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DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL

SIGNAL

IN THE
ARMORED DIVISION

HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


OCTOBER 1957
AC" 1880B—Sept
*FM 17-70

FIELD MANUAL ) HEADQUARTERS


>, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
No. 17-70 j * WASHINGTON 25, D. C., 23 September 1957

SIGNAL COMMUNICATION IN THE ARMORED DIVISION

Paragraphs Page
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL.
Section I. Introduction. _ _ _ _ _ _ . 1-6 4
Communication security _ 7-11 8
CHAPTER 2. SIGNAL COMMUNICATION PERSONNEL.
Section I. General _ _ _ _ _ _ . 12-14 12
II. Division signal officer _ _ _ _ . 15,16 13
III. Communication officers _ 17,18 14
CHAPTER 3. MEANS OF SIGNAL COMMUNICATION.
Section I. General _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . 19-21 17
II. Radio communication _ _ 22,23 19
III. Wire communication _ _ _ _ 24,25 22
IV. Other means of communication _ _ 26-28 26
CHAPTER 4. TACTICAL APPLICATION OF COMMUNI
CATION.
Section I. General _ _ _ 29-32 28
II. Communication during offensive operations _ . 33-36 29
III. Communication during defensive operations _ . 37-39 31
IV. Communication during retrograde movements-. 40-43 32
V. Communication during special operations 44-48 33
CHAPTER 5. ARMORED DIVISION SIGNAL
BATTALION.
Section I. General _ _ _ _ _ _ 49-51 35
II. Headuarters and headquarters company 52-54 37
III. Command operations company- 55-57 38
IV. Forward communication company- _ _ _. 58-60 41
CHAPTER 6. COMMUNICATION, DIVISION HEAD
QUARTERS.
Section I. General_______________________. 61-63 44
II. Communication support, division headquarters. 64-66 46
III. Radio communication, division headquarters_ 67-72 46
IV. Wire communication, division headquarters__ 73-75 50
V. Message center and messenger service, division 76,77 52
headquarters.
VI. Visual and sound communication, division 78, 79 52
headquarters.
VII. Division area communication system______ 80-82 52
* This manual supersedes FM 17-70, 3 May 1950.

AGO 1880B i
Paragraphs Page
CHAPTER 7. COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION
TRAINS AND HEADQUARTERS REAR
ECHELON.
Section I. General_________________________. 83-86 56
II. Communication support, armored division 87, 88 57
trains.
III. Means of communication, armored division 89-91 58
trains.
IV. Communication, armored division quarter- 92-95 59
master battalion.
V. Communication, armored division ordnance 96-99 61
battalion.
VI. Communication, armored division medical 100-103 63
battalion.
VII. Communication, armored division administra- 104,105 65
tion company.
CHAPTER 8. COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION
COMBAT COMMAND.
Section I. General_________________________. 106-108 66
II. Communication support, armored division 109-111 67
combat command.
III. Radio communication, armored division combat 112-114 68
command.
IV. Wire communication, armored division combat 115, 116 70
command.
V. Message center and messenger service, armorec 117 72
division combat command.
VI. Visual and sound communication, armored 118, 119 72
division combat command.
CHAPTER 9. COMMUNICATION, ARMOR UNITS,
BATTALION COMPANY LEVEL.
Section I. General_________________________. 120-123 73
II. Communication support, battalion-level armor 124,125 75
unit
III. Radio communication, battalion level armor 126-129 76
unit.
IV. Other means of communication, battalion-level 130-132 79
armor unit.
V. Communication, company-level armor unit__ 133-138 81
VI. Communication, battalion task force______ 139-142 83
VII. Communication, company team__________ 143-146 85
CHAPTER 10. ARMORED DIVISION FIRE SUPPORT
COMMUNICATION.
Section I. General_________________________. 147-150 87
II. Mortar fire support communication_______. 151-154 88
III. Communication, armored division artillery__ 155-164 91
IV. Tactical air support communication______ 165-168 98
V. Communication, antiaircraft artillery_____ 169-171 99

2 AGO 1880B
Paragraphs Page
CHAPTER 11. COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION
ENGINEER BATTALION AND
COMPANY.
Section I. General_______________________. 172-174' 101
II. Communication, armored division engineer 175-179 102
battalion.
III. Communication, engineer company______ 180-184 104
IV. Communication, bridge company.,_______ 185-189 105
CHAPTER 12. SIGNAL LOGISTICS.
Section I. General_______________________. 190,191 107
II. Signal supply__________ _________. 192,193 108
III. Signal maintenance_________________ 194,195 109
APPENDIX I. REFERENCES- 111
II. SOI EXTRACT- 113
III. ORGANIZATION, ARMORED DIVISION 115
SIGNAL BATTALION.
IV. RADIO AND WIRE NETS- 118
INDEX. 144

AGO 1880B
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL

Section I. INTRODUCTION

1. Purpose and Scope


a. This manual is a guide for commanders, staff officers, and other
persons concerned with communication in the armored division. It
also is a guide for the commanders of supporting units and for staff
officers at higher headquarters whose duties include making recom
mendations as to employment of the armored division or its elements.
Its purpose is to provide information which will assist in the proper
and successful employment of signal communication in support of
armored division tactical operations, and to serve as an adjunct
to training. Its scope covers signal communication facilities and
systems, the area communication system, and responsibilities.
b. This manual should be used in conjunction with other publica
tions pertinent to signal communication and employment of armor.
For appropriate references, see appendix I. All illustrations in this
text are contained in appendixes II, III, and IV.
c. Except where otherwise specified, the material presented herein
is applicable to both atomic and nonatomic warfare.
2. Responsibility for Communication
a. The division commander is responsible for signal communica
tion within the division, for the efficient operation of the divison com
munication system as a part of the system of the next higher com
mand, and for ensuring that adequate means of communication are
provided for planned operations. The general staff is responsible
for overall staff supervision of all signal plans, policies, and pro
cedures for signal communication within the division and to higher
and adjacent headquarters. The division signal officer provides
technical advice and assistance to the division commander and to
the general staff and is operationally responsible for the division
signal communication system. This responsibility includes the de
tailed formulation of signal plans, policies, and procedures and the
provision of supervision, guidance, and assistance down to all sub
ordinate echelons. Each subordinate commander, staff, communica
tion officer, or communication chief has comparable responsibilities

4 AGO 1880B
within his unit. Personnel are authorized by applicable TOE's to
perform detailed functions and duties in the field of communication.
Other personnel, such as commanders, staff officers, and crew mem
bers, operate communication equipment in conjunction with per
forming their primary -duties.
b. Responsibility for establishing and enforcing effective, con
tinuous, communication discipline, according to the policies of the
division commander, rests directly on each subordinate commander
down to and including the individual combat vehicle commander.
Command emphasis must be placed on the necessity for ensuring
that channels of communication are kept open and are not cluttered
by nonessential traffic. To enable all elements of the division to
respond quickly to the will of the commander, the flow of orders,
reports, and essential information must be rapid and accurate, both
up and down the chain of command.
c. Detailed responsibilities of units in providing signal communi
cation within the armored division are discussed in subsequent
chapters.
d. Higher units establish communication with subordinate units.
Units supporting other units establish communication with sup
ported units. Adjacent units establish communication from left to
right or as specified by the next higher commander.
e. Each unit, whether or not it is responsible for initial installa
tion, makes every effort to re-establish communication in the event
of interruption.
/. First- and second-echelon maintenance of signal equipment
is performed by the units to which the equipment is organic. Third-
echelon maintenance is normally performed by the division signal
battalion.

3. Communication Training
a. Commanders at all echelons in the armored division are respon
sible for the communication training of personnel within their com
mands. Each commander must require his signal or communication
officer to plan and supervise the communication training program
in coordination with the G3 (S3). The signal or communication
officer will advise and assist in the planning and preparation of the
program and .training schedules for communication specialists, and
for general communication training of all personnel.
b. The efficiency of a communication system is directly propor
tional to the proficiency of the personnel who operate the communi
cation equipment. This proficiency is attained and then maintained
through carefully planned, realistic, and continual training that
stresses and develops teamwork. Such training must apply to all
AGO 1880B c
personnel who engage in communicating, and not solely to com
munication specialists.
c. Training is normally in conjunction with appropriate Army
training programs or in accordance with training requirements
during the post-cycle training period. Integrated and concurrent
training should be used to the maximum so that procedures become
automatic and instinctive. Training must be aimed not only at
attaining desirable levels of skill and knowledge but also at retaining
these levels once attained. Training should also be conducted in
related MOSs. Any training program must culminate in a drill,
problem, exercise, or maneuver which is a test of proficiency.
4. Characteristics of Division Signal Communication System

a. The armored division is a unit of combined arms and services,


designed to conduct mobile ground operations. It is tactically and
administratively self-sufficient. It is especially well suited for the
conduct of highly mobile ground warfare. It is characterized -by
a high degree of tactical mobility, armor-protected firepower, shock
action, responsiveness to command, and an extensive and flexible
signal communication system.
b. The armored division's extensive and flexible signal communi
cation system enables the division to react quickly to the will of the
commander in fast-moving situations. The system thus makes for
ease of command, control, and coordination of armored division
operations. The armored division signal communication system
(1) Makes maximum use of radio at all echelons of command.
Immediate personal contact between commanders, staff
personnel, and combat vehicles is possible because of the
large number of vehicular-mounted radios.
(2) Uses numerous radio nets for separate and distinct pur
poses. Separate nets are established for command and
operations, information and intelligence, fire support, and
administrative-logistical purposes. The various nets are
necessary due to the specialized nature and volume of
traffic, and the speed of transmission required.
(3) Has versatile electronic signal equipment that can be in
tegrated into a system of communication regardless of the
task organization. Radio can be used for voice, CW, and/or
radio-teletype operation over great distances. Multichannel
radio relay is integrated with wire for telephone and/or
teletype operation. Radio-wire integration is provided.
(4) Makes maximum use of a division area communication
system. Interconnected signal centers in this system serve
6 AGO 1880B
echelons of division headquarters, the division trains area,
and the combat command command posts. Alternate routes
(different axes) are used so that the enemy's employment
of atomic weapons will not interrupt communication.
5. Instructions for Operating Division Communication System

a. Instructions for operating the division communication system


are prepared and disseminated by the division signal officer. They
conform to the instructions issued by the next higher headquarters.
They apply to all units within the division and are published in two
complementary publications entitled signal operation instructions
(SOI) and standing signal instructions (SSI). The SOI contains
items for the technical control and coordination of signal communi
cation. SOI items are for daily use and are subject to frequent
change. The SSI contains items, regulatory in nature, which give
instructions for the use of SOI items as well as other instructions.
SSI items are not subject to frequent change. For details on prep
aration of the division SOI and SSI, see FM 24-16.
b. SOI and SSI are distributed in sufficient copies to be available
to communication personnel down to battalion level where medium-
power AM radio teams operate. Subordinate units make extracts
of the division SOI for use by personnel who perform incidental
communication duties. There are certain problems, unique to the
armored division, in connection with the publication and dissemina
tion of SOI extracts. A problem of quantity is created by the large
number of commanders and staff personnel who operate radio sets
and who require SOI extracts; the mobility and dispersion of the
division also create a problem of distance. The following points
are guides for the preparation of SOI extracts within the armored
division:
(1) The extract should be prepared and reproduced at the
highest level practicable, usually battalion, for both combat
and service type units. This level of command has more
time, a broader knowledge of projected tactical plans, and
better reproduction facilities than lower levels.
(2) Sufficient extracts should be made for commanders of all
elements down to and including platoon level, and for
staff officers, forward observers, liaison officers, and sup
porting and attached unit commanders.
(3) The number of extracts prepared should be the minimum
required to accomplish the mission, so that minimum SOI
material is subject to compromise.
(4) The extract should be reproduced on a pocket-size card
(fig. 1), which may be folded. The paper should be
AGO 1880B -7
weather-resistant but capable of being destroyed easily
in the event of capture.
(5) Items included in the SOI extract should cover a maximum
period of three days, so that loss of an extract will not
compromise a large amount of material. This period
allows sufficient time for distribution to isolated units.
(6) New SOI extracts should be prepared whenever the task
organization changes.
c. Communication procedures that can be standardized are usually
published as standing operating procedure (SOP). A unit SOP
must conform to the SOP of the next higher headquarters and must
not violate instructions disseminated in other types of official pub
lications from higher headquarters. For details on preparation of
the division SOP, see FM 24-16.
d. Communication instructions to support a specific operation and
which are applicable to all personnel are published in paragraph 5
of the operation order. These instructions include reference to a
standard plan, to a signal annex, or, as a minimum, to the current
SOI index in effect. Special instructions or restrictions on the use
of any means of communication are given. Locations and move
ments of commander and command posts, and a statement of com
mand relationship, are indicated. Axes of signal communication,
recognition and identification instructions, electronic policies, code
words, code names, and liaison, as appropriate, may also be included.
For details on preparation of paragraph 5 of the operation order,
see FM 101-5.
6. Liaison
Each unit should maintain liaison with higher headquarters, sup
ported units, and adjacent units. Liaison may be accomplished by
conference between commanders, by means of liaison officers, or
by visits of staff officers. Liaison is a valuable link between units
to obtain the desired cooperation, coordination, and exchange of
information. For details regarding liaison, see FM 17-1.

Section II. COMMUNICATION SECURITY

7. General
Communication security is the protection resulting from all meas
ures designed to prevent or delay unauthorized persons from gaining
information of military value from communication sources. It in
cludes physical, cryptographic, and transmission security. Com
manders ensure that communication security orders and regulations
are understood and observed by everyone concerned with communi-
8 AGO 1880B
cation. Officers and enlisted men who personally transmit radio
messages must be particularly concerned with security measures.
See AGP 122 (B) for detailed information on communication
security.
8. Physical Security
Physical security protects classified signal equipment and materiel,
including plain-language copies of classified messages and carbons,
from capture, damage, or loss. Critical items, such as SOI's, codes,
and ciphers, are given limited distribution. Complete SOI's are not
taken forward of front-line battalion command posts. Before a
command post is vacated, it is inspected for messages, carbons,
converter tapes, and copies of maps or orders which might be left
behind. When SOI's or cryptomaterials are compromised by loss
or capture, the facts must be reported promptly to the next higher
commander. Personnel must be trained in the methods of destroy
ing equipment and classified documents to prevent their falling into
the hands of the enemy.
9. Cryptographic Security
a. Cryptographic security is obtained by proper use of technically
sound cryptographic systems. Strict observance of cryptographic
operating instructions is essential to reduce the effectiveness of the
enemy's communication intelligence effort. Time spent in encrypting
gives a high return in security. The use of unauthorized crypto-
systems is prohibited, because locally devised systems usually can
easily be solved by the enemy and may give the user a false sense
of security.
6. Security hazards may be minimized by being brief and by
avoiding stereotyped phraseology in the preparation of messages,
particularly at the beginning and end of a message. Identical texts
will not be sent in both clear and encrypted messages or in more
than one cryptographic system. When clear text is used, landmarks
that can be associated with encrypted map locations are not given
as references. Individuals and small units that do not have cipher
devices use prearranged and operation codes when messages cannot
be sent in the clear. When the same codes are used by several units,
clear and encrypted texts, with the exception of coded map locations,
are not mixed in the same message.
c. Codes and ciphers authorized, and instructions for their use,
will be found in the division SOI and SSI. Key lists for electronic
cipher devices may be found in the division SOI or may be pub
lished separately by the division signal officer. Instructions for the
use of electronic cipher devices are distributed separately by the
division cryptographic distribution authority.
AGO 1880B 0
10. Transmission Security
a. Transmission security measures make it difficult for the enemy
to- intercept transmissions and prevents him from using friendly
communication systems for deception purposes. A message is trans
mitted by the most secure means available, consistent with its
precedence. Radio is particularly susceptible to interception, direc
tion-finding, traffic analysis, and deception.
b. Personnel who operate radios must be trained in correct pro
cedures so that they will not divulge information to the enemy
through faulty operating procedures or techniques. Operators and
personnel preparing messages for transmission by radio must be
aware of the ability of the enemy to gain information from radio
traffic. Those transmitting clear-text messages by voice radio must
use prescribed radiotelephone procedure and must preplan the con
tent and wording of each transmission, using prescribed authentica
tion systems and eliminating unnecessary transmissions. A high
standard of net discipline is essential in maintaining communication
security; therefore, training in correct operating procedure must
be continual.

11. Communication Counter-Countermeasures


a. Communication counter-countermeasures involve actions taken
to ensure our own effective use of communication in spite of the
enemy's use of countermeasures. The countermeasures that the
enemy may take will normally be against radio transmissions. There
fore, counter-countermeasures will apply primarily to radio and em
body all the features of transmission security for radio and, in addi
tion, antijamming actions.
b. All radio transmissions are subject to interception and jam
ming. Enemy interception can lead to the identification and location
of friendly units, detection of forthcoming operations, and imitative
deception by intrusion into friendly radio nets. Enemy jamming can
lead to confusion and denial of use of friendly radio nets. These
vulnerabilities must be recognized and appreciated at all echelons.
It is of paramount importance to defeat or minimize enemy counter-
measures and still maintain reliable communication. It is also im
portant that the friendly actions not divulge the degree of success of
the enemy countermeasures unless immediate tactical requirements
for communication dictate otherwise.
c. The enemy effort must be anticipated, and effective counter-
countermeasures must be included in all planning and, further, must
be controlled and coordinated during operations. Some effective
counter-countermeasures are as follows:

10 AGO 1880B
(1) Prohibit or restrict use of radio and use another means
when practical.
(2) Minimize the number and length of radio transmissions,
(3) Restrict the radiation pattern of antennas by siting them
to take advantage of natural or terrain shielding.
(4) Restrict the radiation pattern by operating on low power.
Switch to high power only when required or directed.
(5) Prearrange and provide in the SOI for alternate call signs
(words), alternate frequencies, brevity codes, and authen
tication systems to be used when required or directed.
(6) Take determined direct action against the source of the
enemy countermeasure.
(7) DON'T GIVE UP, KEEP TRYING.
d. Personnel must be trained to recognize the differences between
enemy jamming, equipment malfunctions, and accidental interfer
ence. They must learn to identify the types of jamming and imitative
deception procedures. When enemy interference is encountered, they
must make every effort to continue to operate, and then make an
adequate report. A report is necessary so that higher headquarters,
by analyzing all such reports received, can determine the extent of
the deception or jamming. If the enemy effectively disrupts radio
communication, the division signal officer, in coordination with G3,
must take action immediately to assign new frequencies so that radio
communication will be maintained. Similar action must be taken
when friendly or enemy radio stations, conducting normal operations,
accidentally create interference.
e. Personnel must be thoroughly trained under simulated enemy
deception and jamming conditions so that skill and confidence are
developed. Lack of such training may result in surprise and con
fusion during combat operations, with resultant deterioration of
radio communication. See FM 11-151 for detailed information re
garding deception and antijamming.

AGO 1880B 11
CHAPTER 2
SIGNAL COMMUNICATION PERSONNEL

Section I. GENERAL

12. General
The signal communication personnel in the armored division are
those persons whose primary duty is to provide and maintain com
munication. The division signal officer belongs in this category, as
do the radio operators and messengers in subordinate units. Per
sonnel whose communication duties are secondary, such as com
manders, staff personnel, drivers, and vehicle commanders or crew
members who use or operate radios, are not considered to be signal
communication personnel. The principal duties and relationships of
the division signal officer and the communication officers of units of
the division are discussed in this chapter. No attempt is made here
to discuss the duties of operating personnel, such as switchboard and
radio operators, messengers, and clerks, since their duties are
covered in appropriate field and technical manuals on signal com
munication.
13. Command and Staff Relationship
As advisors to their commanders on signal communication matters,
signal and communication officers must keep themselves constantly
informed on the tactical situation, the commander's concept of oper
ations, plans for movement of headquarters and major subordinate
units, and other operational matters which will in any way affect
the communication system. This information is obtained by con
ferences and visits with the commander and members of the staff
and by careful review of all operation orders and plans. Signal and
communication officers must work with other staff officers in the
development of programs, policies, and plans in support of the com
mander's desires or for the commander's approval. Signal and com
munication officers must coordinate communication requirements,
and priorities for the installation and use of certain signal com
munication channels, with G3 (S3).
14. Relationship With Unit Commanders
As staff officers, signal and communication officers have no com-
12 AGO 1880B
mand authority over commanders of lower units. However, they may
coordinate directly with signal and communication officers in the
next higher and lower commands to ensure proper integration of
their communication systems into the division communication sys
tem. Signal and communication officers, even though they are staff
officers, may command signal communication elements in the divi
sion. This dual role is established by TOE.

Section II. DIVISION SIGNAL OFFICER

15. Duties of Division Signal Officer


The division signal officer, as a member of the division special
staff, is the technical advisor to the division commander and inter
ested staff members in all communication matters. The division
signal officer also commands the division signal battalion. Specific
duties of the division signal officer are to:
a. Advise the division commander and staff in signal matters.
6. Command and signal battalion and exercise operational control
over attached signal troops.
c. Coordinate with signal and communication officers of higher
and lower echelons on details of planning the division signal com
munication system and other technical matters.
d. Plan and supervise the division signal communication system
(in coordination with G3).
e. Prepare, and coordinate with appropriate members of the gen
eral staff (primarily G3), the communication portions of division
operation plans and orders, the division standing operating pro
cedure (SOP), the division signal operation instructions (SOI), and
the division standing signal instructions (SSI).
/. Conduct division communication schools, prepare communica
tion portions of division training directives, and prepare and super
vise training programs of signal units (in coordination with G3).
g. Recommend the location and internal arrangement of the divi
sion command posts as affected by signal requirements (in coordi
nation with Gl and G3).
h. Supervise activities pertaining to signal technical intelligence
and photographic services as they affect the division, and maintain
liaison with other interested signal agencies (in coordination with
G2 and G3).
i. Plan, coordinate, and supervise communication security within
the division, including procurement, storage, and distribution of
codes and ciphers (in coordination with G2).
AGO 1880B 13
j. Coordinate special communication requirements (in coordina
tion with G2 and G3).
k. Supervise technical inspections of signal equipment, and make
recommendations relative to the care and use of such equipment (in
coordination with G4).
I. Supervise the repair of signal equipment (in coordination with
G4).
m. Plan, coordinate, and supervise the procurement, storage, and
distribution of signal equipment and supplies, including establish
ment of signal supply points (in coordination with G4).
16. Responsibilities as Signal Battalion Commander
a. As signal battalion commander, the division signal officer exer
cises direct control over all matters of battalion administration, in
telligence, operations, and supply which are the normal responsi
bilities of command.
b. He directs his staff, and issues mission-type orders to the com
pany commanders of the battalion for the support of the division.
This support includes the following:
(1) Establishment of the division area communication system
in support of echelons of the division headquarters and
combat commands.
(2) Operation of radios in various division, corps, and army
nets.
(3) Operation of division telephone switchboards in conjunc
tion with radio relay and field cable terminals of the corps
wire communication system.
(4) Photographic support.
(5) Signal supply and maintenance support.

Section III. COMMUNICATION OFFICERS

17. Duties of Combat Command Communication Officer


The combat command communication officer is a staff officer and
as such advises the combat command commander and staff members
on all matters pertaining to the combat command communication
system. In addition, he supervises the communication platoon leader
in the employment of the communication platoon. Specifically, the
duties of the combat command communication officer are to:
a. Advise the combat command commander on communication
matters.
14 AGO 1880B
6. Supervise the installation, operation, and maintenance of the
combat command message center and specialist-operated communi
cation facilities in the command group and the combat command
trains area.
c. Supervise the operation of the combat command communication
system.
d. Supervise the general communication training of all personnel
assigned or attached to the combat command headquarters.
e. Coordinate with the combat command operations officer to adapt
the communication system to fit the task organization and mission
of the combat command.
/. Prepare, in draft, paragraph 5 of the combat command opera
tion order.
g. Prepare SOI extracts for distribution within the combat com
mand headquarters.
h. Prepare the communication portion of the combat command
SOP.
i. Exercise staff supervision over first- and second-echelon mainte
nance of signal equipment in the combat command.
j. Assist the combat command logistics officer in the procurement
of signal supplies and the evacuation of signal equipment for repair.
k. Exercise staff supervision over communication security.
18. Duties of Battalion Communication Officers
The battalion (squadron) communication officer is a staff officer
and as such advises the battalion commander and staff members on
all matters pertaining to the battalion communication system. In
addition, he commands the communication platoon (section). Spe
cifically, the duties of the battalion communication officer are to:
a. Advise the commander and staff on communication matters.
b. Supervise the operation of the battalion communication system.
c. Direct the operations and training of the battalion communica
tion platoon.
d. Supervise the communication training of other personnel in
the battalion.
e. Coordinate with the battalion operations officer to adapt the
communication system to the task organization and missions of the
battalion.
/. Prepare, in draft, paragraph 5 of the battalion operation order,
when required.
AGO 1880B
g. Prepare SOI extracts for distribution within the battalion.
h. Prepare the communication portion of the battalion SOP.
i. Coordinate with company commanders in the employment of
the battalion communication platoon.
j. Supervise the first- and second-echelon maintenance of com
munication equipment.
k. Determine requirements for communication equipment and
supplies, and coordinate with S4 in their procurement, storage, and
distribution.
/. Exercise staff supervision over communication security.

16 AfiO 1880B
CHAPTER 3
MEANS OF SIGNAL COMMUNICATION

Section I. GENERAL

19. General
Signal communication includes all means of conveying informa
tion of any kind from one person or place to another, except by per
sonal conversation and mail. Five means of communication are
available in armor units to meet the requirements of command, con
trol, information, administration-logistics, and fire support These
are radio (voice, continuous wave, and teletype), wire (telephone
and teletype), messenger, visual, and sound. Radio is the primary
means of communication in armor units; the other means are con
sidered supplementary. The large amount of organic radio equip
ment in armor units, together with the other means available, pro
vides for a high degree of flexibility in communication. The proper
use of the means of communication available in the armored division
provides the necessary means of control for rapid changes in .the
organization for combat and for the rapid concentration of the
division's combat power on the objective.
20. Agencies of Signal Communication
a. An agency of signal communication is any facility which in
cludes the personnel and equipment to provide signal communication
by any means or combination of means. Signal communication per
sonnel may or may not physically operate the equipment; com
manders, staff personnel, and crew members frequently use radios
and telephones.
b. Official messages between command posts are normally trans
mitted and received by signal communication means operated by
signal or communication personnel. At a command post, these agen
cies operate in conjunction with a message center, which has per
sonnel and equipment established by TOE and which serves as a
central agency of signal communication for the processing of official
messages. This processing does not include multiple duplication or
the reproduction of copies of messages.
c. Message center personnel are authorized at battalion, combat
AGO 18&OB 17
command, division artillery, and division level. Message centers are
normally located to provide easy access to personnel, especially mes
sengers from other command posts. At company (troop, battery)
level, personnel to operate message centers are not authorized; the
commander or a person designated by him will perform the functions
of the message center.
d. The mission of all message centers is substantially the same,
but they may vary in size, composition, and functions. Message
center personnel have the following communication duties:
(1) Coordinating the use of the available means of communica
tion.
(2) Maintaining current information on the effectiveness of
each means of communication.
(3) Selecting the means for transmission, and determining the
routing, of outgoing messages.
(4) Complying with the unit standing operating procedure in
the handling of incoming messages, and making prompt
delivery of such messages.
(5) Keeping temporary but reliable records to assist in the
prompt and accurate handling of messages.
(6) Maintaining a continual check on the flow of messages, and
informing the originator when an outgoing message can
not be delivered within a short time.
(7) Complying with security regulations in the handling of
messages.
(8) Maintaining current information on the location of, and
the best routes to, unit command posts with which com
munication normally is maintained.
(9) Operating the official messenger service.
(10) Providing Class A cryptographic service.
(11) Keeping the official time.
e. A signal center contains a complete group of signal equipment
and personnel in order to provide communication for a headquarters,
installation, or area. Each signal center includes a message center,
messengers, cryptographic facilities, teletypewriter facilities, tele
phone central office, and circuit patching, switching, and testing
facilities, as required. Signal centers are established and operated
by the division signal battalion at echelons of division headquarters
and trains, and in the vicinity of combat command posts. With the
exception of the division rear echelon signal center, which normally
ties into corps, all signal centers are part of the division area com
munication system. Each signal center is a collection of agencies
of signal communication.

]8 AGO 1880B
21. Use of Communication Means
a. The means employed are generally those that provide the maxi
mum reliability, flexibility, security, and speed. The reliability of
any communication systm is of paramount importance and is greatly
increased by use of all the means available. Reliability has a direct
relation to the technological development of equipment and the train
ing of personnel.
6. Radio has the inherent flexibility required in armor operations,
but should not be used habitually in all situations to the exclusion
of the other means available. Radio must be used in a primary role,
however, to fulfill the urgent demand for flexibility in most situa
tions.
c. In the choice of a means at any given moment in a tactical
situation, requirements for security and for speed must both be con
sidered. Modern cryptographic systems permit security with a high
degree of speed. Such systems can be used to encipher and decipher
written messages transmitted by wire or radio between command
posts that are semistabilized. However, such cryptographic systems
are not well suited for use by highly mobile units in immediate con
tact with the enemy. Such units rely on voice radio communication
during periods of high mobility and therefore use simple operational
type codes which, by their nature, do not provide a high degree of
long-time security. The commander may authorize radio transmis
sion in the clear. Such a decision is logical when prompt action is
called for and the urgency of the message outweighs the value of
the information to the enemy, or in a situation in which the enemy
will have insufficient time to react to the information.
d. In the choice of a means, the varying degrees of reliability,
flexibility, security, and speed must always be weighed in the light
of the current tactical situation.

Section II. RADIO COMMUNICATION

22. General
a. Radio is the primary means of communication in armor units,
because of the flexibility and speed it affords. It provides person-to-
person contact between rapidly moving units, between ground units
and aircraft, and over great distances where use of other means
would be impractical or impossible.
6. Radio is less vulnerable to enemy fire than is wire, but is sub
ject to interference from static, jamming, and other radio stations.
Its reliability depends largely upon the skill of the operators. The
AGO 1880B
tactical use of a radio set depends upon its characteristics. To be
capable of operating together, radio sets must have common or over
lapping frequency range, must transmit and receive the same type
of signal, and must be located within proper range. The actual
ranges obtained may be more or less than the rated ranges, depend
ing, once again, upon the skill of the operators, weather, terrain,
interference, and the locations from which the sets are operated.
Power lines and steel structures located close to operating sites
appreciably reduce operating ranges. The best communication is
obtained between sites affording line-of-sight operation.
c. Radio is the least secure means of communication. It must be
assumed that interception occurs every time a transmitter is oper
ated ; therefore, communication security is a constant consideration
when radios are used. The enemy obtains information merely by
knowing that radios are operating. His analysis of the number and
type of radios in operation, the volume and pattern of traffic, or the
location of sets is particularly valuable as intelligence. The use of
radio may be restricted or prohibited for security reasons. Import
ant measures for defense against enemy radio intelligence are radio
silence, listening silence, and cryptography.
(1) The commander may order radio silence or listening silence
to achieve tactical suprise. In radio silence, both radio
transmitters and receivers are turned off. In listening
silence, radio transmitters are turned off but radio re
ceivers are operated for monitoring purposes. The latter
is more commonly used, because radio nets can be made
fully operative without delay upon receipt of a properly
authenticated transmitted order or prearranged message
from the commander. Also, listening silence permits the
receipt of information from reconnaissance units, or other
units in contact with the enemy, that are operating in the
same net. Radios are normally made fully operative when
contact with the enemy is gained.
(2) Cryptography (par. 21c) prevents or delays the enemy
from gaining information from intercepted messages.
d. The message-handling capacity of a radio net is limited, since
only one station can transmit at a time. The time required for the
handling of a message is primarly dependent upon whether it is sent
in code or in clear text, and upon the volume of messages of similar
or higher precedence awaiting transmission. The message-handling
capacity of a radio net is increased by training all operating person
nel in radio procedure and net discipline, and by training using per
sonnel in message writing. If a message cannot be written down
20 AGO 1880B
before transmission, it should be formulated mentally so that mini
mum time is consumed in its transmission.
23. Division Radio Equipment
The following types of radio equipment are authorized in the
armored division:
a. Portable FM radios are used by personnel and units that have
communication requirements while dismounted. The back-packed
dry-battery-powered FM radio has a planning range of 3 to 5 miles.
The hand-held dry-battery-powered FM radio has a planning range
of 1 mile. These sets are capable of voice operation only.
b. Vehicular-mounted FM radios are vehicular-battery-powered
and consist of combinations of components which vary according to
requirements. Each set constitutes a system, the standard being an
armor band receiver, an armor band receiver-transmitter with a
planning range of 10 to 15 miles, and a common band receiver-
transmitter with a planning range of 1 mile. Interphone facilities
are available with this equipment. These sets are capable of voice
operation only.
c. Vehicular-mounted, medium-poiver, AM radios are vehicular-
battery-powered ; each consists of a receiver and a transmitter. One
model is capable of CW and voice operation, with a planning range
of 75 miles on CW and 50 miles on voice. The same model modified
for teletype operation is capable of radioteletype and voice operation,
with a planning range of 75 miles on radioteletype and 50 miles on
voice. The CW and radioteletype features, permit speedy transmis
sion of lengthy reports and orders.
d. Vehicular-mounted, high-pcnver, AM radios are powered by
towed generators; each consists of two receivers, providing space
diversity reception, and a transmitter. This set is capable of radio-
teletype, radioteletype-voice, voice, and CW operation and has a
planning range of 250 miles. It is authorized in the division signal
battalion and is used between echelons of division headquarters and
to higher headquarters. Lengthy reports and orders can be trans
mitted speedily with this equipment.
e. Vehicular-mounted, medium-poivcr, air-ground, AM radios are
vehicular-battery-powered, each consisting of a receiver-transmitter
operating in the VHF-UHF band. This set is capable of voice and
tone operation, with a planning range of 150 miles to aircraft at
30,000 feet. It is used by ground units to communicate with tactical
air support elements. This set is a component of another set which
has both AM and FM radios, previously described, as components.
AGO 1880B 21
This set constitutes a sytem for ground-to-air and ground-to-ground
communication. It is capable of automatic retransmission and is
used by Air Force personnel in support of the armored division for
communication in Air Force tactical air direction radio nets for con
trol of tactical aircraft.

Section III. WIRE COMMUNICATION

24. General
a. Wire is a supplementary means of communication in armor
units. It furnishes person-to-person telephone contact and teletype
service between semistablized command posts. Telephone service
is also furnished within command posts. Wire communication is
considered more reliable and secure than radio, although the security
of classified information is never ensured when transmissions are
made in the clear over wire circuits. Wire equipment, while seem
ingly complex at higher levels, is less fragile, less critical of operat
ing voltages, and less subject to damage than radio equipment.
Physical circuits are susceptible to enemy fire and to friendly troop
and vehicular movement. The decision to use wire communication
depends upon the need for the added security afforded over radio,
time available for installation, and length of time it will be used
once installed.
b. More time is required to install wire than any other means
of communication. The amount of time necessary for installation
depends mainly upon the length of line, or extent of the system,
and the method of laying the wire. It is also necessary to consider
the number of personnel available, their training, the type of terrain,
routes, weather, and visibility. Although the installation of wire
is time-comsuming, the desirability of using wire under certain
conditions cannot be overlooked. Wire normally is used within rear
support elements, and frequently in forward combat units. Short,
temporary wire lines can be laid quickly in forward areas if per
sonnel and equipment are available, if enemy activity is not too
pronounced, and if terrain is suitable.
c. Installation time can usually be minimized by prior planning
and by installing the greater portion of the wire system at a new
command post location before the command post moves. Radio relay
can be installed more quickly over long distances than equivalent
wire facilities; it is.the backbone of the division area communica
tion system.
25. Division Wire Equipment
The following types of wire equipment are authorized in the
armored division:
22 AGO 1880B
a. Wire and Cable.
(1) Wire WD-1TT is a twisted-pair all-purpose field wire found
in all armor units. The transmission range is 4 to 7 miles
with the sound-powered Telephone TA-l/TT, up to 22
miles with the battery-powered Telephone TA-312/PT,
and up to 45 miles with the amplifier Telephone TA-
264/PT.
(2) Cable CX-1065/G is used with telephone carrier equip
ment. Only the division signal battalion is authorized
cable.
6. Reel Units.
(1) Reel Equipment CE-11, used at combat command and
lower, is a lightweight, portable wire-laying unit designed
to be carried by one man. The Spool DR-8 contains *4-
mile of wire.
(2) Wire Dispenser MX-306, authorized all armor units, con
tains 1/2 mile of coiled and twisted Wire WD-l/TT. The
dispenser can be hand-carried or can be attached to a
pack board for laying wire. Over difficult terrain, wire
can also be laid by fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft,
or by rocket launcher with a dummy projectile. Telephone
conversation is possible while the wire is being paid out.
(3) Axle RL-27 is a portable wire-laying device which is
hand-held by two men. It consists of an axle about 2 feet
long with two knurled handles. One handle is permanently
affixed to the axle; the other can be removed to permit
placing Reel DR-4 on the axle.
(4) Reel Unit RL-31 is a portable, hand-operated wire-laying
and wire-recovering unit. It is used down to battalion
level with Reel RL-159/U, which contains 1 mile of Wire
WD-l/TT. The equipment can be mounted in a vehicle.
(5) Reel Unit RL-26 is a vehicular-mounted wire-laying and
wire-recovering machine. Reels can be mounted on two
axles, permitting the pay-out of four circuits simultane
ously. A small gasoline engine provides power for wire
recovery. This unit is found in the division signal battalion
and division artillery.
c. Field Telephones.
(1) Telephone TA-l/TT is a sound-powered telephone. It is
designed for talking and singaling without using batteries
and is used at company level as a replacement for Tele
phone TP-3.
(2) Telephone TA-312/PT uses two Batteries BA-30 and can
be used in a common-battery or local-battery system. The
AGO 1880B 23
press-to-talk switch on the handset can be used to control
remotely located radio sets. It has provision for the con
nection of Handset-Headset H-81/U, a component of
Switchboards SB-22 and SB-86. The Telephone TA-
312/PT replaces Telephone TA-43/PT and EE-8 and is
used throughout the armored division.
(3) Telephone TA-264/PT uses numerous batteries in con
junction with vacuum tube amplifiers, which give two-way
amplification. It is used throughout the armored division as
a replacement for Telephone TP-9.
d. Switchboards.
(1) Emergency Switchboard SB-18/GT is a light, portable
switchboard used with a field telephone. It accommodates
the operator's line and six additional local-battery wire
circuits. It is used at company level.
(2) Switchboard SB-22 is a light, portable, 12-line, retract
able monocord type, local-battery switchboard. When two
units are used together, the operator circuits in one unit
can be replaced with line circuits. Twenty-nine line cir
cuits are then available in the two stacked boards. It is
used at battalion and higher levels.
(3) Switchboard SB-86/P is a portable field-type switchboard
weighing 180 pounds. It has provisions for local-battery
and common-battery signaling operation. It can also be
used to interconnect voice frequency teletypewriter circuits.
This switchboard is provided with 16 cord circuits, and its
30 line circuits can be expended to 60-line capacity by the
additional use of the Switchboard Assembly TA-207. The
division signal battalion uses SB-86 equipment at each
signal center. Division artillery headquarters also uses
this equipment.
e. Radio Relay Equipment. This equipment is provided in the
armored division to establish multichannel truck facilities in lieu
of field wire or cable. It can provide simultaneous passage of voice
conservations or teletype signals on up to 12 channels. This is line-
of-sight equipment. Its normal range is considered to be 30 miles;
however, this distance can be extended through the use of repeater
stations and by siting antennas on high elevations. Radio relay
transmissions are more difficult to jam than radio transmissions,
because of the directional qualities of the antennas. Radio relay
can be established in minutes, as compared to hours for wire. It
can bypass impassable terrain and pockets of resistance. Command
post wire systems can be tied in to the overall division area com
munication system immediately upon arrival of the CP at a new
24 AGO 1880B
location. Terminal Radios AN/MRC-69 (12 channels) and radio
repeaters are organic to the division signal battalion for use in the
division area communication system.
/. Teletype. Teletypewriter Set AN/PGC-1 is a light, portable
sending and receiving teletypewriter station for field use. It requires
115 volts direct or alternating current and can be operated from
a keyboard at speeds of up to 60 or 66 words per minute. It can
be operated over field wire, carrier systems, radio relay, and radio.
Teletypewriter is used at combat command level, in the division
area communication system, by the division ordnance battalion, and
to higher levels of command.

Section IV. OTHER MEANS OF COMMUNICATION

26. M3ssenger Communication


a. Messenger communication is a supplementary means and is
available to all armor units. Authorization for messengers for most
units is contained in TOE's; other units train personnel to act as
messengers in addition to their primary duties. Messenger com
munication is the most secure means of transmission and is flexible
and reliable, although it has some limitations. It is slow, is vulner
able to enemy action, and does not permit the person who transmits
the message to talk directly to the person who receives it. Messen
gers are the only means available within the armored division for
transmitting maps, documents, and photographs. Messengers are
used when security is required and when the time of delivery by
messenger will be less than that required for transmission by other
means, including the time for encrypting and decrypting. In units
below division level, messengers are the best means for transmitting
long messages over short distances. Messengers may travel by foot,
motor vehicle, or aircraft. Air messenger is speedy, especially when
message drop and pickup is employed. All commanders must assist
messengers in expediting the delivery of messages.
b Double messengers are used when the mission involves great
personal risk. They keep within sight of each other, but far enough
apart to avoid simultaneous ambush or exposure to the same shell
or burst of fire. Very important messages may be sent over two
routes by either single or double messengers. Messengers must be
briefed on their routes, rate of travel, and the locations of delivery
points; they must be told if an answer is expected. Daylight recon
naissance of routes that are to be traveled at night is desirable.
Oral messages are kept short and simple and are not used when time
and security permit their being written.
AGO 1880B
25
c. Special messengers are employed whenever. required by the
urgency of the message. Scheduled service is established when
locations are fixed and the amount of traffic warrants a fixed sched
ule. Messenger relay posts may be established when messages
are frequently carried between the same points or units and delivery
is made difficult by reason of distance, difficulties of terrain, or
hostile activity, or when other messenger service is ineffective.

27. Visual Communication


Visual communication (FM 21-60) is a supplementary means and
is available to all armor units. Visual messages are transmitted by
flags, lights, pyrotechnics, panels, arm-and-hand signals, and other
prearranged visual means, such as aircraft maneuvers. Visual means
are suitable for transmitting prearranged messages rapidly over
short distances. They are very vulnerable to interception and are
easily misunderstood, and their use may be prohibited for security
reasons. The enemy may use similar signals for purposes of de
ception and confusion. They cannot be used during periods of poor
visibility or when line-of-sight locations are not available.
a. Flags. Flags are issued in all crew-served combat vehicles.
Units may also improvise flags. Messages may be sent with flags
by using the semaphore or International Morse Code and by using
prearranged signals.
b. Lights. Signal lamps may be used to send prearranged mes
sages, such as identifying units as friendly. The meanings are given
in the unit SOI or prescribed by the commander. Messages may be
transmitted by lights, using the International Morse Code. In addi
tion to visible light, infrared devices may be used.
c. Pyrotechnics. Pyrotechnics, including smoke, are issued in
various colors and types. The meanings of certain signals are given
in the unit SOI. Signals usually are included for identifying units
as friendly, lifting or calling for fire, marking targets, and reporting
an objective reached. To be effective, the transmission and recep
tion of pyrotechnic signals are preplanned. Pyrotechnics may be
used for communication within and between ground units, between
ground units and aircraft, and between ground units and ships.
d. Panels. Two general types of panels are issued for communi
cation with aircraft: marking and identifying panels, and panels
for transmitting messages. Marking and identifying panels, made
in bright fluorescent colors, are used to mark positions and identify
units as friendly. Panel markings, such as those used to identify
drop zones, may be outlined with lights at night. Panels for trans
mitting messages, made in sets of black or white for use on light
26 AGO 1880B
or dark backgrounds, respectively, are used to transmit brief mes
sages or to identify a particular unit. This is done by using the
combined panel system and panel recognition code, which is in
cluded in the unit SOI.
e. Arm-And-Hand Signals. These signals are used in armor for
the control of small unit actions and in the control and movement
of motor columns.
28. Sound Communication
Sound is a supplementary means of communication and is avail
able to all armor units. Sound signals are kept simple to prevent
misunderstanding and are transmitted by whistles, bugles, horns,
gongs, klaxons, weapons, and other noise-making devices. They
are used chiefly to attract attention, to transmit prearranged mes
sages, and to spread alarms. They are a rapid means of communi-
ction over short distances, but their range and reliability may be
greatly reduced by battle noise. Sound signals are very vulnerable
to interception, and their use my be prohibited for security reasons.
Such signals and their meanings are prescribed in the unit SOI,
or are assigned by commanders or by patrol leaders. For example,
three long blasts of a whistle, horn, siren, or klaxon, repeated several
times, or three equally spaced shorts or short bursts of fire, normally
are used to warn of an air or mechanized attack. Rapid and con
tinuous percussion sounds made with the standard gas alarm, or
with improvised devices such as iron rails and empty shell cases,
normally are used to warn of a CBR attack.

AGO 1880B
27
CHAPTER 4
TACTICAL APPLICATION OF COMMUNICATION

Section I. GENERAL

29. Planning
The success of signal communication depends upon timely and
adequate planning. The division signal officer or the unit communi
cation officer must be kept informed about plans for current or pro
posed operations. The signal or communication officer joins with
the commander and staff in formulating the overall plan for each
operation. Communication details are coordinated with higher,
subordinate, supporting, supported, and adjacent units. Planning
is continuous and must be revised to meet changing situations. The
signal or communication officer will advise the commander as to sig
nal support capabilities and recommend changes needed to adequately
support the overall plan.
30. Signal Communication Support
Signal communication support is integrated into the tactical opera
tion. Governing factors in this integration are mission, terrain
and weather, enemy and friendly situations, and signal troops and
equipment available.
a. The mission assigned to a unit, the tactical situation encoun
tered, dictate the means of communication to be emphasized. A
limited-objective attack may require the use of all means of com
munication. Offensive operations by armor units normally require
that the greatest emphasis be placed on radio. In a defensive mission,
the use of wire may be emphasized. In any case, the employment
of multiple means will be considered, and more than one means
will be used when practical.
b. Terrain and weather may affect the application of the various
means of communication that are used. Mountainous terrain may
limit the range of radios. Poor roads or adverse weather conditions
may hamper mounted messengers. Swamps and rivers affect wire-
laying capabilities. Overall plans should include the use of vehicles
and Army aircraft for messenger transport and cross-country wire
laying. Equipment and personnel should be allocated for use as
relay stations.

28 AGO 1880B
c. Enemy interference capabilities should be considered in plan
ning signal communication support. This interference may consist
of jamming of radio frequencies, radio direction-finding, radio de
ception, and direct action against wire and messenger communi
cation. To counteract such interference, supplementary and multiple
means of communication should be utilized. Personnel normally used
to operate one means may at times be employed effectively to operate
other means.
d. The number of personnel and the amount of equipment avail
able will, of course, be a major factor in determining how much
signal support is provided by each level of command to subordinate
units.

31. Communication on Motor Marches


Radio and mounted messengers are the principal means of com
munication used during road marches. Visual communication is
also used extensively. When radio is employed, radio security meas
ures must be considered in the light of control requirements versus
enemy reaction capabilities. Army aircraft may be used very effec
tively to extend the messenger service.

32. Communication in Assembly and Bivouac Areas


To prevent enemy detection, radio communication is kept to a
minimum in assembly and bivouac areas. The unit SOP and para
graph 5 of the operation order will prescribe the extent to which
radio is used. Visual, sound, and messenger communication will
be used to the fullest extent. If time permits, wire facilities may
be installed. The command post is located to afford maximum effec
tive communication consistent with security requirements.

Section II. COMMUNICATION DURING OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

33. Preparation for Offensive Operations


Plans for signal communication support of an offensive operation
are based upon the unit operation plan. A unit's task organization
and mission will indicate the type and extent of signal support it
needs. The commander will indicate priority of support, and the
operations officer will allocate portions of the various means avail
able upon the recommendations of the signal or communication
officer. Communication plans must be flexible enough to ensure
support in the event of changes in the plan of action or unforeseen
employment of an uncommitted portion of the force. Radio traffic
will be held to a minimum during preparations for the offensive.
AGO 18BOB 29
However, if such preparations are made during a defensive opera
tion, the amount of communication traffic that is normal in the
defensive must be maintained so that the enemy will not be warned
of the impending attack The signal or communication officer will
coordinate his plans will all subordinate, attached, supporting, and
adjacent units Inspection and maintenance of all communication
equipment must be performed in the preparation for offensive opera
tions. Signal orders, SOI extracts, and prearranged signals or codes
are prepared and disseminated to all units concerned. Physical or
map reconnaissance is made for probable wire routes to key control
points and proposed command post locations. If lines of communi
cation are likely to be extended, arrangements must be made for
additional signal support. All commanders and staffs participating
in the operation must be informed of the signal plan for the opera
tion.
34. Communication During Attack
a. Maximum use of radio is made during the attack. Listening
silence is normally in effect prior to the attack. This silence will
usually be lifted as soon as units cross the line of departure; how
ever, in certain instances the commander may desire to continue
listening silence until actual contact with the enemy is made. During
the attack, the armor unit commander uses radio communication
as the primary means of command and control; however, he may
employ other means, particularly visual, when necessary. Wire
may be used in some situations; however, it must be remembered
that wire is generally of limited value to attacking armor because
of the speed of the attack, the distances covered, and the frequency
of unit displacements. When the objective is reached, local wire
may be used to relieve radio traffic and to reduce the noise made
by vehicular and auxiliary generator engines (which must run
when radios are used, to keep batteries charged).
6. During the attack, radio and visual means are used for com
munication between ground troops and aircraft both Army avia
tion and supporting tactical air force. Warnings of enemy air or
imminent attack by atomic weapons must be disseminated immedi
ately by the most expeditious means. Messages containing such
warnings must be given a flash precedence.
c. During the attack, fire support communication is provided by
organic unit radio equipment, and by forward observer and liaison
personnel with additional radio equipment from the supporting units.
d. Communication security is of paramount importance in deny
ing information to the enemy. The decision on whether to use clear
text or code at lower unit level will depend on the estimated or known
enemy reaction time and the tactical situation.
30 AGO 1880B
e. During exploitation of the effects of atomic weapons, armor
will utilize radio as the primary means of communication. Other
means will be used to supplement radio.

35. Communication During Passage of Lines and Relief in Place

a. Close communication coordination must be effected between all


units concerned to successfully effect a passage of lines. Use of
radios will be kept to a minimum as a security measure, and all
other communication means will be used to the greatest possible
degree. SOI information will be disseminated to all units concerned.
Close liaison between units must be established.
b. During relief in place, communication facilities of the relieved
unit are taken over by the relieving unit in so far as possible. This
is particularly applicable to wire lines. Prior to relief, signal or
communication officers concerned will coordinate the details of the
plan so that the changeover will be effected smoothly. A minimum
shifting of command posts will prevent disruption of existing wire
communication. The relieved units should continue to operate their
normal radio nets for a limited period of time in the interest of
security.

36. Communication During Exploitation and Pursuit

Because of dispersion and extended distances, maximum use of


radio facilities and Army aircraft will be necessary during exploita
tion and pursuit. Wire communication must not be depended on;
however, captured civilian and military wire circuits should be used
to the maximum possible extent. Local wire may be used during
halts for resupply, rest, or reorganization. Airborne-armor linkup
requires detailed communication planning and liaison between forces.

Section III. COMMUNICATION DURING DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

37. General
The time available to prepare the defensive position and the tacti
cal situation will to a large degree determine the extent of the com
munication system established. The troops, equipment, and tima
available and the mission and tactical situation may permit an
extensive wire system to be installed. If so, the commander may
use wire as the principal means of communication during a defen
sive operation. As the wire system is expanded, dependance on
radio will diminish. However, radio nets will remain open for use
when needed. At all times during defensive operations, efforts should
be made to establish a larger and more reliable communication net-
AGO 1880B 31
work. Supplementary means of communication must be used ex
tensively to overcome enemy interference with one or more means.
38. Communication in Mobile Defense
Because of the distances separating units engaged in the mobile
defense, communication means utilized are similar to those used
in the attack. Wire can often be used only by major unit head
quarters, which may include battalion headquarters. If possible,
wire may be installed to strongpoints. Prior to enemy contact, the
use of radio will be restricted; communication will be largely by
messenger or other means. After the enemy attack is launched,
however, reliance must be placed on radio as the primary means of
communication. Since operations of the striking force are offensive
in nature, its communication procedures are similar to those used
during an attack (par. 34).
39. Communication in Position Defense
Except during periods of enemy contact, radio nets in the position
defense will be restricted to listening silence; therefore, wire com
munication is used extensively. Alternate and laterial wire lines
between units or groups will be constructed as time permits. Wire
lines to reserve and blocking positions should be integrated into
the existing communication system.

Section IV. COMMUNICATION DURING RETROGRADE


MOVEMENTS

40. General
A retrograde movement is any movement of a command to the
rear or away from the enemy. During these movements, radio is
the primary means of communication. Nets may be operated for
command and control consistent with the degree of security desired
when weighed against enemy reaction capabilities. Listening silence
may be imposed upon units moving to the rear. Signal and com
munication officers must plan signal equipment augmentation for
the last elements to withdraw from a position. Facilities for this
augmentation may be diverted from lower priority missions. A
minimum of wire facilities will be installed, and maximum advan
tage will be taken of existing wire circuits.
41. Communication During Withdrawal From Action
During a withdrawal from action, sufficient communication facili
ties should be left with the last elements to withdraw so that dummy
32 AGO 1880B
communication activities may be conducted to keep the enemy from
learning that elements have withdrawn. Normal radio traffic may
be simulated, using assigned call signs and frequencies of with
drawing elements. Withdrawing elements normally maintain lis
tening silence and depend upon other means of communication for
contact with elements left on the position. Wire lines may be shifted
and extended to the rear as needed and as the situation changes.
Rearward positions should be prepared for communication activities
as early as possible and should be linked to assembly areas along
the possible routes of withdrawal. Detailed planning and coordina
tion are required.
42. Communication During Delaying Action

Radio is the primary means of communication employed in delay-


actions. However, other communication means must be used to
augment radio. A map or ground reconnaissance will assist in de
termining the communication support required for delaying posi
tions. Army aircraft should be used whenever available, and wire
should be recovered or destroyed to prevent enemy use.
43. Communication During Retirement
During retirements, all means of communication must be utilized.
Long-range radio equipment will be used to maintain close contact
with security forces. If air cover is provided, air-ground communi
cation equipment should be dispersed throughout the column.

Section V. COMMUNICATION DURING SPECIAL OPERATIONS

44. General
Special operations discussed in this section include night combat,
mountain, desert, and amphibious operations. Methods already
discussed (pars. 29-43) are used as a basis for planning in each
particular type of operation.
45. Night Combat
The difficulty of control during night combat increases communi
cation requirements. Radio will be used in the same manner as for
daylight operations. Wire lines attached to external tank inter
phone control boxes may be used by close-support infantry. Messen
ger, visual, and sound means may also be employed, and areas may
be illuminated by pyrotechnics or searchlights.
46. Mountain Operations
Although large armor formations are not well suited to mountain
AGO 1880B
33
operations, occasions may arise in which the employment of armor
units is desirable. Army aircraft are invaluable for messenger serv
ice and wire laying over difficult terrain. Proper radio siting is
important to overcome dead spaces encountered in mountainous coun
try. Because road nets are limited, helicopters are often used for
transporting personnel and equipment to otherwise inaccessible relay
positions.
47. Desert Operations
Desert operations are characterized by increased dispersion of
units because of the wide expanses of terrain. Radio will be the
primary means of communication in such operations. The long
lines of communication will of necessity limit the installation of
wire. Motor and aircraft messengers will be used extensively.
Visual and sound signals may also be used within the limits of
security requirements. Signal installations must be camouflaged
from ground and air observation, and maintenance procedures must
be stressed because of dust and climatic conditions.
48. Amphibious Operations
Amphibious operations require close coordination and rehearsal.
Radio silence will be in effect until the landing begins, at which
time communication will principally be by radio and visual means.
In addition to those normal measures taken during offensive opera
tions, close liaison and communication with naval fire-support units
must be ensured. Lateral communication with adjacent units must
be effected. Special training must be given to all personnel in water
proofing and other preventive maintenance measures demanded by
amphibious operations.

34 AGO 1880B
CHAPTER 5
ARMORED DIVISION SIGNAL BATTALION

Section I. GENERAL

49. Mission of Armored Division Signal Battalion


The mission of this battalion is to:
a. Provide signal communication, to include communication to
subordinate units, for the
(1) Division headquarters and headquarters company, exclu
sive of staff vehicle radio sets.
(2) Division trains headquarters and headquarters detachment,
exclusive of staff vehicle radio sets.
(3) Division administration company.
6. Establish and operate a division area communication system
of signal centers, wire and radio trunk and local lines, and radio-
wire integration stations to provide general and direct communi
cation support for units in the division area.
c. Operate the division area ground messenger service.
d. Install and maintain field wire lines for the combat command
headquarters, except for the command post wire systems, as re
quired.
e. Perform photography (except aerial photography) for the
division, and still-picture laboratory service for all divisional units.
/. Provide signal supply and field maintenance of signal equip
ment for the division.

50. Capabilities of Armored Divison Signal Battalion


a. The battalion provides communication for those headquarters,
installations, and units listed in paragraph 49a on a 24-hour basis,
to include message center, messenger, cryptographic, teletypewriter,
and radio facilities (except staff vehicle radio sets).
b. It establishes and operates a division area communication sys
tem consisting of up to six signal centers, up to 28 double 12-channel
radio relay and field cable (spiral-four) terminals, and field wire
lines as required, to provide:
AGO 1880B 35
(1) Trunk line and signal center service for the headquarters
and units listed in paragraph 49a.
(2) Trunk line service for service and combat support units,
except artillery, in the division area.
(3) Administrative trunk line service and operational channels
for division artillery as required to supplement organic
communication means.
(4) Field wire, FM radio-wire integration, radio relay, or
field cable links to connect using units into the division area
communication system.
(5) Signal center service for units, elements, and installations
in the division area as required to supplement organic
communication means.
c. It installs and maintains field wire for combat command head
quarters, except for their command post wire systems, within the
capabilities of one eight-man wire team per combat command.
d. It operates the division area ground messenger service within
the capabilities of up to five motor messenger teams.
e. It performs photographic service for the division to include:
(1) Providing ground still and motion picture coverage for the
division, and aerial still and motion picture coverage
using ground cameras.
(2) Providing and operating two mobile photographic labora
tories, and the processing of ground and Army aerial still
photographic coverage for all divisional units as required.
/. It provides signal supply and field maintenance of signal equip
ment authorized the division.
g. The battalion depends on:
(1) The armored division aviation company or other units for
aircraft and pilots for signal operations.
(2) Armored division artillery for installation and maintenance
of field wire lines to connect artillery battalions into the
division area communication system.
(3) Corps and army to provide and operate division terminals
of radio relay and field cable (spiral-four) circuits from
corps and army, and for supplemental installation of field
cable for the division.
(4) Army or other higher echelons for processing motion pic
ture and Air Force aerial photographic coverage.
(5) Army for signal supply, fourth-echelon signal maintenance,
and backup of third-echelon maintenance.
36 AGO 1880B
51. Organization and Employment of Armored Division Signal
Battalion
a. The armored division signal battalion consists of a headquarters
and headquarters company, a command operations company, and a
forward communication company (fig. 2).
b. The battalion commnder is also the division signal officer. The
assistant division signal officer, radio officer, and wire officer pro
vide the immediate staff for the division signal officer. The battalion
executive officer is primarily concerned with battalion operations,
and to a great extent acts for the commander in battalion matters.
Other officers of the battalion headquarers staff, and the staff sec
tions, serve in a dual role in relation to the battalion commander-
division signal officer.
c. The armored division signal officer's office usually operates at
the division main command post (normally near G2-G3 operations).
The battalion command post is located in the vicinity, preferably
two to four miles distant. The battalion may establish a battalion
trains area.

Section II. HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS COMPANY

52. Mission
The mission of headquarters and headquarters company is to:
a. Direct and coordinate operations and training of the battalion,
and provide the headquarters facilities with which the battalion
commander exercises control.
6. Provide the division signal officer, his staff, and staff facilities.
c. Provide consolidated personnel management and administra
tion, and supplemental supply and maintenance support, for the
battalion.
d. Perform field cable and supplemental field wire construction,
and provide an augmentation of radio relay terminal and repeater
stations and telephone carrier terminals for the battalion.
e. Perform photography (except aerial photography) for the divi
sion, and perform photographic still-picture laboratory service for
all divisional units.
/. Provide signal supply and field maintenance of signal equip
ment for the division.
53. Capabilities, Headquarters and Headquarters Company
a. The headquarters and headquarters company plans, commands,
controls, and coordinates the training and operations of the battalion.
AGO 1880B 37
b. It provides administrative and logistical support for the bat
talion, to include:
(1) Consolidated personnel management, administration, and
organizational maintenance of generators, armament, and
cryptographic equipment for the battalion.
(2) Signal and organizational motor maintenance to supple
ment operating company capabilities.
c. It performs field cable (spiral-four) and supplemental field wire
installation and recovery for the battalion, utilizing four eight-man
teams, each capable of installing 5 to 8 miles of cable per 12-hour
day using ground-lay installation or aerial suspension on existing
poles or other supports.
d. It provides up to five radio relay terminal and repeater station
teams or telephone carrier terminal station teams to augment bat
talion operating companies as required.
e. It performs photographic service for the division to include:
(1) Providing still and motion picture coverage for the division
(except aerial photography).
(2) Providing and operating two mobile photographic labora
tories, and the processing of ground and Army aerial still
photographic coverage for all divisional units as required.
/. It performs field maintenance on signal equipment for the
division by providing five mobile repair shops.
g. It provides supply point and mobile supply contact teams for
the signal supply of the division.
54. Organization, Headquarters and Headquarters Company
The headquarters and headquarters company consists of a bat
talion headquarters and a headquarters company (fig. 3).

Section III. COMMAND OPERATIONS COMPANY

55. Misson
The mission of the command operations company is to:
a. Provide signal communication for the echelons of division head
quarters and the division trains headquarters.
6. Provide signal communication (except internal radio nets) for
the division headquarters company, the division trains headquarters
detachment, and the administration company.
c. Provide area signal center service to units located in the vicinity
of the division headquarters echelons and division trains, supple-
38 AGO 1880B
mental to organic facilities, to include installation and maintenance
of connecting field wire lines.
d. Establish and operate facilities to connect division artillery
headquarters into the division area communication system.
e. Establish and operate an assigned portion of the division area
communication system.
/. Provide and operate net control and other stations as required
in division and higher echelon radio nets, to include division and
army air request nets and the division warning broadcast net.
g. Operate the division ground messenger service.

56. Capabilities, Command Operations Company


a. The command operations company establishes and operates sig
nal facilities for the division main command post and for the alter
nate command post location, to include simultaneous operation on a
24-hour basis of:
(1) Message center, cryptographic, and teletypewriter facili
ties.
(2) Up to two two-position, or one two-position and two one-
position, manual telephone central offices and local tele
phone systems.
(3) Up to eight teletypewriter and three FM voice radio sta
tions in army, corps, and division radio nets and FM radio-
wire integration stations.
(4) Up to thirteen double 12-channel radio relay and field cable
(spiral-four) terminals in the division area communication
system or to connect echelons of division headquarters into
the system.
(5) Area signal center service to units located in the vicinity of
division echelon signal centers, to include the handling of
message traffic and providing telephone switching service
and connecting lines, within the capabilities stated above.
6. It establishes and operates signal facilities for the division
trains headquarters detachment. It provides general and direct
communication support for other units and installations in the divi
sion rear area, to include the simultaneous operation on a 24-hour
basis of:
(1) Message center, cryptographic, teletypewriter, and limited
rear-area motor messenger service.
(2) A one-position manual telephone switchboard and a local
telephone system.
AGO 1880B 39
(3) A radio teletypewriter station in division radio nets, a
radio receiving station in the division warning broadcast
net, and an FM radio-wire integration station.
(4) A radio teletypewriter station at the division logistics con
trol center (DLCC) as required.
(5) Two double 12-channel radio relay or telephone carrier
terminal stations in the division area communication sys
tem.
c. It establishes and operates signal facilities for the division head
quarters rear echelon, to include simultaneous operation on a 24-
hour basis of:
(1) Message center, cryptographic, teletypewriter, and limited
local messenger service.
(2) A one-position manual telephone switchboard and a local
telephone system.
(3) A radio receiver station in a division, corps, or army warn
ing broadcast net.
(4) A radio teletypewriter station for operation in division or
other radio nets as required.
d. It operates the division area ground messenger service, within
the capabilities of up to five two-man motor messenger teams.
e. It installs and operates both terminals of a 12-channel radio
relay or carrier field cable circuit to connect division artillery head
quarters into the division area communication system, as required.
/. It provides and operates air request communication at the divi
sion fire support coordination center (FSCC) to include a radio tele
typewriter station in the army air request net and the net control
station in the division air request net.
g. It provides and operates the net control station in a division
warning broadcast net.
h. It provides and operates up to two radios in the tactical air
observation communication system with UHF-equipped aircraft.
i. It provides and operates patching and switching facilities for
wire and radio relay trunk circuits in the division area communica
tion system.
j. It depends on the headquarters company, armored division sig
nal battalion, for installation and recovery of carrier field cable and
for radio relay or carrier cable terminal station augmentation as
required.
57. Organization and Employment, Command Operations
Company
a. The command operations company (fig. 4) is organized along
40 AGO 1880B
task lines into a company headquarters, two cellular-type command
signal center platoon headquarters, separate operating sections which
provide the personnel for the command signal center platoons, a rear
echelon operations platoon, and a trains area operations platoon.
b. The command signal platoons are organized, according to re
quirements, to support the division main command post and the
division command group. The other two platoons provide support
at locations according to their names. All four platoons operate
signal centers. The command signal centers and the trains area sig
nal center are part of the division area communication system. The
rear echelon signal center is not designed to be employed as part of
the system. It is expected that this signal center, to furnish support
to the rear echelon, will be located outside the division area proper
and will tie into corps.
c. The company commander and platoon leaders must maintain
close coordination with the staffs of the headquarters or echelons
with which they are located. They act as headquarters signal opera
tions officers for the elements with which they are located and as area
signal officers for other unit elements which they support.
d. The company headquarters provides command control and
coordination of operations. It is located so as best to perform these
functions, normally near the division main command post.

Section IV. FORWARD COMMUNICATION COMPANY


58. Mission
The mission of the forward communication company is to:
a. Provide area signal center service to units in the division for
ward area, supplemental to organic capabilities, to include installa
tion and maintenance of connecting field wire lines.
b. Establish and operate communication facilities to connect com
bat command headquarters and subordinate battalions into the divi
sion area communication system.
c. Install and maintain field wire lines for combat command head
quarters, except for their command post wire systems, as required.
d. Establish and operate an assigned portion of the division area
communication system.
e. Provide limited third-echelon signal maintenance support for
units in the division forward area.
59. Capabilities, Forward Communication Company
a. The forward communication company installs and operates

AGO 1880B 41
three forward signal centers to provide signal communication to
units in the division forward area, supplemental to organic capabili
ties, to include operation on a 24-hour basis in each signal center of:
(1) Message center, cryptographic, teletypewriter, and limited
local-area messenger service.
(2) A one-position manual telephone central, installation of
telephone lines to users, and provision of telephone instru
ments if not otherwise available to users.
(3) A radio receiving station in the division warning broadcast
net.
b. It establishes and operates, at each forward signal center, up
to three radio relay or telephone carrier terminal stations in the
division area communication system.
c. It establishes and operates, at each forward signal center,
patching and switching facilities for wire and radio relay trunk cir
cuits in the division area communication system.
d. It establishes and operates, at each forward signal center, an
FM radio-wire integration station to connect mobile FM radio sta
tions and nets into the division area communication system.
e. It establishes and maintains radio relay, telephone carrier, or
field wire circuits as necessary to connect combat command head
quarters into the division area communication system.
/. It installs and maintains field wire for combat command head
quarters, except for their command post wire systems, within the
capabilities of one eight-man wire team per combat command.
g. It provides limited or emergency third-echelon signal mainte
nance of wire and radio equipment for units in the division forward
area.
h. The company depends on:
(1) Armored division artillery for installation and maintenance
of field wire lines to connect artillery battalion elements
into the division area communication system.
(2) Headquarters company, armored division signal battalion,
for installation and recovery of carrier field cable, for sup
plemental field wire installations, and for radio relay or
carrier cable terminal station augmentation as required.
60. Organization and Employment, Forward Communication
Company
a. The forward communication company (fig. 5) consists of a
42 AGO 1880B
company headquarters and three identical combat command area
support platoons.
b. Each platoon operates a forward signal center, and performs
wire laying and limited field signal maintenance, in support of a com
bat command and other units located in the area. Each platoon is
habitually associated with a particular combat command and is
usually located near or in the combat command command post. The
combat command headquarters have no organic capability for estab
lishing external communication except by radio and messenger. The
three forward signal centers operate as part of the division area
communication system.
c. The company commander and platoon leaders maintain close
coordination with the communication officers and commanders of
units which they support, and with the combat command staff. They
also act, in effect, as communication officers for the service support
and other nontactical elements in their respective areas.
d. The company headquarters provides command control and
coordination of operations. It is usually located with one of its
platoons.

AGO 1880B 43
CHAPTER 6
COMMUNICATION, DIVISION HEADQUARTERS

Section I. GENERAL

61. Mission and Organization


a. The headquarters of the armored division contains the neces
sary command and staff personnel for the command, control, and
supervision of operations of the armored division and all attached
units. Command of the division is vested in the division commander,
who is provided with a staff to assist him in command the division
by providing information, data, and advice; by preparing detailed
plans and orders as he may direct; and by exercising such super
vision over the execution of his orders as he may prescribe.
b. Depending on the mission of the armored division, the com
mander will form tactical groupings under the three combat com
mand headquarters. These tactical groupings are based on the combat
characteristics peculiar to tanks, armored infantry, artillery, engi
neers, and armored cavalry elements and on an evaluation of the
mission, enemy, terrain, weather, and scheme of maneuver. Added
to these combat elements is the essential support from the ordnance
battalion, medical battalion, quartermaster battalion, and signal
battalion.
c. In combat the armored division usually establishes two echelons
of the division headquarters: the division main command post and
the division headquarters rear echelon. The commander may also
establish a command group. A division trains area is also estab
lished, which, with the division headquarters rear echelon, will be
discussed in paragraphs 83 through 105.
d. The division headquarters company and the signal battalion
provide adequate personnel with sufficient signal equipment to in
stall, operate, and maintain the signal communication system for the
echelons of division headquarters and division trains. The signal
communication system is both extensive and flexible.
62. Division Main Command Post
a. The commander, the general staff agencies, and some special
staff agencies are located at the main command post. The purpose
44 AGO 1880B
of the main command post is to provide command and control of
combat operations. Necessary security, communication, administra
tive, and logistical supporting elements complete the composition of
the main command post.
b. The main command post establishes and maintains communica
tion with higher, adjacent, supporting, and subordinate units through
the communication facilities within its signal center. The staff sec
tions make reports to the commander on new developments pertinent
to the situation, make plans for future operations, and provide for
staff coordination with adjacent and higher units. The division
artillery command post and the division headquarters company com
mand post will normally be located near the division main command
post. Communication facilities within the signal center serving the
division main command post should be located so that they will be
conveniently accessible to staff sections having primary interest,
consistent with requirements for siting for good communication. The
message center serving the division main command post signal
center should be located for easy access to all communication facili
ties within the signal center. When the division main command post
is marching, the communication facilities within the signal center
should be so placed in the column as to be conveniently accessible to
the staff sections having primary interest in the facility, especially
its messengers.

63. Division Command Group


a. The command group consists of the division commander and
such staff officers and fire-support reresentatives as he may desire
to accompany him. The purpose of the command group is to directly
supervise operations, render prompt decisions for changes in plans,
and keep higher headquarters informed of the situation through the
main command post. It remains highly mobile and well forward dur
ing operations.
b. The command group normally does not have a signal center.
However, it may be tied into one of the signal centers of the division
area communication system with radio relay equipment or by
vehicular-mounted medium-power FM radio. Medium-power AM
radio is also available in the operations armored personnel carrier.
If required, a high-power AM radio installed in an armored person
nel carrier can be furnished by the armored division signal battalion
for communication to the division main command post and to
corps/army.

AGO 1880B
45
Section II. COMMUNICATION SUPPORT, DIVISION
HEADQUARTERS

64. Responsibility
The division signal officer (par. 15) commands the armored divi
sion signal battalion and is a member of the division commander's
special staff. He is responible for the division communication system
and has operational responsibility for the employment of the signal
battalion in the establishment and maintenance of the communica
tion system for division headquarters.
65. Armored Division Signal Battalion
The armored division signal battalion (pars. 49-60) establishes,
operates, and maintains the communication system for division head
quarters and trains. It also furnishes certain signal support to divi
sion artillery and to the combat commands. In addition, it furnishes
ground till and motion picture service, still photographic laboratory
service, signal supply, and third-echelon signal maintenance to the
entire division. The command operations company of the armored
division signal battalion (pars. 55-57) is responsible for the signal
centers at echelons of division headquarters and the division trains
area, and for an alternate signal center forward of the main com
mand post. The command operations company also provides termi
nal equipment in the division area communication system for divi
sion artillery headquarters.
66. Division Headquarters Company
The division headquarters company furnishes personnel to divi
sion headquarters sections for the operation of signal equipment
organic to the headquarters company.

Section III. RADIO COMMUNICATION, DIVISION HEADQUARTERS

67. General
Radio communication is used extensively by the armored division
headquarters. High-, medium-, and low-power sets, installed in
appropriate vehicles, are used in division headquarters to carry on
radio communication between the division commander, staff mem
bers, echelons of the headquarters, and higher, lower, and adjacent
units. Radio operators from the command operations company of
the signal battalion operate the high- and medium-power AM (RTT,
CW, voice) radio equipment. Some medium-power AM (RTT, CW,

46 AGO 1880B
voice) equipment is also operated by radio operators furnished by
the division headquarters company. Personnel from the division
headquarters company operate the medium- and low-power FM
equipment.
68. Division Radio Communication to Higher Headquarters
The armored division operates a station in a point-to-point circuit
to the next higher headquarters, normally corps. This station is
furnished by the command operations company and operates in con
junction with the signal center at the division main command post.
The station employs high-power AM equipment that is operated as
radioteletype-voice, but may be converted to radiotelegraph if de
sired. Similar equipment is used to operate a station in the army
logistical net if such a net is established. Normally, this equipment
is employed to support displacement of other radioteletype stations
as required.
69. Division Radio Nets
(figs. 7 and 8)
a. Division Command Net RTT. This net is used for the opera
tional command and control of the division. The net control station
is at the division main command post and is under the operational
control of the G3. The medium-power equipment and operating per
sonnel for the net control station are furnished by the command
operations company. The division G3 also has a station in this net
when operating from his armored personnel carrier; personnel and
medium-power equipment necessary to operate this station are fur
nished by the division headquarters company. Other stations in the
division command net RTT include those of the S3's of the combat
commands, armored cavalry squadron, engineer battalion, and divi
sion artillery, and the communication and aircraft control section
of the division aviation company.
6. Division Intelligence Net RTT. This net is used for the trans
mission of enemy information and intelligence. The net may, in
addition, be used for command or logistical traffic if the command or
logistical nets are either inoperative or overloaded. The net control
station is at the division main command post and is under the opera
tional control of the G2. Operating personnel and medium-power
equipment for this station are provided by the command operations
company of the signal battalion. The division G2 has a station in
this net when operating from his armored personnel carrier; per
sonnel and medium-power equipment for this station are furnished
by the division headquarters company. Other stations in the division
intelligence net RTT include those of the S2's of the combat com-
AGO 1880B
47
mands, armored cavalry squadron, and engineer battalion, and the
communication and aircraft control section of the division aviation
company.
c. Division Logistical Net RTT. This net is used for transmission
of administrative and logistical messages. The net control station is
at the division main command post and is under the operational con
trol of the G4. The command operations company of the division
signal battalion provides medium-power equipment and operating
personnel for three stations in this net: the previously mentioned
net control station, a station for the commander of the division
logistics control center (DLCC), and a station for the division trains
commander. When necessary, the trains commander may use his set
to enter the division command net RTT. Other stations in the divi
sion logistical net RTT include those of the S4's of the combat com
mands ; S4's of the armor, armored infantry, and engineer battalions
and the armored cavalry squadron; and the operations sections of
the ordnance, medical, and quartermaster battalions. In addition,
the division aviation company and division artillery may enter this
net when necessary by using radio equipment normally used to
operate in other nets.
d. Division Rear Echelon Net RTT. This net is used to connect the
division main command post to the division headquarters rear eche
lon, and has sufficient traffic-handling capacity to accommodate the
large volume of administrative messages between these two points.
Both stations operate with personnel and high-power equipment
furnished by the command operations company. These stations are
under the operational control of the division Gl and AG, respectively.
e. Division Air Request Net AM (Voice or CW). This net is used
to forward requests for immediate tactical air support directly to the
division fire support coordination center (FSCC), and also for co
ordinating information and instructions on any type of air strike
(pars. 165 through 168). The command operations company oper
ates the net control station at the division FSCC. Each combat
battalion and combat command headquarters operates a station in
the net.
/. Division Warning Broadcast Net AM (Voice). This net is
employed to broadcast air alerts, CBR attack warnings, fallout warn
ings, rad-safe data, and similar information of an urgent opera
tional nature, applying to the division as a whole or to major seg
ments, which need not be handled strictly through command
channels, and for which no immediate receipt or reply is required.
The command operations company furnishes a medium-power radio
at the division main command post for use as the net control station.
4Q AGO 1880B
Radio receiving sets are provided throughout the division for moni
toring this net. The division artillery, combat commands, armor
and armored infantry battalions, and armored cavalry squadron
may switch equipment from other nets to transmit in this net. The
division artillery station will usually broadcast all air alerts. The
armored cavalry squadron will broadcast urgent reconnaissance in
formation of interest to elements of the division.
g. Division Command Net FM. This net provides a direct channel
of communication between the division commander and the com
manders of units operating directly under division control. The di
vision chief of staff has a secondary station in this net. Medium-
power FM radios for both the commanding general and the chief of
staff are furnished by the division headquarters company. The use
of this net is restricted; however, staff officers may monitor or oper
ate in this net if necessary. Liaison officers of the division, when
operating with adjacent or higher units, may operate in this net to
facilitate close coordination between units.
70. Division Headquarters Radio Nets
(fig. 8)
a. Division Staff Net FM. This net is used for "horizontal" com
mand traffic between sections and vehicles of the division head
quarters during marches. The station of the chief of staff or the
headquarters commandant usually is designated as the net control
station. All armored vehicles and many unarmored vehicles of the
division headquarters are authorized medium-power FM sets which
operate in this net. Staff officers who are away from the main com
mand post may use this net to maintain contact with the main com
mand post.
b. Security Platoon Command Net FM. This net is used to connect
the division headquarters company commander and the security pla
toon. The headquarters company commander and security platoon
leader use vehicular sets in this net, while the security squads use
low-power portable sets. The FM sets in the tanks of the division
headquarters company may also operate in this net.
71. Armored Division Aviation Company Radio Nets
(fig. 9)
a. Nets to Division Headquarters. The armored division aviation
company is equipped with medium-power radioteletype and FM
equipment for operation in the division command net RTT, division
intelligence net RTT, and division command net FM (par. 69). This
equipment is normally located at the division main airstrip, which is
in the vicinity of the division main command post.
AGO 1880B 49
b. Nets Within Aviation Company.
(1) Company Command Net AM. The division aviation com
pany command net uses medium-power AM equipment. The
net control station of this net operates at the division main
airstrip. This net links the division main airstrip with
the platoon and flight commanders operating at the for
ward airstrips. It is used on voice primarily for air co
ordination purposes.
(2) Company Command Net FM. This net is used for control
and coordination within the company. In addition, it may
be used for control of aircraft during take-off and land
ing at the division airstrip. The net utilizes medium-power
FM equipment and ties together elements of the company
headquarters and flight leaders who are within range.
c. Nets of Supported Units. The platoon commanders, flight lead
ers, and aircraft have medium-power FM radios for use in the com
mand radio nets of the units they are attached to or supporting.
72. Armored Division Military Police Company Radio Nets
(fig. 10)
The military police company normally establishes its command
post in the vicinity of the division main command post. The company
is equipped with medium- and low-power FM radios for operation
in the division command net FM, for operation of a traffic control
net, and for operation of a company command net.

Section IV. WIRE COMMUNICATION, DIVISION HEADQUARTERS

73. General
a. Wire communication is used extensively by the armored di
vision headquarters. The switchboard and local field wire lines in the
echelons of division headquarters are established by the command
operations company. The switchboard in each echelon is normally
operated in a vehicle and is part of the signal center. It furnishes
telephone switching service within each echelon via local field wire
lines, and telephone switching service between echelons via trunks.
Teletype switching service is also furnished over the trunks. The
command operations company also establishes the alternate signal
center.
b. Trunk facilities are field cable or radio relay circuits provided
at the main command post and the alternate signal center by the
command operations company. These trunk facilities, when con
nected to those established by the forward communication company
50 AGO 1880B
at the forward signal centers in support of combat commands, make
up the division area communication system. This system is de
scribed in paragraphs 80 through 82.
c. Wire communication normally will be established between corps
and division, and between division and major subordinate commands.
Prior planning and reconnaissance will greatly assist in rapid in
stallation of wire communication at new command post locations
after displacement. Wire communication is not possible when the
command post is moving, except by FM radio-wire integration.
74. Division Wire Communication with Higher Headquarters
(figs. 28 and 29)
The next higher headquarters is responsible for maintaining wire
communication to division. However, it is only through constant
coordination and endeaver by both organizations that adequate com
munication can be maintained. Normally, cable circuits from higher
headquarters will be terminated at the signal center serving the di
vision trains or the division headquarters rear echelon area. Radio
relay trunk facilities from higher headquarters are normally termin
ated at the main command post signal center. Both telephone and
teletype switching service are provided.
75. Division Wire Communication to Subordinate and Adjacent
Units
(figs. 27-29)
The command operations company is responsible for installing,
operating, and maintaining wire communication to major subordinate
units through the signal centers serving them. The installation is
normally radio relay, but it could be by field cable. The command
operations company establishes the division terminals, and the for
ward communication company establishes the combat command ter
minals. The terminals are all terminated in the respective signal
centers. Teletype service is provided to all signal centers and to the
division main airstrip. It may be furnished to division artillery and
other units if required. Lateral lines to adjacent divisions are con
structed in accordance with the SOP of higher headquarters; these
circuits will normally terminate at the main command post but may
terminate in the alternate signal center. Lateral communication be
tween combat commands is established by the command operations
company and the forward communication company over two routes,
one being through the alternate signal center.

AGO 1880B
Section V. MESSAGE CENTER AND MESSENGER SERVICE,
DIVISION HEADQUARTERS

76. Message Centers, Division Headquarters


A message center is operated as part of the signal center support
ing each echelon of division headquarters and division trains. Mes
sage-processing, cryptographic, and messenger service are provided.
77. Messenger Service, Division Headquarters
Scheduled motor messenger runs are established whenever pos
sible. Full use is made of this service so that special message runs
may be kept to a minimum. The aviation company is responsible for
providing aircraft and pilots for air messenger service, both sched
uled and special. Messenger service is normally provided from
higher headquarters to lower echelons. However, special messengers
may be dispatched from lower to higher echelons when the situation
warrants.

Section VI. VISUAL AND SOUND COMMUNICATION, DIVISION


HEADQUARTERS

78. Visual Communication, Division Headquarters


Visual signals are particularly valuable for the transmission of
short prearranged messages. Flags, pyrotechnics, light signals,
panels, and arm-and-hand signals are most appropriate for short-
range communication. Division headquarters uses panels for air-
ground identification of units and for emergency message transmis
sion. Flags may be used for vehicular control or warning signals.
Pyrotechnics are valuable during darkness as warning signals.
79. Sound Communication, Division Headquarters
Sound signaling is used chiefly to attract attention and to give
the alarm in case of CBR, air, or mechanized attack.

Section VII. DIVISION AREA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

80. Basic Communication Requirements


a. The ROCAD concept, through its emphasis on operational flex
ibility, dispersion, and operation over greatly extended distances
on a potentially atomic battlefield, and because of its incorporation
of greater mobility and firepower, has placed increased demands on
the division communication system.
52 AGO 1880B
(1) The operational flexibility of the division requires an
equally flexible communication system. The system must
be capable of being quickly reconstituted to meet changes
in operational plans and task organization.
(2) Dispersion and operation over greatly extended distances
require a concurrent dispersion of supporting communica
tion facilities through the division area, and the primary
use of radio relay for division trunk lines. This concept
also requires increased use of the multichannel trunk sys
tem in lieu of or to supplement separate organic systems.
(3) The requirement for supporting operations on a potentially
atomic battlefield, as well as in conventional warfare, neces
sitates a communication system with sufficiently dispersed
facilities, and increased capabilities for alternate routing,
to reduce the volnerability of the system to disruption by
damage to any part.
b. These requirements make necessary an extensive and flexible
signal communication system in support of the division headquarters
and major subordinate units. In order to provide these capabilities,
the armored division signal battalion is organized along task force
lines and makes use of a multiple-axis area communication system.

81. Concept of Division Area Communication System


a. Under the division area communication system concept, signal
centers are established throughout the division area to support the
dispersed divisional elements. These centers are so interconnected
by multichannel radio relay and field cable that they provide alternate
routes between any two points in the system. A type configuration of
the area system is illustrated in figure 6. This configuration is sub
ject to many arrangements, depending on the desires of the com
mander. The alternate signal center is located forward of the di
vision main command post. It gives the system more flexibility and
can serve to support a new main command post.
5. The provision of dispersed centers, and alternate routes of ade
quate capacity between them, decreases the vulnerability of the sys
tem to damage. It also increases its flexibility of employment and
its capacity for providing service to additional elements at any point
in the system as required by the tactical situation and deployments.
c. The signal centers in the division area communication system:
(1) Provide points of entry into the system for supported head
quarters, units, and installations for use of the trunk lines
and channels in the system.
(2) Provide terminal, testing, patching, and switching facilities
AGO 1880B
53
for the radio relay and field cable trunks and the local lines
in the system.
(3) Provide local communication, to include message center,
messenger, cryptographic, teletypewriter, and telephone
switchboard service for designated headquarters and for
other units and installations as required to supplement their
organic capabilities.
d. The trunk lines in the division area communication system:
(1) Provide means of communication from division head
quarters echelons to immediately subordinate elements and
among these elements.
(2) Provide long lines and channels for use of other divisional
elements in lieu of or to supplement organic communica
tion means (on either a common-user or allocated-channel
basis as required).
e. Signal centers in the area system are generally located with or
near the major divisional elements. The basic system is extended to
other users by field wire or by FM radio-wire integration links. Ter
minal facilities only are furnished to the division artillery head
quarters for entry into the system. Subordinate artillery battalions
have organic wire personnel and field wire and therefore connect
themselves into the system through the signal center in their area
of employment. Artillery in addition establishes a separate field
wire system from division artillery headquarters to each of its bat
talions when feasible.
/. The division area communication system stresses maximum
utilization of radio relay for telephone and teletype service. The sys
tem should be used extensively in preference to functional AM and
FM radio nets. See paragraph 116 for further details.
82. FM Radio-Wire Integration
a. An FM-voice radio-wire integration station is operated at each
signal center (except the rear echelon) to connect FM radio stations
into the division area communication system on a push-to-talk basis.
This system of stations is an important feature of the area system.
6. The system of integrated stations is used to establish communi
cation between FM radio stations and other FM radio stations or ele
ments connected to the division area communication system by tele
phone. The system is used in lieu of FM radio relay stations to es
tablish communication between FM radio stations operating beyond
direct FM range. The system of stations is supplemented by similar
facilities within some of the division combat units, operating on
unit net frequencies. Some important uses of this system are:
54 AGO 1880B
(1) For use of the commanding general and division staff, when
traveling, to contact division elements connected to the divi
sion area communication system by telephone, and for use
as relay stations in the division command net FM.
(2) For initial establishment of telephone service from the di
vision area communication system to using units until wire
links can be established, such as during displacements.
(3) For voice communication between mobile combat elements
in the division forward area and supporting division logis
tical elements in the rear area who may be connected to
the division area communication system by wire or radio-
wire integration links.
(4) For communication between Army aircraft operating in
distant parts of the division area and airstrips or flight con
trol elements connected to the division area communication
system when direct FM contact cannot be maintained.
(5) For communication between forward air controllers
(equipped with Radio Sets AN/VRC-30) and the air
liaison officer communication facilities (normally at the di
vision FSCC) when connected into the division area com
munication system.

AGO 1880B
55
CHAPTER 7
COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION TRAINS AND
HEADQUARTERS REAR ECHELON

Section I. GENERAL

83. Armored Division Trains


The armored division trains contain the necessary administrative
and service elements to provide logistical support and personnel ad
ministration for the division as a whole. The armored division trains
are normally composed of a headquarters and headquarters detach
ment, an armored division band, an armored division quartermaster
battalion, an armored division ordnance battalion, an armored divi
sion medical battalion, an armored division administration company
(which, however, usually becomes a part of the division headquarters
rear echelon during operations), and support elements of the
armored division signal battalion. For detailed discussion of the di
vision trains, see FM 17-50.
84. Division Headquarters Rear Echelon
The rear echelon of division headquarters may frequently be lo
cated with the division trains. It is responsible for the details of di
vision administration. It normally includes the administration com
pany and the rear echelon operations platoon (signal). The divi
sion administrative center (DAC), part of the headquarters rear
echelon, normally includes division administrative elements and all
unit personnel sections.
85. Operational Control of Division Trains
Because the operation, control, employment, disposition, and pro
tection of the trains and headquarters rear echelon are of vital con
cern to the armored division, the trains and headquarters rear eche
lon commanders must be provided with a long-range, flexible com
munication system for control and coordination. This communica
tion system is based upon the limited means organic to the division
trains headquarters and headquarters detachment, the means of the
organic service organizations, and signal support provided by the
armored division signal battalion. The division trains make exten
sive use of the division area communication system to control and
coordinate their widely dispersed elements.
56 AGO 1880B
86. Command Post, Division Trains

a. The division trains command post should be located near the


center of the division trains area to facilitate control. Organic com
munication facilities, and those provided by the trains area opera
tions platoon, should be located in the trains command post. These
facilities should be easily accessible to interested staff personnel and
the message center. When the command post is marching, communi
cation facilities should be placed in the column so as to be accessible
to staff sections which have primary interest in them.
b. The message center which services the division trains command
post is furnished by the trains area operations platoon. It should be
so located in the trains command post that it has immediate access
to all communication facilities and is convenient to incoming
messengers.

Section II. COMMUNICATION SUPPORT, ARMORED DIVISION


TRAINS

87. Communication Personnel in Division Trains


There is no communication officer in the division trains organiza
tion. The platoon leader of the trains area operations platoon acts
as the trains headquarters signal operations officer (par. 57c). Com
munication personnel are authorized to the headquarters of the
various battalions of division trains, and their duties are to install,
operate, and maintain the communication systems for their organiza
tions.
88. Command Operations Company Support of Division Trains
The command operations company, armored division signal bat
talion, will provide the division trains with the following suport:
a. The trains Area Operations Platoon, which establishes and
operates a signal center at the division trains headquarters. This
platoon will:
(1) Provide message center, cryptographic, teletypewriter, and
limited local area messenger service, on a 24-hour basis,
for the division trains headquarters, and supplement the
communication capabilities of the units in the division
trains area.
(2) Provide a telephone switching central for the trains head
quarters and for other units in the division trains area, and
provide trunk switching service in the division area com
munication system.
AGO 1880B 57
(3) Provide and operate radioteletype equipment for division
trains stations in the division logistical net RTT, and other
radio equipment for radio-wire integration and trains head
quarters stations in a higher headquarters command net
FM.
(4) Provide and operate the trains area terminals of radio re
lay and carrier cable links in the division area communica
tion system.
(5) Install and maintain the telephone wire system for the
trains headquarters, and the field wire links from the trains
command post to the other units in the trains area.
b. The Rear Echelon Operations Platoon, which establishes and
operates a signal center at the division headquarters rear echelon.
Specifically, the platoon will:
(1) Provide message center, cryptographic, teletypewriter, and
limited motor messenger service, on a 24-hour basis, for the
division headquarters rear echelon.
(2) Provide a telephone switching central for the division head
quarters rear echelon.
(3) Provide and operate a high-power radioteletype set as the
division headquarters rear echelon's link with the division
trains or the division main command post.
(4) Install and maintain the telephone system in the division
headquarters rear echelon.

Section III. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION


TRAINS

89. Radio Communication


a The division trains command post, with the support of the trains
area operations platoon, operates radio stations in the following nets
(par. 69).
(1) Division logistical net RTT. Two truck-mounted radiotele
type sets are provided by the trains area operations pla
toon for use in this net. One will normally be located in
the division logistics control center (DLCC), and the sec
ond will be in the trains command post area. Both sets
may operate in the division logistical net RTT, or the set
in the trains command post may operate as necessary in
the division command net RTT.
(2) Division warning broadcast net AM. An AM receiver is
operated in this net at the division trains command post
signal center. The receiver is provided by the trains area
58 AGO 1880B
operations platoon and is mounted in a message center
*4-ton truck.
(3) Division command net FM. FM standard-series radios
mounted in the trains commander's 14-ton truck and the
trains area operations platoon headquarters 3/4-ton truck
may be used to operate in this net. This provides the trains
command post and the trains commander with voice con
tact to other stations operating in this net and to the di
vision main command post.
b. The division headquarters rear echelon operates a high-power
set in the division rear echelon net RTT (par. 69d). This radiotele-
type set is furnished by the rear echelon operations platoon.
c. The division trains command net FM (fig. 26) is an internal
net within the trains. The trains commander, the liaison officer, the
operations officer, certain vehicles in the trains area operations pla
toon, and commanders of elements organic and attached to division
trains operate stations in this net as necessary. This net provides
a means of voice control and coordination, especially when the di
vision trains are moving.
90. Wire Communication, Division Trains
Wire communication is used extensively by the division trains and
the division headquarters rear echelon (fig. 29). Organic wire equip
ment in the rear area units and installations is limited. Neverthe
less, the command operations company, by establishing signal centers
and extending trunk facilities to these rear-area activities, gives
them access to the division area communication system.
91. Message Center and Messenger Communication, Division Trains
The message center operating as part of the signal center provides
message processing, cryptographic, and messenger service. The
messenger service is of prime importance, since it is the only prac
tical means of transmitting voluminous supply and maintenance
documents and personnel records.

Section IV. COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION QUARTER


MASTER BATTALION

92. General
The armored division quartermaster battalion provides rations,
fuel and lubricants, and quartermaster clothing and equipment to all
elements of the division. In addition, it provides bathing facilities,
salvage segregation, and recovery and disposition of the dead. It
AGO 1880B 59
consists of a headquarters and headquarters detachment, a supply
company, and a field service company. The command post should
be located near the main supply route, on a good road net, and on
terrain suitable for the operation of the battalion communication sys-
stem. See FM 17-50 for further details.

93. Communication Personnel, Armored Division Quartermaster


Battalion

The communication personnel organic to the armored division


quartermaster battalion are assigned to the headquarters detachment
and install, operate, and maintain the battalion communication sys
tem. The battalion communication chief, as the senior communica
tion specialist, supervises the activities of these communication per
sonnel. He must maintain close liaison with the platoon leader of the
trains area operations platoon located in the trains command post.

94. Radio Communication, Armored Division Quartermaster Bat


talion

The quartermaster battalion has organic radio and radioteletype


equipment which normally operates in the following radio nets (par.
69 and fig. 26).
a. Division Logistical Net RTT. The quartermaster battalion sta
tion in this net is a radioteletype set mounted in the battalion opera
tions vehicle. It connects the battalion command post with its ele
ments in the DLCC and with the division trains command post.
6. Division Warning Broadcast Net AM. The battalion com
mand post monitors this net to receive warnings and alerts.
c. Division Trains Command Net FM. The battalion commander
operates a station in this net, as necessary, to contact the division
trains commander. Because of the limited range of the FM equip
ment used in this net, the quartermaster battalion commander may
receive most of his operational traffic through the quartermaster
battalion station in the division logistical net RTT.
d. Quartermaster Battalion Command Net FM. This is the only
intrabattalion radio net; and because of the normally wide disper
sion of the elements of the battalion, use of this net will be limited.
When distances permit, this net provides voice communication be
tween the battalion headquarters, the supply company, and the field
service company. When the truck platoons are operating, this net
may be useful for control and coordination of their movements; or
the truck platoon leaders may use their radios to operate in the
logistical nets FM of the units they are supporting.
60 AGO 1880B
95. Wire Communication, Armored Division Quartermaster Bat
talion
The quartermaster battalion normally will install, operate, and
maintain a limited battalion wire net (fig. 29). When operating in
the DLCC or elsewhere in the division area, elements of the battalion
arrange for entry into the local unit wire system or a signal center
serving the division area communication system.

Section V. COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION ORDNANCE


BATTALION

96. General
The armored division ordnance battalion provides third-echelon
ordnance support to the division, including replacement of ordnance
general supplies to using units, inspection of organizational mainte
nance, and repair of ordnance equipment for return to the using unit.
It consists of a headquarters and main support company and three
forward support companies. Normally, the three forward support
companies will be placed in support of the three combat commands,
one to each combat command, while the remainder of the battalion
is in the division trains area. The ordnance battalion should be lo
cated near the main supply route, on a good road net, and on terrain
suitable for its operations. See FM 17-50 for further details.

97. Communication Personnel, Armored Division Ordnance Battalion


The communication personnel organic to the ordnance battalion
install, operate, and maintain the battalion communication system.
The senior communication specialist supervises the activities of these
communication personnel. He must maintain close liaison with the
platoon leader of the trains area operations platoon located in the
trains command post.
98. Radio Communication, Armored Division Ordnance Battalion
a. The ordnance battalion has organic radio and radioteletype
equipment which will normally operate in the following radio nets
(par. 69 and fig. 26).
(1) Division logistical net RTT. Two vehicular-mounted med
ium-power radioteletype sets organic to the main support
company are operated in this net. One is used at the bat
talion command post while the second is used by the di
vision ammunition officer, who is normally located at the
DLCC. The net connects the battalion with the division
trains command post and, of most importance, with the
AGO 1880B
forward support companies located in the combat command
trains areas.
(2) Division warning broadcast net AM. The battalion com
mand post monitors this net to receive warnings and alerts.
(3) Division trains command net FM. The battalion command
post may monitor this net, or other stations within the
battalion headquarters may operate in this net as necessary.
(4) Ordnance battalion command net AM. This is the principal
command radio net for the battalion, since it is capable of
operating over the distances between the battalion com
mand post and the forward support companies. This AM
radio net connects the ordnance materiel officer, located in
the battalion command post, with the shop office of each
forward support company.
(5) Ordnance battalion command net FM. The battalion com
mander, battalion liaison officer, and battalion materiel of
ficer, and elements of the service and evacuation platoon,
operate stations in this net. If distance will permit, the
forward support companies should monitor this net. This
FM command net provides communication for command
and control of the battalion. It is of particular value in
matters concerning the employment of recovery equipment.
Such traffic is received by the radio sets mounted in escort
or recovery vehicles used on recovery missions. This saves
considerable time and mileage, which would be consumed
if recovery vehicles were required to report back to the
service and evacuation platoon headquarters for each mis
sion.
(6) Forward support company command net FM. This net pro
vides the forward support company commander with com
munication for command and control of his company. This
net is frequently used to control the recovery activities of
the company. The company commander operates a station
in this net. He also maintains FM radio communication
with the ordnance battalion command post, or he enters
the logistical net FM of the organization to which his com
pany is attached for support. The frequency and call signs
used by this net should be known to the maintenance of
ficers in all .combat battalions to facilitate maintenance sup
port, especially in the recovery and evacuation of combat
vehicles.
b. When the ordnance battalion has only one FM frequency avail
able, it will be used for the battalion command net FM. Al FM sta
tions in the headquarters and main support company and the for-
62 AGO 1880B
ward support companies will operate in this net. Where proximity
of these units will cause excessive interference, Set 1 should be placed
on low power to reduce the operating range.
99. Wire Communication, Armored Division Ordnance Battalion
a. The ordnance battalion can install, operate, and maintain a bat
talion wire net (fig. 29). When operating in the DLCC, combat com
mand trains area, or other divisional areas, elements of the battalion
will arrange for entry into the local unit wire system or a signal cen
ter in the division area communication system.
b. The supply sections of the main support company and of the
forward support companies are provided with portable lightweight
teletypewriter sets. This equipment is used by the battalion for
teletypewriter communication through the division area communica
tion system with the forward support companies in combat command
trains areas. This teletypewriter link is employed for lengthy supply
traffic associated with ordnance logistical support.

Section VI. COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION MEDICAL


BATTALION

100. General
The armored division medical battalion provides medical supply
and evacuation, and second-echelon maintenance of medical equip
ment, for the armored division on an area basis. It contains a head
quarters and headquarters detachment, an ambulance company, and
a clearing company. The medical battalion and its installations nor
mally are located away from other units, particularly ammunition or
gasoline supply points or other installations that might offer a good
target to the enemy. The headquarters and headquarters detachment
normally operates in the division trains area. The clearing company
and the ambulance company normally support the combat commands
of the division by placing an ambulance platoon and a clearing pla
toon in direct support of each combat command. The clearing com
pany and ambulance company, minus those elements in support of
the combat commands, normally operate with the headquarters and
headquarters detachment in the division trains area. See FM 17-50
for further details.
101. Communication Personnel, Armored Division Medical Battalion
The communication personnel organic to the medical battalion in
stall, operate, and maintain the battalion communication system.
The battalion communication chief supervises the activities of these
AGO 1880B
63
communication personnel. He must maintain close liaison with the
platoon leader of the trains area operations platoon located in the
trains command post.
102. Radio Communication, Armored Division Medical Battalion
a. The medical battalion has organic radio and radioteletype equip
ment which will normally operate in the following radio nets (par.
69 and fig. 26).
(1) Division logistical net RTT. A vehicular-mounted medium-
power radioteletype set located in the battalion command
post will operate as the medical battalion station in this
net. This RTT net will connect the battalion command post
with the DLCC, division trains command post, and combat
command trains areas. This will provide the battalion com
mand post with an additional channel of communication to
the clearing platoons and ambulance platoons operating
from the combat command trains areas.
(2) Division warning broadcast net AM. The battalion com
mand post monitors this net to receive warnings and alerts.
(3) Division trains command net FM. The battalion command
post may monitor this net, or other stations within the
battalion headquarters may operate in this net as neces
sary.
(4) Medical battalion command net AM. This is the principal
command radio net for the battalion, since it is capable of
operating over the distances normally found between the
battalion commander, ambulance company commander,
clearing company commander, and clearing platoon leaders.
This AM radio net is used for command, control, and
logistical support of the battalion and its dispersed ele
ments.
(5) Medical battalion command net FM. The battalion opera
tions vehicle, the four ambulance platoon leaders, and the
four clearing platoon leaders have mounted FM radios
which may operate in this net as necessary. Because of the
normally wide dispersion of the elements of the battalion,
use of this net will be limited.
b. The ambulance and clearing platoon leaders arrange for entry
into the logistical nets FM of the headquarters they are supporting
and, if distance will permit, monitor the medical battalion command
net FM.
103. Wire Communication, Armored Division Medical Battalion
The medical battalion can install, operate, and maintain a battlion
64 AGO 1880B
wire net (fig. 29). When operating in the combat command trains
areas or other divisional areas, elements of the battalion arrange for
entry into the local unit wire system or a signal center serving the
division area communication system.

Section VII. COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION ADMINIS


TRATION COMPANY

104. General
The armored division administration company provides adminis
trative services, to include serving as a carrier unit for elements of
the division headquarters rear echelon, replacement support, person
nel support for all elements of division trains and for division head
quarters and headquarters company, and limited service support for
the division headquarters rear echelon. The company operates the
division administrative center.
105. Means of Communication, Armored Division Administration
Company
The administration company is normally located with the division
headquarters rear echelon. With the exception of a few field tele
phones, the communication systems used in the rear echelon are pro
vided, installed, operated, and maintained by the rear echelon opera
tions platoon (signal). The organic field telephones are used by sec
tions of the administration company and are connected into the rear
echelon signal center switching central.

AGO 1880B 65
CHAPTER 8
COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION COMBAT
COMMAND

Section I. GENERAL

106. Mission and Organization


a. The headquarters, combat command, contains the necessary
command and staff personnel for the command and control of a
tactical grouping of combined arms. There are three of these head
quarters in each armored division.
b. Dependent upon the mission of the armored division, its com
mander will attach to the combat commands certain combinations of
the armor and armored infantry battalions within the division. These
units will normally be formed into battalion task forces and will re
ceive the combat support of armored division engineers and artillery.
Elements of the ordnance battalion, medical battalion, quartermaster
battalion, and signal battalion furnish operational and service sup
port. These elements, except for the signal battalion elements, are
located in the combat command trains areas.
c. In combat, the headquarters and headquarters company, combat
command, normally establishes a command post and combat com
mand trains, and a command group when required.
d. The communication platoon of each combat command head
quarters company provides personnel with signal equipment to in
stall, operate, and maintain the signal communication system for the
combat command command post (and command group when estab
lished) and combat command trains area. This capability is supple
mented by signal support for each combat command furnished by a
combat command area support platoon, part of the forward com
munication company, armored division signal battalion.
107. Combat Command Command Post
a. The Command Post of the combat command performs the same
functions as the division main command post. As the control center
of the combat command, it must be so located as to facilitate com
munication with its subordinate units and with the division main
command post. The combat command headquarters company com-
66 AGO 1880B
mander functions as the headquarters commandant at the command
post.
b. The Command Group of the combat command functions and is
organized similarly to the command group at division level. The com
manding officer of the combat command designates the staff officers
to accompany him. The supporting artillery battalion commander, or
his liaison officer, may be included in the command group. Vehicular-
mounted medium-power FM or AM radio is used for communication
to the command post.
108. Combat Command Trains
Normally the combat command S4 and his section operate with
the combat command trains. The combat command trains consist of
the field trains of the battalions, together with service elements at
tached to or in support of the combat command. The combat com
mand trains are controlled by the combat command S4 and are
usually located to the rear of the command post. Communication is
maintained between the trains and the command post.

Section II. COMMUNICATION SUPPORT, ARMORED DIVISION


COMBAT COMMAND

109. Communication Officer, Combat Command


The communication officer in each combat command (par. 17)
is assigned to the headquarters and is a member of the commander's
staff. He supervises the operations of the communication platoon
and is responsible for the installation, operation, and maintenance
of the combat command command post and and trains communication
systems.
110. Communication Platoon, Combat Command
This platoon is organized and equipped to install and operate major
portions of the combat command communication system, and to per
form organizational maintenance on communication and other elec
tronic equipment within the headquarters and headquarters com
pany. The platoon is organized into a platoon headquarters, a mes
sage center and wire section, and a radio section.
a. The message center and wire section contains personnel and
equipment necessary to install and operate the combat command
message center; to provide teletype service, motor messenger serv
ice, and centralized cryptographic service; and to install, operate, and
maintain the combat command command post and trains area wire
systems.
b. The radio section contains the necessary radio and radiotele-
type operating and maintenance personnel to operate and maintain
AGO 1880B
the combat command radio system. The communication officer will
assign these personnel to the various staff sections as required to
operate radio and radioteletype equipment mounted in staff vehicles.

111. Combat Command Area Support Platoon

The forward communication company of the armored division sig


nal battalion will have one of its combat command area support pla
toons operating with each combat command. Each platoon provides
support for the combat command to which assigned and to other units
in the division forward area. Each platoon operates a forward sig
nal center which provides the connecting link from the combat com
mand command post, trains area, and subordinate battalions into
the division area communication system. The center also provides
communication service, within its mission, to support unit elements
in the area. Each combat command area support platoon is also re
sponsible for installing and maintaining field wire trunks, as re
quired, for the combat command headquarters. It is preferable that
the forward signal center be located within the command post (par.
116). Each platoon will also perform limited field maintenance of
signal equipment for all elements in the division forward area. This
activity will normally be located in the trains area. Close coordina
tion between the combat command area support platoon leader and
the combat command communication officer is essential to insure
the best location of the platoon elements and to determine trunk
requirements.

Section III. RADIO COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION


COMBAT COMMAND

112. General

Radio communication is used extensively by the combat command


headquarters. Medium- and low-power sets, installed in appropriate
vehicles, are used in the command post to provide radio communica
tion between the combat command commander, staff members, the
command post, the trains area, and higher, lower, and adjacent units.
Radio operators for the AM sets are furnished to the staff sections
by the communication platoon; FM sets are operated by the staff sec
tions, usually by the officers. The combat command area support
platoon furnishes no operators or equipment to the combat command
for radio communication.
113. Combat Command Radio Communication to Division
The combat command normally operates in the following division
nets (par. 69 and fig. 11).
68 AGO 1880B
a. Division Command Net RTT. The combat command S3 oper
ates in this net with medium-power RTT equipment. This net also
furnishes radio communication to adjacent combat commands.
6. Division Intelligence Net RTT. The combat command S2 oper
ates in this net with medium-power RTT equipment.
c. Division Logistical Net RTT. The combat command S4 operates
two medium-power RTT radio sets in this net. One is located in the
S4 section of the command post and the other in the trains. The S4
communicates with the division G4 and S4's of attached battalions
over this net.
d. Division Air Request Net AM. The combat command S3 air
operates a medium-power AM radio in this net.
e. Division Warning Broadcast Net AM. The combat command
S3 air operates an AM receiver in this net.
/. Division Command Net FM. The combat command commander
operates in this net with medium-power FM equipment. The combat
command executive officer and other staff officers may operate in
this net as required; however, they normally only monitor it.
114. Combat Command Radio Nets
(fig. 11)
a. Combat Command Command Net RTT. This net is used for the
operational command and control of the combat command. The net
control station is located in the operations section at the combat com
mand command post. The operations section operates a second sta
tion in this net either for displacement or for use by the command
group. In addition, the S3's of all attached armor and armored in
fantry battalions operate medium-power stations in this net.
b. Combat Command Command Net FM. This net provides a di
rect channel of communication between the combat command com
mander and the commanders of attached and supporting units. Com
bat command staff members also operate in this net for intrastaff co
ordination and for coordination with their counterparts at battalion
level on operational matters. The operations sections at battalion
level also operate in this net. This net employs medium-power FM
radio sets.
c. Combat Command Logistical Net FM. This net is used for the
transmission of administrative and logistical messages. It is used
primarily within and between the combat command command post
and the combat command trains area. The combat command S4 uses
this radio net to control the movement of the trains. If the range will
permit, S4's of the attached battalions may operate in this net. The
combat command scout section operates in this, net, reducing the
AGO 1880B 69
traffic on the command net. Elements of the battalion trains operat
ing under combat command control will also operate in this net.
The equipment to operate in this net is found in the administrative-
logistics armored personnel carrier and other vehicles equipped with
medium-power FM radios.

Section IV. WIRE COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION


COMBAT COMMAND

115. General
a. Wire communication is used within each combat command com
mand post and trains area (fig. 27). However, use of wire at this
level is limited to some extent by the frequent displacements of the
command post and movements of attached units.
b. The message center and wire section of the communication pla
toon of each command command establishes local wire lines and
switchboards for telephone service within the command post and the
trains area. Teletype equipment is also installed at each location for
entry into the division area communication system through the com
mand post.
c. The combat command area support platoon with each combat
command provides area telephone and teletype switching service
within the forward signal center to units in the division forward
area (including the combat command), supplementing their organic
capabilities, to include installation and maintenance of connecting
trunk facilities. The amount of this service required is reduced when
the forward signal center is located within the command post. The
combat command area support platoon normally installs and main
tains field wire trunks between the command post and the trains area
so the supporting elements will have access to the division area com
munication system by switching through the command post. Artillery
battalions in support of combat commands connect themselves into
the division area communication system, using organic equipment.
The combat command area support platoon has the further require
ment of supporting the combat command by installing and maintain
ing field wire trunks between the command post and subordinate
battalions, as required. The platoon can provide one eight-man or
two four-man field wire teams for this purpose.
116. Combat Command Participation in the Division Area Com
munication System
a. Each forward signal center established in support of a combat
command gives access to the division area communication system,
70 AGO 1880B
which provides alternate routes over multiple axes to adjacent com
bat commands, to echelons of division headquarters, to the division
alternate signal center, and to division trains. FM radio-wire in
tegration permits calls from FM radios into the system for tele
phone and teletype service.
b. Each combat command area support platoon, by providing field
wire trunks from the combat command command post to the trains
area and to subordinate units, provides the combat command head
quarters with wire communication to its combat and service support
elements.
c. For security reasons, it is preferable that each forward signal
center be located within the command post of the combat command
it supports. This arrangement also requires less radio relay equip
ment; the equipment thus saved can be used for other purposes or
held in reserve for displacement. Each combat command area sup
port platoon has three terminal radios. Each of these can terminate
two 12-channel radio relay signals, each signal coming from two
separate distant terminals; each of the other two can terminate two
four-channel radio relay signals, each signal coming from two sep
arate distant terminals. Figure 6 illustrates a typical armored di
vision area communication system in which each forward center is
located within the command post of the combat command it supports.
Each platoon has used one 12-channel system back to division main
command post through the alternate signal center, where switching
and patching facilities are available. Also, each platoon has used
one double 12-channel system for communication to adjacent combat
commands and, in addition, to furnish alternate routing in the di
vision area communication system.
(1) In the center combat command, the platoon has split a
double 12-channel system for communication with support
ing centers. No spare system is available.
(2) In the other two combat commands, the platoon, in each
case, has a spare double 12-channel system available for use
during displacement.
d. Many configurations are possible in the division area communi
cation system. Prior planning is essential, and close coordination
must be maintained between the combat command area support pla
toon leader and the combat command communication officer. Both
these officers, in turn, must coordinate closely with the combat com
mand S3 as to the tactical situation and future requirements. The
necessity for coordination by the S3 with the communication officer
on the location of command posts cannot be overemphasized, since
radio relay equipment operates on a line-of-sight principle.
AGO 1880B 71
Section V. MESSAGE CENTER AND MESSENGER SERVICE,
ARMORED DIVISION COMBAT COMMAND

117. General
a. The message center for the command post of the combat com
mand is established by the communication platoon and usually oper
ates from the platoon's armored personnel carrier or from tents.
This message center furnishes message-processing, cryptographic,
and messenger service. It also has a teletypewriter installed for com
munication to the trains area and a second machine for entry into the
division area communication system through the forward signal cen
ter. If the command post is stabilized, the message center should be
conveniently accessible to the staff sections, incoming messengers,
and its transmitting facilities. When the command post is marching,
message center personnel must be decentralized to operating staff
sections to perform message center duties. The forward signal cen
ter furnishes message-processing, cryptographic, and limited mes
senger service on an area basis.
b. The messengers in the combat command communication pla
toon make scheduled and special runs to units attached to the com
bat command. Air messenger service is also available to the com
bat command from portions of the division aviation company oper
ating from the division main airstrip or from the forward airstrip
adjacent to the combat command command post.

Section VI. VISUAL AND SOUND COMMUNICATION, ARMORED


DIVISION COMBAT COMMAND

118. Visual Communication, Combat Command


Visual signals are particularly valuable for the transmission of
short prearranged messages. Flags, pyrotechnics, light signals,
panels, and arm-and-hand signals are most appropriate for short-
range communication. Combat command headquarters uses panels
for air-ground identification of units and for emergency trans
mission. Flags may be used for vehicular control or warning
signals. Pyrotechnics are valuable during darkness as warning
signals.

119. Sound Communication, Combat Command


Sound signals are used chiefly to attract attention and to give the
alarm in case of CBR, air, or mechanized attack.
72 AGO 1880B
CHAPTER 9
COMMUNICATION, ARMOR UNITS, BATTALION AND
COMPANY LEVEL

Section I. GENERAL

120. Mission and Organization


a. The armored division contains four armor battalions, four
armored infantry battalions, and one armored cavalry squadron.
Each battalion contains a headquarters and headquarters company
and four line companies. The armored cavalry squadron contains
a headquarters and headquarters troop and four reconnaissance
troops. The armor battalions are the striking force of the division,
having the mission of closing with and destroying enemy forces,
using fire, maneuver, and shock action in coordination with other
arms. The armored infantry battalion are normally used to support
tanks, having the mission of closing with and destroying or capturing
enemy forces by fire, maneuver, and shock action. The armored
cavalry squadron performs missions of reconnaissance and security
to the front and flanks and engages in offensive, defensive, and
delaying actions as an economy-force unit.
b. The combat command commander will normally combine the
tank and armored infantry units at his disposal into battalion task
forces. In turn, each battalion task force commander will form the
units under him into company teams. These battalion task forces
and company teams will have available the support of armored
division artillery and engineers.
c. Normally, the armored cavalry squadron is kept intact under
division control. However, the entire squadron or one or more
reconnaissance troops may be attached to a combat command for
a specific mission of reconnaissance or security. An armored
cavalry element may receive tank, armored infantry, or other at
tachments for a particular mission.
d. In combat, each battalion headquarters normally is divided
into two echelons: the forward echelon, or command post, and the
rear echelon, or trains. A command group often operates out of the
command post.
e. These armor units are equipped with similar systems of
AGO 1880B 73
extensive flexible communication. These systems provide the com
mander with multiple means of communication to higher head
quarters and to subordinate, attached, supported, supporting, and
adjacent organizations. Because of the similarity of communica
tion systems for the battalions and companies, these systems will
be discussed as one, with appropriate reference to individual differ
ences. The battalion and company communication systems will be
discussed first, since the communication systems of battalion task
forces and company teams are based on these systems.
/. Throughout this chapter, general references to battalion and
company apply also to the armored cavalry squadron and recon
naissance troop.
121. Battalion Command Post
The command post of each battalion includes the personnel and
facilities for the control of battalion operations. As the control
center of the battalion, it must be so located as to facilitate com
munication with its subordinate units and its combat command
headquarters. The headquarters company commander normally
functions as the headquarters commandant at the command post.
The command post follows closely, by bounds, the combat elements
of the battalion.
122. Battalion Command Group
The command group of each battalion comes from the command
post. It consists of the battalion commander and such staff officers
and fire-support representatives as he may take with him for the
immediate and close control of his battalion. A typical battalion
command group may consist of the battalion commander, battalion
operations officer, forward air controller, and artillery liaison
officer, mounted in one or more combat vehicles or l/4-ton trucks.
The personnel in the command group have sufficient mounted
communication equipment to perform their duties.
123. Battalion Trains
a. The battalion trains normally consist of the administrative,
supply, maintenance, and medical services that are organic or
attached to the battalion. If one or more companies are attached
to a battalion, they bring with them the necessary supply and
medical vehicles for their support. Conversely, companies detached
from a battalion take necessary support with them. The battalion
maintenance platoon normally is not split.
6. Battalion trains are normally divided into combat trains and
field trains. The combat trains are usually located in the vicinity
74 AGO 1880B
of the command post and consist of vehicles required for the im
mediate support of combat operations. The field trains are usually
located in the combat command trains area and consist of vehicles
not required for immediate support. For communication between
these elements, each battalion logistics officer is provided with
medium-power FM and AM (RTT) radio equipment to be operated
in the battalion command and logistical nets FM and the division
logistical net RTT. The radioteletype facility is his contact with
the combat command S4 and the division G4.
c. The armored cavalry squadron may operate with only one
trains element when under division control. The squadron will use
combat trains and field trains when attached to a combat command.

Section II. COMMUNICATION SUPPORT, BATTALION-LEVEL


ARMOR UNIT

124. Communication Officer


The battalion communication officer is assigned to the battalion
headquarters and is a member of the commander's staff. He also
commands the battalion communication platoon. He has the mis
sion of supervising the installation, operation, and maintenance of
the battalion communication system. See paragraph 17 for spe
cific duties of the battalion communication officer. Other person
nel of the battalion headquarters and headquarters company oper
ate communication equipment incident to their primary duties.
125. Battalion Communication Platoon
The battalion communication platoon is organized and equipped
to install and operate major portions of the battalion headquarters
communication system, and to perform organizational maintenance
on communication and other electronic equipment. Each platoon
consists of a communication chief, radio and radioteletypewriter
team chiefs, radio operators, radio mechanics, messengers, and
message-handling and wire-construction personnel. The battalion
communication officer assigns these personnel to specific duties so
as to best accomplish the platoon's mission. The battalion com
munication platoon will provide the following services:
a. Supervise the operation of the battalion communication sys
tem.
6. Install wire lines to companies, battalion strongpoints, and
outposts, and locals to staff sections.
c. Operate the battalion message center and switchboard, and
provide messenger service.
AGO 1880B -,c
d. Install panel displays and operate message drop and pickup
facilities.
e. Operate the medium-power AM (voice, RTT, and CW) radio
equipment at the battalion command post and the battalion trains.
/. Provide facilities for encrypting and decrypting messages.
g. Provide second-echelon maintenance of battalion communica
tion and other electronic equipment.
h. Operate visual signaling stations when required.
i. Prepare and distribute SOI extracts under the direction of the
battalion communication officer.

Section III. RADIO COMMUNICATION, BATTALION-LEVEL ARMOR


UNIT

126. General
The many methods of employment of the armor and armored
infantry battalions and the armored cavalry squadron require the
flexibility and speed of communication provided by radio. The
battalion radio communication system may be varied to meet the
requirements of each situation. Radio equipment organic to these
battalions includes medium-power AM (voice, RTT, and CW) sets
and medium- and low-power FM vehicular-mounted and portable
radio sets. Their employment is discussed below. Where reference
is made to combat command, such reference should be understood
to apply equally to division in situations where the battalion is
operating directly under division.

127. Battalion Radio Communication to Division


Battalions may operate in the following division nets (par. 69
and figs. 12,16, and 20).
a. Division Command Net RTT. The armored cavalry squadron
communication platoon is provided an armored personnel carrier
mounting a medium-power radioteletype set for operation in the
division command net RTT when the squadron is under division
control. If the squadron is under combat command control, this
station is operated in the combat command command net RTT.
b. Division Intelligence Net RTT. The armored cavalry squadron
intelligence officer is provided an armored personnel carrier mount
ing a medium-power radioteletype set for operation in the division
intelligence net RTT, regardless of the attachment of the squadron.
The armor battalion and armored infantry battalion intelligence
76 AGO 1880B
officers receive and transmit intelligence traffic over the combat
command command nets FM and RTT.
c. Division Logistical Net RTT. The administrative-logistics
armored personnel carrier in each battalion is equipped with a
medium-power AM radioteletype set for operation in the division
logistical net RTT. This provides each battalion SI and S4 with
long-range communication to the division Gl and G4 in the division
main command post, and also links the S4 with the combat command
trains area.
d. Division Air Request Net AM. The S3 air of each battalion is
provided an armored personnel carrier containing a medium-power
AM (voice and CW) radio set used to communicate with the combat
command S3 air and division G3 air. This set is used primarily
to transmit air request traffic on the division air request net. The
vehicle is also equipped with a UHF air-to-ground radio, a mounted
FM radio, and a portable FM radio. The UHF and FM radios may
be operated in conjunction with each other, using retransmission.
This facility permits the forward air controller with each battalion
to communicate with tactical aircraft using any mounted FM radio
in the battalion, or the portable FM set while dismounted.
e. Division Warning Broadcast Net AM. Each battalion S3 air
monitors this net for warnings and alerts, using an AM receiver.

128. Battalion Radio Communication to Combat Command


Battalions may operate in the following combat command nets
(par. 114 and figs. 12,16, and 20).
a. Combat Command Command Net RTT. The operations
armored personnel carrier at the command post of each battalion
is equipped with a medium-power AM radioteletype set for oper
ation in the combat command command net RTT when the bat
talion is attached to a combat command This facility furnishes the
battalion commander with his fastest and most flexible radio
means of communication with combat command. It is particularly
well suited for the transmission and receipt of lengthy operational
traffic.
b. Combat Command Command Net FM. Each battalion com
mander and S3 has a vehicular-mounted medium-power FM radio
which provides voice communication with the combat command
commander on the combat command command net FM when the
battalion is attached to a combat command. The battalion S2 and
the operations section normally monitor this net and may operate
in it when required.
AGO 1880B
77
c. Combat Command Logistical Net FM. If the range will per
mit, the S4 of a battalion attached to a combat command may oper
ate a station in this net for administrative and logistical traffic to
the combat command command post and trains area. Elements of
the battalion trains operating under combat command control will
also operate in this net.
129. Battalion Radio Nets
(figs. 12,16, and 20)
a. Squadron Command Net AM. The armored cavalry squadron
operates a squadron command net AM. A medium-power AM radio
set mounted in the operations vehicle is the net control station for
this net. The command net AM provides continuous radio com
munication over the extended distances at which armored cavalry
units normally operate. Also operating in this net are the command
posts of the reconnaissance troops; the squadron support platoon;
and the platoon leader, aerial infrared section, and ground radar
section of the reconnaissance and surveillance platoon.
b. Battalion Command Net FM. Each battalion operates a
battalion command net FM. It provides commander-to-commander
voice radio communication within the operating range of the equip
ment. It also provides for communication between elements of the
battalion headquarters. This net employs medium-power vehicular-
mounted and portable radio sets. The battalion operations vehicle
is the net control station. Other stations in this net include those of
staff officers and commanders of subordinate units.
c. Battalion Logistical Net FM. Each battalion operates a bat
talion logistical net FM. It is used to handle the maximum amount
of administrative traffic so as to leave the command radio nets
free to handle operational traffic. The administrative-logistics
armored personnel carrier in the battalion command post uses a
medium-power FM radio set as the net control station in this net.
The battalion support platoon leader, transportation section leader,
maintenance platoon, headquarters company commander, head
quarters company maintenance section, and battalion medical sec
tion also operate stations in the net. Administrative and logistical
personnel of organic, attached, and supporting units operate in
this net as required.
d. Scout Platoon Command Net FM. This net is used for the
command and control of the battalion scout platoon in the armor
and armored infantry battalions. Vehicular and portable FM radio
sets are employed in this net.
e. Mortar Platoon Command Net FM. This net is used by the
78 AGO 1880B
battalion mortar platoon in the armor and armored infantry bat
talions for both command and fire direction (par. 153). The net
contains the platoon leader, forward observers, mortar squads, and
fire direction center. The fire direction center is the net control
station for this net.
/. Reconnaissance and Surveillance Platoon Command Net
(FM). This net is used for the command and control of the recon
naissance and surveillance platoon of the armored cavalry squad
ron. It connects the medium-power FM radio sets of the platoon.
The platoon leader operates the net control station of this net.

Section IV. OTHER MEANS OF COMMUNICATION, BATTALION-


LEVEL ARMOR UNIT

130. Message Center and Messenger Communication


a. The message center at each battalion command post is estab
lished by the communication platoon. The message center furnishes'
message-processing, cryptographic, and messenger service.
6. If the command post is stablized, the message center should
be conveniently accessible to the administrative and operations
sections, incoming messengers, and the communication facilities
it uses to transmit traffic. It usually operates from the communi
cation platoon's armored personnel carrier or from tents. Messen
gers make scheduled and special runs to subordinate units as re
quired. Each battalion sends a messenger or liaison officer to the
next higher headquarters. Each company sends a messenger to
battalion headquarters.
c. During marches or movement, the "march message center"
operates in the communication platoon carrier to receive incoming
messenger traffic. The remainder of the message center personnel
are decentralized to the administrative-logistics and operations
armored personnel carriers. In each case they come under the
operational control of the vehicle commander. A mounted motor
messenger should be available behind the operations carrier in
the march column to facilitate the handling of message traffic
throughout the column. It is often desirable that a mounted mes
senger from each company march with the battalion command group
in order to insure that positive communications are maintained
under all conditions. When radio communication is available, limited
use of messengers should be made during a march, because of the
difficulties and hazards of passing tanks and other heavy vehicles.
Officer or enlisted liaison should be established with the preceding
unit in a march column.
AGO 1880B 79
131. Wire Communication, Battalion Level
a. The wire system of each battalion is installed and operated
by the communication platoon. This system is installed whenever
time will permit. It is normally used during periods of radio or
listening silence, in defensive or stablized operations, and in assem
bly and bivouac areas. Wire lines are installed to each company.
Lateral wire lines are installed to adjacent units wherever possible.
Local wire lines are installed to the operations and administrative-
logistics elements of the command post and to other staff personnel
as required. In the armor and armored infantry battalions, the
wire lines from the mortar platoon and from supporting units are
tied into the battalion switchboard. A wire construction team from
the combat command area support platoon supporting the combat
command will install wire from the combat command command post
to the command post of each battalion attached to the combat com
mand. This connection provides access to the division area com
munication system.
b. The installation of wire lines is not always feasible, because
armor units move so frequently. It is emphasized, however, that
use of wire cannot be continually ignored. See paragraph 24 in this
connection. When wire lines to combat command are not installed,
radio-wire integration must be used into the forward signal center
for entry into the area communication system.
132. Visual and Sound Communication, Battalion Level

Sound and visual communication means are used to the maximum.


Identification panels are used to identify vehicles and ground posi
tions to friendly aircraft. Signal panels are used to convey mes
sages to aircraft by displays in prearranged code on the ground.
Prearranged meanings are assigned in the division SOI to pyro
technics, lights, and flag and sound signals. When necessary, mean
ings should be included in battalion SOI extracts. Generally, sound
and visual means of communication are used to call for or lift fire
support, to direct movement of small elements, and for identification.
Precautions must be taken to prevent the enemy from learning
the meaning of and recognizing the signals. Visual signals should,
whereever possible, be screened from enemy observation to prevent
alerting the enemy to impending action. Sound signals are used
chiefly to spread an alarm, attract attention, and transmit messages
of prearranged meaning. Arm and hand signals during daylight,
and light signals during darkness, are used extensively for column
and individual vehicle control during a march Each vehicle com
mander must be alert at all times to receive and pass on such signals
to the succeeding vehicles in the column

80 AGO 1880B
Section V. COMMUNICATION, COMPANY-LEVEL ARMOR UNIT

133. Mission and Organization


The four tank companies in each armor battalion have the same
organization. Their general mission is the same as that of the
battalion. The same is true of the four rifle companies in each
armored infantry battalion and the four reconnaissance troops
in the armored cavalry squadron. These units have similar systems
of communication that are both extensive and flexible. These sys
tems provide contact with higher headquarters and with subordinate,
supported, supporting, and adjacent units. However, the three type
companies differ in internal organization because of the varied
types of missions that may be assigned. Therefore, the internal
communication systems have some differences. When necessary,
these systems will be discussed separately by type of unit rather
than type of net.

134. Company Command Post


The command post of each company is organized around the
company headquarters armored personnel carrier, which provides
an armored, radio-equipped, easily blacked-out command post in
stallation for the company commander. In the tank company, this
vehicle is also the transportation for the company security section.

135. Company Command Group


A company command group may be organized to permit immedi
ate control of combat action. It operates out of the company com
mand post and well forward in the company area. It normally
includes the company commander, an artillery forward observer,
and, for a tank or rifle company, a mortar platoon forward observer.
One or more combat vehicles or '/4-ton trucks are used.

136. Communication Support, Company Level


Each company commander is responsible for communication in
his unit. Each company has minimum communication personnel
for operation and maintenance. A communication chief assists the
company commander by supervising the installation, operation, and
maintenance of the company communication system. The battalion
communication platoon provides support when necessary; otherwise,
company personnel perform communication duties in addition to
their primary duties. Specifically, the company personnel, including
communication personnel, of each company provide the following
services.
AGO 1880B
a. Supervise and operate the company communication system.
b. Operate the company switchboard, and install wire lines to
platoons and sections.
c. Install panel displays and operate message drop and pickup
facilities.
d. Operate visual signaling stations when required.
e. Provide first- and second-echelon maintenance of signal and
other electronic equipment.
/. In each reconnaissance troop, operate medium-power AM (RTT,
CW, voice) radio equipment.
137. Radio Communication, Company Level
a. General. The many methods of employment of armor companies
require the flexibility and speed of radio. Radio is used extensively
for command and control in combat (figs. 13, 17, and 21). Person
nel operating radio equipment must be thoroughly trained in trans
mission security and radio discipline.
b. To Battalion or Squadron. Each tank company commander
monitors his battalion command net FM, using the auxiliary re
ceiver in his tank or 14 -ton truck. The rifle company commander
operates a station in his battalion command net FM, using the
medium-power receiver-transmitter mounted in his J/4-ton truck,
or a portable FM radio for dismounted action. The reconnaissance
troops commander has facilities for entering his squadron command
net FM from either his tank or 14-ton truck. In addition, in each
company or reconnaissance troops- command post, at least one FM
radio operates in the battalion or squadron command net FM, while
a second should operate in the battalion or squadron logistical net
FM to transmit administrative and logistical messages. Each re
connaissance troop command post uses its medium-power AM radio
to operate a station in its squadron command net AM.
c. Within the Tank Company (fig. 13). The company command
net FM in each tank company includes the company commander,
company headquarters personnel, company maintenance, and tank
commanders, including the platoon leaders and platoon sergeants.
All medium-power receiver-transmitters are operated in this net.
If separate platoon nets can be operated, all the medium-power
receiver-transmitters in platoon tanks operate in their respective
platoon command nets. In this case, the platoon leader and platoon
sergeant of each platoon monitor the company command net FM
with the auxiliary receiver.
d. Within the Rifle Company (fig. 17). The company command
net FM of each rifle company includes the company commander,
82 AGO 1880B
company headquarters personnel, company maintenance, platoon
leaders, platoon sergeants, and all squad leaders. All vehicular-
mounted low-power receiver-transmitters operate in this net. All
the portable low-power radio sets are also employed in this net,
on the same frequency, for dismounted operations.
e. Within the Reconnaissance Troop (fig. 21).
(1) The troop command net FM in each reconnaissance troop
includes the troop commander, troop headquarters per
sonnel, troop maintenance, the mortar section, the platoon
leader of the rifle platoon, and the platoon leaders and
platoon sergeants of the scout and tank platoons. These
personnel use vehicular-mounted medium-power radio sets
in this net.
(2) A platoon command net FM is operated by each rifle, scout,
and tank platoon. The vehicular-mounted medium-power
radio sets are used in these nets for mounted operations.
In addition, the rifle and scout platoons employ portable
radio sets, on the same respective platoon frequencies, for
dismounted operations.
(3) The mortar section command net FM is used by the mortar
section for command and fire control.

138. Other Means of Communication, Company Level


a. Selected personnel are used as messengers. Messenger service
is centered at the company headquarters vehicle both during sta
bilized situations and on the march. Each company sends a messen
ger or liaison officer to higher headquarters. Officer or enlisted
liaison should be established with the preceding unit in a march
column.
b. The company wire net when installed, is operated and main
tained by company personnel. Normally, the emergency switchboard
will be installed in the company command post. A line may be laid
to each platoon and to sections as required. The field telephones
in company headquarters are installed in the company command
post area. See paragraph 24.
c. Sound and visual communication (pars. 27 and 28) are used
to the maximum.

Section VI. COMMUNICATION, BATTALION TASK FORCE

139. General
A battalion task force is a tactical grouping of units under one
AGO 1880B 33
battalion commander, formed for a specific operation or mission.
It normally consists of a complete battalion with nonorganic units
attached, or a battalion minus one or more organic units with one
or more nonorganic units attached. Combat support is normally
received from engineers, artillery, and tactical air. As an example,
an armor battalion with two tank companies detached and one rifle
company attached constitutes an armor battalion task force con
sisting of two organic tank companies and one attached rifle company.
The commander of a battalion task force must have an effective
communication system to command his task force, influence fire
support, and maintain contact with higher headquarters. The normal
battalion and company communication systems are adequate for
these purposes; however, certain basic procedures must be followed
to integrate the systems into one communication system for a bat
talion task force.
140. Radio Communication, Battalion Task Force
a. Task force headquarters must maintain communication with
higher headquarters (figs. 14 and 18). Since the battalion head
quarters is the task force headquarters, the battalion operates its
normal stations in combat command and division radio nets. In
this regard, compare figure 12 with figure 14, and figure 16 with
figure 18. In each case, it will be noted that the task force head
quarters operates normal battalion stations in both combat com
mand command nets (RTT and FM) and in the division logistical
net RTT (in which combat command also operates). Further, just
as for battalion, the task force headquarters operates in the division
air request net AM, the division warning broadcast net AM, and the
tactical air direction net.
b. Attached units must maintain communication with task force
headquarters. An attached rifle company or tank company operates
normal stations in the task force nets, just as it would operate in
the nets of its parent battalion. In this regard, compare figure 13
with figures 16 and 18, and figure 17 with figures 12 and 14. It will
be noted that a company operates in the task force command net
FM and the task force logistical net FM. The company continues
to operate its company command net for command control but
ceases operation in the nets of its parent battalion. As an example,
a rifle company is attached to an armor battalion to form an armor
battalion task force. The rifle company enters the nets of the task
force and severs communication with its armored infantry battalion.
For its own operations, the rifle company operates its own company
command net.
c. Supporting units also must maintain communication with task
force headquarters. Therefore, the commander or representative
84 AGO 1880B
of a supporting unit enters the battalion task force command net.
At the same time, the commander or representative remains in the
net(s) of the supporting unit, which continues to operate its organic
net(s). As an example, a liaison officer from a supporting artillery
battalion enters the command net of the battalion task force with
which he is working. He maintains contact with his parent artillery
battalion over the artillery battalion command or fire direction net
FM. The platoon leader of an engineer platoon supporting a bat
talion task force operates a station in the task force command net
and maintains communication with his parent engineer company.
It is through this vital communication contact that the task force
commander influences his fire support or other support. Only when
the support representative maintains effective communication with
his parent unit will the supported unit have full advantage of the
complete support available.

141. Wire Communication, Battalion Task Force


The principles stated in paragraph 140 also apply to wire com
munication. Commanders or representatives of attached and sup
porting units tie into the wire system of the unit with which they
are operating. Attached units do not maintain communication with
their parent units; supporting units or their representatives do.
Direct wire lines may be laid from the headquarters of the unit
furnishing support to its representative or unit with the battalion
task force. If direct wire is not available, the representative main
tains contact over the normal wire system, through the supported
unit's switchboard and over the wire lines to higher headquarters.

142. Attachments to Armored Cavalry Units


When tank or armored infantry elements are attached to armored
cavalry units, the same principles of radio and wire communication
apply (pars. 140 and 141).

Section VII. COMMUNICATION, COMPANY TEAM

143. General
A company team is a tactical grouping of units under one com
pany commanders, formed for a specific operation or mission. A
company team normally consists of a complete company with one or
more nonorganic units attached, or a company minus one or more
organic units with one or more nonorganic units attached. Forward
observers of supporting units normally work with the company
team. As an example, a tank company with one platoon detached
and one rifle platoon attached constitutes a tank company team

AGO 1880B 85
consisting of two tank platoons and one rifle platoon. The general
principles stated for the battalion task force (pars. 140-142) apply
to the company team. However, closer integration of communica
tion is required for contact between combat vehicles and dismounted
armored infantry.
144. Radio Communication, Company Team
(figs. 15 and 19)
a. When one or more tank platoons are attached to a rifle com
pany, or one or more rifle platoons are attached to a tank company,
the following principles apply.
(1) Each platoon will continue to operate on the frequency of
its company command net (or the frequency of the pla
toon command net if one is authorized). This provides
internal control of each platoon.
(2) Platoon leaders of attached platoons will enter the com
pany command net of the company to which attached. The
rifle platoon leader does this with his medium-power FM
receiver-transmitter. The tank platoon leader does this
with his low-power receiver-transmitter.
(3) All tank low-power FM reciver-transmitters will be tuned
to the frequency of the rifle company command net.
6. Excessive use of the medium-power receiver-transmitter within
a detached tank platoon may interfere with the operation of the
command net FM in the parent tank company. Detached tank pla
toons therefore should operate medium-power radios on low power
unless separate platoon frequencies are authorized.
145. Wire Communication, Company Team

The same principles apply for wire in the company team as in the
battalion task force (par. 141).
146. Armored Cavalry Platoon Teams

When the reconnaissance troop is organized into platoon teams,


the elements of these teams operate in the platoon net of the platoon
to which they are attached, leaving their original platoon net.

86 AGO 1880B
CHAPTER 10
ARMORED DIVISION FIRE SUPPORT COMMUNICATION

Section I. GENERAL

147. Purpose and Scope


This chapter outlines the fire support communication systems
used within the armored division which enable the armor com
mander to control the tactical employment of the firepower of
supporting organic weapons, artillery, and tactical air.
148. Communication Objectives in Fire-Support Operations
The methods and communication means employed in fire-support
operations must ensure:
a. Continuous, accurate, and timely fire support under all condi
tions of weather, visibility, and terrain.
6. Sufficient flexibility to engage all types of targets over a wide
area.
c. Prompt massing of fires of all available units in any area within
range.
d. Prompt, simultaneous distribution of fires on numerous targets.
149. Fire Support Communication Requirements
Mobile warfare demands quick reaction and ability to mass and
maneuver tremendous firepower on the battlefield as dictated by
events. A communication system paralleling the command and
operations system, over which fire-support requests and directions
are transmitted, is required, from the 81-mm mortar squad in the
armored rifle company throughout the various intermediate echelons
to the division fire support coordination center. The fire support
communication system must be integrated with the command and
operations systems at each supported echelon of command. Multiple
means and axes are required. Specific fire support communication
requirements include facilities for fire direction, control, survey,
reconnaissance, air request, air direction, and air observation. Auto
matic retransmission between UHF and tactical voice FM radio
equipment affords the desired flexibility for tactical air control.
Because of the long operating range and high speed of tactical air-
AGO 1880B 37
craft, a direct link is required from the combat battalions to division,
and from division to the field army headquarters, to ensure the ex
peditious processing of air requests.
150. Fire Support Communication Means

To provide the communication necessary for fire support, separate


radio and wire systems are installed. These systems parallel each
other, in so far as possible, and provide alternate means of com
munication should either system fail. The presence of both types
of communication permits a selection of the best means to meet
any situation.

Section II. MORTAR FIRE SUPPORT COMMUNICATION

151. General
The mortars in armor and armored infantry battalions and in the
armored cavalry squadron constitute a major part of the organic
indirect-fire support. To properly support the battalions or squad
ron, mortar platoons and sections are provided with multiple means
of communication to connect the forward observers with the unit
fire direction center. It is through the forward observers and the
fire support communication system that the armor commander con
trols his mortar fire support.

152. 81-mm Mortar Platoon, Armored Rifle Company


a. Organization. Each armored rifle company has one 81-mm
mortar platoon. This platoon consists of three 81-mm mortar squads
and a platoon headquarters. The platoon gives close and continuous
fire support to the rifle platoons of the company and is usually em
ployed in battery under company control. The platoon leader acts
in the capacity of a forward observer for the platoon and normally
accompanies the company commander as a part of the command
group while the platoon sergeant supervises the platoon operations.
b. Communication Equipment. Each 81-mm mortar platoon is
equipped with FM radio equipment for mounted and dismounted
action. The platoon is equipped with sufficient wire and sound-
powered telephone equipment to install and operate a sound-powered
wire circuit between the platoon leader, company command post, and
mortar position.
c. Communication System.
(1) Radio. All radios in the 81-mm mortar platoon are tuned
to the frequency of the rifle company command net FM
(figs. 17 and 19). This links the mortar platoon leader,
88 AGO 1880B
company commander, rifle platoon leaders, and rifle squad
leaders with the mortar position. If necessary, the mortar
squad leaders may act as observers for their squads, and
may direct fire from a forward observation post by using
their portable FM radios. The mortar platoon leader uses
the medium-power FM radio component mounted in his
],4-ton truck to operate in the command net FM of an
attached or supported tank unit. His mounted low-power
FM radio component and his portable FM radio are used
to direct fire and to communicate with other elements of
the rifle company.
(2) Wire. During stable situations, wire should supplement
or replace radio communication. Wire is laid to a platoon
observation post and connected to a sound-powered tele
phone. At the mortar position, each mortar squad ties
into this sound-powered system. Wire is usually laid to
the company switchboard. When alternate observation
posts are selected, consideration should be given to laying
wire to them so that it will be available when needed.

153. 4.2-Inch Mortar Platoon, Armor and Armored Infantry


Battalions
a. Organization. Each armor and armored infantry battalion has
one organic 4.2-inch mortar platoon. This platoon consists of four
4.2-inch mortar squads mounted in armored mortar carriers, a
platoon headquarters containing a fire direction center mounted in
an armored personnel carrier, and three enlisted forward observers
and the platoon leader mounted in ^-ton trucks. This platoon gives
close and continuous fire support to elements of the battalion and is
usually employed in battery under battalion control. The platoon
leader may accompany the battalion commander as a part of the
command group. The forward observers are allocated on the basis
of one per company or company team as required.
b. Communication Equipment. Each vehicle of the 4.2-inch mortar
platoon is equipped with FM radio equipment for mounted opera
tion. The forward observers have portable FM radios for dismounted
radio communication. The platoon is equipped with sufficient wire,
battery- and sound-powered telephone equipment, and an emergency
switchboard, to provide a platoon sound-powered wire net and wire
communication with the battalion switching central.
c. Communication System.
(1) General. During normal operations, the 4.2-inch mortar
platoon employs radio and wire communication facilities
simultaneously. Radio communication is provided over
AGO 1880B
the platoon command/fire direction net FM. At the same
time, the platoon sound-powered wire system is employed
by the FDC to transmit firing data to the mortars. Radio
is seldom used for transmission of firing data from the
FDC to the mortar squads.
(2) Radio, (figs. 12, 15, 16, and 19). The 4.2-inch mortar
platoon is provided with a combination command/fire
direction net FM. The platoon leader, forward observers,
FDC, and mortar squads may all operate stations in this
net. The supported company commander, through his
4.2-inch mortar forward observer, and the battalion com
mander, through the mortar platoon leader, obtain fire
support over this net. The forward observer requests and
adjusts fire over this net with his mounted medium-power
FM radio. He monitors a supported tank company com
mand net with his auxiliary receiver to coordinate fire.
The platoon leader has mounted FM radio equipment to
provide communication in both the mortar platoon net,
to coordinate the activities of his forward observers, and
the battalion command net FM, for fire coordination with
the battalion commander. The mounted and dismounted
low-power FM radios may be used either in a secondary
mortar platoon command net FM (if provided) 'or to
contact supported armored infantry units operating with
similar radio equipment. The dismounted radio set enables
the forward observer to operate when he is away from his
vehicle.
(3) Wire. In situations where wire can supplement or replace
radio communication, wire is laid from the platoon FDC to
the forward observers at their observation posts. The
forward observers use sound-powered telephones to re
quest and adjust supporting fires. These requests are
received through the platoon emergency switchboard in
the FDC. The sound-powered wire system installed be
tween the FDC and the mortar positions is used to trans
mit fire commands to the mortar squads. A battery-
powered field telephone is used in the FDC for contact
with the battalion switching central.
154. 4.2-Inch Mortar Section, Reconnaissance Troop, Armored
Cavalry Squadron
a. Organization. Each reconnaissance troop in the armored
cavalry squadron has a 4.2-inch mortar section. This section con
sists of two 4.2-inch mortar squads mounted in armored mortar
carriers, a section headquarters containing a fire direction center
9Q AGO 1880B
mounted in an armored personnel carrier, and an enlisted forward
observer mounted in a J/4-ton truck. This section gives close and
continuous fire support to the troop and is usually employed under
troop control. The section leader operates from the FDC in the
section headquarters vehicle.
b. Communication Equipment. Each 4.2-inch mortar section is
equipped with mounted FM radio equipment. Sufficient wire and
sound-powered telephone equipment is available to provide a sound-
powered wire system.
c. Communication System.
(1) Radio. The 4.2-inch mortar section is equipped with suffi
cient mounted FM radio sets to operate a section com
mand net FM and to operate stations in the reconnaissance
troop command net FM (fig. 21). The section leader,
mortar squad leaders, and forward observer operate sta
tions in both nets, providing the troop commander and
platoon leaders with a direct channel of radio communi
cation to the mortar section. If there is no mortar section
forward observer in their area, platoon leaders or other
personnel can request and adjust mortar fire over the
troop command net FM. Should the 4.2-inch mortar sec
tions of the four reconnaissance troops be employed in
battery under squadron control, one of the mortar section
command nets is used as a common command/fire direc
tion net FM.
(2) Wire. In a situation where wire can supplement or re
place radio communication, wire is installed from the
4.2-inch mortar section headquarters, containing the FDC,
to the mortar squads and to the forward observer. Sound-
powered telephones are used. Wire is usually installed
between the section headquarters and the troop switching
central.

Section III. COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION ARTILLERY

155. General
a. The division artillery is the largest source of fire support
organic to the armored division. It consists of a headquarters and
headquarters battery, three field artillery howitzer battalions, 105-
mm, self-propelled, and an armored division field artillery compo
site battalion. The 105-mm battalions have no atomic capability,
while the composite battalion has both a nonatomic and an atomic
capability.
AGO 1880B
91
ft. The 105-mm battalions are normally employed in direct sup
port of combat commands, while the composite battalion is nor
mally employed in general support or a general support-reinforcing
role.
c. The principles of employment of artillery have assumed in
creased importance because of the presence of an atomic capability,
the threat of atomic retaliation by the enemy, and the larger battle
field area on which the fires of artillery weapons must be brought
to bear. A wide dispersion of artillery elements will be necessary
to reduce their vulnerability to atomic attack. Further, effective
use of atomic firepower must be made to compensate for the reduc
tion in the density of nonatomic firepower brought about by dis
persing artillery units.
d. The division artillery commander and artillery battalion com
manders must rely on an extensive and flexible signal communica
tion system for effective control and coordination of artillery fire-
power in support of combat elements. Armor commanders, in turn,
must have similar systems of signal communication to effectively
control the fire support available from artillery.
e. The division artillery command post and fire direction center
(FDC) are usually centrally located to facilitate control of the
division artillery battalions. The selection of a command post and
FDC location for a direct-support artillery battalion is based pri
marily on the ease of control that the location provides for its
batteries; a location near the command post of the supported com
bat command is desirable. The supporting artillery uses all avail
able means to maintain communication with the supported unit.
156. Communication Support, Armored Division Artillery
a. Communication Officer. The communication officer in the
division artillery headquarters and in each artillery battalion
headquarters is a member of the commander's staff. In each case
the comunication officer supervises the communication platoon
leader in the employment of the communication platoon in the
installation, operation, and maintenance of headquarters and fire
support communication systems. His duties are similar to those of
communication officers (pars. 17 and 18).
ft. Communication Platoon. Headquarters battery of division
artillery and of each battalion contains a communication platoon.
This platoon provides personnel and signal equipment to install,
operate, and maintain the signal communication system for the
command post and fire direction center, as well as other major
portions of the unit communication system, and to perform organi
zational maintenance on communication and other electronic equip-

92 AGO 1880B
ment within the headquarters. The platoon of each unit is organized
into a platoon headquarters, wire section, and radio section.
(1) The platoon headquarters contains the assistant com
munication officer (platoon leader) and personnel and
equipment to install and operate the message center.
(2) The wire section contains the personnel and equipment
necessary to install, operate, and maintain major portions
of the artillery unit's wire communication system.
(3) The radio section contains radioteletype operators and
equipment to augment the communication facilities of
other sections. Assignments are made to the staff sections
or the fire direction center as required. In addition, this
section performs second-echelon maintenance on signal
equipment.
c. Command Operations Company Support. The command oper
ations company, armored division signal battalion, installs, oper
ates, and maintains facilities to connect the division artillery head
quarters into the division area communication system. These facili
ties are limited to radio relay and carrier terminal equipment. The
artillery battalions have the organic capability to connect them
selves into the division area communication system.
157. Radio Communication, Armored Division Artillery
Radio communication is used extensively by artillery units at
all levels. Medium- and low-power sets in the command posts and
fire direction centers are used for communication between the
artillery unit commander, staff and fire direction personnel, and
liaison and forward observer personnel, and for communication
with higher, subordinate, supported, and adjacent units. Radio and
radioteletype operators for the AM sets are furnished by the com
munication platoons. FM sets are operated by staff and fire direc
tion personnel.

158. Armored Division Artillery Radio Communication to Higher


Headquarters
Division artillery normally operates in the following nets of higher
headquarters (fig. 23) :
a. Corps Artillery Fire Direction Net RTT. The operations ele
ment of division artillery has truck-mounted medium-power RTT
equipment to operate a station in the corps artillery fire direction net
RTT for coordination of fires with corps artillery.
b. Corps Artillery Survey Net FM. This net is used by the divi
sion artillery headquarters and artillery battalion survey sections
for intersurvey use and for coordination with corps artillery survey
AGO 1880B
93
elements. All survey sections in the division artillery operate in
this net. However, they are not always netted with each other,
because of the limited range of the portable FM radio used by the
survey sections.
c. Corps AAA Intelligence Net AM. This net provides division
artillery with warning of hostile aircraft. AM receivers found
throughout the division may be tuned to this frequency as necessary.
Division artillery monitors this net with a radio receiver at the
command post location, and will retransmit information to the di
vision over the division warning broadcast net AM.
d. Tactical Air Force Nets. These are Air Force control, coor
dination, and direction nets to assist in the execution of air strikes.
The air control team (ACT) in division artillery headquarters
furnishes equipment to the air liaison officer (ALO) to operate
in these nets.
159. Armored Division Artillery Radio Communication to Division
Headquarters
Division artillery normally does not operate in the division in
telligence net and the division logistical net except for temporary
operation, using radios which usually operate in other nets. Ex
cessive use should not be made of the division command net, since
doing so will deny or hinder the operation of other stations in this
particular net. Division artillery does operate in the following
division nets (par. 69 and figs. 23-25):
a. Division Command Net RTT. The division artillery command
post operates a station in this net with medium-power RTT equip
ment provided by the communication platoon. This net also pro
vides radio contact with supported combat commands. The trans
mitter of the radio set is switched to the frequency of the division
warning broadcast net when artillery transmits warnings.
6. Division Warning Broadcast Net AM. Division artillery head
quarters and the artillery battalions monitor this net with radio
receiver equipment. The net is used to broadcast air alerts, CBR
attack warnings, fallout warnings, and similar type information.
c. Division Command Net FM. The division artillery commander
operates in this net with medium-power FM equipment. The divi
sion artillery executive officer and other staff officers may operate
in this net as required; however, they normally will monitor only.
160. Armored Division Artillery Radio Nets
Division artillery operates the following nets (figs. 23-25):
a. Division Artillery Fire Direction Net RTT. This fire direction
net will be used for transmission of fire requests from battalions to
94 AGO 1880B
division artillery, fire missions from division artillery to battalions
or batteries retained under its control, time-on-target missions, and
meteorological messages to the battalions. Transmissions may be
by voice or RTT. The net control station is located in the fire direc
tion center at the division artillery command post and is under the
operational control of the division artillery S3.
b. Division Artillery Command/Fire Direction Net FM. This net
is primarily used for communication between elements of the head
quarters and for communication with aircraft. The net may be
used, when distance permits, for communication with subordinate
units.
c. Division Artillery Command/Intelligence Net RTT. This net is
used for control of the artillery battalions and for transmission of
target information. Medium-power, vehicular-mounted, AM radio
equipment, operating RTT, is employed by all stations in this net.
The net control stations is located near the FDC at the division
artillery command post and is under the operational control of the
division artillery S3. The division artillery assistant executive
officer located at the division fire support coordination center, two
division artillery liaison officers, and each artillery battalion operate
in this net. When the traffic load permits, it may be used for ad
ministrative or logistical traffic.
161. Howitzer Battalion, 105-mm, Radio Communication
Each 105-mm battalion, in addition to operating in armored divi
sion artillery headquarters nets, operates four internal nets (fig.
24), as follows:
a. Battalion Command Net FM. This voice net links the battalion
commander, the fire direction center, the firing batteries, and other
battalion elements. This net is used between elements of the bat
talion and for the battalion and battery commanders to control their
subordinate units.
6. Fire Direction Nets FM. A battalion normally operates three
fire direction nets. A primary net is used for transmission of initial
fire requests and conduct of adjustments. A secondary net is used
by nonadjusting batteries and for multiple missions. An alternate
net is used for multiple missions and automatic retransmission from
forward observers to FDC. A battalion fire direction net connects
the battalion fire direction center with the battery fire direction
centers. Artillery battalion liaison officers with battalion task forces,
and battery forward observers with company teams, operate stations
in these nets to request, coordinate, and adjust artillery fires.
162. Composite Battalion Radio Communication
The composite battalion, in addition to operating in armored
AGO 1880B
division artillery headquarters nets,. operates three battalion nets
(fig. 25), as follows:
a. Battalion Command Net FM. This voice net links the battalion
commander, the fire direction center, the firing batteries, and other
battalion elements. The 8-inch howitzer and 762-mm rocket bat
teries operate battery nets when required.
b. Fire Direction Nets FM. The battalion normally operates
two fire direction nets. A primary net is used for transmission of
initial fire requests, conduct of adjustments, and massing of more
than one battery. An alternate net is used for nonadjusting batteries,
multiple missions, and automatic retransmission from forward
observers to FDC.
163. Wire Communication, Armored Division Artillery
a. Wire circuits are habitually installed by artillery units during
all operations. The extent of the initial wire system depends upon
the immediate needs of the commander, the time available to make
the installations, the availability of equipment, and the expected
future needs for wire. Wire personnel begin installing the initial
wire system as early as possible so that essential circuits are ready
for use when needed. The system is expanded and improved as
time permits until a complete system is installed.
b. When a displacement occurs, a wire system is established in
the new position, if possible before the first elements arrive. The
extent of the wire system installed in the new position depends
on the time and equipment available. Reconnaissance parties in
clude vehicles, personnel, and equipment to plan and install the
wire system. Enough personnel, vehicles, and equipment remain
in the old position to operate its communication system and to
recover the wire and equipment when that system is closed. It is
desirable to have wire communication between the old and new posi
tions during displacement. In forward displacements, this is done
best by using existing forward circuits. In a retrograde movement,
it is often possible to use lines previously laid by the unit, or lines
turned over by a higher artillery echelon.
164. Fire Support Coordination Center (FSCC)
a. A fire support coordination center provides the commander
with an agency through which the fires of all fire-support elements
available to the force are coordinated and integrated with the plan
of maneuver. The establishment of a division fire support coor
dination center (FSCC) is habitual in armor division operations.
Establishment of FSCC's at lower echelons is dependent upon the
responsibilities and functions of the echelon, the tactical situation,
96 AGO 1880B
and the desires of the commander. Normally fire support coor
dination functions at lower echelons are exercised informally by
the personnel involved through close liaison, frequent meetings,
and flexible communications. (For additional details on FSCC
see FM17E-100.
b. The armored division commander controls the division artillery
through the division artillery commander, who acts as his fire sup
port coordinator. The division artillery commander controls the
fires of his artillery battalions through the division artillery fire
direction center and coordinates these fires through the division
FSCC.
c. Personnel performing fire support coordination functions are
provided the necessary transportation and communication equip
ment by their parent units, with the exception of Air Force personnel,
for whom such facilities are provided by division artillery.
d. Radio communication equipment in the division FSCC is pro
vided as follows:
(1) The division artillery headquarters normally furnishes,
to the artillery personnel in the division fire support coor
dination center, sufficient radio equipment to operate in
the division artillery command/intelligence net RTT, tha
division artillery command/fire direction net FM, and the
division command net FM.
(2) The armored division signal battalion furnishes a vehicular-
mounted, medium-power AM (voice and CW) radio set
for net control of the division warning broadcast net AM.
This net is used primarily to broadcast warnings to the
artillery battalions and other units of the division. The
division artillery headquarters furnishes an AM receiver
to monitor the corps AAA intelligence net.
(3) Division artillery headquarters furnishes an air control
team to the division air liaison officer. This team is
equipped with special ground-to-air and ground-to-ground
radio equipment.
e. Artillery radio communication facilities for combat command
fire support coordination activities are provided as follows:
(1) Headquarters and headquarters battery of the 105-mm
howitzer battalion normally furnishes to combat command
an artillery liaison officer with sufficient radio equipment
to operate in all battalion fire direction nets, the artillery
battalion command net FM, and the command net FM of
the supported combat command.
(2) The combat command commander controls fires in support
AGO 1880B 97
of his combat command through the artillery liaison officer
or other fire support representative.
(3) The headquarters battery of each 105-mm howitzer bat
talion furnishes personnel and equipment for an air con
trol team for use of the forward air controller (Air Force)
with the combat command.

Section IV. TACTICAL AIR SUPPORT COMMUNICATION

165. Communication and Control


Battalion, combat command, and division commanders obtain
and coordinate tactical air support through their respective fire
support coordinators or operations officers. Air support is requested
on the division air request net AM. The aircraft, once allocated,
are controlled by the air liaison officer at division or the forward
air controllers at combat command and battalion levels.
166. Tactical Air Request Communication System
Tactical air support is requested over the following nets (figs. 7,
11,12,16, and 20):
a. Division Air request Net AM.
(1) Each combat command, each armor and armored infantry
battalion, and the armored cavalry squadron operates a
vehicular-mounted, medium-power AM (voice or CW)
radio set in the air request net AM. Combat commands
monitor this net at their command posts with vehicular-
mounted medium-power AM (voice or CW) radios
mounted in the S3 air's armored personnel carrier. The
division air request net is controlled by a net control sta
tion in the division fire support coordination center. The
division net control station is furnished by the command
operations company supporting the division headquarters
and is used by the G3 air.
(2) The division air request net permits battalions within the
division to forward requests for immediate tactical air
support directly to the division fire support coordination
center. The combat command S3 air monitors this net.
Silence on the part of the combat command indicates its
approval of the request.
6. Army Air Request Net.
(1) The division fire support coordination center is equipped
with high-power radioteletype equipment for operation in
the army air request net RTT. This radio facility is fur-
98 AGO 1880B
nished by the command operations company. The army
air request net links the division G3 air with the army
G3 air.
(2) The army air request net permits the division to forward
air requests directly to army. Corps monitors this net.
Silence on the part of corps indicates its approval of the
request.
167. Tactical Air Direction Communication System
See figures 8,11, 12, 16, and 20 for nets of this system.
a. When tactical aircraft have been allocated to the division, the
air liaison officer in the division fire support coordination center
will operate in the tactical air direction net. He uses the UHF equip
ment in the composite set furnished him by the division artillery
headquarters. The division G2 air monitors this net.
&. The division air liaison officer may pass the aircraft to the
combat command forward air controller, who also operates in the
tactical air direction net with the UHF equipment in the composite
set furnished him by the supporting artillery battalion.
c. The forward air controller at combat command may pass the
aircraft to the forward air controller with a battalion. The con
troller at battalion controls the air mission on the tactical air direc
tion net. He uses equipment furnished by the battalion. This may
be accomplished by two methods:
(1) The forward air controller may ride in the battalion ve
hicle with special UHF air-to-ground radio equipment and
communicate directly with his aircraft on the tactical air
direction net.
(2) The forward air controller may ride in any vehicle in the
battalion containing medium-power FM receiver-trans
mitter facilities, or use a portable FM radio set, and re
transmit through the UHF air-to-ground radio equipment
in the tactical air direction net
168. Tactical Air Observation Communication System
The division assistant G2 air receives tactical air reconnaissance
reports from the division FSCC. The composite radio located at
the division FSCC monitors the tactical air observation net to
receive reports from tactical aircraft on reconnaissance missions.

Section V. COMMUNICATION, ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY

169. General
a. The armored division has no organic antiaircraft artillery.
AGO 1880B 99
The division will habitually have one or more self-propelled light
antiaircraft artillery battalions attached from corps artillery to
furnish antiaircraft protection. These battalions are normally
further attached to the armored division artillery.
b. Additional antiaircraft protection for the armored division
may be provided by antiaircraft units under corps control but
operating in the rear portion of the division zone.
170. Antiaircraft Artillery Radio Communication
a. Attached battalions operate in corps AAA intelligence nets for
radar information and intelligence concerning hostile aircraft. Re
ceiving stations are normally provided at firing batteries.
b. Attached battalions have stations for operation in the command
nets AM and FM of the units to which attached. Internal command
nets are established, including separate nets for batteries. Battalion
nets are also established to firing positions for exchange of infor
mation concerning hostile aircraft.
171. Antiaircraft Artillery Wire Communication
a. Extensive use is made of wire communication, especially within
and between batteries. Wire to batteries is installed and maintained
by battalion headquarters communication personnel (par. 163).
b. Antiaircraft artillery establishes wire circuits to the unit to
which attached and/or to signal centers for entry into the division
area communication system.

100 AGO 1880B


CHAPTER 11
COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION ENGINEER
BATTALION AND COMPANY

Section I. GENERAL

172. Mission and Organization


a. The armored division engineer battalion consists of a head
quarters and headquarters company, four engineer companies, and
a bridge company. The mission of the engineers is to facilitate
the movement of armor units, and to increase combat effectiveness
by means of general engineer work. Communication systems em
ployed within the engineer battalion must support the battalion
organization for combat. The battalion is organized, equipped,
and trained to perform certain tasks which assist armor units.
These tasks are construction and maintenance of fords and bridges,
construction and removal of obstacles, preparation and execution
of demolitions, and provision of engineer supply service, including
water and map supply. Some of these tasks are performed by the
engineer battalion operating as a unit; most of them are done by
the subordinate elements of the battalion which support the combat
commands and battalion task forces.
6. The engineer elements which normally provide support for
a combat command consist of an engineer company, a bridge pla
toon from the bridge company, and a water supply team from head
quarters company. From these units come the engineers which
support the battalion task forces. The engineer units normally
placed with the leading battalion task force are an engineer platoon
and a bridge section. The normal method of employing engineer
troops is one of support as long as centralized control, reinforcement,
and logistical support from the parent unit are practical. Engineers
are attached only when distance, terrain, and/or the mission make
operation under the control of the parent engineer unit impractical
or undesirable. The battalion command post is normally located
in the vicinity of the division main command post.
173. Engineer Battalion Communication Officer
The battalion communication officer is assigned to the battalion
headquarters and is a member of the battalion commander's staff.
AGO 1880B
101
He also commands the battalion communication section. The com
munication officer is responsible to the battalion commander for
installation, operation, and maintenance of the battalion communica
tion system. His specific duties parallel those listed in paragraph 17.
174. Engineer Battalion Communication Section
This section is part of the headquarters company. It is organized
and equipped to install and operate portions of the battalion head
quarters communication system and to perform organizational main
tenance on communication and other electronic equipment within
the battalion headquarters. Most of the radio operators are assigned
to operating sections of the headquarters rather than to the com
munication section.

Section II. COMMUNICATION, ARMORED DIVISION


ENGINEER BATTALION

175. General
The widespread operations of the engineer battalion require the
flexibility of communication provided by radio. The radio communi
cation system may be varied to meet the requirements of each situa
tion. Radio equipment organic to the battalion includes vehicular-
mounted medium-power AM (RTT, CW, and voice) sets, and
medium- and low-power FM vehicular-mounted and portable sets.
176. Radio Communication, Armored Division Engineer Battalion
a. With Higher Headquarters. The engineer battalion operates in
the following division net (par. 69 and fig. 22):
(1) Division command net RTT. The battalion communication
section operates a secondary station in this net, at the com
mand post. This net gives the battalion commander a long-
range radio-teletype link to the division main command
post.
(2) Division intelligence net RTT. The intelligence element of
the command post operates a secondary station in this net.
It provides the battalion commander and staff with access
to a division-wide intelligence-information-handling net
work, and permits direct contact with the division G2 in
the division main command post.
(3) Division logistical net RTT. The administrative element of
the command post operates in the division logistical net
RTT.
(4) Division warning broadcast net AM. The operations ele
ment of the command post monitors this net.
102 AGO 1880B
(5) Division command net FM. The operations element of the
command post, and the battalion commander, monitor this
net. This net affords the battalion commander a means of
voice communication with the division commander.
6. Within Battalion. The engineer battalion operates two battalion
command nets (fig. 22).
(1) Battalion command net AM. This net is used for tactical
control of the battalion. It gives the battalion commander
a long-range communication link with his staff, reconnais
sance sections, and company commanders. It is used gen
erally for command traffic.
(2) Battalion command net FM. This net generally parallels
the AM command net and provides voice communication
between the battalion headquarters and the companies. It
supplements the AM command net and takes part of the
traffic load.
177. Wire Communication, Armored Division Engineer Battalion
a. Wire circuits to the battalion switchboard will normally be in
stalled from the division main command post signal center by the
command operations company, armored division signal battalion.
Companies or company elements of the engineer battalion, operating
in support of combat commands, will be connected by the combat
command area support platoon to the forward signal centers. Engi
neer companies or company elements in direct support of task forces
depend on the task forces for wire trunks. In either case, wire com
munication can be maintained between the engineer battalion and
its companies through the division area communication system.
b. Wire communication is essential within the battalion and within
companies, to meet internal requirements. It is used to disseminate
information about major points of interest to engineers, such as
bridges, denies, and major obstacles at which engineer work is be
ing performed. Selected engineer personnel should be trained in the
installation of wire and the operation of switchboards, since the bat
talion and the companies have insufficient communication personnel
for these purposes.

178. Message Center and Messengers, Armored Division Engineer


Battalion
a. The message center for battalion headquarters is established by
the communication section. This message center furnishes message-
processing, cryptographic, and messenger service. The message cen
ter should be conveniently accessible to the operating sections, incom-
AGO 1880B
ing messengers, and the communication facilities that it uses to
transmit traffic.
b. Messengers may make scheduled and special runs to subordinate
units of the battalion. Normally, however, dependence is placed upon
the messenger service furnished by the signal battalion. Personnel
of the signal battalion make messenger runs from division head
quarters to the engineer battalion headquarters.
179. Sound and Visual Communication, Armored Division Engineer
Battalion
These means have been covered fully in paragraphs 27 and 28.
In addition to the normal visual signaling equipment flags, pyro
technics, lights, and panels the engineer battalion is equipped with
luminous markers which are used to outline traffic lanes. They may
also be used by guides and traffic-control personnel for signaling
vehicles during blackout operations.

Section III. COMMUNICATION, ENGINEER COMPANY

180. Mission and Organization


Each engineer company consists of a company headquarters and
three engineer platoons. Each platoon consists of three 12-man
squads. When the company is in support of a combat command, an
engineer platoon will normally be placed in support of each leading
battalion task force.
181. Communication Personnel, Engineer Company
The communication personnel are assigned to the company head
quarters. The communication chief assists the company commander
in carrying out the latter's responsibilities for communication. The
radio mechanic performs organizational maintenance on communi
cation and other electronic equipment within the company.
182. Radio Communication, Engineer Company
a. To Battalion. Each company operates in the engineer battalion
command nets AM and FM (par. 176 and fig. 22).
&. Within the Companies. Each company operates a separate com
mand net FM (fig. 22) for the control of its elements by the company
commander. The engineer company does not normally operate pla
toon command nets. When an engineer company is placed in support
of a combat command, the company commander enters the combat
command command net FM to coordinate the engineer activities with
the combat command commander. He continues to control his engi-
104 AGO 1880B
neer platoons on the engineer company command net FM. The engi
neer company headquarters vehicle continues to operate in the engin-
neer battalion command nets FM and AM to obtain special engineer
logistical support. When an engineer platoon is placed in support
of a battalion task force, the platoon leader will monitor the command
net FM of the supported battalion task force, using his auxiliary
receiver. He will continue to control his platoon using the engineer
company command net FM.
183. Wire Communication, Engineer Company
See paragraph 177.

184. Visual and Sound Communication, Engineer Company


See paragraph 179.

Section IV. COMMUNICATION, BRIDGE COMPANY

185. Mission and Organization


The bridge company consists of a company headquarters and three
bridge platoons. Each bridge platoon consists of a platoon head
quarters and two bridge sections. Bridge platoons are normally at
tached to engineer companies which support combat commands. The
bridge company has the mission of maintaining and transporting
bridging equipment and supervising bridge construction.

186. Communication Personnel, Bridge Company


The communication personnel are assigned to the company head
quarters. The company commander is responsible for communica
tion. The radio mechanic performs organizational maintenance on
communication and other electronic equipment within the company.

187. Radio Communication, Bridge Company


a. To Battalion. The company operates in the engineer battalion
command nets AM and FM (par. 176 and fig. 22).
b. Within the Company.
(1) The bridge company operates a command net FM for the
control of its elements by the company commander (fig.
22). This net links the company commander with his com
pany command post and bridge platoon leaders. Should
the bridge company be placed in support of a combat com
mand, the company commander enters the combat command
command net FM to coordinate the bridging activities with
AGO 1880B
the combat command commander. The company com
mander continues to control his bridge platoons on the
bridge company command net FM. The bridge company
headquarters vehicle continues to operate in the engineer
battalion command nets FM and AM to obtain special engi
neer logistical support.
(2) In the bridge platoons, each platoon leader and each bridge
squad has a portable low-power FM receiver-transmitter.
Each platoon operates a separate platoon net (fig. 22).
When a bridge platoon is attached to an engineer company,
the bridge platoon leader operates a station in the engi
neer company command net FM; he continues to control
his platoon over his platoon command net FM. The engi
neer company commander and the platoon leaders of the
engineer company may enter this net by using the low-
power receiver-transmitter portions of their vehicular
radios. If distance will permit, the bridge platoon leader
should maintain radio contact with the bridge company
commander over the bridge company command net FM.
188. Wire Communication, Bridge Company
See paragraph 177.
189. Visual and Sound Communication, Bridge Company
See paragraph 179.

106 AGO 1880B


CHAPTER 12
SIGNAL LOGISTICS

Section I. GENERAL

190. Definition
Signal logistics is denned as the procurement, storage, transporta
tion, distribution, maintenance, and evacuation of signal supplies and
equipment. The principles of logistics discussed in FM 17-50 apply
to signal logistics.
191. Responsibilities for Signal Logistics
a. Commanders are responsible for logistical support of their
assigned and attached units. Each commander must make his policies
and decisions known, must be familiar with the logistical situation
within his unit at all times, and must thoroughly consider the logisti
cal support required by contemplated operations. Signal and com
munication officers must be abreast of the current policies and de
cisions of their commanders and of the current tactical situation.
This is necessary because signal and communication officers must
advise their commanders on all communication matters concerning
their units, including signal logistics. Signal and communication
officers must also plan continuously, and take prompt action within
their areas of responsibility, for logistical support, in continuing co
ordination with their respective G4's (S4's).
6. Signal and communication officers, in coordination with their
G4's (S4's), should require assigned and attached units to have on
hand, at all times, the necessary communication equipment and sup
plies to support the planned operations, and also to provide their own
logistical support within their authorized limits. All personnel must
conserve equipment and supplies. Rigid enforcement of specific sup
ply economy instructions, and frequent inspections by commanders
and staff officers, will do much to ensure that units possess their re
quired amounts of communication equipment and supplies, that they
are receiving adequate logistical support, that communication equip
ment is not being misused, and that supplies are not being hoarded.
c. Efficient and successful operation of the armored division de
pends on the adequate and timely provision of supplies and the ac
complishment of equipment maintenance. Signal and communication
AGO 1880B
107
officers, in coordination with appropriate staff officers of their own
and higher and lower headquarters, must ensure the continuing for
ward movement of communication supplies and equipment. Mainte
nance support personnel and facilities should be located within reach
of the transportation available to the supported units.

Section II. SIGNAL SUPPLY

192. General
a. The establishment of an efficient signal supply system, and rigid
enforcement of its procedures, will provide the armored division with
all of the necessary signal items for successful operations. The supply
system and its procedures should be designed to aid all units in ob
taining supplies authorized by TOE, TA, authorized organization
storage lists (AOSL), and other authorities. In the armored di
vision, requisitions for end items and components go from company
to battalion, then direct to the division signal officer, who submits
consolidated requisitions to the appropriate army signal depot (or
supply point). The army signal depot issues directly to the armored
division signal battalion or to the division signal supply point lo
cated in the division trains area. Issue is then made to battalions to
fill their requisitions. Repair parts and signal expendables may be
requisitioned in a similar manner, but are normally issued by
mobile supply contact teams which visit units or are readily acces
sible to units in forward areas. These teams may be specially con
stituted elements from the armored division signal battalion supply
and maintenance section, but normally will be the five mobile repair
teams from the same section or the forward repair section of each
combat command area support platoon. In some instances, units may
be authorized to draw equipment and supplies directly from army
supply points.
b. Major items of signal equipment evacuated for repair through
the signal battalion supply and maintenance section may either be
replaced by direct exchange or be evacuated without replacement.
In the latter case, the replacement items must be requisitioned by
the unit. Direct exchange can normally be effected by the signal
battalion or the army semimobile field maintenance shop.
c. Procedures for the procurement, storage, and issue of signal
supplies and equipment are specified in division logistical SOP's and
the army administrative (logistical) SOP. Such publications es
tablish procedures for initial and resupply issues of expendable and
nonexpendable supplies and equipment, and provide for the estab
lishment of army supply points in direct support of combat com
mands for equipment which is rapidly expended.
108 AGO 1880B
d. Class IV supplies consist of supplies and equipment for which
allowances are not prescribed but which may be necessary oc
casionally for special purposes. Authority to requisition these sup
plies is specified by division or army SOP or other authority.

193. Signal Supply Manuals


SIGS 7 and 8 are supply manuals listing the repair parts (running
spares and organizational maintenance stockage guides) for all end
items of Signal Corps equipment. They are a part of the Depart
ment of the Army supply manual system and provide ready reference
to all repair parts for the equipment issued. Authorized organiza
tional stockage lists (AOSL) are compiled from these supply man
uals; however, quantities are based on experience factors. AOSL's
give the prescribed load for a unit and include the most essential
parts in particular quantities to be on hand to perform a specified
echelon of maintenance for a specified period. Repair parts not con
tained in AOSL's, but which a unit is authorized to install, may be
requisitioned or may be obtained from a mobile supply contact team
on an "as required" basis.

Section III. SIGNAL MAINTENANCE

194. General
Consistent with the primary objective of providing effective and
economical support of combat operations, equipment and supplies
must not be issued to units whose capabilities do not permit effective,
efficient, and economical management of these items. In addition,
combat units must be relieved of unnecessary support functions to
the maximum practicable extent, so that they can give maximum
attention to combat operations. Echelons of support are therefore
established, in accordance with the primary mission of the unit, to
ensure effective utilization of equipment and supplies.

195. Echelons of Signal Maintenance


The echelons of support are based on the degree of communication
equipment maintenance that can be accomplished within a unit and
the extent of communication equipment maintenance that can be
expected from higher headquarters. Maintenance is any action taken
to maintain materiel in serviceable condition or to restore it to serv
iceability. Thus, signal maintenance includes inspecting, testing,
servicing, classifying as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding, and rec
lamation of communication materiel. Such support cannot be ex
pected entirely from signal maintenance agencies organic to the
AGO 1880B
109
armored division. Additional support is necessary from activities at
army or theater level. Basically, the degree of signal maintenance
that can be performed by a unit is limited by the tools, test equip
ment, personnel, parts, and time available. However, no echelon
of maintenance will perform the work of a higher echelon at the
expense of accomplishing its assigned function. See AR 750-5.

110 AGO 1880B


APPENDIX I
REFERENCES

[0] FM 11-151 Defense Against Electronic Jamming.


[0] FM 17-1 Armor Operations, Small Units.
FM 17-22 Reconnaissance Platoon and Reconnaissance
Company.
FM 17-33 Platoon, Company, and Battalion.
FM 17-35 Reconnaissance Battalion, Armored Division.
FM 17-50 Logistics, Armored Division.
FM 17-100 Armored Division and Combat Command
FM 21-5 Military Training.
FM 21-6 Techniques of Military Instruction.
FM 21-26 Map Reading.
FM 21-30 Military Symbols.
FM 21-60 Visual Signals.
[CM] FM 24-16 Signal Orders, Records, and Reports.
FM 100-11 Signal Communication Doctrine.
[O] FM 101-5 Staff Officers' Field Manual: Staff Organiza
tion and Procedure.
AR 320-50 Authorized Abbreviations.
AR 380-5 Safeguarding Military Information.
AR 750-5 Maintenance Responsibilities and Shop Oper
ations.
SR 320-5-1 Dictionary of United States Army Terms.
DA Pam 108-1 Index of Army Motion Pictures, Film Strips,
Slides, and Phono-Recordings.
DA Pam 310-series Military Publications Indexes.
[CM] ACP 122 (B) Communication Instructions Security (U).
SIG 5 Department of the Army Supply Manuals.
SIG 5-2 Cross Index by Government and Manufactur
ers' Numbers to Signal Corps Stock Num
bers.
SIG 5-2, Part II Cross Reference of Federal Stock Numbers
(Volumes 1 and 2) to Former Signal Corps Stock Numbers.
SIG 5-2, Part II Cross Reference of Signal Corps Stock Num
(Volumes 3 and 4) bers to Federal Stock Numbers.
SIG 5-5 Pricing Guide for Signal Corps Equipment.
AGO 1880B 111
SIG 7 & 8-series Organizational Maintenance Allowances and
Field and Depot Maintenance Stockage
Guide (including Fixed Plant Maintenance
List).
SIG 7-8-10-series Organizational Maintenance Allowances and
Field and Base Maintenance Stockage
Guide (including Fixed Plant Maintenance
List).

AGO1880B
APPENDIX II
SOI EXTRACT

Figure 1 shows a typical SOI extract for an armor battalion.

AGO 1880B
113
1ST MED TK BN (PATTON) 21ST ARMOR AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM (VOICE)
(TASK FORCE 1/21)
EXTRACT SOI 010001S - 012400S
EFFECTIVE 010001 SEPT ACKVIEPXLGRNBJ UOFQZTDMWYHS
FM CALL SIGNS AND FREQUENCIES 11433225451114 332254511143

UNIT NET CALL SI<JNS ARMOR COMMON 020008 - 0224 00S


EBIZLGVPAKYQDN RCMSHMTJXUFO
CCB COMMAND ABOLITION 25.3 13142224551313 142224551313
TF 1/21 COMMAND OASIS 20.2
TF 1/21 LOGIST ICAL VAGABOND 24.2 03000S - 032400S
TF 2/21 COMMAN0 (ADJ UNIT) BALCONY 22.4 AJHBKXEFRICPLM ZNDQTHUVGSYO
CO A 1/21 COMMAND CONFORM 23.7 42345312154234 531215423433
CO B 1/21 COMMAND CONSIDER 25.0
COOPERATE 22.1 PREARRANGED MESSAGE CODE
CO C 1/21 COMMAND
CO 0 1/21 COMMAND DAMAGE 24.9 DECODE ENCODE
CO B 1/101 INF ATTAOED FAD 30.6 ATTACK WILL BEGIN AT (TIME) -
1/61 ARTY LACERATE 37.1 OBJECTIVE REACHED ------ ------ QUIVER
1ST PLAT CO B 301ST ENGR BN OPALENCE 25.1 ------ LINCOLN
4.2-IN MORT PLAT 1/21 CATSEYE 23.6 0- -------------
SCT PLAT 1/21 EASY 22.0 1-.--...-..--.. ------ STIMULATE, TABULATE
3--------------
MAP REFERENC E AND PANEL IDENTIFICATION CODE
HUMERAL CRYPTOSYSTEM DATE PANEL.
Effactlv »l RADIO-WIRE INTEGRATION

tfltfttlS to *22 gffS. ^ 010001S TO 012400S RED UNIT NET CALL SIGN ARMOa AMY
Z K U N R
8 6 t) __, \ _2 020001S TO 022400S ORANGE CCA SIG CEN ECHO 23.4
P Y A F J ANNOY 31'*
1 R 8 2 $ 030001S TO 032400S RED CCB SIG CEN FAME 25.9
BOM N 0 COBRA 34.6
7 0 6 R _2 CCC SIG CEN FACTOR 21.0
S G X T E DUGOUT 29.3
973 3 4 DIV MAIN SIG CEN NAIL 24.3
Q V H L C DIV ALT SIG CEN RAMBLE 26.1
3 «. 4 1 P DIV TRAINS SIG CEN HANGER 20.3

(front) (back)

Figure 1. Typical SOI extract.


APPENDIX III
ORGANIZATION, ARMORED DIVISION SIGNAL
BATTALION

Figures 2 through 5 show the organization of the armored di


vision signal battalion, its headquarters and headquarters company,
the command operations company, and the forward communication
company.

Figure 2. Organization, armored division signal battalion.

Hq & Hq Co

Bn Hq Hq Co

1 1 1 1
Co Hq Admin and Opn and Dlv Sig Off
Log Sec Intel Sec Pers Sec Sec Bn SuP Sec

1 1 J
Bn Mtr Rad Term Div Sig Sup
Const Sec and Div Photo and
Maint Sec Sec
Carr Sec Maint Sec

Figure 3. Organization, headquarters and headquarters company,


armored division signal battalion.

AGO 1880B
115
Cmd Opn Co

1 1 1 1 1
Rear Ech Tns Area Cmd Sig Rad T
Hq Cen Plat Msg Cen
Opn Plat Opn Plat Sec TP Sec Rad Sec Instl Sec an
Hq Carr
1

o
o Figure 4. Organization, command operations company, armored division signal battalion.
n
o

Fwd
Comn Co

Co Hq

1 1 1 I 1 1 1
Msg Cen Rad Term Fwd Repair
Plat Hq Sec TP Sec Rad Sec Instl Sec and Sec
Carr Sec
Figure 5. Organization, forward communication company, armored division signal battalion.
APPENDIX IV
RADIO AND WIRE NETS

Figures 6 through 29 illustrate the communication systems in the


armored division.

1 ]8 AGO 18SOB
OTHER
SUPPORTED
SUPPORTED UNITS
UNITS

ADMIN

FURNISHED BY
CORPS/ARMY
SUPPORTED
UNITS

ONE HALF DOUBLE 12-CHANNEL


RADIO RELAY TERMINAL

NOTES:
DOUBLE 12-CHANNEL
RADIO RELAY TERMINAL 1. FURNISHED ONLY WHEN REQUIRED.
2. EITHER ONE OR BOTH MAY BE
RADIO RELAY REPEATER PROVIDED, DEPENDING ON
REQUIREMENTS.
CABLE OF MULTI FIELD WIRE

FIELD WIRE
RADIO-WIRE INTEGRATION
Figure 6. Typical armored division area communication system.

AGO 1880B 119


V WAIN Ntt AM CC CMD NIT In CC IOC Nil FM CC CMD NiT FM

o
o

Figure 7. Type radio net diagram, armored division.


o AIMOttO DIVISION NET* COMBAT COMMAND NFTI
o OIV CMO NIT ITT DlV CMO NtT fM OIV INTR NIT «TT DIV LOG *U1 IT1 DCV UAI tCMUQN OIV WAIN Nn AM CC CMO NIT ITT CC ICW NtT FM CC CMO NH FM IN CMD NIT FM

CC . CMDI

SIONM , IN

NOTES;

logiit.tol net RTT, on* ot 1h» tommond pe>** Ond


d'vii'On 'ognriff control ctnttr iDlCC) On* o> 'h«i«
may b» op«fdt»d in rha division command net RTT

2 If th« rang* will pormil. the S* of eh battalion attached

logiilico' 14! RTT oth*rwin mult b« u*«d

3. Division orli 1«ry h»odquar)*(i moy ap

4 ThrM Stod'O SeH AN/GRC-76, furrmh«d by rh« d>v

to higher heodquartar* On* AN/GRC-2A, k at Bd in Ih.


in FSCC, i* op*rat«d in th« army o!r r*q ue i tt RTT, an
i» op*rat«d in lh« corpt or army eommond
mmond n«tI BRTT, poi
poi,
point, and th» th.rd AN/GRC ?*, m ou nl*d in , .
p*rionn«l car'-*', CLEARING KAT

>f requii«d Wh«n not ulilUed with the coffimood group ...
radio f«r may b« «mp'oy«d in rh« army loqittisat n«r TT <n-

fM NH

AM NEf

OTHER NETS

RTT NET

I -

Figure 7-—Continued.
tai „ IRANS

NOH l.o.ion off.ce.t ma r ope'ole


." d.v.s.on lloM nel FM or in ovd.tobfe

Figure 8. Type radio net diagram, armored division headquarters


and headquarters company.

122 AGO 1880B


imun wcnoN |ACnCAl TWMsK)tUTION

MM!
COMMAND surron SICTON

CO CMDI COMMUNICATION * N 0 *I»C*AF1 CONItOl SfCItON CO ' OPNS SKTlONI ASH

D1V AVIATION

Figure 9. Type radio net diagramI armored division aviation company.

AGO 1880B 123


•NOU VehldM morligd «ith on oilcrxh mount o Rod* Re(lis>*r R.IIO.

Figure 10. Type radio net diagram, armored division military police company.

124 AGO 1880B


HO CO CMM CC TtAINS TWO SCOUT SQUADS SEC IM

COMBAT COMMAND SCOUT MOWN

NOTE- Ait«K*d and wpporling umli will vary, boi.d (HI th. fettori

oiioched and mppo'ting uniti will IHICF appropriate combat command to

Figure 11. Type radio net diagram, headquarters and headquarters company,
armored division combat command.

AGO 1880B 125


fO COMTAMI1

SIX SCOUT SQUADS


SCOUT PIATOON

VH)wfrVwVwWfr <Ki V%w


KMM (MMTAl 1OUADS MOtT HA1 fK ***** ^^D UilW

UHAUON wnui UCIKM Mmn fut irumi «t MHMION MAMTtNANd

Figure 12. Type radio net diagram, headquarters and headquarters company,
armored division armor battalion.

126 AGO 1880B


^(^^^^^^^•fe

HAT I ID*
AT I WT 1IT TANK PlAtOON

HAT IGT WTANKKATOON

CONVANT MAINTINANCI SECTION

FM NIT
AM NET ^ M4
OIMII NITi ' ' 'f

in NET

Figure 13. Type radio net diagram, tank company, armored division
armor battalion.

AGO 1880B 127


»«IIAIION MIOICU MC1ION SUP»O«I fut TUNS Me IAIIAUON KUIN1INANU ~

AM NtT

O1HEI N|T!

• II NE!

Figure H. Type radio net diagram, armored division armor battalion


task force.

128 AGO 1880B


HAI JOT

MACHINE OUN SQUAD •Ml MUAO mi (QUAD

ATTACHED AIMCMEO »IHI 'IATOON

FM NIT
AM Nil •• —

OTHER NETS
ITT NEI

Wtwn 'o"* platoon (•Mxiand n

. MffUWHJ Ml FM-

Figure 15. Type radio net diagram, tank company team, armored division.

AGO 1880B 129


•ATTALION MtMCAl SECTION PLAT TUNS SIC MTT

Figure 16. Type radio net diagram, headquarters and headquarters


company, armored infantry battalion.

130 AGO 1880B


ifflE SQUAD ItFLE SQUAD
MACHINE GUN SQUAD

1ST RIFLE PLATOON

MACHINE GUN SQUAD


3D RIFLE PLATOON

MACHINE GUN SQUAD IIFLE SQUAD XIHE SQUAD tIFtE SQUAD

3D •"IE PLATOON

• I-MM MORTAR SQUAD It-MM MORTAR SQUAD 61-MM MORTAR SQUAD fUT LDR

81-MM MORTAR flATOON

COMPANY MAINTENANCI SECTION I CO EX O "fco HQ

FW NET
AM NET
OTHER NETS

ITT NtT

NOT! — TMI AIMOCID tlfll COMPANY


COMMAND NtT NORMAUV OfflATIS
ON A COMMON »ANO FMOUIHCT

Figure 17. Type radio net diagram, rifle company, armored infantry battalion.

AGO 1880B 131


l^^Q^k V^^9^^
BATTALION MEDICAl SICTION SUPPORT PUT TtANS SIC IA1
iTTMJON MAINTENANCE PLATOON

FM NET
AM NET — M|
OTMfI Nn$ —^'^
•TT NET KK^

Figure 18. Type radio net diagram, armored infantry battalion task force.

132 AGO 1880B


MACHINE I GUN SQUAD •IFLt I SQUAD

RlFlt PIATOON

Q S3

MOOIAR SQUAD 81-MM MORTAfl SOUAO 81 MM MORIAft SQUAD

II-MM MORTAR PLATOON

raa ci»

Figure 1&. Type radio net diagram, armored rifle company team,
armored division.

AGO 1880B 133


PUT WANS MC JOWADtOM MAMTINANCI PUTOON

Figure 20. Type radio net diagram, headquarters and headquarters


troop, armored cavalry squadron.

134 AGO 1880B


Figure 21. Type radio net diagram, reconnaissance troop,
armored cavalry squadron.

AGO 1880B 135


'NOTE: BoHolio" eommond.r mOjr OfM'd
in boltolion command nut FM or d'vii

Figure 23. Type radio net diagram, armored division engineer battalion.

136 AGO 1880B


TO WV Ml*
tiNtn
A A A

NOTE: Divii'on artillery headquarter? may operate (lationi in the diviiion

operoltd in other neli.

Figure 23. Type radio net diagram, headquarters and headquarters


battery, armored division artillery.

AGO 1880B 137


8
oo
NOTE; Th« B-lnch hewilMr tMlf*ry and the 7*I-mm rockcl batt«
operate bett*ry <9mmond/fir» JirKtian n*tt FM wh»n net
control.

Figure 25. Type radio net diagram, armored division field artillery
composite battalion.

AGO 1880B 139


i TIUCK PIAT MOJ CO C*M J TRUCK PIAT HO$ cut 1 W CO CMM
MID SIRVKE COMPANY sum* COMPANY
AtMOlEO DIVISION QUAIT1RMAITM •ATTAIION

SIX TtUCH TUCTO* 1J-TON

IIIVKI AND EVACUATION P1ATOON

HEADQUARTERS AND MAIN SUPPORT COMPANY

CHANKAl MAmTENANCf HA ID* HCAVT ncovmr sctvic! o

FOtWAftD SUffOtT COMPANnt

AtMOtfD DIVISION OftDNANCC UHAUON

KKM PUTOON| IMS CO t CMDI KHM AM* PiAT IMS CO* cMDt IN* OPMS IN I

ClIAIMO I COMPANY I AMftUUNCE COMPANY I |* '


* _ _ _ _ • __.1J _„•._.. -L .._I'W • _r I

AIMOIED DtVISION MEMCAl IATTAUON

TRAIN1 OPNS '«AW1 IN O TWINS I CMOt

OrttATWN PIATOON DIVISION TtAINt NIADOUAITHt I

COMMAND WH CO AIMD DIV HCNA1 SM

*M NIT
AM NIT
OTHER NITS

in NIT

Figure 26. Type radio net diagram, armored division trains.

140 AGO 1880B


1ST PLAT
20 PLAT O
SB-18

O BN CMDR, EX 0
O BNS2, S3
O BNS1, S4
O HQ CO CMDR
SPT PLAT LDR

4-4.2-IN MORT SODS


1ST PUT©—
20 PLAT ©-,
3D PUT 0J
MORT t
PLAT Ol—
CO CMDR O

BN CMDR, EX 0
BN S2. S3
BNS1.S4
HQ CO CMDR
SPT PUT LDR

4-4.2-IN MORT SQDS


TO DIVISION CLR
PLAT
FORWARD
SIG CEN

SB-611/MRC
MTC-7

MRC-69
T CO
EXO
S2, S3
S3 AIR
(2)SB-22 O
MGC-17 O AIR STRIP
KL-7 O COMMO

Rod-Wire
•O MSGCEN

8O
Integration CO CMDR HQ CO CMDR
LNO
SHOP OFF
SUP SEC FSCC
SVC SEC O S4REP
O TELEPHONE TA-312/PT MECH CHAPLAIN
MAINT SEC SURGEON
O TELEPHONE TA-l/TT

Figure 27. Type wire net diagram, armored division combat command area.

AGO 1880B 141


TK PLAT Q——. i———-^ r ^l
TKPLATO-. A^Z) 6^0
INF PLAT

SB-18 SB-18
\ CO CMDR O

MORT SQDS FDC


MORT SEC
5
OPR OPR

SO CO, EX 0
SI, S)
SI, S4
WSO CEN
O HO TRP CMDR
JT, RECON &
^J SURVL PLAT
^O SQ SPT PLAT

rO COEXO
> S2, S3
-O S1,S4
: ) BNMAINT
TO DIVISION SB-22 -O SUPPLY SEC
AREA COMMUNICATION1 O HQ CO CMDR
SYSTEM O PERS OFF (REAR ECH)
O DIV ENGR SEC (DIV MAIN)

j>
MAIN
HQ CD
SIG CEN pO) DIVKQ,
'/ GENERAL AND
SB-611/MRC
•O) SPECIAL STAFF
MTC-3
•O\ SECTIONS AS
'' REQUIRED
MRC-69 rO CO CMDR
O OPN SEC
MSA-12 •O COMM & ACFT
KL-7 CTL SEC
Rod-Wire O SVC PLAT
Integration O ACFT MAINT SEC
O AFLD SVC SEC
O OTHER ELE- O DIV AVN SEC
W MENTS CONNECTED (DIV MAIN)
TO UNIT SUPPORTED

Figure 28. Type wire net diagram, armored division headquarters area.

142 AGO 1880B


11
C*"^
1 te 3-
C C -\ BKI rr» FV n
SB-22 !i-o EXO SB-22 8. -O SI
-u ADJ -0 S3
-O S3 -O DET CMDR
-O S4 -O DIV MED SUP
-O MSGCEN & BN SUP SEC
-o MTRO -O MAINT SEC
-O DET CMDR -O AMB CO CMDR
-o SUP CO L-O CLR CO CMDR
"-O FLD SVC CO T0 DIVISION AREA
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

TRAINS AREA
SIG CEN
XX
SB-61 1/MRC
rrj Q/ ,p O TNS

upr- xo
1 PGC-1 ^5 TNS CMDR
-O-> -
F> 0
dD TGC-10

rT
-0 si
<Q ISU /

Rod-Wire
-O s2 - sj
_O CHAPLAIN
.—O BN CO
9 -O EX 0
AN/fGC-1 -O ADJ
_Q TNS OF DIV COMBAT
SB-22 -O HO & MAIN SPT CO CMDR ELEMENTS OPERATINC
-O SHOP OFF UNDER DIV CONTROL
_O SUP SEC
-O SVC i EVAC PLAT
-O AUTO MAINT SEC
-O ARM MAINT SEC
r-O ADMIN CO CMDR
TO DIVISION AREA -O AG
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM -O IG
-O SJA
-TV -O FIND
-O POSTAL 0
REAR ECHELON -O SPEC SVC 0
SIG CEN -O AG MAIL & RECORDS
-O AG PERSONNEL
SB-86/P —O AG PUBLICATIONS
PGC-1 -O AGC&A
KL-7 -O RE PL SEC
-O PIO
L-O LOCALS TO EACH BN 4
SEPARATE CO PERS SEC

Figure 29. Type wire net diagram, armored division trains and
headquarters rear echelon.

AGO 1880B 143


INDEX

Paragraph Page
Administration company—————————————————————— 104 65
Agencies of communication. _—_————————————————— 20 17
Air support. (See Tactical air support.)
Amphibious operations———:——————————————————— 48 34
Antiaircraft artillery___-.______——__————————- 169-171 99,100
Antijamming———_————————————————————————— 11 10
Area communication system———————————————————— 4, 80-82, 6, 52-
116, app 54, 70,
IV 118
Arm and hand signals__-____———————————————— 27 26
Armor:
Battalion______________________——__-. 120 73
Units. (See type of unit; Battalion-level armor units,
Company-level armor units.)
Armored—
Cavalry squadron___-___—-_—-_—————-—— 120 73
Cavalry platoon team_________———_—————_—— 146 86
Division. (See Division.)
Infantry battalion________________________- 120 73
Artillery: 155 91
Antiaircraft____________________________. 169 99
Communication support____________.1_______ 156 92
Fire support coordination center_—__—_——____ 164 96
Radio communication_____________________ 157-162 93-95
Wire communication———_——————_——————_—. 163 96
Assembly area____________________________ 32 29
Attack____________________________________ 34 30
Aviation company__________________________ 71 49
Basic communication requirements—_——_—————___. 80 52
Battalion, (see also type of battalion.)
Level armor units:
Command group______________________ 122 74
Command post_-______________—____- 121 74
Communication support_________________ 124,125 75
Message center and messengers____________ 130 79
Mission and organization_______________-. 120 73
Radio communication___________________ 126-129 76-78
Trains___________________________- 123 74
Visual and sound communication____________ 132 80
Wire communication__________————_—. 131 80
Task force: 120,139, 73, 83,
142 85
Radio communication____________—______ 140 84
Wire communication___________________. 141 85
Bivouac________________________________- 32 29

144 AGO 1880B


Paragraph Page
Bridge company:
Communication_________________________ 187-189 105,106
Communication personnel__________—:—————— 186 105
Mission and organization__________————————. 185 105
Capabilities:
Command operations company_______———————— 56 39
Forward communication company________—_——— 59 41
Signal battalion_______________________- 50 35
Signal battalion, headquarters and headquarters 53 37
company.
Center. (See Message center and Signal center.)
Characteristics:
Division signal communication system—_————————. 4 6
Radio communication____________———————— 22 19
Wire communication_______________—_——— 24 22
Choice of communication means______—__———————— 21 19
Ciphers and codes_________________———————— 9 9
Combat command:
Area support platoon_____________________ 111 68
Command post_________________________ 107 66
Communication officer_____________________ 17,109 14, 67
Communication platoon____________________ 110 67
Message center and messengers________—_—— 117 72
Mission and organization_______ __________ 106 66
Radio communication_____________________ 112-114 68, 69
Sound communication____________———————— 119 72
Trains______________________________ 108 67
Visual communication____________—_——————. 118 72
Wire communication_______________—___-. 115,116 70
Command:
Group:
Battalion_________________..________. 122 74
Company_________________________- 135 81
Division____________________—_——. 63 45
Operations company: 55-57, 38-40,
app III 115
Artillery, support_______________———_——— 156 92
Trains, division, support________———————— 88 57
Post:
Artillery_____________________________ 155 91
Battalion__________________________. 121 74
Combat command_____________________ 107 66
Company_________________________. 134 81
Division__________________________. 62 44
Trains, division______________________ 86 57
Relationship with staff ______________________. 13,14 12
Commander's responsibilities_____________—____ 2,191 4,107
Communication (see also Signal and specific element, type,
or unit):
Agencies__________-_________———__— 20 17
Amphibious operations_____________—____. 48 34
Assembly and bivouac areas___——————————————— 32 29
Attack, during___________________——___- 34 30

AGO 1880B 145


Paragraph Page
Communication—Continued
Defense, during————————————————————————— 37 31
Delaying action_____________________——— 42 33
Desert operations _____-_______-______ 47 34
Exploitation, during__________—————————— 36 31
Marches, during———————————————————————— 31 29
Means______________________________ 19,150 17, 88
Means, use________——————————————.——— 21 19
Mobile defense, during_________________———- 38 32
Mountain operations__________——————————. 46 33
Night combat______________________———- 45 33
Offensive operations-—_—————————————————— 33 29
Officer:
Artillery__________________________ 156 92
Battalion_________'________________ 18,124 15, 75
Combat command_________________——— 17,109 14, 67
Engineer battalion________________———— 173 101
Passage of lines, during_——————————————————— 35 31
Personnel. (See Personnel.)
Planning_________________________—__. 29 28
Platoon:
Artillery__________________________ 156 92
Battalion__________________________. 125 75
Combat command_________________——— 110 67
Position defense, during_————__—————————— 39 32
Pursuit, during-____________________———— 36 31
Relief in place, during_________________——— 35 31
Responsibilities___________________________ 2,191 4,107
Retirement, during___________________——— 43 33
Retrograde movements, during_____———__———. 40 32
Section, engineer battalion_______________——— 174 102
Security_______________________________ 7 8
Special operations, during-————___——————————. 44 33
Support. (See Support.)
System, division_____________-______———- 4, 5 6, 7
Training_________________________——— 3 5
Withdrawal, during___________________——— 41 32
Company (see also type of company):
Level armor units:
Command group_____________________. 135 81
Command post_______________________ 134 81
Communication support-________________. 136 81
Mission and organization________________. 120,133 73, 81
Radio communication-——_________________ 137 82
Supplemental means of communication_____——— 138 83
Team: 120,143, 73,85,
146 86
Radio communication-—_____—_____——— 144 86
Wire communication_______________—__. 145 86
Composite battalion, artillery___________________ 162 95
Coordination, signal personnel___________________ 13,14 12
Counter-countermeasures_____________________. 11 10
Cryptographic security_______________________ 9 9

146 AGO 1880B


Paragraph Page
Defense:
Communication during_____-_______——————. 37 31
Jamming, against____________—_——————— 11 10
Definition, signal logistics_____________________.. 190 107
Delaying action_________________________-_ 42 33
Desert operations___________________—-———— 47 34
Diagrams, net______________________-__—— App IV 118
Direction, tactical air support____-_-_—__—————— 167 99
Division:
Area communication system__———————————————— 4, 80-82, 6, 52-
116, app 54, 70,
IV 118
Artillery. (See Artillery.)
Command group_____________________—— 63 45
Headquarters: 61 44
Company__________________________. 66 46
Message center and messengers———————————— 76,77 52
Radio communication___—___——_——————— 67-72 46-50
Rear echelon______________________— 84 56
Visual and sound communication_____—_——— 78, 79 52
Wire communication___-_————————————- 73-75 50, 51
Main command post____________—_—————— 62 44
Radio equipment-___—_———————————————— 23 21
Signal battalion. (See Signal battalion.)
Signal officer__________________________ 2,15, 4 ,13,
16 14
Trains. (See Trains.)
Wire equipment__________________________. 25 22
Duties:
Battalion communication officer-_______—_——— 18 15
Combat command communication officer ___—_____— 17 14
Division signal officer_____________________- 15,16 13,14
Echelons of signal maintenance______________—— 195 109
81-mm mortar platoon_______________________ 152 88
Employment:
Command operations company________________ 57 40
Forward communication company______________ 60 42
Signal battalion________________________. 51 37
Engineer—
Battalion:
Communication______________________ 175-179 102-104
Communication personnel_________—___— 173,174 101,102
Mission and organization__________-_____ 172 101
Bridge company. (See Bridge company.)
Company:
Communication______________________ 182-184 104,105
Communication personnel___—_—_—————_— 181 104
Mission and organization______—_——————. 180 104
Equipment:
Radio______________________________. 23 21
Wire_______________________________ 25 22
Exploitation______________________________ 36 31
Extract, SOI_____________________________ 5, app II 7,113
AGO 1880B 147
Paragraph Page
Fire-
Direction center___________________-____ 155 91
Support_____________________________. 147 87
Support coordination center____———————————— 164 96
Flags_________________________________- 27 26
FM radio-wire integration_——————————————————— 82 54
Forward communication company_—————————————— 58-60 41, 42
4.2-inch mortar:
Platoon______________________________ 153 89
Section______________________________. 154 90
Headquarters:
Company, division_____________________ 66 46
Division. (See Division headquarters.)
Signal battalion________________________. 52-54 37, 38
Howitzer battalion__________________________ 161 95
Instructions, division communication system__________ 5 7
Integration, radio-wire_______________________. 82 54
Liaison________________________________ 6 8
Lights_________________________________ 27 26
Listening silence___________________________ 22 19
Logistics, signal___________________________. 190 107
Maintenance_____________________________. 2,194 4,109
Manuals, Signal Supply__________,___________. 193 109
Marches________________________________ 31 29
Means of communication_____________—————___ 19, 21, 17,19,
150 88
Medical battalion__________________________. 100 63
Message center____________________________ 20 17
Battalion-level armor unit__________________. 130 79
Combat command_______________________ 117 72
Division headquarters_____________________. 76 52
Engineer battalion_______________________ 178 103
Trains, division_________________________ 86, 91 57, 59
Messenger communication____________________ 26 25
Battalion-level armor unit__________________. 130 79
Combat command_______________________ 117 72
Company-level armor unit——_—————————————— 138 83
Division headquarters____________————_—. 77 52
Engineer battalion_____________——————_—— 178 103
Trains, division______—————————————————— 91 59
Military police company__________—_——————_— 72 50
Mission:
Armor units_______________———————————- 120 73
Command operations company——————————————— 55 38
Division headquarters————————————————————— 61 44
Engineer units______———————————————————- 172, 101,
180,185 104,105
Forward communication company—————————————_ 58 41
Signal battalion_______————————————————— 49 35
Signal battalion, headquarters company—————————— 52 37
Mobile defense____________———————————————- 38 32

AGO 1880B
Paragraph Page
Mortar—
Fire support communication________-_-_—__— 151 88
Platoon:
81-mm___________________________ 152 88
4.2-inch___________________________ 153 89
Section, 4.2-inch________________________ 154 90
Motor marches___________________________ 31 29
Mountain operations_______________-___——— 46 33
Nets__________________________________- App IV 118
Night combat____________________________. 45 33
Objectives, fire support communication_____-____-__ 148 87
Observation, tactical air______________________. 168 99
Offensive operations________________-_——— 33-36 29-31
Officer. (See specific type.)
Operation (see also type of operation Order.) 5 1
Operational control, division trains_______———————— 85 56
Ordnance battalion.———_———————————————————— 96 61
Organization:
Armor units___________________________ 120 73
Command operations company_________-___.57, app III 40,115
Division headquarters___..________________. 61 44
Engineer units_____________________ ___. 172,180, 101,
185 104,105
Forward communication company____________-60, app III 42,115
Mortar units__________________________. 152-154 88-90
Signal battalion_______________________ 51, app III 37,115
Signal battalion, headquarters and headquarters 54, app III 38,115
company.
Panels_________________________________ 27 26
Passage of lines__________________________ 35 31
Personnel, signal communication_________________ 12 12
Artillery_____________________________ 156 92
Battalion—_________________________ 18,124,125 15, 75
Bridge company________________________. 186 105
Combat command_____________________ 17,109,110 14, 67
Engineer—
Battalion_________________________ 173,174 101,102
Company__________________________. 181,186 104,105
Medical battalion_______________________ 101 63
Ordnance battalion_______________________ 97 61
Quartermaster battalion______________—_—— 93 60
Trains, division_______________________— 87 57
Physical security——_—_______—___—————————. 8 9
Planning communication____________————————— 29 28
Platoon. (See specific type.)
Position defense___________________________. 39 32
Preparation:
Offensive operations______________________ 33 29
SOI extract___________________________ 5 7
Purpose________________________________ 1 4
Pursuit——______________________________ 36 31

AGO 1880B 1 49
Paragraph Page
Pyrotechnics_____________________________. 27 26
Quartermaster battalion________————————————— 92 69
Radio:
Communication: 22 19
Administration company———————————————— 105 65
Antiaircraft artillery_____________-__— 170 100
Artillery__________________________ 157-162, 93-95,
164 96
Aviation company____——————————————— 71 49
Battalion-level armor unit_______________. 126-129 76-78
Battalion task force___________________ 140 84
Bridge company________———————_————. 187 105
Combat command_____________________. 112-114 68, 69
Company-level armor unit______________—- 137 82
Company team_________—————————————— 144 86
Division headquarters_____________—___. 67-72 46-50
Engineer—
Battalion_______________________. 176 102
Company_______________________. 182,187 104,105
Medical battalion_____________________ 102 64
Military police company_____——_————————. 72 50
Mortar
Platoon, 81-mm___________________ 152 88
Platoon, 42-inch __________________- 153 89
Section, 4.2-inch___________________ 154 90
Ordnance battalion____________________ 98 61
Quartermaster battalion________________ 94 60
Tactical air support___________________ 166-168 98, 99
Trains, division______________________ 89 58
Equipment____________________________ 23 21
Nets (see also Radio Communication)___________. App IV 118
Silence______________________________. 22 19
Wire integration________________________ 82 54
Rear echelon, division headquarters_______________. 84 56
References______________________________. App I 111
Relationship, command and staff_________________. 13,14 12
Relief in place____________________________ 35 31
Requirements, fire support communication____________ 149 87
Responsibilities (see also Duties):
Communication_________________________ 2 4
Signal logistics_____________—____—___. 191 107
Retirement______________________________ 43 33
Retrograde movements_______________________. 40-43 32, 33
Scope__________________________________ 1 4
Section. (See specific type.)
Security, communication______________________ 7 8
Signal
Battalion: 65 46
Capabilities________________________. 50 35
Command operations company_____________ 55-57 38-40
Commander________________________ 16 14

150 AGO 1880B


Paragraph Page
Signal—Continued
Battalion—Continued
Forward communication company___________ 58-60 41,42
Headquarters and headquarters company_______ 52-54 37,38
Mission___________________________ 49 35
Organization and employment____________51, app III 37,116
Center__________^_______.___________ 20 17
Communication. (See Communication.)
Personnel. (See Personnel.)
Logistics_____________________________ 190 107
Officer______________________________ 2,15, 4,13,
16 14
Operation instructions_____________________ 5, app II 7,113
Supply manuals_________________________ 193 109
Sound communication________________________. 28 27
Battalion-level armor unit __•. ________________—— 132 80
Combat command_______________________- 119 72
Company-level armor unit.—————————————————— 138 83
Division headquarters___-_—_—-———-——— 79 52
Engineer units_________________________- 179 104
Special operations________-______——______————- 44-48 33, 34
Squadron, armored cavalry__—___—___——————————— 120 73
Standing operating procedure_________——____——_ 5 7
Standing signal instructions_—————————————————— 5 7
Supply, signal______________________———— 192 108
Support
Signal communication_____________________. 30 28
Artillery__________________________- 156 92
Battalion__________________________. 124,125 75
Combat command_____________________ 109-111 67, 68
Company_________________________- 136 81
Trains, division___________——————————— 87,88 57
Tactical air___________________________. 165 98
Tactical air support: 165 98
Communication system____________________. 166 98
Direction____________________________. 167 99
Observation___________________________ 168 99
Task force. (See Battalion task force.)
Team. (See Company team.)
Training-________________________________ 3,11 5,10
Trains:
Battalion____________________________. 123 74
Combat command_______________________. 108 67
Division_____________________________. 83 56
Command post_______________________ 86 57
Communication support—________________ 87,88 57
Means of communication________________ 89-91 58,59
Operational control___________________. 85 56
Transmission security: 10 10
Types—
Radio equipment______________________ 23 21
Wire equipment_____________________. 25 22
Use of communication means___________________ 21 19
AGO 1880B
Paragraph Page
Visual communication: 27 26
Battalion-level armor unit—————————————————- 132 80
Combat command_________________————_———— 118 72
Company-level armor unit-—————————————————- 138 83
Division headquarters————————————————————— 78 52
Engineer units_______—_—————————————.—- 179 104
Wire-
Communication : 24 22
Administration company________________ 105 65
Antiaircraft artillery__________________. 171 100
Artillery__________________________ 163 96
Battalion-level armor unit_______________- 131 80
Battalion task force___________________ 141 85
Combat command___-_—_—_—_———————— 115,116 70
Company-level armor unit_________—_—_—— 138 83
Company team______________________- 145 86
Division headquarters__—_———-———————— 73-75 50,51
Engineer units______________-___—-—. 177 103
Medical battalion_______—_——————————. 103 64
Mortar—
Platoon, 81-mm_____________________ 152 88
Platoon, 4.2-inch___________________ 153 89
Section, 4.2-inch___________________ 154 90
Ordnance battalion____________________ 99 63
Quartermaster battalion________________ 95 61
Trains, division______________________ 90 59
Equipment_._________________________ 25 22
Nets, (see also Wire communication)-——_—_———_—. App IV 118
Withdrawal______________________________ 41 32

152 AGO 1880B


[AG353 (9Sep57)]
By Order of Wilbur M. Brucker, Secretary of the Army:

MAXWELL D. TAYLOR,
General, United States Army,
Official: Chief of Staff.
HERBERT M. JONES,
Major General, United States Army,
The Adjutant General.
Distribution:
Active Army:
DCSPER FA Btry
ACSI Med Co
DCSOPS Ord Co
DCSLOG QM Co
Technical Stf, DA Sig Co
Admin & Technical Stf Bd MP Co
USCONARC AAA Btry
OS Maj Comd USA Tng Cen
MDW USMA
Armies Armor Sch
Corps Arty & Msl Sch
Div Air Def Sch
Brig The Sig Sch (New Jersey)
Engr Gp PMST Sr Div Unit
Armor Gp Mil Msn
Engr Bn MAAG
FA Bn Units org under fol TOE:
Ord Bn 7-25, Armd Inf Bn
QM Bn 17-17, Tk Co, 76-mm Gun,
SigBn Sep (Sp)
Armor Bn 17-27, Tk Co, 90-mm Gun
MP Bn 17-37, Tk Co, 120-mm Gun
AAA Bn or 90-mm Gun
Med Bn 17-51, Armd Cav Regt
Cml Co 17-55, Armd Cab Recon Bn
Engr Co 17-57, Recon Co
NG: State AG; units—same as Active Army.
USAR: Same as Active Army.
For explanation of abbreviations used, see AR 320-50.

•fr U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE! 1937——440818

AGO 1880B T53