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Materi 05

Implementasi Strategi
Sistem Informasi

SN 207 - PSSI

SN 207 - PSSI

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Implementasi Strategi

IS/IT strategy implementation can be


defined as the process of completing the
projects for application of information
technology to assist an organization in
realizing its goals.

SN 207 - PSSI

Implementasi SI

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Faktor Penting Dalam Implementasi
Strategi SI/TI
Kebutuhan sumber daya pada implementasi
SI/TI:
– Kebutuhan dana
– Kemampuan teknis
– Kebutuhan sumber daya manusia
– Waktu pengerjaan oleh tim (internal –
eksternal/vendor)
– Konsultan eksternal/vendor
– Pengguna/implementor dari SI/TI yang
dikembangkan tersebut
SN 207 - PSSI

Faktor Penting Dalam Implementasi


Strategi SI/TI
Keterlibatan pengguna sewaktu implementasi:
– Training dan pelatihan kepada pengguna
– Pengguna memahami fungsi keberadaan SI/TI
– Keterlibatan pengguna dalam proyek pengembangan
SI/TI
– Keterlibatan pengguna pada saat pengoperasian
SI/TI
– Partisipasi seluruh elemen dalam
organisasi/perusahaan pada saat proyek
pengembangan SI/TI berlangsung
– Dukungan pengguna pada saat implementasi SI/TI

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Faktor Penting Dalam Implementasi
Strategi SI/TI
Solusi terhadap hambatan sepanjang
implementasi SI/TI:
– Solusi persoalan yang disebabkan oleh kerahasiaan
pekerjaan
– Solusi persoalan yang disebabkan perubahan posisi
– Solusi persoalan yang disebabkan adanya kebutuhan
terhadap keahlian baru (sistem SI/TI baru)
– Solusi persoalan yang disebabkan sikap skeptis/tidak
percaya bahwa solusi SI/TI dapat memecahkan
persoalan
– Solusi persoalan yang disebabkan “kepentingan” dari
masing-masing fungsi yang ada
– Solusi persoalan yang berasal dari pelanggan
SN 207 - PSSI

Faktor Penting Dalam Implementasi


Strategi SI/TI
Bentuk pertanggungjawaban implementasi SI/TI:
– Pertanggungjawaban terhadap waktu
– Pertanggungjawaban terhadap
pendanaan/anggaran
– Pertanggungjawaban terhadap keuntungan yang
diharapkan
– Pertanggungjawaban terhadap kebijakan
implementasi proyek besar
– Pertanggungjawaban terhadap prioritas proyek
– Pertanggungjawaban terhadap keuntungan jangka
pendek dari proyek yang dikerjakan
– Penghargaan terhadap keberhasilan implementasi
SI/TI
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Faktor Penting Dalam Implementasi
Strategi SI/TI
Dukungan manajemen terhadap implementasi
SI/TI:
– Harapan manajemen terhadap implementasi SI/TI
– Partisipasi dan keterlibatan manajemen dalam
implementasi SI/TI
– Pengawasan manajemen terhadap implementasi
SI/TI
– Pengetahuan manajemen terhadap implementasi
SI/TI
– Kebutuhan waktu dalam implementasi SI/TI
– Antusiasme manajement terhadap implementasi SI/TI
SN 207 - PSSI

Faktor Penting Dalam Implementasi


Strategi SI/TI

Kebutuhan TI pada saat implementasi:


– Hardware
– Communication technology
– Database
– Applications software
– Operating systems
– A data infrastructure

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Aspek Penting Lainnya
Analisis terhadap (kebutuhan) organisasi
Antisipasi terhadap perubahan lingkungan
eksternal
Relevansi proyek terhadap perencanaan
bisnis secara keseluruhan
Penjelasan detail terhadap strategi
implementasi SI/TI

SN 207 - PSSI

Ketidaksesuian Dengan Tujuan Diketahui

Pembelajaran terhadap evaluasi hasil


Pendekatan dan revisi terhadap strategi
pengembangan/implementasi SI/TI
Perbaikan terhadap strategi SI/TI
Kebutuhan terhadap strategi SI/TI baru
kemungkinan diperlukan

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Evaluasi Manfaat SI/TI

SN 207 - PSSI

BPR dan Strategi SI


Implementasi Strategi SI menyebabkan
perubahan pada struktur maupun
operasionalisasi perusahaan.
Business Process Re-engineering
merupakan “dampak ikutan” implementasi
Strategi SI.
Diperlukan kesiapan
organisasi/perusahaan dalam
implementasi Strategi SI

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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING

The search for, and implementation of,


radical change in business processes
to achieve breakthrough results.
Synonyms: business process redesign,
business transformation, process
innovation, business reinvention,
change integration
Starting point: clean sheet of paper

SN 207 - PSSI

BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING

BPR is not easy - serious work

BPR is not free - financial & cultural

BPR often driven by fear (ketakutan) and


greed (ketamakan)

Change is a “struggle”; BPR is a “war”

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Levels of Organisational Transformation

High
Degree of Business Transformation
B u sine ss S co pe
R e definition

B usine ss N e tw ork
R e design

B usine ss P rocess
R ed esig n

In ternal Integration

Loca lised E xplo itation


Low

Low H ig h
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R an ge o f P oten tial B e nefits

Levels of Distinctive Characteristics


Transformation
Localized Leveraging of IT to redesign focused, high-value areas
Exploitation

Internal Use of IT capability to create a seamless organizational process,


Integration encompassing both technical interconnectivity and organizational
interdependence

Business Process Redesigning key processes to derive organizational capabilities for


Redesign competing in the future

Business Network Redesign of the nature of exchange among participants in a business


Redesign network for the enhanced provision of products and services,
coordination, control and to learn from the extended network

Business Scope Redefining the corporate scope, adjustment of internal activities, new
Redefinition partnerships and alliances along the value chain
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Hal Penting Dalam BPR

Tentukan strategi bisnis sebagai patokan utama

Dimulai dari ‘atas’


atas’ – Top Management

Ciptakan skala prioritas

Desain dimulai dari luar (customer)


customer)

Kombinasi pekerjaan yang bersifat top-


top-down &

bottom-
bottom-up
SN 207 - PSSI

Strategi BPR

Penilaian oleh stakeholder  shareholders,


customers, employees
Menentukan harapan stakeholder dengan
keunggulan kompetitif yang ingin dicapai
Menentukan bagaimana melakukan re-design
Memetakan solusi TI dan pendukungnya
Mengembangkan dan mengimplementasikan
proses yang baru
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Business Process

SN 207 - PSSI

Business Process Reengineering

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KEY STEP

Select The Process & Appoint Process Team

Understand The Current Process

Develop & Communicate Vision Of Improved Process

Identify Action Plan

Execute Plan

SN 207 - PSSI

Select the Process & Appoint Process Team

Two Crucial Tasks

– Select The Process to be Reengineered

– Appoint the Process Team to Lead the


Reengineering Initiative

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Select the Process
Review Business Strategy and Customer
Requirements

Select Core Processes

Understand Customer Needs

Don’t Assume Anything

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Select the Process


Select Correct Path for Change

Remember Assumptions can Hide


Failures

Competition and Choice to Go Elsewhere

Ask - Questionnaires, Meetings, Focus


Groups
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Appoint the Process Team

Appoint BPR Champion

Identify Process Owners

Establish Executive Improvement Team

Provide Training to Executive Team

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Core Skills Required


Capacity to view the organization as a
whole

Ability to focus on end-customers

Ability to challenge fundamental


assumptions

Courage to deliver and venture into


unknown areas SN 207 - PSSI

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Core Skills Required

Ability to assume individual and collective


responsibility

Employ ‘Bridge Builders’

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Use of Consultants

Used to generate internal capacity


Appropriate when a implementation is
needed quickly
Ensure that adequate consultation is
sought from staff so that the initiative is
organization-led and not consultant-driven
Control should never be handed over to
the consultant

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Understand the Current Process

Develop a Process Overview


Clearly define the process
– Mission
– Scope
– Boundaries
Set business and customer measurements
Understand customers expectations from
the process (staff including process team)

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Understand the Current Process


Clearly Identify Improvement
Opportunities
– Quality
– Rework
Document the Process
– Cost
– Time
– Value Data
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Understand the Current Process

Carefully resolve any inconsistencies


– Existing -- New Process
– Ideal -- Realistic Process

SN 207 - PSSI

Develop & Communicate Vision of Improved Process

Communicate with all employees so that


they are aware of the vision of the future

Always provide information on the


progress of the BPR initiative - good and
bad.

Demonstrate assurance that the BPR


initiative is both necessary and properly
managed
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Develop & Communicate Vision of
Improved Process
Promote individual development by indicating
options that are available

Indicate actions required and those responsible

Tackle any actions that need resolution

Direct communication to reinforce new patterns of


desired behavior
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Identify Action Plan


Develop an Improvement Plan

Appoint Process Owners

Simplify the Process to Reduce Process


Time

Remove any Bureaucracy that may hinder


implementation
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Identify Action Plan

Remove no-value-added activities

Standardize Process and Automate Where


Possible

Up-grade Equipment

Plan/schedule the changes


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Identify Action Plan

Construct in-house metrics and targets

Introduce and firmly establish a feedback


system

Audit, Audit, Audit

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Execute Plan

Qualify/certify the process


Perform periodic qualification reviews
Define and eliminate process problems
Evaluate the change impact on the
business and on customers
Benchmark the process
Provide advanced team training

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