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OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

Objective:

To study the open channel flow in a rectangular channel

Apparatus

Tilting flume

Weir plate

Stop watch

THEORY:

As the atmospheric pressure remains constant through the length of


duct so the fluid flows only due to the difference in potential energy. According
to Ivan Gramatikov (n.d) flow rate of water in a channel is the product of its
area with the velocity of water through that area Q=A×V. Where A is area of
cross section and V is velocity of the fluid. Volumetric flow rate is the ratio of
volume of flowing fluid to the time taken Q=∆V/t. Area of the rectangular
channel is the product of its width with the depth of the water flowing through
that area=b ×y_o. Where b is the width of the rectangular channel and y_o is
the depth of the flow. According to David Knighton Wetted perimeter is the
perimeter used for the wet cross section area. In an open channel flow, it can
be defined as the sum of the sides of channels those are in direct contact with
the flowing fluid. With the increase in wetted perimeter the friction losses
increase resulting in the decrease in heat. H = V2 / 2g + d + z
PROCEDURE:

1. Set up the tilting flume with the slope adjusted by 1 revolution of the
tilting screw.

2. Switch on the power for supply.

3. Adjust the water supply so that depth of flow in channels uniform at


all sections.

4. Measure the width of the channel and depth of flow, and also note the
slope of the flume and record.

5. Adjust the tilting screw and/or quantity of flow rate for another trial
and repeat steps 3 and 4.

6. Make up to 5 trials by adjusting slope of flume and quantity of


discharge.

DATA

Trial Volume Time S Area Perimeter

1 10 4.08 0.00146 0.1297

2 10 4.67 0.00163 0.1285

3 10 4.56 0.00159 0.1276

4 10 4.31 0.00155 0.1267


CONCLUSION:

Difference between the values of these two flow rates is because the theoretical
flow rate depends on the slope of the channel bed and also on the other factory like
manning roughness coefficient but the measure flow rate depends only on the area and
velocity of the fluid through that area. Applying the same flow rate at different slopes
has shown that the change in the slope of bed change the theoretical flow rate value as it
depends on the depth of the flow. Value of theoretical flow rate at 0.002 gradient is less
than the value at the 0.005 gradient, this show that increasing the gradient increase the
theoretical flow rate while the measured flow rate remains the same.