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Animal Research

Anahil Alcaraz Garcia, Marieli Avalos,


Madison Grant, Jennie McDonald
What is animal research?
Experimentation carried out on animals
They do multiple studies to see if their data is
accurate
Done for 5 main purposes:
● Fundamental studies
● Medical and veterinary purposes
● Regulatory testing
● Product development
● Education
Main animals used - mice, rats, birds, rabbits,
guinea pigs, hamsters, farm animals, dogs,
primates, cats, frogs, fish
Where do lab animals come from?
Around 25 million animals used yearly
Most used 3:
1. Mice
2. Rats
3. Birds
Most are “purpose-bred”- bred
specifically for lab use
Some from:
● auctions/news ads/shelters
● the wild (some monkeys and birds)
How is animal research conducted?
● Put in cages and monitored
● Usually test products on skin or eyes
● Researchers try to make similar aspects of a disease in the animal to have
an animal model for the certain disease
Types of animal research conducted
1. Genetic engineering in mice (gene
knockouts and knockins)
2. Xenotransplantation
3. Eye irritancy
4. Acute toxicity
5. Repeated dose toxicity
6. Skin irritation
7. Dermal penetration
8. Neurotoxicity
9. Carcinogenicity & Mutagenicity
10. Wildlife observation
11. Dissection
What are the legal stipulations?
Two major animal protection laws:
Animal Welfare Act
● Minimum standards of living for test
animals
● Does NOT restrict use of animals for
research
Public Health Service Policy on Humane
Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
● Reinforces AWA
● Restricts funding from PHS until
research facilities comply with
standards
What are the legal stipulations?
Punishments for animal mistreatment:
● Small fines ($1,000-$10,000)
● Second degree results in being fined and jail
time for 6+ months
● First degree causing serious injuries to an
animal or even killing leads to being fined
and jail time for 1 year
Will laws for animal research change in the near
future?
Still many people who are
concerned about not having animal
testing
Many laws are being made to stop
animal testing
Laws are already being changed in
other countries
● Ex: europe banned cosmetic
testing on animals
Will laws for animal research change in the near
future?
What companies conduct this research?
Makeup cosmetics: Estee Lauder, LVMH, Lancome, Maybelline,
Mary Kay, AXE, Gucci Fragrances, & Victoria’s Secret

Family companies: Clorox, Procter & Gamble, Johnson &


Johnson, SC Johnson, Colgate-Palmolive, Church & Dwight

Medication: Advil, Alcon Labs (eye care), Bausch and Lomb


(contact lenses), Neutrogena (acne), and Biotherm (skin
care), and Tylenol
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lb9w-XtaYA
Why are animals used?
● Biomedical research
● Basic research
● Find new research
● Test harmful chemicals
● Educational purposes
Famous cases of animal research/test animal
neglect
Koko the gorilla
● Learned sign language
The Silver Springs monkeys
● 17 monkeys in neurological testing
● Led to initial publicity of PETA
Dover the chimpanzee
● Overheating during move
● Fined only $1357 for negligence
What happens to the animals after they are used?
Misconception: animal can be released back into wild or adopted
Very few places can take research animals when they are done being
tested on
Try to euthanize quickly with:
● Gas
● Sedatives and anesthetics
● Decapitation and breaking the spine (used in mainly small
animals, quick)
● Brain irradiation (mostly rodents)
● Electrocution for larger animals
● Sometimes gunshots
Depending on health, are used for more testing
Alternatives to animal testing
● In vitro testing
● Stem cells and genetic testing
methods
● Computerized patient-drug
databases and virtual drug trials
● MRIs and CT Scans
● Microdosing-“Microdosing is the
practice of regularly taking
certain psychedelic drugs in
drastically lower doses (typically
1/10 or 1/20) than normally
used for a “trip” or high” (#42).
How is animal research portrayed by
the media?
Overwhelmingly negative and critical spotlight
● Used because it makes sensational news stories
● Many movies portray animal researchers as
cruel/evil (Rise of the Planet of the Apes, The
Plague Dog, etc.)
● PETA advertises heavily, using scare tactics
On positive portrayals:
● Animals are generally not honored when
breakthroughs are made
● Koko the gorilla was heavily reported on for
exciting breakthroughs in language development
Cost
Pros Cons

● When test is finished, it can help ● Expensive


people live healthy and they get ● Impossible for regulators to
their money back evaluate properly
● Fines from animal mistreatment
are relatively low which allows
inhumane research to continue
Religious beliefs
Pros Cons

● Traditions allow for people to ● According to Christianity,


dominate animals animals have the ability to go
● Allows if ethical heaven and therefore are similar
● Animal sacrifices were done in to humans
ancient cultures for religious
reasons
Morals
Pros Cons

● Many of the animals used in ● Research may go towards a


research do not have similar cause people are against (testing
levels of intelligence or contraceptives, etc.)
cognition as humans ● Sometimes isn’t safe after
testing anyways
● Animals are forced into doing
things
Impact on the future
Cons
Pros
● Can take months or years to complete
● Spares humans from suffering for one test
science ● Costs a ton of money - more expensive
● Short lifespans of animals make than promising alternatives
scientific progress quicker ● In silico modelling has quick results and
● Can lead to discoveries for is a lot less expensive
animal health ● Animal testing might become inferior in
the future with a lot of new methods of
testing being made
Research
Pros Cons

● Animals have been used to find medical ● Different biological system than humans
breakthroughs for over 100 years (helped and may give false positives/negatives
raise survival rates for deadly diseases like ● Testing still has to go through humans to
cancer and AIDS) be used - pointless to test on animals if
● Researchers are held to standards of you have to test on humans
decency ● A majority of animals (around 95 percent)
● Some antibiotics, painkillers and used for research are not protected by the
tranquilizers are the same for humans as animal welfare act
animals
● Most research is done on small animals
like birds, mice, rats, and fish
● Effective method of teaching about
anatomy
Alternatives: In Vitro testing

Pros Cons

● It allows for more detailed ● Mostly performed on cancerous


analysis of organisms cell lines that tend to have
abnormal lines
● Can’t always be reliable
Alternatives: Stem cells/genetic testing
Pros Cons

● It can lead to finding a cure or ● Research may be conducted on


finding a better treatment aborted fetuses
● It can give great insights about ● We still have a lot to learn about
the basics of the body genetics
Alternatives: virtual drug testing
Pros Cons

● Does not require the use of ● Still not 100% safe


animals ● Reaction is based on a single cell
● Faster
● Cheaper
● More accurate
Alternatives: non-invasive scans
Pros Cons

● A safer method done on humans ● Dangerous for children


to observe specific diseases such ● Unsuitable for women who are
as cancers pregnant
● Faster and has fewer restrictions ● Concerns over radiation
● Not harmful when done
correctly
● CT Scan, Ultrasound, retinal
imaging
Alternatives: Microdosing
Pros Cons

● Does not affect the whole body ● stressed or anxious = “bad trip”
system ● Lack of research
● Can increase wellness ● Potential to interact with other
● Can be difficult to track effects medications
Discussion
In the case of animal research, do the ends justify the means? Why or why not?
Discussion
In the case of animal research, do the ends justify the means? Why or why not?

At what point should we draw a line when it comes to animal research?


Discussion
In the case of animal research, do the ends justify the means? Why or why not?

At what point should we draw a line when it comes to animal research?

How can we regulate animal research so that it does not limit scientific
progress?
Discussion
In the case of animal research, do the ends justify the means? Why or why not?

At what point should we draw a line when it comes to animal research?

How can we regulate animal research so that it does not limit scientific progress?

Should animal research standards vary by country? What impact does/would


this have on international markets?
Discussion
In the case of animal research, do the ends justify the means? Why or why not?

At what point should we draw a line when it comes to animal research?

How can we regulate animal research so that it does not limit scientific progress?

Should animal research standards vary by country? What impact does/would this
have on international markets?

What should be our basis for animals deemed different enough from humans to
be tested on?
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