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1 Period Table & Periodicity

1 in Properties
SECTION – I : STRAIGHT OBJECTIVE TYPE

1.1 Consider the following statements:


(I) Rutherford name was associated with the development of periodic table.
(II) A metal M having electronic configuration 1s2, 2s2, 2p2, 3s2, 3d10, 4S1 is d-block element.
(III) Diamond is not an element.
(IV) The electronic configuration of the most electronegative elements is 1s2, 2s2, 2p5,
and select the correct one from the given codes.
(A) I,II, IV (B) I, II, III, IV (C) II, IV (D) I, III, IV
1.2 There are four elements ‘p’, ‘q’, ‘r’ and ‘s’ having atomic numbers Z-1, Z, Z+1 and Z+2
respectively. If there element ‘q’ is an inert gas, select the correct answers from the following
statements.
(i) ‘p’ has most negative electron gain enthalpy in the respective period.
(ii) ‘r’ is an alkali metal.
(iii) ‘s’ exists in +2 oxidation state.
(A) (i) and (ii) (B) (ii) and (iii) (C) (i) and (iii) (D) (i), (ii) and (iii)
1.3 Which of the following orders is correct for the size?
(1) Mg2+ < Na+ < F- Al
(2) Al3+ < Mg2+ Li+ < K+
(3) Fe4+ < Fe3+ < Fe2+ < Fe
(4) Mg > Al > Si > P
(A) (1), (2) & (3) (B) (2), (3) & (4) (C)(1), (3) & (5) (D)(1), 2), (3) & (4)
1.4 Which of the following orders are correct for the ionization energies?
(1) Ba < Sr < Ca (2) S2- < S , S2+ (3) C < O < N (4) Mg < Al < Si
(A) 1, 2 and 4 (B) 1, 3 and 4 (C) 1, 2 and 3 (D) 1, 2, 3 and 4
1.5 The correct order of second ionization potential of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine
is :
(A) C > N > O> F (B) O > N > F> C (C) O > F > N> C (D) F > O > N > C
1.6 The electron gain enthalpies of halogens in kJ mol-1 are as given below.
F = -332, Cl = -349, Br = -234, I = -295.
The lest negative value for F as compared to that of Cl is due to :
(A) Strong electron-electron repulsions in the compact 2p-sub shell of F.
(B) Weak electron-electron repulsions in the bigger 30-sub shell of F.
(C) Smaller eletronegativity value of F than Cl.
(D) (A) & (B) both
1.7 Which of the following statements are correct ?
(i) Generally the radius trend and the ionization energy trend across a period are exact
opposites.
(ii) Electron affinity values of elements may be exothermic (negative) or endothermic
(positive)
(iii) The first ionization energy of sulphur is higher than that of phosphorus?
(iv) Te2- > l- > Cs+ > Ba2+ represents the correct decreasing order of ionic radii.
(A) (i), (iii) and (iv) (B) (ii), (iii) and (iv) (C) (i), (ii) and (iv) (D) (i), (ii) and (iii)

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1.8 Which of the following statements is not correct?
(A) The first ionization energies (in KJ mol-1) of carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead
are 1086, 786,761, 708 and 715 respectively.
(B) Down the group, eletronegativity decreases from B to Tl in boron family.
(C) Among oxides of the elements of carbon family, CO is neutral, GeO is acidic and SnO
is amphoteric.
(D) The 4f- and 5f-inner transition elements are placed separately at the bottom of the
periodic table to maintain its structure.
1.9 The correct order of acidic strength is :
(A) Cl2O7 > SO2 > P4O10 (B) CO2 > N205 > SO3
(C) Na2O > MgO > Al2O3 (D) K2O > CaO > MgO
1.10 Which of the following orders is correct ?
(A) F > N > C > Si > Ga – non – metallic character.
(B) F > CL > O > N – oxidising property.
(C) C < Si > P > N – electron affinity value.
(D) All of these.
1.11 If the same element is forming oxides in different oxidation states then:
(A) that oxides will be neutral in nature in which element will be in its highest oxidation
state.
(B) that oxide will be highest acidic in nature in which element will be in this highest
oxidation state.
(C) that oxide will be amphoteric in nature in which element will be in its highest oxidation
state.
(D) that oxide will be highly basic in nature in which element will be in its highest oxidation
state.

SECTION – II : MULTIPLE CORRECT ANSWER TYPE

1.12 Which of the following pair(s) represent(s) the isoelectronic species?


(A) S2- & Sc3+ (B) SO2 & NO3- (C)N2 & CN- (D) NH3 & H3O+
1.13 Which of the following represent(s) the correct order of electron affinities ?
(A) F > Cl > Br > I (B) C < N < Cl < F (C) N < C < O < F (D) C < Si > O > N
1.14 The process(s) requiring the absorption of energy is (are) :
(A) Cl – Cl (B) O-  O2- (C) Fe3+  Fe2+ (D) Ar  Ar –

1.15 Which of the following statement(s) is(are) true?

1
(A) Ionisation energy  Screening effect

(B) The first ionisation energies of Be and Mg are more than ionization energies of B and
Al respectively.
(C) Atomic and ionic radii of Niobium and Tantalum are almost same
(D) Metallic and covalent radii of potassium are 2.4Å and 2.03Å respectively.

1.16 Which of the following statement(s) is (are) correct?


(A) The electron affinity for sulphur is more exothermic than that for oxygen.
(B) Successive ionization energies of an atom always increase.
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(C) First ionization energy of As is greater than that of Se.
(D) Chlorine has larger atomic size as well as electron affinity than that of fluorine.
SECTION – III : ASSERTION AND REASON TYPE
1.17 Statement -1 : The 5th period of periodic table contains 18 elements and not 32.
Statement – 2 : n = 5, –! = 0, 1, 2, 3. The order in which the energy of available orbits 4d,
5s and 5p increases is 5s < 4d < 5p and the total number of orbitals available are 9 and
thus 18 electrons can be accommodated.
(A) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement- 1.
(B) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is NOT a correct explanation
for Statement- 1.
(C) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is False.
(D) Statement- 1 is False, Statement- 2 is True.
1.18 Statement – 1 :The 4f- and 5f- inner transition series of elements are placed separately at
the bottom of the periodic table.
Statement – 2 : (i) This prevents the undue expansion of the periodic table i.e., maintains
its structure.
(ii) This preserve the principle of classification by keeping elements with similar properties
in a single column.
(A) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement- 1.
(B) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is NOT a correct explanation
for Statement- 1.
(C) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is False.
(D) Statement- 1 is False, Statement- 2 is True.
1.19 Statement – 1 : The first ionization energy of Be is greater than that of B.
Statement- 2 : 2p orbital is lower in energy than 2s.
(A) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement- 1.
(B) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is NOT a correct explanation
for Statement- 1.
(C) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is False.
(D) Statement- 1 is False, Statement- 2 is True.
1.20 Statement – 1 :Third ionization energy of phosphorus is larger than sulphur
Statement – 2 : (i) There is larger amount of stability associated with filled s- and p- sub-
shells (a noble gas electron configuration) which corresponds to having eight electrons in
the valence shell of an atom or ion.
(A) Statement-1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement- 1.
(B) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is NOT a correct explanation
for Statement- 1.
(C) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is False.
(D) Statement- 1 is False, Statement- 2 is True.
1.21 Statement – 1 : Manganese (atomic number 25 ) has a less favourable electron affinity
than its neighbours on either side because.
Statement – 2 : (i) The Manganese has stable, [Ar]18 3d5 4s2 electrons configuration.
(A) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement- 1.

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(B) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is NOT a correct explanation
for Statement- 1.
(C) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is False.
(D) Statement- 1 is False, Statement- 2 is True.

1.22 Statement – 1: The electron gain enthalpies have large negative values to the upper right
of the periodic table preceding the noble gases.
Statement – 2 : (i) The effective nuclear charge increases from left to right across a period
and to consequently it will be easier to add an electron to a smaller atom since the added
electron on an average would be closer to the positively charged nucleus.
(A) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement- 1.
(B) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is NOT a correct explanation
for Statement- 1.
(C) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is False.
(D) Statement- 1 is False, Statement- 2 is True.

1.23 Statement – 1 : Fluorine forms only one oxoacid, HOF because,


Statement – 2 : (i) Fluorine has small size and high electronegativity.
(A) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement- 1.
(B) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is True; Statement- 2 is NOT a correct explanation
for Statement- 1.
(C) Statement- 1 is True, Statement- 2 is False.
(D) Statement- 1 is False, Statement- 2 is True.

SECTION - IV : TRUE AND FALSE TYPE


1.24 S1 : Metals comprises less than 78% of all known elements and appear on the left
side of the periodic table.
S2: Silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium all are semi-metals.
S3: The following order represents the correct increasing order of metallic character ;
P < Si < Be < Mg < Na
S4 : Solubility of the carbonates of alkali metals increases with increasing atomic number.
(A) F F T T (B) TTFF (C) FTFT (D) TTTT
1.25 S1: In modern periodic table each block contains a number of columns equal to the
number of electrons that can occupy that sub-shell.
S2: The greatest increase in ionization enthalpy is experienced on removal of electron
from core noble gas configuration.
S3: The size of the isoelectronic species is effected by electron-electron interaction in the
outer orbitals
S4: Any thing influences the valence electrons will affect the chemistry of the element and
the valence shell is not affected by nuclear mass.
1.26 S1 : Long form of periodic table completely helps in predicting the oxidation state of
elements.
S2: Metallic and covalent radii of potassium are 203 pm and 230 pm respectively.
S3: The following set of element s does not represent the correct order of electron affinity
values C < Si > P > N.
S4 : Formation of Se2- and Ar-, both require the absorption of energy.
(A) F F T T (B) TTFT (C) TTTF (D) TTTT

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1.27 S1 : IE1, of Sr > Rb but IE2 for Rb > Sr.
S2: The ionic radii of Li+, K+, Mg2+ and Al3+ in A are 0.76, 1.38, 0.720 and 0.535 respectively.
S3: The negative value of electron gain enthalpy of Cl > F because there is weak electron-
electron repulsions in the bigger 3p-subshell of Cl as compared to compact 2p-subshell
of F.
S4 : The second ionisation energy of copper is less than potassium.
(A) F F T T (B) TTFT (C) TTTF (D)TTTT
1.28 S1 : Na2O2, < MgO < ZnO < P4O10 : Acidic property.
S2: Na < Si > Mg < Al : First ionisation potential.
S3: F > Cl > Br : Electron affinity.
S4 : Te 2- > l - > Cs + > Ba 2+ : Ionic size.
(A) TTT T (B) TTFT (C) TFFT (D) TFTT
SECTION – V : COMPREHENSION TYPE
Comprehension # 1
The periodicity is related to the electronic configuration. That is, all chemical and physical
properties are a manifestation of the electronic configuration of the elements.
The atomic and ionic radii generally decrease in a period from left to right. As a consequence,
the ionization enthalpies generally increase and electron gain enthalpies become more
negative across a period. In other words, the ionization enthalpy of the extreme left element
in a period is the least and the electron gain enthalpy of the element on the extreme right is
the highest negative. This results into high chemical reactivity at the two extremes and the
lowest in the centre. Similarly down the group, the increase in atomic and ionic radii result
in gradual decrease in ionization enthalpies and a regular decrease (with exception in
some third period elements) in electron gain enthalpies in the case of main group elements.
These properties can be related with the:
(i) reducing and behaviour of the elements
(ii) metallic and non – metallic character of element
(iii) acidic, basic, amphoteric and neutral character of the oxides of the elements.
1.29 The correct order of the metallic character is:
(A) B > Al > Mg > K (B) AL> Mg > B > K (C) Mg > Al > K > B (D) K > Mg > Al > B
1.30 Which of the following statements in incorrect ?
(A) In general metallic character increases down the group and decreases across a period.
(B) In general reducing property decreases down the group and increases across a period.
(C) In general, the oxide formed by the element on extreme right of the periodic table is the
most acidic.
(D) Chemical r neactivity of non-metals in terms of oxidising power increases from nitrogen
to flourine across the period.
1.31 Among Al2O3, SiO2, P2O3 and SO2 the correct order or acid strength is :
(A) Al2O3 < SiO2, < SO2 < P2O3 (B) SiO2 < SO2 <\ Al2O3 < P2O3
(C) SO2 < P2O3 < SiO2 < Al2O3 (D) Al2O3 < SiO2, < P2O3 < SO2\

Comprehension # 2
It is not possible to measure the atomic radius precisely since the electron cloud surrounding
the atom does not have a sharp boundary. One practical approach to estimate the size of
an atom of a non-metallic element is to measure the distance between two atoms when they
are bound together by a single bond in a covalent molecule and then dividing by two. For
metals we define the term “metallic radius” which is taken as half the internucleur distance
separating the metal cores in the metallic crystal. The van der waal’s radius represents the
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over all size of the atoms which includes its valence shell in a non bonded situation. It is the
half of the distance between two similar atoms in separate molecules in a solid. The atomic
radius decreases across a period and increases down the group. Generally same trends
are observed in case of ionic radius. Ionic radius of the species having same number of
electrons depends on the number of protons in their nuclei.

1.32 The size of isoelectronic species – F-, Na+ and Mg2+ is effected by :
(A) nuclear charge
(B) valence principal quantum number (n)
(C) electron – electron interaction in the outer orbitals
(D) atomic mass
1.33 Atomic radii of the noble gases are larger than the precedent elements of the same periods
because:
(A) Atomic radii of the noble gases is expressed as van der Waal’s radius
(B) Valence shell electrons are completely filled so there is intereletronic repulsions.
(C) Both (A) and (B)
(D) None
1.34 Which of the following statements is correct?
(A) Metallic radius refer to metals only and is greater than covalent radius
(B) Metallic radius refer to metals only and is smaller than covalent radius
(C) Generally covalent radius refer to non –metals as well as metals in bonded state
(Covalent bond).
(D) Atomic radii of noble gases are expressed as van der Waal’s radii which are smaller
than metallic radii.
Comprehension # 3
The first ( 1H1) and second (  1H2) ionisation enthalpies (in kJ mol-1) and the (egH)
electron gain enthalpy (in kJ mol-1) of a few elements are given below:
Elements 1H1 1H2 egH
(A) P 520 7300 -60
(B) Q 419 3051 -48
(C) R 1681 3374 -328
(D) S 1008 1846 -295
(E) T 2372 5251 +48
(F) U 738 1451 -40

1.35 The least reactive element is :


(A) P (B) Q (C) R (D) T

1.36 The most reactive element is :


(A) P (B) Q (C) S (D) U

1.37 The most reactive element is :


(A) R (B) S (C) P (D) U

Comprehension # 4
The amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from an isolated
gaseous atom is called as first ionization energy (IE1). Similarly the amount of energies

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required to knock out second, third etc. electrons from the isolated gasesous cation are
called successive ionization energies and IE3 > IE2 > IE1.
(i) Nuclear charge (ii) atomic size (iii) penetration effect of the electrons (iv) shielding effect
of the inner extra stable) affect the ionisation energies.
On the other hand, the amount of energy released when a neutral isolated gaseous atom
accepts an extra electron to form gaseous anion is called electron affinity.
O(g) + e- 
Exothermic
 O–(g) ; Heg = -141 KJ mol-1 ———————————— (i)
O-(g) + e- 
Endothemic
 O2– (g) ; Heg = 780 KJ mol-1 ———————————— (ii)

In (ii) the energy has to be supplied for the addition of second electron due to electrostatic
repulsion between an anion and extra electron (same charged species). The electron affinity
of an element depends upon (i) atomic size (ii) nuclear charge & (iii) electronic configuration.
In general, ionisation energy and electron affinity increases as the atomic radii decreases
and nuclear charge increases across a period. In general, in a group, ionisation energy and
electron affinity decreases as the atomic size increases.
The members of third period of have some higher (e.g. S and Cl) electron affinity values
than the members of the second period (e.g. O and F) because second period elements
have very small atomic size. Hence there is a tendency of electron-electron repulsion,
which results in less evolution of energy in the formation of corresponding anion.

1.38 The first ionisation energies of Na, Mg, Al and Si are in the order of :
(A) Na < Mg > Al < Si (B) Na > Mg > Al > Si (C) Na < Mg < Al < Si (D) Na > Mg > Al < Si

1.39 Which of the following statements is correct?


(A) The element like F, Cl, Br etc having high values of electron affinity act as strong
oxidising agent.
(B) The elements having low values of ionisation energies act as strong reducing agent.
(C) The formation of Be- (g) from Be(g) is an endothermic process
(D) All of these
1.40 Which of the following statements is correct?
(A) Ionization enthalpy increases for each successive valence shell electron.
(B) The greatest increase in ionization enthalpy is experienced on removal of electron
from core of noble gas configuration.
(C) End of valence electrons is marked by a big jump in ionization enthalpy.
(D) Removal of electron from orbitals bearing lower n value is easier than from orbital
having higher n value.

1.41 Considering the elements F, Cl, O and N, the correct order of their electron affinity is :
(A) F> Cl > O > S (B) F > O > Cl > S (C) Cl > F > S > O (D) O > F > S > Cl
Comprehension # 5
The main group elements complete their electron configuration using s and p electrons in
the periodic table. These elements range from the most metallic to the most non-metallic,
with intermediate properties, the semi-metals, in between. The elements which occur at the
two extremes of the periodic table are highly reactive and therefore, these highly reactive
elements do not occur in free state ; they usually occur in the combined forms.

1.42 Select the correct statement.


(A) Chemical reactivity of the elements is generally lowest in the center of a period.
(B) Oxides of the elements in the center of period in general are amphoteric of neutral.

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(C) Metallic character increases with increasing atomic number in a group where as
decreases from left to right in a period.
(D) All of these

1.43 A compound (i.e. an oxide of metal) has an element in its lowest oxidation state.
Then it will be :
(A) highly acidic (B) highly basic (C) neutral (D) half acidic, half basic
1.44 Which of the following pairs show reverse properties on moving along a period from left to
right and from top to bottom in a group?
(A) Atomic radius and electron gain enthalpy (negative value)
(B) Nuclear charge and ionisation enthalpy
(C) Ionisation enthalpy and electron gain enthalpy (negative value)
(D) None of the above.

SECTION – VI : MATRIX - MATCH TYPE

1.45 Match the values of ionisation energy and electron gain enthalpy listed in column I with
characteristic(s) of elements listed in column II.

Column – I Column – II
egin KJ mol )
-1

(A) 2372 5251 +48 (p) Elements which acts as a strong reducing agent
(B) 419 3051 -48 (q) Elements which exists as a monoatomic molecule.
(C) 1681 3374 -333 (r) Least reactive non-metal
(D) 1008 1846 -295 (s) Element which acts as strong oxidising agent
(t) Elements which oxide is a stronger basic in nature.
1.46 For each of the following orders as listed in Column-I pick the correct observation(s) listed
in Column-II.
Column – I Column – II
(A) C > N (p) More favourable (exothermic) electron affinity.
(B) Se > Br (q) The higher first ionization energy.
(C) Mg > K (r) The larger size.
(D) F > Cl (s) The higher electronegativity.
(t) The higher number of valence electrons.
1.47 Match the increasing order given in column I with the property(ies) given in column II.
Column – I Column – II
(A) Na+ < F- < O2< N3- (p) Electronegativity
(B) Li+ < Na+ < K+ < Rb+ < Cs+ (q) Mobility of hydrated ions
(C) O < S < F < Cl (r) Ionic size
(D) Cl- < K+ < Ca2+ < Sc3+ (s) Electron affinity.

SECTION – VII : SUBJECTIVE ANSWER TYPE


SHORT SUBJECTIVE :

1.48 A metal has electronic configuration [Ar]18 3d7 4s2. On the basis of this electronic configuration
find out the group member.

1.49 Give the atomic number of the inert gas atom in which the total number of d-electrons is
equal to the difference in the number of total p- and s- electrons.
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1.50 The successive ionization energies for an unknown element are :
IE1 = 889 KJ/mol ; IE2 = 1757 KJ/mol.
IE3 = 14,847 KJ/mol. ; IE4 = 17,948 KJ/mol.
To which group in the periodic table does the unknown element most likely belong?
1.51 An Ion having a 4+ charge and a mass of 51.99 amu has two electrons with n = 1, eight
electrons with n = 2, and ten electrons with n = 3. Give the total number of protons present
in the nucleus of the atom of metal.

1.52 Which of the following oxides has the strongest acidic character ?
S03 , ClO7 , N2O5 , CO2
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Fill the boxes provided below with suitable number.

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