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GLOBAL INDIAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

(G.I.I.S QUEENSTOWN)

Centre Number / School Code - SG 563

Digital World
Syllabus Code - 0457/02

Subject Code - 0457

Component Code - 02

Individual Report
Name : Anvay Vats

Class : 9 IGCSE ‘C’

Roll Number :

Word Count : 1500 - 2000 words

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Index List
Topics: Page:

Topic Page 1

Index List 2

Rationale 3

Research Question 3

Introduction 3

Personal Response (For Introduction) 4

Causes 5

Pesonal Response (For Causes) 8

Current Measures 9

Possible Scenarios 10

Course of Action 12

Final Conclusion 14

Bibliography 14

Annexures 15

Figures and Maps :

Technical Feasability of Automation 4

Employement’s factors 8

Tables :

Education and AI 14

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Rationale:
I remember when I watched a movie called Robot1, it clearly framed my

Research Question. This is because the villian, who was an evil robot had created

many more of its own kind to make an army against the protagonist. This got me

thinking as to how we could be replaced instead of the protagonist. This is because

we as humans will discuss about the reasons of why it will be benefitial or not benefitial

(harmful) to humans and hopefully arrive on an well-informed conclusion. This

Individual Research also include scenarios like those portrayed by the antagonist robot

in the movie Robot. This leads me to my Research question.

Research Question: To what extent, in which ways and how is

artificial intelligence influential to humankind?

Introduction:
How is this a problem?:

In our daily lives, we make use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for just about every

job that we require to be done effeciently and so we are very reliant on them. However,

the majority of us overlook any ethical regulations or limits on the population of robots

worldwide. For example, the growth of AI can lead to unemployement (more on this in

subtopic «Scenarios»), leads to many accidents such as unpredictable physical work

as 25% of work relates to all manual labour worldwide. The CEOs of some companies

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TV Tropes. (2017). Robot (Film) - TV Tropes. [online] Available at:
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Film/Robot [Accessed 23 Oct. 2017].
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with AI-based production will make majority of the money in their industry because of

the growth and high-demand of AI worldwide. This leads to inequality in economic

distribution between many companies and MNCs.

Personal Response:
I think that the «final conclusion» is very realistic and maybe even obvious if the

RQ is correctly approached . Aslo, since this question is taken from the main topic of
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digital world, people who are usually more fond of technology and human philosophy

can best judge how to give a reliable and successful answer to my Research Question.

In my opinion, I predict that robots may be benefitial to the further evolution of mankind,

however, the «population» of these machines can be a threat to malfunction in them

and perhaps even the extinction of humankind. However, I cannot predict the impact

made or controvercy caused by a successful answer to my RQ. I personally think the

same as Murphy’s law4: «What can go wrong, will go wrong» because of overwhelming

«robotic population» and their influence over us.

Causes:
Cultural: Scientists and technitians worldwide predict that when «Thinking Robots»5

will start to coexist with humans, there might be many cultural differences

between the 2 so-called «races». This may lead to humans deciding the fate

of these thinking robots or vice versa. This leads to problems about the ethics

concerning these robots when looked at from a human’s perspective. Also, a

new robot named Sophia has become the first robot to gain citizenship on the

earth. This may increase/decrease (depending on the perspective) the

cultural differences between the 2 kinds as this robot is following the norms of

humanity.

4 Avidor, R. (2017). Murphy Laws Site - The origin and laws of Murphy in one place.. [online]
Murphys-laws.com. Available at: http://www.murphys-laws.com/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2017].
3 Cox, S. (2017). The next Stage of Machine Learning: Teach Robots to Think Like Humans. [online]

Big Think. Available at: http://bigthink.com/stefani-cox/maybe-robots-can-be-just-as-smart-as-humans


[Accessed 27 Oct. 2017].
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Economic: The majority of the companies in the world switched to the more advanced

forms of factories which included many types of robotics. Nowadays, almost

all of the successful companies such as Microsoft, Google, Apple, etc. are

usually companies related to technology and devices (hardware) produced in

their own factories. This also means that most of these companies are

replacing their manual labour costs with the payment for a robot which can do

the same job for less money and more effeciently. This gives a huge adantage

and profit is made by these companies. This means that there is a great

amount of tax which is used by the government for better facilities. However,

this does lead to unemployment and an inequality beacuse of unequal

distribution of money between the people who made these robots, ones who

work alongside them or even ones who ‘employ’ them.

Avocational: Many people may become unemployed because of them being replaced by

robots that take their place, especially in factories. This can lead to many

consequences just like the example given for an economical cause and its

negative consequence for my research question. For an example in positive

consequence, Elon Musk6 has said to be working on making a new self-driving

car or a truck of such sort. This means that people don’t need to spend time

on getting a driver’s liscense. In addition to this, these cars are even more

safe on the road as well as more reflexive and responsive than humans

themselves. This can lead to intensive labour only done by humans for a low

wage and an overall inequality of labour done for the same wages.

6 Forbes.com. (2017). Forbes Welcome. [online] Available at: https://www.forbes.com/profile/elon-musk/ [Accessed 27 Oct.
2017].
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Political: All forms of artificial intelligence are man-made. Some of these creations are

biased in ways that their creator/programmer intends them to behave. This

leads to biased psychology in voting machines, e.g. using the color green to

make a vote for one party which the programmer supports. Although this

scenario may be very uncommon, the introduction of human psychology and

opinions really impacts the input and output generated by any form of artificial

intellegence because of the bias nature of humans. In conclusion, pyschology

of one human is never the same as anothers, however, a robot who is

programmed with an intention to do a biased political act by hindering its user

to make a specific and biased choice is a cause for my research question.

Social: Over many years, the internet, websites and social media have existed. This

has lead to many issues behind how some people cannot distinguish between

a robot and a human on a social media website’s chat. This causes many

social issues to be proposed as this kind of technology keeps progressing until

marriages with different forms of artificial intelligence will be allowed until

these thinking robots7 influence humanity in bad and unethical ways

(especially those related to human culture). However, there may be some

people who think that because they have control over some form of artificial

intelligence (e.g. a personal assistant on a smartphone), may like their

relationship with that robot more than they do with some people. In conclusion,

this may create ethical issues worldwide. This may result in a huge change in

7 IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. (2017). When Will We Have Robots To Help With Household
Chores?. [online] Available at: https://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/home-robots/when-will-we-have-robots-to-help-
with-household-chores [Accessed 29 Nov. 2017].
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way and means of communication and social skills of different people may

decrease because of their lack of courage to talk to each other.

(Image taken from: Kurzweilai.net. (2017). Nearly half of US jobs could be at risk of computerization, Oxford Martin School study

shows | KurzweilAI. [online] Available at: http://www.kurzweilai.net/oms-working-paper-on-the-future-of-employment-how-

susceptible-are-jobs-to-computerisation [Accessed 29 Nov. 2017].)

Personal Response:
I think that these causes have both positive and negative influences towards

humanity. However, these are only the more minute and diluted versions of what may

be held in the future to give these causes and the predictions stated in them some

evidence or even any meaning at all. Only progress in the field of computer science in

the (near or far) future will reveal more about these situations and their consequences

(good or bad). In conclusion, our decisions on how and why we should choose a

particular solution and resolve these by going over their effects on humans and forms

8 of artificial intelligence should be based on ethical decisions made by humans.

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Current Measures:
Many differences are present in the 2 countries of China and the USA in terms

of power and other factors due to the presence of AI. The US is currently the definite

champion in AI development, according to the data. This means that the current

measures that should be taken in the US should be more precautious than those taken

in China. However, China and other developing countries which follow it should do the

same and prevent from any major ethical issues from being controversial.

These 2 countries have faced problems relating to artificial intelligence and

tackled with them similarly or differently depending upon each case. Artificial

Intelligence is equally helping each of these countries overcome national problems.

For example, healthcare related problems are slowly disappering because of the use

of AI in the mass-manufacture of medicine and shipment of such necessary goods.

Also, technology in general is helping in build new equipment to find out more about

diseases and immunity, as these can cause major breakthroughs for countries with

bad facilities of healthcare and problems related to poverty. Also, massive records of

data needed to find statistics of a certain test research programme can easily be

achieved because of the help of AI.

With relevance to Value Judgement and its prevention from AI, many countries
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are also trying to develop programs which are biased towards one particular scenario

as this will cause problems including those with the likes of war and trust issues among

people in that particular country. The bias nature of the people who develop a machine

acts as a great opporunity to make robots for a whole field of work. This can include

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how a robot can act as a judge in a court by using speech recognition and checking

the law for such a case. The only thing that is impossible when creating robots is to

make them fully unbiased just like the quality of humans and judges in court.

Many different countries are not only focused on how AI can handle Value

Judgement of different sorts, but also how they affect economy and make biotechnical

breakthroughs by using the different means. The accuracy of AI is undeniable as the

programmers make use of Test Data in order to check whether their program functions

correctly or not. However, even if there is the slightest error in a program, huge

conflicts can occur in a matter of seconds. For example, if the production of drugs and

medicine, if exact proportions are not used, then there can be overdose of a particular

drug which can cause death. To prevent this problem, compnies pay experienced

programmers and a team of chemists or biologists to work on this project by taking

accurate aparatus and use the test data for a particular batch of medicines. An error

caused in a database of a very reputable bank can cause losses of millions or even

billions of dollars. This will lead to an overall harm to the whole country. Banks

therefore take the precaution of testing their databases carefully and checking to see

for errors. They also need careful, cautious and effecient employees.

Possible Scenarios:

Possible Scenario 1: Robots may have such a positive influence on humans such

that they can make bionic humans10 or cyborgs.

10 IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. (2017). Bionic Man is The Future of
Humans, Not Robots. [online] Available at: https://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/medical-
robots/bionic-man-is-the-future-of-humans-not-robots [Accessed 27 Nov. 2017].
8 TV Tropes. (2017). Cyborg - TV Tropes. [online] Available at:

http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/Cyborg [Accessed 27 Nov. 2017].


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Evaluation: This change can occur by the quick growth of biotechnology and other

fields of sciences and mathematics which surround the topic of AI or technology. Many

experienced computer scientist also suggest that robots have already reached on a

state that they can be programmed to «be human» or act as if they are part of a society.

3D printing can also change this as it can be used in prosthetics along with

programmers who are willing to use speech recogition and reaction to human-like

behaviour for Value Judgement to occur in a robot’s CPU. This is further complimented

by how a robot named Sophia (made by Hanson RoboticsTM) has been granted

citizenship by Saudi Arabia.

Outcome: This all will lead to the progress of humans and will cut manual labour down

by a large percentile as they will be replaced by robots to do the same jobs. AI demand

will increase and the only industry that will dominantly reign will be Computer Science

and avocational needs must be fulfilled by humans to achieve greater technology.

Also, if cyborgs will exist as biotechnical beings, they can be used to do jobs that both

the robots and humans can perform such as being a valid judge without having to learn

everything about Law and Criminality as all this information will be stored in the robot

that will be transmitting all of this to your brain. The possibilities in such a future are as

endless as the knowledge that we can concieve and the different types of actions that

we can take.

Possible Scenario 2: Mass production or robotic production of robots themselves can


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lead to issues that us humans have already experienced; overpopulation.

Evaluation: This type of future can result to robotic domination and humans will be

overthrown by the race of robots. Only the best of us will be able to survive as the

cause for living would be to make breakthroughs in Computer Science. Other subjects

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will only have some elements of computer science as it will help in research12. Also,

astonomy will be a demanding subject as the newer types of technology in space

shuttles will result in more research done by robots about interstellar space.

Outcomes: This will result in progress for the combined races of the humans and the

robots as the research gathered with the newest types of gadgets will help implement

ideas and prove theoretical ideas that have been proposed. This may also lead to

problems such as survival of the fittest kind, as the majority humans may strive for

making breakthroughs and will have created a bad future for themselves. This will lead

to robots with similar emotions or expressions as humans along with human attributes.

The world may fully be replaced by robots and this will lead to negative outcomes for

humans.

Course of Action:

Local: People in a local environment are usually supportive of the new era of

technology and some even start small businesses or entrepreneurships. They may

also find some jobs in this field as the employment rates are going higher and higher.

However, youth unemployment rate that is nearly three times higher than for the adult

population as a whole. To take advantage of this potential demographic dividend in

the face of rapid technological change, existing job creation strategies will need to be

complemented by new approaches and designs, such as a major focus on promoting

entrepreneurship. If people don’t come up with a good idea to start their projects, they

may not make it far into their field of business. This shows how AI may be good or bad

depending on its economical and avocational implications on people in a local area.

National: Many people are nowadays nationally joining popular technological

companies that provide permanent jobs. This also results in higher employment rates

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along with higher government intake of taxes. Also, the culture of many people who

regularly use technology or gadgets related to AI may lead to a huge and impacting

cultural change as many people with change their cultural perspectives and join the

culture of what the newest «trend» is. This shows that how in some cases, technology

is best left alone such as the impact on culture as it may result in a cult of a following.

However, in other cases, we should progress and support the idea of IT across the

globe and your country. An educational change may be that teachers who teach

Information Technology (IT), will be in high demand as many schools or parents would

want to teach their children/students more about IT to create a set of fundamentals as

to what their future job may be. It would most likely be one in the technological industry

because of the high demand and average or above average wages which is

complemented by the employement related outcomes/problems mentioned in the local

perspective.

Global: MNCs worldwide may offer money to the government of a particular country

because of the amount of technitians available there for a low wage along with

following a particular skill set. This is rare but will result into a huge economic rise in

the country . Also, many huge companies who are related to technology will compete
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to be the better one in terms of both quality and quantity of the products that they

create. This will lead to higher employement rates worldwide depending on various

different factors along with how each company will try to see who has the best staff

and how good the CEO is at managing them. There will also be similar impacts

worlwide as mentioned in the national and local prespective written above. This

altogether shows how cultural, economical and avocational problems can be fixed with

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the use of common knowldge as well as informed decisions that should be made by

people in power (pertaning to a school, business, government, etc ). 14

Final Conclusion:

Many researches including mine have reached to a conclusion in common. AI can be

harmful for the extinction of some cultures as many people prefer AI to give them

guidance on what things to do. This also leads to some unemployement and some

mass employement in others. Economical changes can be profitable to the country or

disadvantegeous to it. In conclusion, AI can be consequential in influencing things

related to humans and looking at it from different global perspectives by taking the

evidence from reliable sources in mind, this statement can be and has been proven.

9 CB Insights Research. (2017). Old School Vs. New School: How Artificial Intelligence Is
Transforming Cybersecurity. [online] Available at: https://www.cbinsights.com/research/cybersecurity-
ai-startups-threat-trends/ [Accessed 29 Nov. 2017].
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Bibliography:

 Artificial Intellignce : Future of Life Institute. (2017). Benefits & Risks of Artificial

Intelligence - Future of Life Institute. [online] Available at:

https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/

[Accessed 29 Nov. 2017].

 Avocation : Merriam-webster.com. (2017). Definition of AVOCATION. [online]

Available at: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/avocation

[Accessed 29 Nov. 2017].

 CEO (Chief Executive Officer) : Forbesglobalceoconference.com.

(2017). Forbes Global CEO Conference 2017. [online] Available at:

http://www.forbesglobalceoconference.com/ [Accessed 29 Nov. 2017].

 Economic Distribution : The Economic Times. (2017). Definition of Distribution

| What is Distribution ? Distribution Meaning - The Economic Times. [online]

Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/distribution

[Accessed 29 Nov. 2017].

 Inequality : Unicef.org. (2017). Inequality in employment - State of the World's

Children 2007: Gender equality. [online] Available at:

https://www.unicef.org/sowc07/profiles/inequality_employment.php [Accessed

29 Nov. 2017].

 Manual Labour : Collinsdictionary.com. (2017). Manual labour definition and

meaning | Collins English Dictionary. [online] Available at:

https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/manual-labour [Accessed

29 Nov. 2017] . 15

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 MNC (Multi-National Co-operation) :

 Sophia (Artificially Intelligent Robot) : Hanson Robotics Ltd. (2017). Hanson's

Living Robots - Hanson Robotics Ltd.. [online] Available at:

http://www.hansonrobotics.com/hansons-living-robots/ [Accessed 29 Nov.

2017].

Annexures:

 There are many benefits and disadvantages of AI: Future of Life Institute.

(2017). Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence - Future of Life Institute.

[online] Available at: https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-

artificial-intelligence/ [Accessed 29 Nov. 2017].

 Automation will lead to big steps in humankind if implemented correctly

with AI: IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News.

(2017). When Will We Have Robots To Help With Household Chores?.

[online] Available at:

https://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/home-robots/when-will-

we-have-robots-to-help-with-household-chores [Accessed 29 Nov.

2017].

 Fourth Industrial Revolution regarding AI: World Economic Forum.

(2017). Archive. [online] Available at:

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/archive/fourth-industrial-revolution

[Accessed 29 Nov. 2017] . 16

 My main source of getting information about AI and how to tackle my

RQ: World Economic Forum. (2017). The World Economic Forum.

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[online] Available at: https://www.weforum.org/ [Accessed 29 Nov.

2017].

 Website used for citation: Cite This For Me. (2017). Save Time and

Improve your Marks with CiteThisForMe, The No. 1 Citation Tool.

[online] Available at: http://www.citethisforme.com/ [Accessed 29 Nov.

2017].

 Search engine used: Google.com.sg. (2017). Google. [online] Available

at: https://www.google.com.sg/ [Accessed 29 Nov. 2017].

 AI ethical issues: World Economic Forum. (2017). Top 9 ethical issues

in artificial intelligence. [online] Available at:

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/10/top-10-ethical-issues-in-

artificial-intelligence/ [Accessed 29 Nov. 2017] .


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