Anda di halaman 1dari 7

Maximum system voltage

High voltages occurring in systems under normal operating conditions, and high system voltage
for equipment and other components are designed for satisfactory continuous operation without
reduction of any type. By defining the maximum system voltage, voltage transients and
overvoltages caused by abnormal system conditions such as faults, load elimination and other
similar abnormalities are included. However, voltage transients and temporary overvoltages can
affect the operation of the equipment and are considered in the applications of the equipment.
For 132 kV systems there is a maximum voltage of 145 kV.

Minimum System Voltage

Voltage that according to ANSI / IEEE standards is 1,000 volts or less; the circuits that operate
with this type of voltage do not require a protection network.

Maximum equipment voltage

Nominal voltage value of certain utilization equipment used in the system. The values of voltage
of use in each category of equipment neither must be equal to the voltage of the nominal system
or less than the system of nominal voltage by the approximate reason of 115 to 120.


The frequency is measured in hertz (Hz), in honor of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. A hertz is the
frequency of an event or phenomenon repeated once per second. Thus, a phenomenon with a
frequency of two hertz is repeated twice per second. The three-phase alternating current
generation and distribution system considered the 60 Hz frequency to be the best frequency for
AC distribution.
Active Power

Active power is defined as the amount of electrical energy or work, which is transported or
consumed in a given unit of time and which is effectively used as a useful power since it is the
work that the electric current is able to perform.

Reactive power

The transmission of reactive power to electric power supply equipment results in a significantly
higher current consumption than the single active power transmission, see the illustration below.
This again causes unnecessary losses in power transmission and the need for over-dimensioning
of electrical production means.

Alternating current
Alternating current. It is called an alternating current to the electric current in which the
magnitude and direction change cyclically. The waveform of the most commonly used
alternating current is that of a sine wave (figure), since a more efficient transmission of energy is

In certain applications, other periodic waveforms are used, such as triangular or square.
Generically used, CA refers to the way in which Electricity reaches households and businesses.
However, the Audio and Radio signals transmitted by the Electric Cables are also examples of
alternating current. In these applications, the most important purpose is usually the transmission
and retrieval of the encoded (or modulated) information on the AC signal.
Characteristics of the alternating current
The alternating current has a series of particular characteristics that distinguishes them from each
other. The main ones are:
a) the waveform
b) the amplitude
c) the frequency
d) phase (when there are two or more alternating currents superimposed on the same circuit, as
the typical case of the three-phase current of the public service)
triphasic current
The three-phase generation of electric power is the most common and the most efficient way of
providing drivers. The use of Electricity in three-phase form is mostly common for use in
industries where many of the machines run motors for this voltage. The three-phase current is
formed by a set of three waveforms, phase-shifted with respect to each other by 120 degrees,
according to the diagram shown in the figure

Voltage of the phases of a three-phase system. Between each of the phases there is a phase shift
of 120 °.
The three-phase currents are generated by alternators equipped with three coils or groups of
coils, wound on three systems of polar parts equidistant from each other. The return of each of
these circuits or phases is coupled at a point, called neutral, where the sum of the three currents,
if the system is balanced, is zero, whereby the transport can be effected using only three wires.
This arrangement would be the so-called star connection, there being also the connection in delta
or delta in which the coils are coupled according to this geometric figure and the line threads
start from the vertices. The direct current refers to the continuous flow of electric charge through
a conductor between two points of different potential, which does not change direction with time.
Unlike alternating current (AC in English, Alternating Current), in the direct current electric
charges always circulate in the same direction. Although the DC current is commonly identified
with a constant current, it is continuous any current that always maintains the same polarity, thus
decreasing its intensity as the load is consumed (for example when an electric battery is

Direct current
The direct current is produced by the batteries, the batteries. Between the ends of any of these
generators a constant voltage is generated that does not vary with the time. For example, if the
battery is 12 volts, all receivers connected to the battery will always be at 12 volts (unless the
battery is worn out and has less voltage).In addition to being all receivers to the voltage of the
battery, when connecting the receiver (a lamp for example) the current that circulates in the
circuit is always constant (same number of electrons), and does not vary of direction of
circulation, always goes in the same direction. That is why the + and negative poles are always
the same.


The transmission lines are classified in this section according to the length of the transmission
line and therefore the behavior of the parameters and equations associated with each
classification are different. Thus, it is very important to determine the parameters and equations
of each type of transmission line that are distinguished as short, medium and long lines.They are
those transmission lines that do not exceed 80 km in length, in this short line classification, the
parameters are considered in their concentrated form being R and L the most important, the value
of C is very small and so is despised . Even so the results obtained by the equations associated
with this type of line are very reliable.

The following figure shows that R and L form a simple series circuit, where Z is the total
impedance of

The transmission line.

The equations describing the short line model are as follows:
Is and IR are the generator and receiver end currents, respectively, Vs and VR are the line-to-
neutral voltages at the same ends. Voltages in the transmission lines vary continuously due to the
type of load being carried (resistive, inductive and capacitive), this modifies the power factor of
the line (see figure below). If the constant voltage VS is maintained when the voltage VR is at
full load (VRC) it is possible to determine the voltage rise in percent at the receiving end, this is
known as voltage regulation.

the average lines comprise lengths greater than the short line without exceeding 240 km in
length, just as in the short lines the parameters are considered in concentrated form, being the
parameter of parallel admittance (Y) of importance in the calculations, however, the conductance
(G) is neglected. The middle line model (figure below) is represented by dividing the capacitance
into two equal parts placed at both ends of the line, this model is known as the nominal π circuit.

Calculando Vs:

Y la corriente:
Long line

Transmission lines over 240 km in length are represented in the same way as the midline, with
the difference that their parameters must be considered in distributed form along the entire line,
the difference between concentrated and distributed parameters consists of the case of
concentrated parameters, when receiving a signal at the point of entry of the system instantly
appears at its exit point, while considering the distributed parameters the signal is delayed
reflected at the exit point, this implies a new modeling of the equations that consider the
appropriate length of the line, of which the methods exist by differential equations and the
Hyperbolic method

The equivalent circuit of the long line is: