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Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi)

Planning (Perencanaan)
Utomo Pujianto

Jurusan Teknik Elektro


Universitas Negeri Malang

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1
“If you fail to plan, you are planning to fail!”
(Benjamin Franklin)

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2
Good planning resulted in shorter execution
time ?

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 3
Mengingat kembali SDLC…

Analyze Implement

Plan Design

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 4
Fase Planning (Perencanaan)
Understanding why an information system should
be built, and determining how the project team will
go about building it.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 5
Langkah-langkah fase perencanaan
1. Project Initiation, menjawab pertanyaan:
 Mengapa sistem perlu dibangun ?
 Seberapa urgen pembangunan sistem ?
 Apakah pengembangan sistem feasibel untuk
dilakukan ?
2. Project Management, menjawab pertanyaan:
 Estimasi Skala Proyek, Staffing, Penjadwalan,

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-6
Project Identification and Initiation

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 7
Asal usul Proyek Sistem Informasi

Mengapa sistem perlu dibangun ?


&
Seberapa urgen kebutuhan pembangunan sistem?

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 8
Mengapa sistem perlu dibangun ?
‘Seseorang’ melihat ada masalah dan
atau peluang yang dapat diselesaikan
dengan memaksimalkan penggunaan
teknologi informasi.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 9
Jenis-jenis “Masalah”
• Perubahan aturan/kebijakan di dalam ataupun di luar
organisasi (misal:pemerintah) yang tidak
terakomodasi sistem,
• Ada komponen/alur kerja sistem yang berpotensi
menimbulkan kerugian,
• Teknologi yang dipakai sudah usang & tidak mampu
mengakomodasi perkembangan sistem/organisasi,
• dsb.
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 10
Jenis-jenis “Peluang”
• Ada komponen/proses dalam sistem yang masih
dapat ditingkatkan efektifitas & efisiensinya,
• Ada perluasan gerak/domain bisnis organisasi,
• dsb.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 11
Seberapa urgen pembangunan sistem ?

• Perusahaan akan merugi,


• Akan ada tuntutan hukum,
• ‘Pasar’ akan dikuasai produk pesaing,
• dsb

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 12
Evaluasi 1
• Identifikasi “masalah” yang ada di sekitar anda
yang dapat diselesaikan secara efektif dengan
membangun sistem berbasis teknologi informasi !
• Identifikasi “peluang” yang ada di sekitar anda
yang akan menghasilkan manfaat/keuntungan
yang signifikan dengan membangun sistem
berbasis teknologi informasi !

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 13
Business Process Management (BPM)
• ‘Masalah’ dan ‘Peluang’ lebih umum ditemukan
dalam Manajemen Proses Bisnis (Business Process
Management)
• BPM is a methodology used by organizations to
continuously improve end-to-end business
processes.
• Pelaku utama BPM adalah Business Analyst.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-14
Tingkatan dalam BPM
1. Mendefinisikan dan memetakan langkah-langkah dalam
sebuah proses bisnis.
2. Mengkreasi cara-cara untuk menghasilkan langkah-
langkah yang dapat memberikan nilai tambah dalam
proses bisnis.
3. Mencari cara untuk mengeliminasi atau mengkonsolidasi
langkah-langkah dalam proses bisnis yang tidak
memberikan nilai tambah.
4. Membuat dan menyelaraskan (adjusting) electronic
workflows sehingga sesuai dengan peta proses yang telah
diperbaiki.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-15
Proses-proses dalam BPM
• Business process automation (BPA) – komponen-
komponen teknologi digunakan untuk melengkapi
(complement) atau menggantikan (substitute) proses
manual.
• Business process improvement (BPI) – creating new, re-
designed processes to improve the workflows, and/or
utilizing new technologies enabling new process structures.
• Business process reengineering (BPR) – melakukan
perubahan secara fundamental/menyeluruh terhadap cara
organisasi beroperasi.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-16
BPM sebagai Strategi Analisis
Business Business Business
Process Process Process
Automation Improvement Reeingineering

Potential Business Low-Moderate Moderate High


Value

Project Cost Low Low-Moderate High

Breadth of
Analysis Narrow Narrow-Moderate Very Broad

Risk Low Low-Moderate Very High

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 17
Project sponsor
• The project sponsor is a person (or group) who has an
interest in the system’s success
• The project sponsor will work throughout the SDLC to
make sure that the project is moving in the right
direction from the perspective of the business.
• The project sponsor serves as the primary point of
contact for the project team.
• The size or scope of the project determines by the
kind of sponsor that is involved.
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-18
(cont’d)
• The project sponsor has the insights needed to
determine the business value that will be gained
from the system.
– Tangible value can be quantified and measured easily
(reduction in operating costs).
– An intangible value results from an intuitive belief that
the system provides important, but hard-to-measure
benefits to the organization.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-19
System Request
The document that
describes the
business reasons
for building a
system and the
value that system
is expected to
provide.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-20
Elements of a System Request
• The project sponsor usually completes this form as part of a
formal system selection process within the organization.
• The business need presents the reasons prompting the
project.
• The business requirements of the project refer to the
business capabilities that the system will need to have.
• The business value describes the benefits that the
organization should expect from the system.
• Special issues are included on the document as a catchall
category for other information that should be considered in
assessing the project.
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-21
Contoh System
Request

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 22
(cont’d)
• System Request yang telah dilengkapi selanjutnya
diserahkan kepada approval committee untuk
dipertimbangkan.
• Approval Committee mereview System Request yang
masuk, dan membuat keputusan awal apakah proyek
yang diusulkan perlu dievaluasi lebih lanjut atau
tidak.
– Jika ya, maka langkah selanjutnya adalah melakukan studi
kelayakan (feasibility analysis).

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-23
Problem Definition Sistem Informasi Skripsi
• Tidak seimbangnya distribusi (jumlah) pembimbingan
mahasiswa skripsi untuk masing-masing dosen
– Mahasiswa memilih dosen secara pragmatis
– Dosen dan Koordinator Skripsi tidak mendapatkan informasi jumlah
pembimbingan
• Waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk menjadwalkan ujian > 1 minggu
– Penyesuaian jadwal dosen pembimbing dan penguji
• Adanya kejenuhan pembimbingan topik skripsi
• Banyak topik skripsi yang tidak cukup dekat dengan minat
penelitian dosen pembimbing
• Adanya plagiarisme topik-judul skripsi

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 24
System Request Sistem Informasi Skripsi
No Elemen Uraian

1 Project Sponsor Ketua Jurusan Teknik Elektro


2 Business Needs • Distribusi beban pembimbingan antar dosen relatif merata dan
proporsional
• Mengurangi plagiarisme topik-judul skripsi
3 Business Requirements • Fasilitas pencarian judul skripsi
• Informasi tentang topik skripsi sejenis
• Informasi tentang topik-topik skripsi yang sudah dilaksanakan
• Tabel beban pembimbingan tiap dosen tiap semester
4 Business Value • Variansi beban bimbingan < 5 orang. {efek langsung}
• Plagiarisme judul-topik mencapai 0% {efek langsung}
• Kelulusan tepat waktu {efek tidak langsung}
• Waktu penjadwalan sidang cukup 1 hari.
5 Special Issues • Sistem dibangun berbasis teknologi web responsif
• Sistem sudah harus diaktifkan sebelum akhir semester genap 2015-2016

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 25
Feasibility Analysis (Studi Kelayakan)

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 26
Feasibility Analysis (Analisis Kelayakan)
• Merupakan panduan bagi organisasi untuk
menentukan apakah proyek akan dilaksanakan
atau tidak.
– Menjawab pertanyaan: Layakkah pembangunan
sistem dilakukan ?
• Juga mengidentifikasi resiko-resiko (risks) penting
-yang berhubungan dengan proyek- yang harus
dikelola jika proyek disetujui untuk dilaksanakan.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-27
Mengapa harus dianalisis ?
• Keterbatasan sumber daya (manusia, waktu,
biaya, dsb) yang dimiliki organisasi.
– Menentukan prioritas pelaksanaan proyek, jika
terdapat beberapa proyek yang diusulkan dalam
waktu yang relatif bersamaan.
• Meminimalisir potensi/resiko kerugian akibat
kesalahan investasi.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 28
Komponen Studi Kelayakan

Teknis Jadwal

Ekonomis Operasional

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 29
Siapa yang melakukan ?
• Formatif: Pembuat System Request
• Evaluatif: Approval Committee

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 30
Technical Feasibility

Mampukah kita membangun dan memeliharanya ?

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 31
Analisis Kelayakan Teknis (1)
• Tersediakah infrastruktur (Hardware, Software,
Network,dsb) untuk membangun dan memelihara
sistem ?
– Apakah sudah memadai ? Jika belum, dapatkah kita
memperolehnya tanpa kesulitan berarti ?
• Tersediakah SDM untuk membangun dan
memeliharanya ?
– Apakah sudah memadai ? Jika belum, dapatkah kita
memperolehnya tanpa kesulitan berarti ?
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 32
Analisis Kelayakan Teknis (2)
• Apakah kapasitas sistem yang baru mencukupi
untuk kebutuhan masa yang akan datang
– Misal: pertumbuhan volume transaksi & pertumbuhan
gerak proses bisnis organisasi.
• Apakah pengembangan sistem membutuhkan
rujukan/prototipe/contoh ? Sudah tersediakah ?
Jika belum, bagaimana mendapatkan
rujukan/prototipe/contoh yang baik ?
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 33
Analisis Kelayakan Teknis (3)
• Dapatkah sistem baru terintegrasi /tersinkronisasi
dengan sistem-sistem yang lain, baik yang ada di
dalam lingkungan organisasi (antar departemen)
maupun yang di luar (misal: pemasok/pelanggan)?
• Sampai sejauh mana kombinasi hardware-software-
brainware dapat mencapai kinerja yang diinginkan ?
Adakah target kinerja yang jelas/spesifik ?
– Misal: UPTIME 99%, Bandwidth Utility 95%.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 34
Economic Feasibility

Berhargakah jika kita membangunnya ?

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 35
Analisis Kelayakan Ekonomis
• Berapa biaya yang dibutuhkan untuk membangun
dan mengoperasikan/memeliharanya ?
• Berapa besar Imbal Balik (ROI) yang dihasilkan ?
• Seberapa cepat Titik Impas (Break Even Point)
dicapai ?
• Adakah keuntungan-keuntungan Intangible
saat/setelah sistem dibangun ?

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 36
Steps to conduct an economic feasibility
analysis (Cost-benefit Analysis)
1. Identify Costs and
Benefits
2. Assign Values to Costs
and Benefits
3. Determine Cash Flow
4. Assess Project’s
Economic Value
– ROI
– BEP
– NPV

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-37
Identify Costs and Benefits
• The costs and benefits and be broken down in to
four categories:
– Development costs
– Operational costs
– Tangible benefits
– Intangibles

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-38
Assign Values to Costs and Benefits
• Once the types of
costs and benefits
have been
identified, the
systems analysts
needs to assign
specific dollar values
to them.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-39
Determine Cash Flow
• A formal cost-benefit analysis usually contains
costs and benefits over a selected number or years
to show cash flow over time.
– Determine ROI
– Determine BEP
– Determine NPV

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-40
Common methods for evaluating a
project’s worth
Return on Investment (ROI) Break-Even Point (BEP)
“The amount of revenue or
cost savings results from a
given investment”

Total Benefits  Total Costs


ROI 
Total Costs

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-41
Simple cash flow projection

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-42
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 43
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 44
Discounted cash flow projection

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-45
Present Value (PV)
• “The amount of an investment today compared to
the same amount n years in the future”
• Taking into account inflation and time

Amount
PV 
(1  Interest Rate) n

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 46
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 47
Discounted cash flow technique
• Discounted case flows are used to compare the
present value of all cash inflows and outflows
for the project in the today’s dollar terms.

• Net present value (NPV): the difference


between the total PV of the benefits and the
total PV of the costs.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 1-48
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 49
Schedule Feasibility

Tersediakah waktu untuk membangunnya ?

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 50
Analisis Kelayakan Penjadwalan
• Apakah tersedia waktu yang memadai untuk
menyelesaikan proyek pengembangan sistem ?
– Adakah konflik dengan kegiatan prioritas lainnya ?
• Apakah tersedia waktu yang memadai untuk
pelatihan pengguna & pemeliharaan sistem ?
• Apakah estimasi jadwal pelaksanaan proyek
‘masuk akal’ untuk menghasilkan sistem yang
berkualitas?

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 51
Operational/Organizational Feasibility

Sejauh mana dukungan akan diberikan oleh para


pemangku kepentingan ?

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 52
Analisis Kelayakan
Operasional/Organisasional
• Apakah calon pengguna mampu menggunakan
sistem yang akan dibangun ?
– Jika tidak, tersediakah pelatihan untuk calon pengguna ?
Ataukah perlu perlu merekrut / alihdaya ?
• Apakah calon pengguna akan dilibatkan sejak awal
masa pembangunan sistem ?,
• Apakah calon pengguna mau menggunakan sistem ?,
– Atau malah merasa tidak perlu ada perubahan sistem ?

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 53
Analisis Kelayakan Operasional
• Apakah keberadaan sistem nantinya sejalan
dengan strategi organisasi ?,
• Apakah semua level manajemen mau meluangkan
waktu, tenaga, dan pikiran untuk terlibat dalam
pembangunan dan pemeliharaan sistem ?,
• Apakah sistem yang baru akan dapat digunakan
secara efektif oleh seluruh level manajemen ?,

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 54
Analisis Kelayakan Operasional
• Adakah kemungkinan munculnya masalah-
masalah legal atau etis ?,
– Apakah keberadaan sistem mempunyai “landasan
hukum” yang memadai/kuat ?
• Adakah perubahan-perubahan (adaptasi) perilaku
dan teknologi yang harus dilakukan oleh
mitra/kustomer organisasi ?,
• dan lain sebagainya
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 55
Project Selection and Management

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 56
Introduction
• CIOs (chief information officers) are challenged to
select projects that will provide highest return on the
IT investments.
• Project portfolio management has become a critical
success factor for IT departments.
• A selected system development project must
undergo a thorough process of project management.
• A critical success factor for project management is to
start with a realistic assessment of the work and then
manage the project according to the plan.
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-57
(cont’d)
• An approval committee must be selective about
where to allocate resources as most organizations
have limited funds.
• If there are several potentially high-payoff
projects, and they all have the same risk, then
maybe only one of the projects will be selected.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-58
Project Selection
• Systems projects today are evaluated in the
context of an entire portfolio of projects.
• Determination of a project’s contribution to an
entire portfolio of a project reinforces the need
for a feasibility study.
• Portfolio management takes into consideration
the different of projects that exist in an
organization.
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-59
Ways to Classify Projects

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 60
Creating the Project Plan
• Project management life cycle phases consist of:
 initiation,
 planning,
 execution,
 control, and
 closure.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 61
Creating the Project Plan
• The myriad of decisions regarding the project:
 determining the best project methodology,
 developing a work plan for the project,
 determining a staffing plan, and
 establishing mechanisms to coordinate and control the
project.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 62
Project Methodology Options
• A methodology is a formalized approach to
implementing the SDLC.
– Waterfall Development
– Parallel Development
– V-model (variation of the Waterfall
Development)
– Rapid Application Development (RAD)
• Iterative Development
• System prototyping
– Agile Development
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-63
Waterfall Development

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-64
Parallel Development

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-65
V-model

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-66
Rapid Application Development: Iterative
Development

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-67
Rapid Application Development: System
Prototyping

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-68
Rapid Application Development:
Throwaway Prototyping

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-69
Agile Development
• A group of programming-centric methodologies
that focus on streamlining the SDLC.
• Includes face-to-face communication
• Extreme programming – emphasizes customer
satisfaction and teamwork.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-70
Extreme Programming

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-71
Selecting the Appropriate Development
Methodology
Important factors to consider in selecting the
development methodology
• Clarity of User Requirements
• Familiarity with Technology
• System Complexity
• System Reliability
• Short Time Schedules
• Schedule Visibility
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 72
Selecting the Appropriate Development
Methodology

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-73
Estimating the Project Time Frame

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 74
Developing the Work Plan

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 75
Work Breakdown Structure

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 76
The project work plan

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 77
Staffing The Project
• Staffing Plan
– Staffing levels will change over a project’s lifetime
– Adding staff may add more overhead than additional
labor
– Using teams of 8-10 reporting in a hierarchical
structure can reduce complexity

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 78
Reporting structure

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 79
Staffing Plan
• The staffing plan describes the kinds of people
working on the project
• The project charter describes the project’s
objectives and rules
• A functional lead manages a group of analysts
• A technical lead oversees progress of
programmers and technical staff members

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 80
Motivation
• Use monetary rewards cautiously
• Use intrinsic rewards
– Recognition
– Achievement
– The work itself
– Responsibility
– Advancement
– Chance to learn new skills
Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-81
Handling Conflict
• Clearly define plans for the project.
• Recognize project importance to organization.
• Project charter listing norms and ground rules.
• Develop schedule commitments ahead of time.
• Forecast other priorities and their possible impact
on the project.

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 2-82
Coordinating Project Activities
• CASE (computer-aided software engineering) tools – A category of
software that automate all or part of the development process.
– Upper CASE
– Lower CASE
– Integrated CASE
• Standards
– Formal rules for naming files
– Forms indicating goals reached
– Programming guidelines
• Documentation
– Project binder
– Table of contents
– Continual updating

Utomo Pujianto (State University of Malang) Analisis & Desain Sistem (Informasi) – Planning 83
Managing and Controlling The Project
• The science (or art) of project management is in
making trade-offs among three important
concepts:
– the size of the system,
– the time to complete the project, and
– the cost of the project.

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(cont’d)
Tools for project management – Example of Gantt Chart

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Refining Estimates

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Managing Scope
• Scope creep happens when new requirements are added to the project
after the original project scope was defined and “frozen.”
– the most common reason for schedule and cost overruns.
• It can happen for many reasons:
 Users may suddenly understand the potential of the new system and realize
new functionality that would be useful;
 developers may discover interesting capabilities to which they become very
attached;
 a senior manager may decide to let this system support a new strategy that
was developed at a recent board meeting.
• In fact, the use of meetings and prototyping has been found to reduce
scope creep to less than 5% on a typical project.
• First, the project manager should allow only absolutely necessary
requirements to be added after the project begins.

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Timeboxing
• Incongruencies
– For 80% of the time, users probably use only 20% of the
features.
– Typically, 75% of a system can be provided relatively
quickly, with the remaining 25% of the functionality
demanding most of the time.
• Time-oriented (vs task-oriented)
• Applied especially when rapid application
development (RAD) methodologies are used

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Timeboxing steps
1. Set the date for system delivery.
2. Prioritize the functionality that needs to be included in the
system.
3. Build the core of the system (the functionality ranked as
most important).
4. Postpone functionality that cannot be provided within the
time frame.
5. Deliver the system with core functionality.
6. Repeat steps 3 through 5, to add refinements and
enhancements.

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SUMMARY
• The project selection process takes into account all of
the projects in the organization, using project
portfolio management.
• The project plan defines the tasks, task time
estimates, and other information.
• A project requires staffing and coordinating project
activities.
• Managing and controlling the project include
timeboxing and risk assessment.
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Terima Kasih

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