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In 1998, Fingerhut Company had been a thriving mail order retailer with annual
revenues of $2 billion. It was making a successful transition to electronic commerce.
This venerable catalogue company was rapidly opening Internet Web sites and buying
equity stakes in other on-line retailers. With its expertise in filling and shipping catalogue
orders, Fingerhut successfully marketed its order-fulfillment competency on a contract
basis to other companies, such as eToys and Wal-Mart. Business analysts were
impressed by Fingerhut’s diversification strategy. Fortune magazine declared Fingerhut
one of the “ten companies that get it.” Impressed with the company’s performance,
Federated Department Stores acquired Fingerhut in February 1999 for $1.7 billion.
Federated’s management confidently predicted that the corporation’s overall Internet
sales would reach $2 billion to 3 billion by 2004 with the addition of Fingerhut.
Twenty months after purchasing Fingerhut, Federated discovered that its Internet
sales had only reached $180 million and were not likely to go much higher anytime
soon. Management found that although Fingerhut had an excellent strategy for the
Internet and its catalogue businesses, its implementation of that strategy had been
dismal. Fingerhut’s fulfilment contracts had dropped from 22 to 8 after allegations of
poor service and a very visible dispute with eToys. The company had also mismanaged
its plan to provide additional credit to its catalogue customers. The result was a number
of special charges and layoffs totalling around $400 million in 2000. As a result,
Federated’s stock dropped 35% in value. What went wrong? According to a former
Fingerhut executive, “The infrastructure was always a step-and-a-half behind.”


Strategy Implementation is the sum total of the activities and choices required for the
execution of a strategic plan. It is the process by which strategies and policies are put
into action through the development of programs, budgets, and procedures. Although
implementation is usually considered after strategy has been formulated,
implementation is a key part of strategic management. The Federated Department
Stores acquisition of Fingerhut to create an Internet presence is one example of how a
good strategy can result in a disaster through poor strategy implementation. Strategy
formulation and strategy implementation should thus be considered as two sides of the
same coin.
T o begin the implementation process, strategists must consider three questions:
 Who are the people who will carry out the strategic plan?
 What must be done?
 How are they going to do what is needed?
Management should have addressed these questions and similar ones initially when
they analyzed the pros and cons of strategic alternatives, but the questions must be
addressed again before management can make appropriate implementation plans.
Unless top management can answer these basic questions satisfactorily, even the
best-planned strategy is unlikely to provide the desired outcome.
A survey of 93 Fortune 500 U.S. firms revealed that over half of the corporations
experienced the following 10 problems (listed in order of frequency) when they
attempted to implement a strategic change:
1. Slower implementation than originally planned.
2. Unanticipated major problems.
3. Ineffective coordination of activities.
4. Competing activities and crises that distracted attention away from
5. Insufficient capabilities of the involved employees.
6. Inadequate training and instruction of lower-level employees.
7. Uncontrollable external environmental factors.
8. Inadequate leadership and direction by departmental managers.
9. Poor definition of key implementation tasks and activities.
10. Inadequate monitoring of activities by the information system.
Fingerhut experienced almost all of these problems in the Internet expansion.
Depending on how the corporation is organized, those who implement strategy will
probably be a much more diverse group of people than those who formulate it. In most
large, multi-industry corporations, the implementers will be everyone in the organization.
Vice presidents of functional areas and directors of divisions or business units will work
with their subordinates to put together large-scale implementation plans. Plant
managers, project managers, and unit heads will put together plans for their specific
plants, departments, and units. Therefore, every operational manager down to the first
line supervisor and every employee will be involved in some way in implementing
corporate, business, and functional strategies.


The managers of divisions and functional areas work with their fellow mangers to
develop programs, budgets, and procedures for the implementation of strategy. They
also work to achieve synergy among the divisions and functional areas in order to
establish and maintain a company’s competence.



What programs must be developed?

A program is a statement of the activities or steps needed to accomplish a single-use
plan. The purpose of a program is to make the strategy action-oriented. For example,
instead of competing with Coca-Cola in every market, PepsiCo decided to concentrate
on supermarkets where Pepsi had its greatest sales. To implement this strategy, the
company developed a program call the “Power of One.” The purpose of the strategy
was to move Pepsi soft drinks next to Frito-Lay chips so that shoppers would be
tempted to pick up both when they chose one. As a result of this program, Frito-Lay
increased its market share and Pepsi-Cola’s sales rose.
What budgets must be developed?
A budget is a statement of a corporation’s programs in dollar terms. After programs are
developed, the budget process begins. Planning a budget is the last real check or a
corporation has on the feasibility of its selected strategy. An ideal strategy might be
found to be completely impractical only after specific implementation programs are
costed in detail. For example, PepsiCo’s management approved the “Power of One”
program only after it ensured that the anticipated increases in sales volume would more
than offset the total budget for the program.

What new procedures must be developed?

Procedures, sometimes termed “Standard Operating Procedures” (SOPs), are a
system of sequential steps or techniques that describe in detail how a particular task or
job is to be done. After program, divisional, and corporate budgets are approved, SOPs
must be developed or revised. They typically detail the various activities that must be
carried out to complete a corporation’s program.
In the case of PepsiCo’s “Power of One” program, the company’s salespeople
developed a set of procedures to persuade supermarket managers to add shelf space
and displays in poorer-performing locations, to display snack foods with soft drinks, and
to bring the two products together at end-of-aisle displays. They wrote a series of
procedures to ensure the ideal display of snack foods and soft drinks in supermarkets
given various types of store layouts. These procedures were incorporated in sales aids
and information sheets given to the sales force and explained in monthly sales


One of the goals to be achieved in strategy implementation is synergy between and
among functions and business units, which is why corporations commonly reorganize
after an acquisition. The acquisition or development of additional product lines is often
justified on the basis of achieving some advantages of scale in one or more of a
company’s functional areas. Synergy can take place in one of six ways: shared know-
how, coordinated strategies, shared tangible resources, economies of scale or scope,
pooled negotiating power, and new business creation.
For example, the Federated Department Stores purchase of Fingerhut was
justified on the basis that Fingerhut would help Federated to bolster its own Internet and
catalogue operations. Since the acquisitions, Fingerhut has successfully assumed
control of Federated’s order-fulfillment center and has started to handle some of
Federated’s catalogue and Internet sales from its own warehouses.


Before plans can lead to actual performance, top management must ensure that the
corporation is appropriately organized, programs are adequately staffed, and activities
are being directed toward the achievement of desired objectives.

Does structure follow strategy?

In a classic study of large U.S. corporations such as DuPont, General Motors, Sears,
and Standard Oil, Alfred Chandler concluded that structure follows strategy – that is
changes in corporate strategy lead to changes in organizational structure. He also
concluded that organizations follow a pattern of development from one kind of structural
arrangement to another as they expand. According to him, these structural changes
occur because inefficiencies caused by the old structure have, by being pushed too far,
become too obviously detrimental to live with. Chandler therefore proposed the
following sequence of what occurs:
1. New strategy is created.
2. New administrative problems emerge.
3. Economic performance declines.
4. New appropriate structure is invented.
5. Profit returns to its previous level.
What are the stages of corporate development?
Successful corporations tend to follow a pattern of structural development, called
stages of development, as they grow and expand. Beginning with the simple structure
of the entrepreneurial firm (in which everybody does everything), they usually (if they
are successful) get larger and organize along functional lines with marketing,
production, and finance departments. With continuing success, the company adds new
product lines in different industries and organizes itself into interconnected divisions.
 Stage 1. Simple Structure. It is completely centralized in the entrepreneur, who
founds the company to promote an idea (product or service). The entrepreneur
tends to make all the important decisions personally and is involved in every
detail and phase of the organization. This is labelled by Greiner as a crisis of
 Stage 2. Functional Structure. It is the point when the entrepreneur is replaced
by a team of managers who have functional specializations. The transition to this
stage requires a substantial managerial style change for the chief officer of the
company, especially if he or she was the Stage1 entrepreneur. Otherwise, having
additional staff members yield no benefits to the organization.
 Stage 3. Divisional Structure. It is typified by the corporation’s managing
diverse product lines in numerous industries; it decentralizes the decision-making
authority. These organizations grow by diversifying their product lines and
expanding to cover wider geographic areas. They move to a divisional structure
with a central headquarters and decentralized operating divisions. A crisis of
control can now develop.
 Stage 4. Beyond SBUs. It is emerging as a structure that goes beyond the
divisional form.

Why is reengineering important to strategy implementation?

Reengineering is the radical redesign of business processes to achieve major gains
in cost, service, or time. It is not in itself a type of structure, nut it is an effective way
to implement a turnaround strategy. Reengineering strives to break away from the
old rules and procedures that develop and become ingrained in every organization
over the years. These may be a combination of policies, rules, and procedures that
have never been seriously questioned since they were established years earlier.
Michael Hammer, who popularized the concept, suggests the following principles
for reengineering:
 Organize around outcomes, not tasks.
 Have those who use the output of the process perform the process.
 Subsume information-processing into the real work that produces the
 Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized.
 Link parallel activities instead of integrating their results.
 Capture information once and at the source.

How can jobs be designed to implement strategy?

Job design is the rethinking of individual tasks in order to make them more
relevant to the company and to the employee(s). In an effort to minimize some of the
adverse consequences of task specialization, corporations have turned to new job
design techniques: Job enlargement (combining tasks to give a worker more of the
same type of duties to perform), job rotation (moving workers through several jobs to
increase variety), and job enrichment (altering jobs by giving the worker more
autonomy and control over activities).

SOURCE: Essentials of Strategic Management (Third Edition)

J. David Hunger
Thomas L. Wheelen