process of the oplan tokhang operation. Some of them share their

stories in regards to the killed drug suspect. So it is not hard for the researchers understand

their stands in regards the operation.

The fourth day which is the last day, the researchers need to ask again some of the

respondents who do not answer the questions clearly so that, this will be more conversant

and understandable. That is also the day where the researchers please their investigators to

see the police report just to proof that they killed drug suspect. Since the information’s

must be done with the legal process they just allow us to captured some evidence and

pictures of the killed drug suspects and other information’s of the police participants.

The views and opinions of the (3) Police Operatives or participants is about on how

they will give their best just to make things clear and answerable, just to secure their safety

and protection.
31

The Researhers need to have an evidence that the Reasearchers converse with one

who experience to shoot a drug supect during the Oplan Tokhang Opertion. The evidence

must show to the thesis adviser Prof. Christian Paul Pagal. At first the Researchers have

failed to have a copy of report coming from the policeman so the Reseachers need to have

a permission coming from their investigators because it’s very confidential. But the

Researchers keep on asking them over and over again. At the last moment with the help of

the Researchers prayer, they let the Researchers to get a copy of evidence and to see their

report that the Police Operatives oor the participants of the study that will going to interact

with is one who shoot the drug suspect on the operation. After getting all the data that the

Researchers need, the Researchers consulted their thesis adviser for more advice on the

proper way of writing the research. It’s not easy for the Researchers to go back and port to

Rizal Technological University boni campus because the thesis adviser is there. Sometimes

it’s too hot and the jeepney is full of passengers, the traffic especially during rush hour and

there were times that the Researchers didn’t go to the right time of consultation in Boni

campus because of the traffic. The Researchers understand and respect the thesis adviser

because of his hectic schedule.

The Researchers face a lot of struggles in making this study. The days goes by for

the upcoming defense. One of this is when one of the Researchers special someone had

passed away, were all sad but the Researchers must go on and adjust to the situation. There

were days that the Researchers need to go up very early in the morning and sometimes the

Researchers have no enough time to take a bath and eat for the right time. The Researchers
32

realized that it’s not easy that brain is still working but the body is too tired. For the last

few days the Researchers decided to work one of the Researchers house.

While others are working, the other wil rest so that the time wouldn’t be waste. It’s

a good experience to the Researchers from all the challenges they have been facing just to

finish the study, but the most important thing after all those struggles is the benefit that the

Researchers will get from this study.

There are times that the Researchersmet their adviser in some place where he is

available, like when the Researchers met him in SM taytay just to check the draft of the

study. The Researchers is waiting for an hour because the thesis adviser have been working

for something. The Researcher’s understand that their thesis adviser is a very busy person

and were the one who needed his advice. As the thesis adviser checking the Researchers

work the Researchers is being afraid thet their work has lot of error. The Researchers saw

the sympathy of the thesis adviser to the work inspite that his busy schedule still he have

time to check the progress of the Researchers works. But for some Reasonthere so much

wrong plus the meeting place were in are closing so the thesis adviser decided to take home

some of the parts of the Researchers study. Because of the instances the Researchers need

to go back to boni campus to get some of the parts of the study that is being check by the

thesis adviser, and to see the part of the Rsearchers work which is needed to improve.
33

The Researchers getting headache and sometime fever the Researchers need to stay

positive and to keep on going to make the thesis done. Because the Researchers believe

that they doing this study because of nothing but for their selves and for the benefit of

others who’s going to study the life and experiences of police Operatives on the upcoming

years.

The Researchers gone to the last few days for the deadlines so that the Researchers

needed to Finnish everything. The Researchers come to the point thet their thesis adviser

getting pissed off but he understand how the Researchers eager to finished the study. For

the reason that they need to replace a lot of their paper works. The Researchers decided

again to work in one place, to finish the study on time.

Up to the last minute the Researchers see to it that the work had been done correctly

as much as possible. The Researchers did all the part of the study which is needed to

improve. As the Researchers go to boni campus the thesis adviser help the Researchers to

finish the study on that day, so the Researchers gone home there is no so much time and

couldn’t make the study on time that is needed to pass that day.

The Researchers make sure that all the advice that have given to the Researchers

has been done before the Researchers pass the final output to the thesis professor. One

more day and the Researchers going to face another challenging part of the study which is

the defense. The Researchers feeling nervous, but to lessen it the Researchers start making

different questions which is related to the topic that will be going to ask by each other, this
34

wil guide as the review. There is a feeling of fear from the outcome of the study but still

the Researchers believe on their work.

This is it October four the exact date of the defense. The Researchers need to wake

up very early so they could prepare for the defense. The researchers reviewed again the

study together with the prayer that everything will be successful and worthy, the

Researchers pray also to lessen the fear. The time has come the Researchers looking

forward to the success of the study. In front of many students and three people that will

decided for outcome of the study, including the member of the panel professor. Emeraldo

sabit, and professor. Nepomuceno and the chairman of the board prof. Rodrigo Tomas. The

Researchers through it`s just a dream but it`s real. As the question started to ask all the

Researchers do is to answer their question and to justify the study including the confidence

and without a doubt, the Researchers need to justify and with knowledge about the topic

of the study. The Researchers set aside their fear and nervous that were in at the time. The

Researchers main goal and focus is to answer whatever the panel of the board asked to the

Researchers.

With the help of all the people who believe on the Researchers and pray for the

success of their study the Researchers did their very best. All we need is to hear the world

“congratulations” and by that this motivate the Researchers to do their greatest part. With

all the hardship that the Researchers have been through, are now all paid off as the

Researhers heard the word”Congratulations”.


35

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION OF DATA

This chapter of the study discovered and describe the experiences of the Police

operatives during the Oplan Tokhang Operation with confirmed drug suspect and how this

operation affect their psychological, social and moral aspects as perceived by the

participants.

R1: PO1 Jack Bauer (operatives/agent)

Control Verbatim Theme


Code.

R1 - Q1.1 Q. Paano mo hinanda ang iyong sarili sa pagsugpo ng “Strong


problema sa droga? Willed”
A. "nagiging matatag at tinitignan namin ang mabuting
epekto nito para sa mga tao."

R1 - Q1.2 Q. Ano ang naging hakbang upang ikaw ay mapasama sa


Oplan Tokhang Operation? “Assigned
A. "wala namang hakbang na gagawin namin para kami Task”
ay makasama sa operation, iyan ay inaasign samin at doon
kami nakakasama sa operation."

R1 - Q2.1 Q. Ano ang mga nagiging basehan nyo upang malaman na


ang isang indibidwal ay kabilang sa gumagamit ng
ipinagbabawal na gamot?

A. "Eh marami yan na basehan yan, kasi physical Evidence


let say makikita mo yung tao kung isang ekspiryensado o
36

kahit ikaw ah..ah.. sa physical appearance ng tao maa-


identify mo na pero pinakahuli yan ang unang una syempre
reported yan ng Barangay thru the report na mga
cooperation ng Barangay kasi nga sila nag nakakaalam dun
sa mga ano sila ang nakakaminggel sa taong nasasakupan
nilang Barangay mga tanod basta mga LGU's natin na mga
Barangay yung mga Watchlist nila meron kasi tayong mga
cathegories ng Watchlist , Watchlist, target list at saka mga
ano ahhmm, Watchlist Wanted mga wanted oh oh mga
watchlist na yan di na tayo pupunta sa ibang krimen focus “Coordination
tayo sa droga so ibig sabihin yung information is galing sa through brgy.
Barangay na mga watchlist nila so nakuha na namin yung Information
information ibe-verify naman ng intelligence branch ng and Physical
station ng PNP ngayon so bago tayo magconduct ng aahh, Basis”
operations na legal operations ahh just like Buy-Bust, survey
lance yung ibinigay nilang information sa pamamagitan ng
information na ibinigay ng Barangay iba-validate uli namin,
pano? nagkakaroon tayo ng UCI aahh confidential
information kami na na mismo ang magka-conduct ng
activity, papatunayan namin na yung tao nga let say is
nagtitinda ng droga kami na mismong magtatrabaho oo tapos
after which papasok na yung ah ah legal field procedure
which is yung buy-bust at doon na nahuli yung tao once na
ah na ah naaktuhan namin na bumili samin yun yung may ano
don diba kung ma ano kung maaano nyo mai-imagine nyo
oh."

R1 - Q2.2 Q. Ano ang pananaw mo sa isang gumagamit ng


ipinagbabawal na gamot? At paano nyo ito bineberipika?

A. "Pananaw ko sa gumagamit ng gamot!? ang pananaw


namin diyan eh ganito yan kasimple ah hindi naman kasi
pananaw kasi yung pananaw kahit yung tao nakita mo parang
nakadroga hindi mo pepedeng hulihin yun kasi ang
suspicious appearance is not a crime eh hindi mo pepedeng “Lack of
hulihin ngayon yung sinabe ko para madistiguish yung Nurture and
nagbebenta at gumagamit lang, ah pero yung gumagamit din Poverty”
nasa watchlist din ng Barangay oo ngayon ah di.. minsan kasi
let say mayroon tayong anti criminality campaign ng PNP
which is yung bawal magsugal, bawal manigarilyo pag nahuli
yan inaano namin ipa ahh ipapamedical which resulted
positive dun natin malalaman kasi yung sinabi ko kaninang
appearance na malalaman mo na gumagamit oo instinc mo
yun bilang isang tao pero yung magpapatunay niyan ay yung
laboratory so ibigsabihin yung tao at aahh sabihin natin
37

R1 - Q2.2.A gumagamit eh mapapatunayan mo lang kapag nalaboratory


mo na.”

Q. Sir Clarify lang po naming, sir ano po yung pinaka


pananaw nyo po sa mga gumagamit ng ipinagbabawal na
gamot?

A. uhhm, ah ok cge ang tanong pala is pananaw no? linawin


ko lng yan kase yung mga taong kulang sapansin, kulang sa
pangangalaga ng magulang yan eh… kadalasan sila yung
ano, ano ba un? May mahirap na pinagdadaanan sa buhay
kaya dun nila tinutuon yung atensyon nila mga ganun…

Q. Ano ang pananaw mo sa isang nagbebenta ng


R1 - Q2.3 ipinagbabawal na gamot?

A.Ang pananaw ko ay talagang, anu yan, kailangan itigil na


yan kasi unang-una hindi yung sarli nila ang sinisira nila
kundi buhay ng madami, kasi yung pagbebenta ay mas
mabigat kesa ang paggamit, let’s say paggamit sinong sinira “They destroy
mo kundi sarili mo, no other than. Ee yung nagbenta, ee kung other people
nakabenta ka ng let’s say sampu, o trentang plastic sachet at lives”
200 pesos each, let’s say ang trenta ay nabenta ko ang isang
sachet ay pwedeng magamit ng dalawa hati pa sila dun
idagdag mo pa yung 60 ilan na ang naperwisyo mong buhay.
Yung epekto ng droga sa utak ng tao. Ee paano naman yung
nabiktima nila and the worst yung sarili nilang anak or, from
that person na nagbenta alone himself ee sa isang araw ang
dami na nyang nasira, oh diba? Ang sinira nya ee yung buhay
ng binentahan nya or yung user na naging victim ng dealer.

R1 - Q2.4 Q. Sino ang dapat sisihin sa pagkakasangkot ng isang tao sa


illegal na droga? At bakit?

A. "May mga factor kasi yan na meron tayong sinasabing


personal factor na nasa tao yan choice nya eh let say yung
user lang ah mayroong nyang free will tayo which is yun ang “Personal
choice nya ginusto nya ahm mga environmental factor let say Factor”
nakabilang sila sa lugar na sabihin nating squater na walang
trabajo eh syempre ah ang mga kasama nagdodroga rin na
may curiosity lumalabas diyan family problem yun ang
pinaka nakikita kong problem kasi yung sabihin nating alam
mo yung parang two way responsibility yan eh ng mula sa
taas dealer saka user oh kung walang gumagamit may
38

mabebentahan ba yung dealer? Oh eh ngayon kung walang


dealer may magagamit ba yung user? Diba ah pero yung ine-
explain ko which is yung mga personal factor yung ahh aahh
tinatrabaho natin ngayon syempre yung mga manufacturer
mga ano ngayon diyan, tinatrabaho yan ng ating malaking
gobyerno para atleast, parang ano lang ah..Ah...Tawag dito
assignment of duty lang yan ang duty ng gobyerno na nasa
itaass kagaya ng PDEA isurprise yung mga manifacturer at
ang mga PNP naman ay mga ahh, from pushers to users."

R1 - Q2.5 Q. Sa tingin mo ba ay maaari pang magbago ang isang adik


o ang isang pusher? Kung hindi bkit? At kung oo paano?

A. "Lahat ng tao may kakayahang magbago kasi kaya


mayroon syang isipin yung ganong bagay eh ibig sanihin
may kakayahan din syang tanggalin ang ganong bagay eh
ngayon eh keso mayroon din naman tayong factor na it’s too
late na kailangan mo ng makulong , nagkasala ka na sa taong
bayan pero well ah yung mapapansin nyo yung programa ng
presidente na ah yung mga unang kwan niya diba pinapa- “YES/ Jail
surender ang tokhang, surender ka na, surender may papel na them and
huwag mo nang gagawin ang ganitong bisyo ang droga, rehabilitation”
tatalikdan mo na ngayon ah tinrabahoo yan ng ating PNP sa
tulong din ng ating Goventment Unit ngayon after 2 months
eh parang walang pinagbago marami pa rin yung ganon
ongoing pa rin yung droga eh anong.. Anong... anong
niloloko, anong niloloko diba anong niloloko nila hindi sila
nagbago sa ganun ed ikukulong na natin hulihin sa legal na
paraan ikukulong ah eh let say sa pagdating naman sa
kulungan meron namang tayong rehabilitation program
pero syempre ano na yun titignan nalang natin kapag
nakalabas kung magbago man o hindi ibig sabihin nasa tao
na ang pagbabago."

R1 - Q3.1 Q. Sa anong oras kadalang isinasagawa ang Oplan Tokhang


Operation? At sa anong klaseng lugar kayo madalas
magtungo?
“No Specific
A. "Actually wala tayong inaanong ano ah..Oras kasi ah Time and
anytime yan kung tutuusin mo ang mga kukuhanin mo lang Informal
naman yung talagang nasa crime clock madalas ang gabi oo settler”
ngayon sa lugar syempre ang mga squater area
kasi...Sabihin natin ah...Inpormal settler mas rampant
doon ang ganong illegal Activity comparing sa mga
sudivisions let say ballabedre na maraming ano jan kung
39

meron mang hindi ganon kaya ibig sabihin ang sumatotal


nyan ay mga squater doon ang kadalasan kasi ah isang factor
yan eh di sila nabigyan ng sapat na edukasyon diba? Diba?"

R1 -Q3.2 Q. Anong nararamdaman nyo habang isinasagawa ang


operasyon na “Oplan Tokhang Operation"?

A. "Alam mo sa totoo lang dalawa yan ah.. dalwang main,


una natutuwa bakit kamo dahil sa long term effect ang “Sense of
outcome naman at para sa siguridad ng taong bayan at Patriotism and
syempre nagagampanan mo yung tungkulin mo bilang pulis, Fear”
pangalawa bilang isang tao din hindi mawawala natin sa
isip natin yung fear kasi syempre yung operation di mo
alam kung sino yung kalaban mo at silay may baril din eh..
Di naman tayo si superman na di tinatablan ng bala diba?
Ahmm yun basta yun yung dalawa."

R1 - Q3.3 Q. Anu-ano ang naiisip mo habang isinasagawa ang Oplan


Tokhang Operation?

A." ah, pinaka pumapasok!? Ang pumapasok sa isip ko na


mahuhuli namin yung target namin let say sa reallity kapag “Positivism”
naoovercome yung fear mo nawawala yung fear mo diba?
Humarap ka lang sa harap ng madla stage, pagpapasok ka
palang sa stage kinakabahan ka pero kapag nandon ka na
nawala na."

R1 - Q3.4 Q. Paano kadalasang humahantong sa madugong pangyayari


ang isang Oplan Tokhang Operation?

A. "Maging madugo kasi mayroon tayong tinatawag na


resistance na, there is resistance na ang conflict na let say “Resistance”
crime eh kung walang resistance eh may force ba na
mangyayari diba, nagkakaroon lang naman ng force
kapagmay resistance." Oh sa medaling salita pag nanlaban
ang drug suspek.

R1 - Q3.5 Q. Ano ang iyong naging reaksyon ng iyong mabaril at


humantong sa pagkasawi ang nasabing drug suspek? “Nervous at
first and Fear”
A. "ahhmm.. Actually sa ganyang bagay eh medyo mas
malalim yan pero actually ah ano kakabahan ka rin in
reallity kakabahan ka rin kahit papaano that is constitute
40

pang killing na yan eh, kailangan yung self-defense yung


sarili mo bago ka unahan , unahan mo na! oo, pangalawa
ah.. Basta yun yung nakikita ko dun kailangan mong i
preserve yung sarili mo."

R1 - Q3.6 Q. Nang maging madugo ang nasabing operasyon ano ang


nararamdaman mo sa napatay na Drug suspek?

A. "Ano ang nararamdaman ko!? Ah... Taking a life diba? Is


a crime nagaano lang naman sa law of the land nagkakaroon
lang naman ng justify komsansens na mapawalang sala ang
isang tao pero sa malayong usapan na sa korte yun pero sa
tumatotal yung resulta ng kapag nakapatay ka, kakabahan ka “Fear because
kasi violation ng law of the land and divine law." of eminent
death treat”
R1 - Q3.6.B Q. Sir pero po yung pinaka naramdaman mo that time, lalo
po nung namatay yung drug suspect?

A. Patay tayo dyan… syempre natatakot ako kase sabihin na


natin na na protektahan ko yung sarili ko . kasi kahit nasabi
ko na naggawa ko yung misyon ko may mga tao, oh may
tianatawag tayong death treat. Hindi natin alam kung bukas
humihinga pa tayo. Kaya yun yung nararamdaman ko may
takot talaga.yun lang basta yun lang.

R1 - Q4.1 Q. Paano mo hinarap ang pangyayaring iyon matapos ang


madugong operasyon?

A. "Basta ang alam ko pag pumapasok sa isang operation


ah...Hindi ko iniisip na mayroon madugong mangyayari
kasi ang... Pagsinabi mong madugong pangyayari last
option na lang yan, last result na lang yan eh ibig sabihin eh, “Conditioning
wait may baril yung tao eh may baril ka rin papatayin ka na of Mind”
anong gagawin mo? diba? pero yung ganong pagkakataon
hindi namin ano parang .. ah.. Although anticipated na per
killing hindi yan ang iniisip natin kasi pag iniisip mo yung
parang papa..Papatay ka eh baka maging madugo to kaya
maghahanda ako ay hindi..Hindi ganon huhulihin namin
yun."

R1 - Q4.2 Q. May mga pagbabago ka bang napansin sa iyong sarili


matapos ang operasyon? anu-ano ang mga ito kung mayroon.
41

A. "Ah..alam mo kaibigan ang emosyon ng isang tao ay


normal lang yan iisipin ko lalo kung first time ko iisipin mo
talaga, magiisip ka parang ano lang yan pagnakakita ka ng “Mental Pre
maganda dumaan sa harap mo hindi mawawala sa utak mo occupation
yun lalo na sa lalaki mga isang linggo pa bago mawala regarding the
eventually mawawala rin." Naging mahirap kasi lagi kang event”
nag iisip, natutulala, mahirap makalimot pero naka pende
kung kakayanin.

R1 - Q4.3 Q. Sa tuwing naiisip at naaalala mo ang pagbaril mo sa drug


suspek ano ang nagiging epekto nito sa iyong sarili?

A. "Given ah...Well hindi na masyadong burden sakin yung


nangyari eh self-defense na eh kesa naman diba, eh kesa “Self Defense”
naman ako eh mas kailangan ko mabuhay kaysa sa kanya
oh eh maging reyalidad nalang kaya ibig sabihin yung
konsensya hindi ganun dahil unlike yung mga ano...Sabihin
nating wala namang ginagawa yung suspek at dahil sa galit
lang pinatay mo mahirap yun diba?."

R1 - Q4.4 Q. Kinakailangan mo pa bang dumaan sa Psychological


debriefing matapos ang operasyon? Kung oo, bakit? Maari
mo bang ilahad ang detalye?

A. "Well ha...Ano naman kasi yan eh... ah... sa PNP natin “Self-Coping”
hindi na, hindi na... Wala ng ganun kasi pagpasok mo
palang sa PNP eh alam mo na yung risk ng trabaho mo
unlike ng mga isang sibilyan na let say na hindi pa
nakakaencounter ng ganyan hindi pa nakakahawak ng baril
tas biglang makaganon. Yun nga lang."

R1 - Q4.5 Q. Ano ang naging epekto sa pakikisalamuha mo sa iyong


pamilya at mga kaibigan.?
“Personality
A. "Well ah..lalo na sa unang araw sa unang linggo kung dati disfiguration”
talkative ka nabawasan kasi pag may iniisip ka eh medyo
minsan gusto mo ring mapagisa ganun pero yung.. later on
mawawala na rin. "

R1 - Q4.6 Q. Nagkaroon ka ba ng takot na baka husgahan ka ng mga


taong nakapaligid sa iyo sa pagganap mo lng sa iyong
tungkulin?
42

A. "noon pa, matagal na tayong hinuhusgahan ng tao pero


kasi sakin lang bilang pananaw wala na kong pakialam
doon kung anoman ang sabihin ng ibang tao at kung
walang kaming gagawa sinong gagawa diba let say ako kung “Acceptance”
di ako gagawa sinong gagawa ?diba? eh ngayon basta ang
iniisip ko ay ang kapakanan ng mga tao, kapakanan ng
pamilya ko, kapakanan ng taong ano.. kasi yung mga
nagbibigay ng negatibo ang hindi nakakaintindi, mga hindi
nakakaintindi "

R1 - Q4.7 Q. Ano sa palagay mo ang tingin ng isang ordinaryong


Pilipino sa isang Pulis?
“Many
A. "Aba, eh syempre depende yan kasi, eh sa akin lang appreciates
marami pa rin ang nakaka-appreciate mas marami, yung them”
kagaya ng sinabi ko kanina, kung ganun ang pananaw mo
sakin diba? Eh sarili mong understanding yan eh wala
naman akong magagawa eh, eh trabaho lang, trabaho
lang."

R1 - Q4.8 Q. Maituturing mo ba na ikaw ay lumabag s autos ng Diyos


na wag kang papatay dahilan sa ginampanan mo lng ang
iyong tungkulin?

A. "Ganito kasi yan, ah...Ano labag sa Dios pero hindi naman


pepedeng lagi mong... Kagaya ng sinabi ko kanina mayroon
divine law at land law mayroon... para sakin may exemption “Moral
eh pano. yung pinatay ng kriminal eh kung hindi anohin yun Justification”
eh baka ilang sibilyan pa ang patayin ang isang terorista na
nagpapalaganap, kung hindi mo papatayin yung isa ng tao eh
marami pang mapapahamak, eh so be it, sa mundo sinong
pipiliin mong mabuhay diba kaya di mo pedeng i ano i-
correlate yung law of land saka divine law kasi kapag
kinoreleyt mo conflict tlaga yan kaya nasa balanse lang
tayo walang abuse."

R1 - Q4.9 Q. Pumasok ba sa iyong isipan na ikaw ay masamang tao


dahilan sa nakabaril ka ng isang dug suspek?
“Moral
A. "Well ah... kagaya ng sinasani ko kanina, normal lang yun, Justification”
normal lang yung magisip ka pero ano pa bang dadatnan kung
maiisip mo yun sarili mo diba let it go ganyan naman ang
43

nangyari kasi kapag iniisip mo magsa-suffer ka diba? Eh...


pero hindi naman tayo pumapatay ng walang kalaban
laban, hindi naman tayo pumapatay dahil sa result ng
anger natin dahil call of nature, di joke lang yun ah. Call
of duty."

R1 - Q4.10 Q. Masasabi mo ba na ikaw ay naging isang ulirang pulis


dahil nagawa mo ang iyong tungkulin sa kabila ng mabaril
mo ang drug suspek?
“Personal
A. "No, not realy kasi hindi naman parameter na kapag Fulfillment”
nakabaril ka Good pulis ka hindi yun ang basehan katulad
ng sabi ko kanina call of duty talaga. Tawag ng tungkulin
pero hindi yung ang basihan ng ikaw ay isang magiting na
pulis, part and partial lang."

R1 -Q,4.11 Q. Paano nito sinubok ang iyong pagkatao?

A. "kapag pulis marami kang matutuklasan sa sarili mo


marami kang matutunan, well nasubok ko yung sarili ko na
may mga bagay na nung hindi pa ko pulis ay nagawa ko “Challenging”
pala per once na operation is for killing." At yung sa tingin
ko pa naging challenging talaga sa part ko kasi syempre sa
pinagdaanan naming akala niyo ba biro? pero anu yan eh mas
nagkaoon ako ng paninindigan sa mga nagiging desisyon ko.

Q. Nung maging madugo ang operasyon Bakit kailangan


R1 -Q,4.11.A pang ituloy ang Oplan Tokhang Operation? Kung hindi
bakit?

A. "ah... Well hindi naman natin masasabing masyadong


madugo gawa ng yung number of resistance is hindi naman
sya mas marami kaysa sa nakukulong gaya ng sinabi ko eh
kung may namatay na isa at nakapagpakulong ka ng sampu
(10) eh kasi situational na lang yung madugo, batas sa pulis
minit lang namin yung tungkulin namin. Dapat pa ituloy ang “Solution”
Drug Campaign para sa akin bilang operatiba wala ng mas
epektibo pa kundi ituloy ang drug campaign dahil ang drug
related sa bansa ay napakataas let say 70% nationwide,
sakin lang ha. walang kong basis sa itaas, malala na ang
droga sa bansa any one of you walang makapag sabi sa inyo
na yung kapitbahay nyo gumagamit ngayon, thru tokhang
nailessen naibaba natin atleast 35 % but still meron pa rin eh
anong gagawin kung meron pa edi ituloy mo, parang damo
44

lang yan kinat mo eh may natitira pa, eh kung iistop ka tutubo


uli yan dadami uli yan."

Q.4.11.B Q. Ano po yung galugad o bulabog?

A. "Ang bulabog o galugad ay isang branch ng isang anti “Criminal


criminal campaign in which a... Thru PNP with the operation
Campaign”
of Government unit LGU mga Barangay natin ay maglalakad
gagalugarin yung isang lugar bawal ang sugal, illegal
gambling, bawal ang smoking places, and ang galugad ay
personal mong gagalugarin yung isang lugar at bubulabugin
ang tao."

R2: PO2 Telles (operatives/agent)

CONTROL VERBATIM THEME


CODE

R2- Q1.1 Q. Paano mo hinanda ang iyong sarili sa pagsugpo ng


problema sa droga? “Emotional and
Physical
A. “Unang una syempre hinanda ko yung sarili ko hindi preparedness”
lang emotional pati narin yung physical.”

R2- Q1.2 Q. Ano angnaginghakbang upang ikaw ay mapasama sa


Oplan Tokhang Operation?
“Assigned Task”
A. “Ahhh...Wala naman kasing hakbang talaga,
inassigned lang kami dito talaga.”
45

R2- Q2.1 Q. Ano ang mga nagiging basehan nyo upang malaman na
ang isang indibidwal ay kabilang sa mga gumagamit ng “Physical Basis
ipinagbabawal na gamut? and Baranggay
information”
A. “Maliban sa physical na itsura, isa narin don yung mga
sinasabi ng mga Baranggay Officials nila na itong tao na
ito ay involve sa drugs.”

R2- Q2.2 Q. Ano ang pananaw mo sa isang gumagamit ng


ipinagbabawal na gamut? At paano nyo ito bineberipika?

A. “ang pananaw ko dyan. Unang una talaga dyan, hindi “Lack of


nila alam kung anong mangyayari sa kanila, Knowledge”
kakulangan ng kaalamanan tungkol sap pag gamit ng
droga.”

R2-Q2.3 Q. Ano ang pananaw mo mo sa isang nagbebenta ng


ipinagbabawal na gamut?
“Poverty”
A. “Siguro ang no.1 dyan ang yung kahirapan talaga
ee...Kasi yung iba talaga karamihan ng nagbebenta walang
trabaho, maraming anak.”

Q. Sino ang dapat na sisihin sa pagkakasangkot ng isang


R2-Q2.4 tao sa illegal na droga? At bakit?
“Personal Factor”
A. “Sarili lang nila, wala naman tayong dapat ituro
maliban sa kanilang sarili.”

R2-Q2.5 Q. Sa tingin mo ba ay maari pang magbago ang isang adik


o ang isang pusher? Kung bakit? At kung oo, paano?
“YES/
A. “oo naman lahat naman tayo binibigyan ng Rehabilitation,
pangalawang pagkakataon ee. Siguro sa pamamagitan counseling and
narin ng mga programa ng gobyerno gaya ng Gov’t program”
rehabilitation, counselling.”

R2-Q3.1 Q. Sa anong oras kadalasang isinasagawa ang Oplan


tokhang operation? At sa anong klaseng lugar kayo
madalas magtungo?
46

“Morning and
A. “Ang Oplan tokhang kasi sa umaga kasi yan Informal Setting
ginagawa. Ginagawa yan kadalasan depress area dun Factor”
talamak ang gumagamit ng droga.”

R2-Q3.2 Q. Anong nararamdaman nyo habang isinasagawa ang


operasyon o Oplan Tokhang Operation?
“Fear”
A. “Kinakabahan yan naman madalas nararamdamanan
naming during the operation.”

R2-Q3.3 Q. Ano-ano ang naiisip mo habang isinasagawa ang Oplan


tokhang Operation?
“Looking forward
A. “Pag nag sasagawa kami ng Tokhang Operation, iniisip to Successful
namin na maging maayos ang lahat. Magawa naming Operation”
yung dapat naming gawin. Gagawin ko lahat ng paraan
kung ano man mangyayare.”

R2-Q3.4 Q. Paano kadalasang humahantong sa madugong


pangyayari ang isang Opaln tokhang Operation?
“Resistance”
A. “Nangyayare naman kasi yan pag may resistance sa
kabilang panig katulad ng drug addict, yung talagang
implement sila ng drugs kaya nakukuha nilang manlaban.”

R2-Q3.5 Q.Ano po ang inyong nagging reaksyon ng iyong mabaril


at humantong sa pag kasawi ang nasabing drug suspek?

A. “Syempre tao lang tayo, naaawa din tayo lalo na sa “Pity to the
pamilya na naiwan.” Ayoko sanang mangyari kaso suspect and
kailangan na ii. Mas inisip ko na din yung sarili ko at alam family”
ko naman na tama yung magiging desisyon ko.

R2-Q3.6 Q. Nang maging madugo ang nasabing operasyon ano ang


naramdaman mo sa napatay na drug suspek?

A. “samin kasi normal nalang na reaksyon.” Una pa lng “Getting used to”
alam ko na ung haharapin ko. Hindi na iba yung may
napapatay.
47

R2-Q4.1 Q. Pano mo hinarap ang pangyayaring iyon matapos ang “Readiness and
madugong operasyon? affirmation”

A. “kasi kami, bilang isang pulis prepared na kami sa


mga ganyang sitwasyon bago pa kami pumasok diyan,
ineexpect na namin yan.” Kailangan lang mayroon kang
paninindigan sa kung ano man yung dapat mo na
harapin.

R2-Q4.2 Q. May mga pababago ka bang napansin sa iyong sarili


matapos ang operasyon? Ano ano ang mga ito kung
mayroon?
“None/
A. “wala naman, naiisip lang namin na ang buhay Mindfulness
talaga parang isang ano lang, yung tipo na bang sarap about own life”
na ng higa mo bukas mamatay ka na pala. Parang ganun
lang.” hndi natin alam kung kalian tayo mamamatay kung
oras mo na, yun na un.

R2-Q4.3 Q. Sa tuwing naiisip at naaalala mo ang pagbaril mo sa


drug suspekano nagiging epekto nito sa iyong sarili?
“Ambivalence
A. “Siguro sakin kailangan talaga dapat magkaroon ng between
malawakang kaalaman tungkol sa paggamit ng droga.” conscience and
Pero ang syempre nagtatalo pa rin ang kunsensya at duty”
patakaran na dapat kong sundin bilang pulis, trabaho
lng walang personalan.

R2-Q4.4 Q. Kinakailangan mo pa bang dumaan sa Psychological


debriefing matapos ang operasyon? Kung oo, bakit?
Maaari mo bang ilahad ang mga ditalye? Yes/ Psychological
debriefing”
A. “importante na dumaan tayo sa psychological
debriefing para maiwasan naten yung after shock para di
magkaroon ng mga psychological trauma.”
48

R2-Q4.5 Q. Ano ang naging epekto nito sa pakikisalamuha mo sa


iyong pamilya at mga kaibigan?

A. “wala naman, kasi hiwalay ang trabaho sa personal “None”


kong buhay.” Kung ano man yung maaring mangyare sa
trabaho ko sa trabaho lng yun, hindi para dalhin pa sa
bahay.

R2-Q4.5.A Q.Di po ba sila nagalit?


“Privacy”
A. “Actually kasi pag may ganyang insidente hindi
naman na dapat namin ipaalampa sa kanila.”

R2-Q4.6 Q. Nagkaroon kaba ng takot na baka husgahan ka ng mga


taong nakapaligid saiyo sa pag ganap mo sa iyong
tungkulin?
“Judgment”
A. “May mga tao naman siguro na di maiiwasan na mag
isip ng di maganda samin dahil sa trabaho namin.” Kasi
pulis kame may mga judgement talaga dyan. Lalo na
ngayon at mainit kami sa mata ng tao.

R2-Q4.7 Q. Ano sa palagay mo ng tingin ng isang ordinaryong


Pilipino sa isang “Pulis”
“Good/ Many
A. “tingin ko iba iba ee… may sang-ayon meron ding di understand them”
sang ayon pero mas maraming sang-ayon.” Yung iba ang
tingin sa amin masama, pero ung iba naiintindihan kami
dahil sinusunod lng naming ang aming tungkulin.

R2-Q4.8 Q. Maituturing mo ba na ikaw ay lumabag s autos ng


Diyos na wag kang papatay dahilan sa ginampanan mo lng
ang iyong tungkulin?
“Moral
A. “Hindi sya labag ee...Gaya ng sabi ni senator Manny justification”
Paquiao na may verse syang sinabi hindi naman talaga
pinag babawal ng Diyos ang pag patay kung tama.

“Responsibility”
49

R2-Q4.9 Q.Pumasok ba sa iyong isipan na ikaw ay masamang tao


dahilan sa nakabiral ka ng isang drug suspek?

A. “Ayyy, hinde… hindi pumasok sa isip ko.” Kasi alam


ko sa sarili ko na responsibilidad naming ang sundin
ang tungkulin naming bilang isang kapulisan.

R2-Q4.10 Q. Masasabi mo ba na ikaw ay naging isang ulirang pulis?


Dahil nagawa mo ang iyong tungkulin sa kabila ng ma
baril mo ang drug suspek?

A. “hindi naman sa ulirang pulis noh… pero sabi nga ang “Public Service”
trabaho ng isang pulis ay protektahan at bigyan ng
serbisyo ang mga tao.” Sinunod ko lng ang tungkulin ko
pero hindi ibig sabihin nun ay gusto kong maging mabuti
sa mata ng ibang tao.

Q. Paano nito sinubok ang iyong pag katao?

R2-Q4.11 A. “sinubok ang tatag at na develop ang katatagan sa “Development”


mga operasyon.” Dahil una pa lng kailangan mong
maging matapang sa pagharap sa mga bagay bagay bilang
pulis.

Q.Kung marami na po ang napatay at madugo na ang


R2-Q4.11.A operasyon sa pananaw mo kailangan pa po bang
ipagpatuloy ang operasyon?
“Requisite”
A. “Ang operasyon dapat ipagpatuloy yon kasi ang
operasyon talagang kailangan ee… para masugpo natin
ang mga drug dependents.”

R3: PO1 John, 30 D+B (operatives/agent)

Control Verbatim Theme


Code.

R3 - Q1.1 Q. Ser, yung unang tanong ko po, Paano mo hinanda ang


iyong sarili sa pagsugpo ng problema sa droga?

A. "ha? Pano inihahanda? ano, may conditioning siguro, “Conditioning of


isipin mo na para hindi ka kabahan isipin mo kunware mind”
50

sa drugs kukunin mo yung pusher isipin mo na kukunin


mo, maraming buhay ang maililigtas, isipin mo na
maraming kabataan ang maililigtas mo at mas tumaas ang
kumpyansa mo sa sarili.

R3 - Q1.2 Q. So yung second question ko po. Ano ang naging


hakbang upang ikaw ay mapasama sa Oplan Tokhang
Operation? “Assignment”

A. "napili, napili kami, inorderan kami.” Wala naman


kasing proseso it’s an order.

R3 - Q2.1 Q. Ano ang mga nagiging basehan nyo upang malaman na


ang isang indibidwal ay kabilang sa gumagamit ng
ipinagbabawal na gamot?
“Investigation”
A. "may ano yan, may ano dito ang pinakamarami dito ay
yung confidential reports pinaka marami sa asset tas pinag
aaralan pa namin yan, ‘tas iimbestigahan pa natin yan,
‘tas pag nakabili kami yun na yon. Ibig sabihin positive."

R3 - Q2.2 Q. Ano ang pananaw mo sa isang gumagamit ng


ipinagbabawal na gamot? At paano nyo ito bineberipika?

A. "yung mga user?

R3-Q2.2.A Q. Opo yung mga nagiging basehan nyo at ang mga


pananaw sakanila?

A. uhm...sa unang tingin mo pa lang diba? Makikita mo


dilat yung mata ganon.
“problematic and
R3- Q2.2.B Q. Bali sa may physical appearance po kayo bumabase? unmindful person

A. Oo sa physical appearance, bali kase ganto ‘yon,
walang maidura ‘yon talaga, yung alam mo na, hmm yung
may mga puti, tas ipapadrug test. Well ok ah kung sa
pananaw para sa akin anu yun ahhm… eto yan yung mga
taong gusting makalimot sa problema nila oh pag na
R3- Q2.2.C iistress sila diba sa tingin ko dyan dyan sa paraan nila akala
51

nila makakalimot sila. Tsaka ano pa yan mga hindi nag


iisip kung ano ba yung pinapasok nila.

Q. other than that wala na po kayong nagiging basehan?

A." ahh wala naman na.

R3 - Q2.3 Q. Ano ang pananaw mo sa isang nagbebenta ng


ipinagbabawal na gamot?
“Menace”
A. Pananaw Ko? Salot na yan! Oo salot na yan!
Bebentahan mo mga kabataan? Mga ama, ng mga ano
diba? Mas salot pa yan sa demonyo.

R3 - Q2.4 Q. Sir, Sino ang dapat sisihin sa pagkakasangkot ng isang


tao sa illegal na droga? At bakit? “Personal Choice”

A. "Sarili nila. Sarili nila hindi kahirapan kundi sarili


nila.

R3 - Q2.5 Q. Sa tingin mo ba ay maaari pang magbago ang isang adik


o ang isang pusher? Kung hindi bakit? At kung oo paano?
“YES but
A. " Magbabago pero mahihirapan ang dami na, paulit- challenging”
ulit yan eh. Pag nakalabas ulit nanaman. Ang dami nun,
yung mga narerehab lang yung mga talagang
nagbabago.

R3- Q3.1 Q. Ok sir, dito naman po tayo. Sa anong oras kadalasang


isinasagawa ang Oplan Tokhang Operation? At sa anong “No exact time
klaseng lugar kayo madalas magtungo? and Squatter
Area”
A. " Wala, walang eksaktong oras yon. Madalas kaming
magtungo sa mga squatter area

R2- Q3.1.A Q. Ah basta may information galing sa asset tska lang kayo
magkakaroon ng operation?

“Due Process”
52

A. "Oo kasi kailangan legal ang lahat. Kailangan muna


na dumaan sa proseso bago ang nasabing opersyon.

R3-Q3.2 Q. Anong nararamdaman nyo habang isinasagawa ang “Excitement and


operasyon o “Oplan Tokhang Operation"? Nervousness”
A. "Ahm, syempre excitement, excited na may halong
kaba iniisip ko na makakatulong ka, ayun po talaga ha?
Para saakin.

Q. Ayon po talaga ha? Excitement ang nangingibabaw?

R3 -Q3.2.B A." Excitement talaga, medyo may kaba ng kaunte pero


excited

R3 - Q3.3 Q. Anu-ano ang naiisip mo habang isinasagawa ang Oplan


Tokhang Operation?

A." Kase ganito yan eh pag sipa mo ng bahay at sa eskinita “Fear and
hindi mo na alam kung ano nasa likod mo eh, uncertainty/ Risk”
nakakatakot. Iisipin mong buhay kang lalabas. Buhay
kang pumasok, buhay kang lalabas mayroon pa eh. ‘Pag
ang buhay ng Pulis pag napatay ka wala lang pag ikaw ang
nabuhay at nakabaril ka, kaso naman ang kasunod mo.,
malamang sa malamang magsasampa ng kaso yan, tsaka
human rights, tska madalas sila naman eh. may kasabihan
yan "if you don't shoot you will die, if you shoot bahala
ka diyan"

R3 - Q3.3.C Q. “Yung safety niyo po ba ang inaalala niyo?

A. Oo syempre, yung safety talaga kase meron tayong


pamilya hindi nila alam ang buhay ng pulis, karaniwan ay “Safety”
kinamumuhian nila kami pero hindi nila alam yung totoo,
pagpinutukan ka ng baril syempre iisipin mo rin ang sarili
mo nasa process din yun eh
53

R3 - Q3.4 Q. Paano kadalasang humahantong sa madugong


pangyayari ang isang Oplan Tokhang Operation?

A. “Kapag lumaban sila, kapag nagkaroon ng eminent “Resistance”


danger sa buhay ng pulis. Ayun talaga pag lumaban
talaga doon nagkakaroon ng madugong operation. Oo
‘wag kang maniwala pag lumaban talaga don na.

R3 - Q3.5 Q. Ano ang iyong naging reaksyon ng iyong mabaril at


humantong sa pagkasawi ang nasabing drug suspek? “Emotional
Response”
A. Nagulat syempre.

R2 - Q3.5.D Q. Wala ka na po bang ibang naisip?

A. "Masaya. Kasi masaya ka kasi nakatulong ka at the


same time nalungkot ako sa pamilya ng namatay na drug
suspect.

R3 - Q3.6 Q. Nang maging madugo ang nasabing operasyon ano ang


nararamdaman mo sa napatay na Drug suspek?
“Distress”
A. Syempre malungkot pagkatapos ko malaman na
nasawi ang suspect dahil sa operation, wala namang may
gustong maging madugo. Ang operation na ito.

R3 - Q4.1 Q. Paano mo hinarap ang pangyayaring iyon matapos ang


madugong operasyon?
“Faith/
A. "Ang manalangin. Trough prayers na lng talaga wala. Religiosity”
Kailangan mong harapin ng may pananampalataya dahil
nangyari na ii take the risk.

R3 - Q4.2 Q. May mga pagbabago ka bang napansin sa iyong sarili


matapos ang operasyon? Anu-ano ang mga ito kung
mayroon.
“NONE”
A. “Wala naman. Kasi una pa lang handa na ako alam ko
yung pinasok ko kaya walang naging pagbabago sa akin
normal lang ang lahat.
54

R2 - Q4.3 Q. Sa tuwing naiisip at naaalala mo ang pagbaril mo sa


drug suspek ano ang naging epekto nito sa iyong sarili?
“Positivism”
A. "Wala naging natural lang sa akin ang nangyari.
Syempre positibo lng dapat hndi mo iisipin na nakapatay
ka ang isipin mo ee yung dami ng taong natulungan mo.

R3- Q4.3.A Q. Wala ba kayong napansin sa sarili niyo? Like yung “NONE"
stress, depression, or anxiety attack? Mga ganong factor?

A. " Wala eh, iba-iba kasi tayo ng kondisyon ng pag-iisip.

Q. Kinakailangan mo pa bang dumaan sa Psychological


R3 - Q4.4 debriefing matapos ang operasyon? Kung oo, bakit? Maari
mo bang ilahad ang detalye?

A. “Wala naman, hindi naman. Hndi na ako dumaan sa


ganyang proseso kasi una pa lang alam ko na yung
pinapasok ko. “Personal
Coping”
R2 - Q4.4.B Q." Ah wala na po? hindi niyo na po ba talaga
kinakailangan mag under go debriefing?

A. "Wala nang ganon.

R3 - Q4.5 Q. Ano ang naging epekto sa pakikisalamuha mo sa iyong


pamilya at mga kaibigan.
“None”
A."Wala, wala namang pagbabago tuloy parin kung ano
ang nakasanayan. Kung paano ko sila pakitunguan wala
namang nagbago yun at yun pa din ang napansin ko at ng
ibang tao.

Q. Nagkaroon ka ba ng takot na baka husgahan ka ng mga


R3 - Q4.6 taong nakapaligid sa iyo sa pagganap mo lang sa iyong
tungkulin?

A. "Oo yung mga komento, sa tingin nila masama ka eh.


Wala ka namang magagawa kung hindi tanggapin yung
sasabihin nila sayo.
55

R3 - Q4.6.A Q. Paano niyo po hinarap ang sarili nyo sa mga negatibong “Acceptance/
pananaw ng ibang tao hinggil sa inyo? nonchallant”

A. "Wala hindi nila ako kilala, wala akong dapat i-explain


sa kanila.
R3 - Q4.6.B
Q. Trabaho lang po ba?

A. "Oo call of duty lang, trabaho lang.

R3 - Q4.7 Q. Ano sa palagay mo ang tingin ng isang ordinaryong “Good


Pilipino sa isang Pulis? Reputation”

A. "Ahm maayos naman,

R2 - Q4.7.A Q. Wala naman po ba kayong nalaman na naging pangit


ang tingin nila matapos nung kayo ay makapatay?

A. "Wala naman, mas marami ang natuwa.

R3 - Q4.8 Q. Maituturing mo ba na ikaw ay lumabag s autos ng Diyos


na wag kang papatay dahilan sa ginampanan mo lng ang
iyong tungkulin?

A. " Labag sa diyos ang pagpatay, pero kung “Moral agency”


dedepensahan mo ang iyong sarili hindi naman na
siguro na masama yon, kailangan mong protektahan yung
nakakarami pero yung word ng pagpatay kasalanan yon,
pero yung word na pagdepensa hindi yon, kung isasaalang-
alang mo yung nakakarami walang masama din, alam ng
diyos yon

R3 - Q4.9 Q. Pumasok ba sa iyong isipan na ikaw ay masamang tao


dahilan sa nakabaril ka ng isang drug suspek?
“NO/ Palliative
A. "Hindi, hindi ako siguro ganon kase iniisip ko comparisons”
isesave ko daang libong tao eh, unlike sa iisang buhay na
kayang sumira sa buhay ng nakakarami.

R3 - Q4.10
56

Q. Masasabi mo ba na ikaw ay naging isang ulirang pulis


dahil nagawa mo ang iyong tungkulin sa kabila ng mabaril “YES/ Pride”
mo ang drug suspek?

A. "Oo naman! Hindi naman sa pagmamalaki. Kasi una


nagawa mo yung dapat mong gawin at malinis or legal na
paraan ko nabaril.

R2 - Q,4.11 Q. Paano nito sinubok ang iyong pagkatao?

A. "Mas tumatag ako. Mas natuto akong panindigan lahat “Character


ng haharapin ko uuhhm... Syempre bilang isang kapulisan Improvement”
kailangan kong subukin ang sarili ko. Hindi ko kailangan
maging mahina, kailangan ko mas maging matatag pa kasi
hindi pa ito yung una at huli alam kong madami pa akong
pagdadaanan na talagang susubukin yung sarili ko, yun
lang naman.
57

CHAPTER V
ANALYSIS, REFLECTION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter is the culmination of the process used to analyze open-ended interview

and observation used for (3) Police Operatives involved in OplanTokhang Operation with

confirmed killed drug suspect. It deals with the analysis, reflection, recomendation and the

conclusion from the findings.

ANALYSIS

1. Oplan tokhang operation has no specific time to operate but one of the

participants says that the operations begin in the morning and but in general the

participants says that this is mostly happened in squatter’s area. There is a feeling

of fear but it is to help the homeland there is a sense of patriotism, there is also a

feeling of excitement and nervousness during the operation. The only thing that

comes to their mind during the operation is the positive thinking, looking forward
58

to the success of the operation and there is also a fear but need to take a risk. The

operation becomes bloody if there is a resistance between the drug suspects or the

so called “Pag nanlaban”. They have different reaction with the kill’s drug suspect

one is the nervous and fear, second is the pity to the family of the drug suspect and

lastly the feeling of achievement because they fulfilled their duty, on the other hand

is sad to the family of the suspect on that means there is an emotional response.

According also to the gathered data their feelings toward the killed drug suspect is

fear because of an eminent death treat, it is normal as police operatives to face that

kind of phenomenon and lastly it the feeling of agony because no one wants to

happen the operation violent.

2. Police Operatives did not undergo debriefing after the operation. They are into

self coping to avoid worry everytime they remembered the tragic of their past

operation. After the operation the participants used to condition of mind, prepared

to take the risk of responsibility and lastly the faith to God. Maybe in social aspect

there is a change to their personality but they know their limitations between family,

friends and duty. In moral aspects they do believe that to kill with a legal process

is not a sin to Gods law because they just do their duty and responsibility and part

of this is to defend their self.

REFLECTION

One of the major problem of the Philippines is drugs, that’s why President Rodrigo

Duterte made a campaign on war on drugs and part of this isour PNP Police Operatives.
59

Which is the instrument for the operation Oplan Tokhang. Most of the people have their

own opinion about this issue regarding on how the Policeman did their job.

While doing the study about the experiences of Police Operatives in operating Oplan

Tokhang, the Researchers and some of the people have their different understanding about

the life of Police operatives on how they react to the operation. Part of the study is the

effect of this operation to their daily life, the impact of this operation to the Police

operatives when it come to their psychological, social and moral aspects. Where there only

concern is to do their duty and responsibilities as what others insight to them, it’s not their

intension to do the operation in indecorous way, as much as possible they wanted to caught

the drug suspect alive, for they believe that every person have the rights to live and give

chance to change. The Researchers observe that they don’t do it for the sake of money or

promotion or their own benefit, but they only did it for the sake of others, for those victims

of drugs and to solve the number of drugs dependent in the Philippines. One obstacles of

the country is problem in drugs. Because of these overkilling issue regarding their

operation that gives different reactions to every individual, somewhere negative and

somewhere positive, the Researchers realize that some people understand that they did it

for the sake of their job. There are people who pulled them down by saying bad words and

criticized their job.

As the Researchers, better knowing and much understanding is needed for everyone

for them to be able to know the challenges that they facing for them to fulfill their job. The

Researchers realize that most of the Police Operatives are facing an effect of the operation
60

to their life living this includes on how they interact with other people, and the impact of

this operation to their psychological, social and moral aspects. The Researchers believed

that they only saw them as a stong and smart person but deep inside they are also afraid

and worrying about their family, because they know their job could really affect their life.

But because they are believe that tehri responsibility is to protect and to save the people

who is addicted to drugs, they set aside their fear and nervousness during the operation and

just to be positive and to look forward to the success of the operation.

The Researchers believe that the police Operatives has no ulterior motives or bad

intension, but to lessen the problem in drugs, since they see the good outcome of the

operation to the country. The Researchers encounter that their job is not easy they don’t

even know whether they still alive after each operation, but now they know that the

operationhas a positive outcome just to lessen the problem in drugs. It’s better now because

they know that still many people understand what the Police opertives doing and not just

only seeing theirmistake. The Researchers realize that every individual must believe for

whatever we do and next to that is to accept the consequences of our own actions.

The Policeman is like us, an ordinary person they also have feelings and can feel fear,

but they show us a true meaning of courageousness and how to stand for our belief. It is

right for us to say thank you to all the Police Operatives with the help of our almighty God,

for using them as an instrument to keep us safe and their experiences will set as an example

on how to do our responsibilities without hesitance.


61

They only wanted what good for others. Killing is not what they do, but to save many

lives. They need the help of everyone, motivate them just to continues serving to our

homeland because they just want to do for what the good of others on that part this only

shows how the Police Operatives respect their duties and the sense of their responsibility.

CONCLUSION

1. Police operatives looks forward to the good effect of the operation to the People.

Preparation in attenuation in drug problems includes physical, emotional and

conditioning of mind. They have no choice but to follow the assigned task to

them. Operation starts anytime of the day and typically happens in informal

settlement areas. During the operation Police operatives looking forward to

Successful Operation, this also includes the positive gut feeling that they will

get the drug suspect, but they also face fear as part of their duty. Majority of the

participants killed drug suspect when there is a resistance, the reason why the

operation became bloody. Participants have different reactions when the drug

suspects were killed, such as fear because of eminent death treat, distress, pity

to the family of the killed drug suspect.


62

2. The psychological impact of the operation to the police operatives, there is

ambivalence between conscience and duty, mental pre occupation regarding

the event and mindfulness about own life. The social impact of the operation

to the Police operatives, there is a personality disfiguration and judgement but

they still believe that still many appreciates them. And lastly when it comes to

moral impact, Most of them do not see there action as wrong or immoral as

long as it fall under the parameter of legal operation procedures. In line with

this the use moral justification in judging their actions.

RECOMMENDATION

This study is an attempt to capture the capture the Experiences of the Police

Operatives in oplan Tokhang Operation with confirmed kills’ drug suspect, their

impressions towards drug suspect and what are the psychological impact, social impact and

moral impact of the operation to the Police Operatives as part of their duty. However, the

study is restricted only to the factors that the researchers formerly identified. There are

definite questions nurture but left countered because of the limits of days, time as well as

latitude of the study.

The Police operatives should have psychological debriefing after their operation to

avoid psychological problem such as pre-occupied memory from their past operation,

anxiety, stress or even depression.


63

The Police Operative should at least have continues training and updates

reviewing or updating previous studies or training connected with one’s profession. That

when every time that they have operation they are more knowledgeable in regards with

their practice and to know the right procedure how to handle the operation.

The Researchers recommended to have the proper selection of people involve in

the operation so that they will be able to prepare their selves before doing their duty.

The researchers suggested that there should be systematic gathering of data that

focuses on the proficiencies of the Police operatives including the sense of their duty. This

is also the save interval in documenting and construing data.

The researches recommend that young psychology students conduct future research

in regards to the Police Operatives including their experiences to make this study more

knowledgeable and legally responsible.

Since the researcher focus only to the three police operatives, the researcher

recommended to the future researchers to include more police operatives as the participants

of their study to have a deep indulgent in regards to the life experiences of the polic

operatives.

Lastly, we commended for a more wide-ranging study on life experiences and

critical dissertation.
64

BIBLIOGRAPHY

•ABS-CBN Investigative and Research Group, 2016. Retrieved on the month of


October 30, 2017, http://news.abs-cbn.com/specials/map-charts-the-death-toll-of-the-war-
on-drugs

•ALBERT BANDURA Stanford University, USA. 2002. Retrieved on the month


of November 1 year 2017.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.458.572&rep1
&type=pdf

•Barger N. 2000 Retrieved on the month of November 2 year 2017.


http://www5.csudh.edu/dearhabermas/kohlberg01bk.htm

•Bueza M. 2016. Retrieved on the month of October 30, 2017.


https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/145814-numbers-statistics-philippines-war-drugs

•Cornelio, 2016. Retrieved on the month of October 30 year 2017.


https://international.la-croix.com/news/extrajudicial-killings-and-the-philippines-
morality-battle/3551
65

•Gavilan J, 2017. Retrieved on the month of October 30, year 2017,


https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/169726-extrajudicial-killings-philippines-drug-
war-patterns

•Goodrich T. 1969. Retrieved on the month of October 29 year 2017.


https://www.jstor.org/stable/3750135?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

• Khan & VanWynsberghe, 2008 Retrieved on the month of October 20 year

2017.http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/334/729

•LianBuan, 2017. Retrieved on the month of October 30 year 2017.


https://www.rappler.com/nation/176541-ejk-drugs-war-doj-de-lima-aguirre

•Michelle Xu, 2016. Retrieved on the month of October 30 year 2017.


https://www.cfr.org/interview/human-rights-and-dutertes-war-drugs

•Robinson, Smith, M.A., Saisan, M.S.W., and Shubin 2017. Retrieved on the
month of October 30 year 2017. https://www.helpguide.org/articles/addictions/drug-
abuse-and-addiction.htm
• Shannon E., 200) Retrieved on the month of October 20 year 2017.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16204405

•Tan, 2017. Retrieved on the month of October 30 year 2017.


http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/03/06/Oplan-Tokhang-Part-2-war-on-drugs-
PNP.html

•Volkow, 2014. Retrieved on the month of October 30 year 2017.


https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drug-
abuse-addiction
66

VALIDATED QUESTIONNAIRE

RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY


(Pasig Campus)

Thesis Title:
“War on Drugs; Experiences of Police Operatives with Confirmed Kills Involved in Oplan
Tokhang Operations”

The Objective of this study is to be able to know the following;

•To determine the impression of police operatives towards drug suspects,


•To explore their experiences during Oplan Tokhang Operations,
•To explore psychological, social and moral impact of their duties as perceived by the respondents

Part I.

Name (Optional) :
Age :
Gender :
Assigned Police
Station / District :
Police Rank :

ACCEPT REJECT ACCEPT


QUESTIONS BUT
REVISED
67

Part II. What is the demographic profile of the


participants based on the following?
A). Age onset / start of serving as a Police operative

B). Duration as assigned Police Operative in “Oplan Tokhang


(Galugad) Operation”
1.1. Paano mo hinanda ang iyong sarili sa pagsugpo ng
problema sa droga?
1.2. Ano ang naging hakbang upang ikaw ay mapasama sa
Oplan Tokhang Operation?

REJECT ACCEPT
QUESTIONS ACCEPT
BUT
REVISED

2.1. Ano ang mga nagiging basehan nyo upang malaman na


ang isang indibidwal ay kabilang sa mga gumagamit ng
ipinagbabawal na gamot?
2.2. Ano ang pananaw mo sa isang gumagamit ng
ipinagbabawal na gamot? At paano nyo ito bineberipika?
2.4. Sino ang dapat na sisihin sa pagkakasangkot ng isang
tao sa illegal na droga? At bakit?
2.5. Sa tingin mo ba ay maaari pang magbago ang isang adik
o ang isang pusher? Kung hindi bakit? At kung oo, paano?

ACCEPT REJECT ACCEPT


QUESTIONS BUT
REVISED

Part IV. What are the experiences of the Police Operatives


during Oplan Tokhang (Galugad) Operation?
3.1. Sa anong oras kadalasang isinasagawa ang Oplan
tokhang operation? At sa anong klaseng lugarr kayo madalas
magtungo?
3.2. Anong nararamdaman n’yo habang isinasagawa ang
operasyon o “Oplan Tokhang Operation”?
3.3. Ano-ano ang naiisip mo habang isinasagawa ang Oplan
Tokhang Operation?
3.4. Paano kadalasan humahantong sa madugong
pangyayari ang isang Oplan Tokhang Operation?
3.5. Ano po ang iyong naging reaksyon ng iyong mabaril at
humantong sa pagkasawi ang nasabing drug suspek?
3.7. Ng maging madugo ang nasabing operasyon ano ang
naramdaman mo sa napatay na Drug suspek?
68

ACCEPT REJECT ACCEPT


QUESTIONS BUT
REVISED

(The effects to the following aspects ;)


Part V. (Psychological)
4.1. Paano mo hinarap ang pangyayaring iyon matapos ang
madugong operasyon?
4.2. May mga pagbabago ka bang napansin sa iyong sarili
matapos ang operasyon? Ano ano ang mga ito kung
mayroon.
4.3. Sa tuwing naiisip at naaalala mo ang pagbaril mo sa drug
suspek ano nagiging epekto nito sa iyong sarili?
4.4. Kinailangan mo pa bang dumaan sa Psychological
debriefing matapos ang operasyon? Kung oo, bakit? Maari
mo bang ilahad ang mga ditalye?
(Social)

4.5. Ano ang naging epekto nito sa pakikisalamuha mo sa


iyong pamilya at mga kaibigan?
4.6. Nagkaroon ka ba ng takot na baka husgahan ka ng mga
taong nakapaligid sa iyo sa pagganap mo sa iyong tungkulin?
4.7. Ano sa palagay mo ang tingin ng isang ordinaryong
Pilipino sa isang “Pulis”?
(Moral)

4.8. Sa nasabing operasyon, masasabi mo bang ikaw ay


lumabag sa utos ng Diyos na bawal na pagpatay?
4.9. Pumasok ba sa iyong isipan na ikaw ay masamang tao
dahilan sa nakabaril ka ng isang drug suspek?
4.10. Masasabi mo ba na ikaw ay naging isang ulirang pulis
dahil nagawa mo ang iyong tungkulin sa kabila ng mabaril mo
ang drug suspek?
4.11. Paano nito sinubok ang iyong pagkatao?
69

Photos of Actual Fieldwork

Pasig City Police Headquarters


102 C. Raymundo Ave, Pasig, Metro Manila
70

Interactions with the Police Officers

R1: PO1 Jack Bauer (operatives/agent)


71

R2: PO2 Telles (operatives/agent)

R3: PO1 John, 30 D+B (operatives/agent)