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E-mail Id:

Name of the
Presenter : B.ARCHANA & B. JYOTHI
Branch : CSE (IV B.techISEM),IT(IV ISEM).
College : Bhoj Reddy Enggineering College For Women
Email address :

Contact No. : 9441482074/9393086043



There are a multitude of standards like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi that address mid to high data
rates for voice, PC LANs, video, etc. However, up till now there hasn't been a wireless
network standard that meets the unique needs of sensors and control devices. Sensors and
controls don't need high bandwidth but they do need low latency and very low energy
consumption for long battery lives and for large device arrays.
There are a multitude of proprietary wireless systems
manufactured today to solve a multitude of problems that don't require high data rates but
do require low cost and very low current drain. These proprietary systems were designed
because there were no standards that met their application requirements. These legacy
systems are creating significant interoperability problems with each other and with newer
technologies. The ZigBee Alliance providing a standardized base set of solutions for sensor
and control systems called “ZIGBEE” technology.
ZigBee is a published specification set of high level
communication protocols designed to use small, low-power digital radios based on the
IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The technology is
designed to be simpler and cheaper than other WPANs such as Bluetooth. ZigBee is
aimed at applications with low data rates and low power consumption. ZigBee's current
focus is to define a general-purpose, inexpensive self-organizing mesh network that can
be shared by industrial controls, medical devices, smoke and intruder alarms, building
automation and home automation. The network is designed to use very small amounts of
power, so that individual devices might run for a year or two with a single alkaline
This paper gives a brief idea on the architecture of ZigBee , stack architecture, how the
networking is done using different topologies, frame structure, security issues and its
ZigBee is a home-area network designed specifically to replace the proliferation of
individual remote controls. Zigbee is a wireless networking standard that is aimed at remote
control and sensor applications which is suitable for operation in harsh radio environments and
in isolated locations. It builds on IEEE standard 802.15.4 which defines the physical and MAC
layers. Above this, Zigbee defines the application and security layer specifications enabling
interoperability between products from different manufacturers. In this way Zigbee is a
superset of the 802.15.4 specification.

• Low power consumption, simply implemented.
• ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 has two major states: active (transmit/receive) or sleep. The
application software needs to focus on the application, not on which power mode is
optimum for each aspect of operation.
• ZigBee devices will be more ecological than their predecessors saving megawatts at it
full deployment.
• Low cost to the users means low device cost, low installation cost and low
maintenance. ZigBee devices allow batteries to last up to years using primary cells
without any chargers.
• High density of nodes per network. ZigBee's use of the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY and MAC
allows networks to handle any number of devices
• Simple protocol, global implementation. ZigBee's protocol code stack is estimated to
be about 1/4th of Bluetooth's or 802.11's.
The 802.15.4 standard is primarily aiming at monitoring and control applications. The
amount of data throughput (bandwidth) is relativily low compared to wireless lan.

Three areas of architectural responsibility are in a ZigBee engineering effort

The physical and MAC layers take full advantage of the physical radio specified by
IEEE 802.15.4. The 802.15.4 specification describes a peer-to-peer radio using direct
sequence spread spectrum (DSSS). The specification also calls out the data rates,
channelization and modulation techniques to be employed.
The ZigBee Alliance specifies the logical network, security and application software,
which are implemented in a firmware stack. It is the ZigBee networking stack that creates
the mesh networking capability. Each microcontroller/RF chip combination requires its
own ZigBee stack due to the differences in microcontrollers and RF chips. Typically, the
ZigBee stack is included with either the microcontroller or RF chip.
The application layer is denied by profiles, of which there are two types: public
profiles are those certified by the ZigBee Alliance for interoperability purposes, and
private profiles are for use in closed systems.


Dual physical (PHY & MAC) layer
o Data rates of 250 kbps at 2.4 GHz, 40 kbps at 915 MHz, and 20 kbps at 868 MHz
o Optimized for low duty-cycle applications (<0.1%)
o CSMA-CA channel access yields high throughput and low latency for low duty
cycle devices like sensors and controls
o Low power (battery life multi-month to years)
o Multiple topologies: star, peer-to-peer, mesh
o Adressing space of up to:
-18,450,000,000,000,000,000 devices (64 bit IEEE address)
- 65,535 networks
o Optional guaranteed time slot for applications requiring low latency
o Fully hand-shaked protocol for transfer reliability
o Range: 50m typical (5-500m based on environment)
ZigBee Stack Architecture
Following the standard Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference
model, ZigBee's protocol stack is structured in layers. The first two layers, physical
(PHY) and media access control (MAC), are defined by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. ).
Raw data throughput rates of 250Kbps can be achieved at 2.4GHz (16 channels), 40Kbps
at 915MHz (10 channels), and 20Kbps at 868MHz (1 channel). The transmission distance
is expected to range from 10 to 75m, depending on power output and environmental
characteristics. Like Wi-Fi, Zigbee uses direct-sequence spread spectrum in the 2.4GHz
band, with offset quadrature phase-shift keying modulation. Channel width is 2MHz with
5MHz channel spacing. The 868 and 900MHz bands also use direct-sequence spread
spectrum but with binary-phase-shift keying modulation.

The General Operation Framework (GOF) is a glue layer between applications and
rest of the protocol stack. The GOF currently covers various elements that are common
for all devices. It includes sub addressing and addressing modes and device descriptions,
such as type of device, power source, sleep modes, and coordinators. Using an object
model, the GOF specifies methods, events, and data formats that are used by application
profiles to construct set/get commands and their responses. ZigBee is the only standards-
based technology that addresses the needs of most remote monitoring and control and
sensory network applications.
The ZigBee stack is small in comparison to other wireless standards. For network-
edge devices with limited capabilities, the stack requires about 4Kb of the memory. Full
implementation of the protocol stack takes less than 32Kb of memory.
The ZigBee application layer consists of the APS sub-layer, the ZDO and
the manufacturer-defined application objects. The responsibilities of the APS sub-layer
include maintaining tables for binding, which is the ability to match two devices together
based on their services and their needs, and forwarding messages between bound devices.
Another responsibility of the APS sub-layer is discovery, which is the ability to
determine which responsibilities of the ZDO include defining the role of the device
within the network (e.g., ZigBee coordinator or end device), initiating and/or responding
to binding requests and establishing a secure relationship between network devices.

Frame structure

The four basic frame types defined in 802.15.4: data, ACK, MAC command, and
beacon. The data frame provides a payload of up to 104 bytes. The frame is numbered to
ensure that all packets are tracked. A frame-check sequence ensures that packets are
received without error. This frame structure improves reliability in difficult conditions.
Another important structure for 802.15.4 is the acknowledgment (ACK) frame. It
provides feedback from the receiver to the sender confirming that the packet was
received without error. The device takes advantage of specified "quiet time" between
frames to send a short packet immediately after the data-packet transmission.
A MAC command frame provides the mechanism for remote control and configuration
of client nodes. A centralized network manager uses MAC to configure individual clients'
command frames no matter how large the network. .

Finally, the beacon frame wakes up client devices, which listen for their address and go
back to sleep if they don't receive it. Beacons are important for mesh and cluster-tree
networks to keep all the nodes synchronized without requiring those nodes to consume
precious battery energy by listening for long periods of time.
Channel Access & Addressing
Two channel-access mechanisms are implemented in 802.15.4. For a non-
beacon network, a standard ALOHA CSMA-CA (carrier-sense medium-access with
collision avoidance) communicates with positive acknowledgement for successfully
received packets. In a beacon-enabled network, a super frame structure is used to control
channel access. The super frame is set up by the network coordinator to transmit beacons
at predetermined intervals (multiples of 15.38ms, up to 252s) and provides 16 equal-
width time slots between beacons for contention-free channel access in each time slot.
The structure guarantees dedicated bandwidth and low latency. Channel access in each
time slot is contention-based. However, the network coordinator can dedicate up to seven
guaranteed time slots per beacon interval for quality of service.
Device addresses employ 64-bit IEEE and optional 16-bit short addressing. The address
field within the MAC can contain both source and destination address information
(needed for peer-to-peer operation). This dual address information is used in mesh
networks to prevent a single point of failure within the network.

Device Types
ZigBee networks use three device types:
• The network coordinator maintains overall network knowledge. It's the most
sophisticated of the three types and requires the most memory and computing power.
• The full function device (FFD) supports all 802.15.4 functions and features specified by
the standard. It can function as a network coordinator. Additional memory and computing
power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge
devices (where the network touches the real world).
• The reduced function device (RFD) carries limited (as specified by the standard)
functionality to lower cost and complexity. It's generally found in network-edge devices.

Network Layer
The NWK layer associates or dissociates devices using the network
coordinator, implements security, and routes frames to their intended destination. In
addition, the NWK layer of the network coordinator is responsible for starting a new
network and assigning an address to newly associated devices.
In a star topology, one of the FFD-type devices assumes the role of network coordinator
and is responsible for initiating and maintaining the devices on the network. All other
devices, known as end devices, directly communicate with the coordinator.
In a mesh topology, the ZigBee coordinator is responsible for starting
the network and for choosing key network parameters, but the network may be extended
through the use of ZigBee routers. The routing algorithm uses a request-response
protocol to eliminate sub-optimal routing. Ultimate network size can reach 264 nodes
(more than we'll probably need). Using local addressing, you can configure simple
networks of more than 65,000 (216) nodes, thereby reducing address overhead.
The NWK layer supports multiple network topologies including star, cluster tree, and
mesh, all of which are shown below:

The protocols build on recent algorithmic research to automatically construct
a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. In most large cases, the network is a cluster of
clusters. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. The ZigBee protocols support both
beaconing and non-beaconing networks. In beaconing networks, the network nodes
transmit beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes, and to allow nodes to
sleep between beacons, thereby lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life.

In telecommunication and electronics, the term duty cycle has the following meanings:

The duty cycle D is defined as the ratio between the pulse duration (τ) and the period (T)
of a rectangular waveform

Duty cycle is the proportion of time during which a component, device, or system is
operated. Suppose a disk drive operates for 1 second, then is shut off for 99 seconds, then
is run for 1 second again, and so on. The drive runs for one out of 100 seconds, or 1/100
of the time, and its duty cycle is therefore 1/100, or 1 percent.

In a periodic phenomenon, the ratio of the duration of the phenomenon in a given period
to the period.

duty cycle


D is the so-called duty cycle;

τ is the duration that the function is non-zero;
Τ is the period of the function.

For example, in an ideal pulse train (one having rectangular pulses), the duty cycle is the
pulse duration divided by the pulse period. For a pulse train in which the pulse duration is
1 μs and the pulse period is 4 μs, the duty cycle is 0.25. The duty cycle of a square wave
is 0.5, or 50%.

For another example, the duty cycle for a piece of electrical equipment (such as an
electric motor) is the period for which it may be operated without deleterious effects,
such as from overheating.
In a continuously variable slope delta (CVSD) modulation converter, the mean proportion
of binary "1" digits at the converter output in which each "1" indicates a run of a
specified number of consecutive bits of the same polarity in the digital output signal.

Some music synthesizers vary the duty cycle of their audio-frequency oscillators to
obtain a subtle effect on the tone colors. This technique is known as Pulse-width
modulation (PWM.)

In non-beaconing networks, most devices typically have their receivers

continuously active, requiring a more robust power supply; however, this enables
heterogeneous networks, in which some devices receive continuously while some remain
asleep, transmitting only when an external stimulus is detected. The typical example of a
heterogeneous network is the wireless light switch.

Network Routing Overview

Perhaps the most straightforward way to think of the ZigBee routing algorithm is as a
hierarchical routing strategy with table-driven optimizations applied where possible.
• NWK uses an algorithm that allows stack implementers and application developers to
balance unit cost, battery drain, and complexity in producing ZigBee solutions to meet
the specific cost-performance profile of their application.
• Started with the well-studied public-domain algorithm AODV and Motorola's Cluster-
Tree algorithm.
Security and data integrity are key benefits of the ZigBee technology. ZigBee leverages
the security model of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC sublayer which specifies four security
• access control—the device maintains a list of trusted devices within the network.
• data encryption, which uses symmetric key 128-bit advanced encryption standard.
• frame integrity to protect data from being modified by parties without cryptographic
• sequential freshness to reject data frames that have been replayed.

ZibBee Benefits
Low cost.

Range and obstruction issues avoidance.

Multi source products.

Low power consumption.