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20 Physical properties and dimensional analysis

with j fundamental dimensions involved, for example j = 3 when their n parameters


combine mass M , length L, and time T , the relation can be reduced to a function
of n − j dimensionless Π parameters in the form:
 
Π1 = F Π2 , Π3 , . . . , Πn−j (2.16)
The method of determining the Π parameters is to select j repeating variables
among the Z variables such that: (1) all j fundamental dimensions can be found in
the set of repeating variables; and (2) all repeating variables must have different
fundamental dimensions. For instance, one cannot select both the width and the
length as repeating variables because both parameters have the same fundamental
dimension L.
The steps in a dimensional analysis can be summarized as follows:
(1) Select the dependent variable Z1 as a function of the independent variables Z2 , . . . , Zn
in the functional relationship Z1 = F (Z2 , Z3 , . . . , Zn ).
(2) Write the variables in terms of fundamental dimensions and select the j repeating
variables. These variables must contain the j fundamental dimensions of the problem
and the dependent variable should not be selected as a repeating variable. Solve the
fundamental dimensions in terms of the j repeating variables.
(3) Obtain the Π parameters by dividing the non-repeating variables by their fundamental
dimensions written in terms of repeating variables.
(4) Write the functional relation F (Π1 , Π2 , . . . , Πn−j ) = 0 or Π1 = F (Π2 , . . . , Πn−j ), and
recombine if desired to alter the form of the dimensionless parameters Π, keeping the
same number of independent parameters.

The dimensional analysis method is illustrated in the following examples: (1) drag
force exerted on a sphere by relative fluid motion in Example 2.1; and (2) soil
erosion by overland flow in Example 2.2.

Example 2.1 Drag force on a sphere


Consider the drag force FD exerted on a sphere in motion through a homogeneous
mixture (Figure E-2.1.1). The drag force is thought to vary with the relative
velocity u∞ , the spherical particle diameter ds , the mass density of the fluid
mixture ρm , and the dynamic viscosity of the mixture μm . Use the method of
dimensional analysis to identify the dimensionless parameter.
Step 1. The dependent variable FD is a function of four independent variables,
with a total of n = 5 variables:

FD = F (u∞ , ds , ρm , μm )1 (E-2.1.1)

in which F represents an unspecified function.


2.4 Dimensional analysis 21

FD

ds

rm
mm
u

Figure E-2.1.1 Drag force on a moving sphere

Step 2. After selecting ds , u∞ , and ρm as repeating variables, the three


fundamental dimensions (j = 3) are then rewritten in terms of repeating
variables:
⎫⎧
ds = L ⎬ ⎨ L = ds
u∞ = L/T T = ds /u∞
⎭⎩
ρm = M /L 3 M = ρm ds3

Step 3. After substituting the relationships for M, L, T into the non-


repeating variables divided by their fundamental dimensions, two Π terms
(n − j = 5 − 3 = 2) are obtained respectively from FD and μm :

FD T 2 FD ds2 FD
Π1 = = = (E-2.1.2)
ML ρm ds ds u∞ ρm u∞
3 2 2 d2
s

It turns out that Π1 is defining the drag coefficient CD , or Π1 = π CD /8. The


dimensionless parameter for dynamic viscosity is
μm LT μm ds ds μm 1
Π2 = = = =
M ρm ds u∞ ρm u∞ ds Rep
3

The parameter Π2 can be simply replaced by the Reynolds number of the particle
Rep .
Step 4. Π1 = F (Π2 ), or CD = F (Rep ), results in

πds2 ρm u∞
2
FD = F (Rep ) (E-2.1.3)
4 2
22 Physical properties and dimensional analysis

104

103
Drag coefficient, CD

102 pds3 (gs – g)


6 r y2
2 4 6 8 10
10 10 10 10 10
10
Oseen
Goldstein
1

Stokes
Spheres
10–1 –3 –2 –1 2 3 4 5 6
10 10 10 1 10 10 10 10 10 10
u ds
Particle Reynolds number, Re p = ym

Figure E-2.1.2 Drag coefficient for spheres

The advantage of the method of dimensional analysis in this case has been to
reduce the number of parameters from five in Equation (E-2.1.1) to two dimen-
sionless parameters, Π1 = CD and Π2 = Rep . Each of those two parameters is
dimensionless and a unique graph can be made with data from different systems
of units. The method, however, fails to provide any indication as to what kind
of relationship may exist between CD and Rep . For further analysis, the scientist
must carry out experiments and collect laboratory or field measurements of CD
versus Rep . Measurements of drag coefficients around spheres versus the par-
ticle Reynolds number Rep = u∞ ds /νm are shown in Figure E-2.1.2. Note that
a similar plot for natural sand particles is also shown in Figure 5.2. Chapter 5
shows that the flow around a particle is laminar when Rep < 1 and turbulent at
large particle Reynolds numbers.

Example 2.2 Soil erosion by overland flow


Consider the problem of sheet erosion induced by rainfall on a bare soil surface
(Fig. E-2.2.1). The method of dimensional analysis is first used to reduce the
number of variables and define dimensionless parameters.
2.4 Dimensional analysis 23

h
Xr
r, y q
to
qt
So
1

Figure E-2.2.1 Sheet erosion

Step 1. The rate of sediment transport by sheet erosion qsm is written as a


function of the geometric, fluid flow and soil variables:

τc
qsm = F So , q, i, Xr , ρ, ν, (E-2.2.1)
τo

in which qsm is the rate of mass transport per unit width, q is the unit discharge,
i is the rainfall intensity, Xr is the length of runoff, ρ is the mass density of
the fluid, v is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, τc and τo are respectively the
critical and applied boundary shear stresses and So is the bed surface slope. The
critical shear stress τc is the applied shear stress that is required to detach soil
particles and bring them into motion.
Besides the two dimensionless variables in Equation (E-2.2.1) (Π5 = τc /τo ,
Π2 = So ) the remaining variables (n = 6) are functions of three fundamental
dimensions (M, L, T , thus j = 3), and can be transformed into three (n − j = 3)
dimensionless parameters. Each variable is written in terms of the fundamental
dimensions M, L, and T as follows:

qsm = M /LT ; q = L2 /T ; i = L/T ;


Xr = L; ν = L2 /T ; ρ = M /L3

Step 2. The fundamental dimensions can be written in terms of the repeated


variables Xr , ν, and ρ
⎫ ⎧
Xr = L ⎬ ⎨ M = ρXr3
ν = L /T
2 thus L = Xr
⎭ ⎩
ρ = M /L3 T = Xr2 /ν
24 Physical properties and dimensional analysis

Step 3. The three Π parameters are directly obtained from substituting the
fundamental dimensions into the relationships for qsm , q, and i, respectively

qsm qsm Xr Xr2 qsm


Π1 = LT = =
M ρXr3 ν ρν
qT qXr2 q
Π3 = = = = Re
L2 Xr2 ν ν
iT iX 2 iXr
Π4 = = r =
L Xr ν ν
Step 4. The five dimensionless parameters can thus be written

qsm q iXr τc
= F So , , , (E-2.2.2)
ρν ν ν τo

The final result from this dimensional analysis is a dimensionless sediment


transport parameter function of the soil surface slope, the Reynolds number,
a dimensionless rainfall parameter, and the soil characteristics.
Further progress can only be achieved through physical understanding of the
erosion processes and through laboratory or field experiments. For instance, the
rate of sediment transport in sheet flow is assumed to be proportional to the
product of the powers of the Π parameters
 q e3 iX e4 
qsm r τc e5
= e1Soe2 1− (E-2.2.3)
ρν ν ν τo

in which e1, e2, e3, e4, and e5 are coefficients to be determined from laboratory
or field investigations.
The first three factors (So , q, i) of Equation (E-2.2.3) represent the poten-
tial erosion or sediment transport capacity of overland flow. It is interesting to
note that for one-dimensional overland flow on impervious surfaces, q = iXr .
The sediment transport capacity is reduced by the last factor reflecting the soil
resistance to erosion. When τc remains small compared to τo and with q = i, Xr ,
Equation (E-2.2.3) can be rearranged in the following form:

qsm = ẽ1Soe2 qe3 (E-2.2.4)

The experiment on sandy soils by Kilinc (1972) at Colorado State University


showed that qsm (metric ton/ms) = 2.55 × 104 S 1.66 q2.035 . This relationship
will be used again in Chapter 11. At a given field site (constant slope So ),
2.4 Dimensional analysis 25

Equation (E-2.2.4) further reduces to

qsm ∼ qe3 (E-2.2.5)

This relationship defines the sediment-rating curve, and will also be used for
alluvial channels in Chapter 11. From field observations in rivers, the value of
the exponent e3 typically varies between 1.3 and 2.

Exercises
2.1 Erosion losses from pasture areas are considered excessive when they exceed
5 tons/acre-year. Determine the equivalent annual losses in metric tons per hectare
per year and metric tons per square kilometer per year.
2.2 A sidecasting dredge operator tries to maintain the specific weight of the dredged
material in the pipeline at 1.5 times that of water. Determine the volumetric
concentration of sediment in this short pipeline.
2.3 Long pipelines tend to plug at volumetric sediment concentrations around 0.2.
Determine the corresponding specific weight of the mixture in lb/ft3 and kN/m3 .

Problems
Problem 2.1
Determine the mass density, specific weight, dynamic viscosity, and kinematic
viscosity of clear water at 20◦ C: (a) in SI; and (b) in the English system of units.
Answer:

(a) ρ = 998kg/m3 , γ = 9790N/m3 , μ = 1.0 × 10−3 Ns/m2 ,


ν = 1 × 10−6 m2 /s

(b) ρ = 1.94slug/ft 3 , γ = 62.3 lb/ft 3 , μ = 2.1 × 10−5 lb·s/ft 2 ,


ν = 1.1 × 10−5 ft 2 /s

Problem 2.2
Determine the sediment size, weight, mass density, specific weight, and sub-
merged specific weight of small quartz cobbles: (a) in SI units; and (b) in the
English system of units.
26 Physical properties and dimensional analysis

 Problem 2.3
The volumetric sediment concentration of a sample is Cv = 0.05. Determine
the corresponding: (a) porosity po ; (b) void ratio e; (c) specific weight γm ; (d)
specific mass ρm ; (e) dry specific weight γmd ; and (f) dry specific mass ρmd .
Answer: po = 0.95, e = 19, γm = 10.6 kN/m3 , ρm = 1082 kg/m3
γmd = 1.29 kN/m3 , ρmd = 132 kg/m3 (see also Table 10.3 p. 240).

Problem 2.4
A 50g bed-sediment sample from Big Sand Creek, Mississippi, is analyzed for
particle size distribution.

Size fraction (mm) mass (g) Cumulative mass (g) % finer


ds < 0.15 0.9 0.9 1.8
0.15 < ds < 0.21 2.9 3.8 7.6
0.21 < ds < 0.30 16.0 19.8 39.6
0.30 < ds < 0.42 20.1 39.9 79.6
0.42 < ds < 0.60 8.9 48.8 97.6
0.60 < ds 1.2 50.0 100

(a) Plot the sediment size distribution;


(b) determine d16 , d35 , d50 , d65 , and d84 ; and
(c) calculate the gradation coefficients σ g and Gr.

Problem 2.5
Consider energy losses HL in a straight open channel. The energy gradient
HL /Xc in a smooth channel with turbulent flow depends upon the mean flow
velocity V , the flow depth h, the gravitational acceleration g, the mass density ρ,
and the dynamic viscosity μ. Determine the general form of the energy gradient
equation from dimensional
 analysis. 
HL ρVh V
Answer: = F Reynolds number Re = ; Froude number Fr = 
Xc μ gh

Problem 2.6
Consider a near-bed turbulent velocity profile. The time-average velocity u at a
distance z from the bed depends on the bed-material size ds , the flow depth h,
the dynamic viscosity of the fluid μ, the mass density ρ, and the boundary shear
stress τo . Use the method of dimensional analysis to obtain a complete set of
dimensionless parameters.
2.4 Dimensional analysis 27

Hint: Select h, ρ, and τo as repeating variables. Also notice that the problem

reduces to a kinematic problem after defining the shear velocity u∗ = τo /ρ
and ν = μ/ρ.
  
ρ ρds τo z ds
Answer: F u , , , =0
τo μ ρ h h

Problem 2.7
A mass of 200 kg of sand is added to a cubic meter of water at 10◦ C in a container
that is 0.5m × 0.5m at the base.
(a) If the sand is maintained in suspension through constant mixing, determine the fol-
lowing properties of the mixture in SI units: total volume, concentration by volume,
concentration in mg/l, mass density, and specific weight of the mixture.
(b) Stop mixing and wait until all the sediment has settled at a dry specific weight of 93
pounds per cubic foot. Determine the following properties of the sediment deposit in
SI units: height of the deposit, dry specific mass, void ratio, porosity, and volumetric
concentration.
3
Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

This chapter summarizes some fundamental principles in fluid mechanics applied


to sediment-laden flows. The major topics reviewed include: kinematics of flow
(Section 3.1); continuity (Section 3.2); equations of motion (Section 3.3); Euler and
Bernoulli equations (Sections 3.4 and 3.5); momentum equations (Section 3.6); and
the power equation expressing the rate of work done (Section 3.7). Ten examples
illustrate these theoretical concepts with applications.

3.1 Kinematics of flow


The kinematics of flow describes the motion in terms of velocity and type of defor-
mation of fluid elements. The three most common orthogonal coordinate systems
are: (1) Cartesian (x, y, z); (2) cylindrical (r, θ, z); and (3) spherical (r, θ, ϕ), as
shown in Figure 3.1.
The rate of change in the position of the center point of a fluid element is a measure
of its velocity. Velocity is defined as the ratio between the displacement ds and the
corresponding increment of time dt. Velocity is a vector quantity which varies both
in space (x, y, z) and time (t). Its scalar magnitude v at a given time equals
 the square
root of the sum of the squares of its orthogonal components v = vx2 + vy2 + vz2 .
The differential velocity components over an infinitesimal distance ds (dx,dy,dz)
and time increment dt are:
∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx
d vx = dt + dx + dy + dz (3.1a)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z
∂ vy ∂ vy ∂ vy ∂ vy
d vy = dt + dx + dy + dz (3.1b)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z
∂ vz ∂ vz ∂ vz ∂ vz
d vz = dt + dx + dy + dz (3.1c)
∂t  ∂x ∂y

∂z

local conv ectiv e

28
3.1 Kinematics of flow 29

The flow is steady when the local terms are zero. Uniform flow is obtained when
the convective terms are zero.
Now consider translation, linear deformation, angular deformation, and rotation
of a fluid element as represented in Figure 3.2. The rate of linear deformation is
indicated by the quantities x , y , and z defined from the velocity components

n Vector normal
z z
to the surface

Surface dA
(x, y, z)
or (r, u , z)
(x, y, z)
z or (r, u, w)
u r
z

r y y
u x w x
y y
x x
(a) (b)

Figure 3.1. a) Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates b) Spherical coordinates

∂vx dx
vx dt dt
∂x 2
∂vy dy
dt
vy ∂y 2

vy dt dy
vx
dx

Translation Linear deformation


∂vx dy ∂vx dy
dt dt
∂y 2 ∂y 2

∂vy dx ∂v y dx
dt dt
∂x 2 ∂x 2

Angular deformation Rotation

Figure 3.2. Translation, linear deformation, angular deformation, and rotation of


a fluid element
30 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

(vx , vy , vz ) as:
∂ vx ∂ vy ∂ vz
x = ; y = ; z = (3.2)
∂x ∂y ∂z
The velocity gradients in transverse directions (e.g. ∂ vx /∂y) represent the rate of
angular deformation of the element. The rates of angular deformation
in the
respective planes are
∂ vz ∂ vy ∂ vx ∂ vz ∂ vy ∂ vx

x = + ;
y = + ;
z = + (3.3)
∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y
The rates of rotation ⊗ in their respective planes are defined as
  
∂ vz ∂ vy ∂ vx ∂ vz ∂ vy ∂ vx
⊗x = − ; ⊗y = − ; ⊗z = − (3.4)
∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y
"
The components ⊗x , ⊗y and ⊗z of the vorticity vector ⊗ correspond to clockwise
rotation rates about the Cartesian axes. The differential velocity components can
be written as a function of local, linear, angular, and rotational acceleration terms
∂ vx
z
y 1 
d vx = dt + x dx + dy + dz + ⊗y dz − ⊗z dy (3.5a)
∂t 2 2 2
∂ vy
z
x 1
d vy = dt + y dy + dx + dz + (⊗z dx − ⊗x dz) (3.5b)
∂t 2 2 2
∂ vz
y
x 1 
d vz = dt + z dz + dx + dy + ⊗x dy − ⊗y dx (3.5c)
  
∂t  linear 2  2 2  
local angular rotational

Accelerations are obtained from the time derivatives of velocity in Equations (3.1)
and (3.5).

3.2 Equation of continuity


The equation of continuity is based on the law of conservation of mass, stating
that mass cannot be created or destroyed. The continuity equation can be written
in either differential or integral form.

3.2.1 Differential continuity equation


In differential form, consider an infinitesimal control volume d ∀ = dx dy dz on
Figure 3.3 filled with fluid of mass density ρm . The difference between the mass
fluxes leaving and entering the differential control volume equal the rate of increase
3.2 Equation of continuity 31
r
rm nz + ∂ m vz dz
∂z
r m vx

∂rm vy dz
r m vy rm vy + dy
∂y

∂r m vx
r m vx + dx
∂x dx
z

dy

rm vz
y
x

Figure 3.3. Infinitesimal element of fluid

of internal mass. For instance in the x direction, the mass flux (M /T ) entering
the control volume is ρm vx dy dz. The mass flux leaving the control volume is
∂ρm vx
∂x dx dy dz in excess of the entering mass flux. This process is repeated in the y
and z directions, and the rate of increase of internal mass is ∂ρm∂td ∀ . The assumption
of a continuous fluid medium yields the following differential relationships:
Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z)
∂ρm ∂ ∂ ∂
+ (ρm vx ) + (ρm vy ) + (ρm vz ) = 0 (3.6a)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z
Cylindrical coordinates (r, θ , z)
∂ρm 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂
+ (ρm r v r ) + (ρm vθ ) + (ρm vz ) = 0 (3.6b)
∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z
Spherical coordinates (r, θ , ϕ)
∂ρm 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂
+ 2 (ρm r 2 vr ) + (ρm vθ sin θ) + (ρm vϕ ) = 0 (3.6c)
∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ
For incompressible fluids, the continuity equation reduces to
∂ vx ∂ vy ∂ vz
+ + =0 (3.6d)
∂x ∂y ∂z
The conservation of solid mass is defined in Example 3.1. The continuity
equations for solids are identical with Equations (3.6a–c) after replacing ρ m with Cv .
For homogeneous incompressible suspensions without settling, the mass density is
32 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

independent of space and time (ρs , ρ, ρm = constant), consequently, ∂ρm /∂t = 0


and the continuity equation reduces to Equation (3.6d).
It is also interesting, though far less important, to consider that the properties of
"
the vorticity vector ⊗ and the velocity vector v for homogeneous incompressible
fluids are strikingly similar:
∂ vx ∂ vy ∂ vz
v=
div + + = 0; (3.7a)
∂x ∂y ∂z
" ∂⊗x ∂⊗y ∂⊗z
div⊗ = + + =0 (3.7b)
∂x ∂y ∂z
Likewise, streamlines and vortex lines are respectively defined as
dx dy dz
= = (3.8a)
vx vy vz
dx dy dz
= = (3.8b)
⊗x ⊗y ⊗z

A line tangent to the velocity vector at every point at a given instant is known as a
streamline. The path line of a fluid element is the locus of the element through time.
A streak line is defined as the line connecting all fluid elements that have passed
successively at a given point in space.

Example 3.1 Differential sediment continuity equation


Derive the governing sediment continuity equation given the volumetric sedi-
ment concentration Cv . The net mass of sediment inside the control volume is
dm = ρs Cv dx dy dz. Let’s also consider a possible internal source of sediment
within the control volume at a rate ṁ = M/T added to the sediment suspension
in a cubic element dx dy dz. This internal mass change can be due to a chemical
reaction, flocculation of dissolved solids, or a phase change. This analysis can
also apply to chemicals and contaminants, such that a conservative substance is
one where ṁ = 0. The total mass change per unit time inside the control volume

ṁ = (d/dt)(ρs Cv ) dx dy dz (E-3.1.1)

Let’s consider only advective fluxes as shown in Figure E-3.1.1. The mass flux
entering the control volume by advection in the x direction is ρs Cv vx dy dz
and the mass flux leaving the control volume in the x direction is (ρs Cv vx +

∂x (ρs Cv vx ) dx) dy dz. With similar considerations in the y and z directions,
similar to the x-direction fluxes shown in Figure E-3.1.1, the rate of mass change
3.2 Equation of continuity 33

(Similar fluxes in y and z) z ρ s Cv v x dy dz

dz

ρ s Cv vx dy dz
+ y
∂ ( ρ s Cv vx ) dx dy dz dx
x
x dy

Figure E-3.1.1 Differential control volume for sediment continuity

inside the control volume equals the net mass flux entering from all three
directions, thus

ṁ = (ρs Cv ) dx dy dz
∂t
 

− ρs Cv vx dy dz + ρs Cv vx + (ρs Cv vx ) dx dy dz
∂x
 

− ρs Cv vy dx dz + ρs Cv vy + (ρs Cv vy ) dy dx dz
∂y
 

− ρs Cv vz dx dy + ρs Cv vz + (ρs Cv vz ) dz dx dy (E-3.1.2)
∂z
∂ ∂ ∂   ∂ ṁ
(ρs Cv ) + (ρs Cv vx ) + ρs Cv vy + (ρs Cv vz ) =
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz
(E-3.1.3)
which for a constant mass density of sediment ρs reduces to
∂Cv ∂(Cv vx ) ∂(Cv vy ) ∂(Cv vz )
+ + + = Ċv (E-3.1.4)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z
˙
where Ċv = ∀∀st = ρṁ
s ∀t
is the volumetric source of sediment per unit time.
It is important to remember that this derivation only considers advective
fluxes. In the case of sediment transport, diffusion and mixing can induce sed-
iment fluxes even when all velocities are zero. Therefore, this term Ċv can
include the following processes: (1) diffusion, mixing, and dispersion (to be
discussed later in Section 10.2); (2) phase change of the substance (e.g. change
from dissolved solids to particle solids, like flocculation); (3) chemical reac-
tions causing phase changes in the case of metal or contaminant transport; and
(4) decay functions of substances or ṁ = 0 (e.g. radioactive material).
34 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

3.2.2 Integral continuity equation


The integral form of the continuity equation is simply the integral of the differential
form (Eq. 3.6a) over a control volume ∀. For an incompressible fluid, the integral
form of conservation of mass is
  
∂ρm ∂ρm vx ∂ρm vy ∂ρm vz
d∀ + + + d∀ = 0 (3.9)
∀ ∂t ∀ ∂x ∂y ∂z
This volume integral of velocity gradients can be transformed into surface inte-
grals owing to the divergence theorem applied to an argument F of a partial space
derivative
 
∂F ∂x
d ∀ = F dA (3.10)
∀ ∂x A ∂n

in which ∂x/∂n is the cosine of the angle between the coordinate x and the normal
vector pointing outside of the control volume as shown in Figure 3.1. Example 3.2
illustrates how the integral continuity equation can be directly applied to open
channels. Example 3.3 shows an application of conservation of sediment mass in
open channels.

Example 3.2 Integral continuity equation


Consider the impervious rectangular channel of length X sketched in
Figure E-3.2.1. The differential continuity equation of (Eq. 3.6a) is multiplied
by d ∀ integrated over the control volume ∀ = WhX
  
∂ρm ∂ρm vx ∂ρm vy ∂ρm vz
d∀ + + + d∀ = 0 (E-3.2.1)
∀ ∂t ∀ ∂x ∂y ∂z
Considering that the free surface can rise at a rate dh/dt, the first integral for
incompressible fluids (ρm ∼
= ρ) corresponds to the mass change inside the control
volume ρm ∂(W Xh)/∂t. The divergence theorem (Equation 3.10) is applied to
the second integral, which reduces to
 
∂(W Xh) ∂x ∂y ∂z
ρm + ρm vx + ρm vy + ρm vz dA = 0.
∂t A ∂n ∂n ∂n
The values of ∂x/∂n, ∂y/∂n, and ∂z/∂n, are the cosines of the angle between
the vector normal to the surface n pointing outside of the control volume and
the Cartesian coordinates x, y, and z, respectively. For instance, Figure E-3.2.1
illustrates the direction cosines on the downstream face.
3.2 Equation of continuity 35

vy 1 V1
p1
ΔX 2
2
h n
p2
h
W θ So
W
1 z
V2 V2

∂z x y Direction cosines on
=1
∂n the downstream face
∂y ∂x
= ⫺1 ∂x
= ⫺1 ∂n = cos 0° = 1
∂n ∂n
∂y ∂z
= = cos 90° = 0
∂n ∂n
∂x ∂y
=1 =1
∂n ∂n
∂z
= ⫺1
∂n

Figure E-3.2.1 Rectangular open-channel flow

Thus for a channel of length X and flow depth h, the net flux Q leaving the
control volume in the x direction is A2 V2 − A1 V1 . The net flux entering laterally
in the y direction is Xq , where the unit lateral discharge q = hvy and the
change in control volume of fluid is (WtXh) . The equation of conservation of
mass can be expressed as
 (W Xh)
A2 V2 − A1 V1 − Xq + =0 (E-3.2.2)
t
After dividing by X given Q = AV and the cross-sectional area Ax = Wh, this
equation reduces to
Q Ax
+ = q (E-3.2.3a)
X t
At a constant channel width without lateral inflow (q = 0)
h −1Q
= (E-3.2.3b)
t W x
For steady flow without lateral inflow, Q = 0 and

Q = A 1 V1 = A 2 V2 (E-3.2.4)

This integral continuity equation is only applicable to steady impervious open


channels.
36 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

Example 3.3 Continuity of sediment


In a rectangular channel reach of width W and length X, consider sediment
transport by advection only (no molecular diffusion and no turbulent mixing) of
sediment particles (without phase change or flocculation). Couple the volumetric
settling flux Qs = volume of sediment per unit time, with the change in bed
elevation over time. Note that qsx is a volumetric sediment discharge per unit
width with dimension L2 /T and qs is the net unit sediment discharge from
lateral sources.

−qsx XW  (Cv W Xh)


(a) + qs X − Qsettling = (E-3.3.1)
X t
zb
(b) Qsettling = W X (1 − po ) (E-3.3.2)
t

Combining these two equations gives a formulation describing two-dimensional


continuity of sediment where changes in unit sediment discharges by advec-
tion fluxes correspond to changes in bed elevation or change in sediment in
suspension in the water column.

 (zb W X )  (Cv ∀t )
qsx W − qs X + (1 − po ) + =0 (E-3.3.3)
     t   t
 
ad v ection fluxes
change in bed elev ation internal mass
change in
suspension

∀s Settling volume
Q settling = =
T Time
∂qS
q SX + ΔX
h ∂x
Cv ∀s
C v bed = = 1⫺po
∀T
qSX
q Se
W
z zb
ΔX
y W
Q settling = ω C v W ΔX x ΔX

Qs base = 0
(a) (b)

Figure E-3.3.1 Continuity of sediment


3.3 Equations of motion 37

After dividing by X, this gives an equivalent formulation as a function of the


total volumetric sediment discharges Qsx = qsx W and Ax = ∀t /X = Wh as the
reach-average cross-sectional area.
 
Qsx Wzb  Cv Ax
+ (1 − po ) + = qs (E-3.3.4)
X t t

In the case of steady non-uniform one-dimensional flow in the x direction,


one can consider that qs = 0 and dCv /dt = 0. The corresponding relationship
reduces to

zb −1 qsx
= (E-3.3.5)
t (1 − po ) X

This formulation is often referred to as the Exner equation. Notice that it assumes
that all the sediment in the water column will deposit within the distance X
and qsx is a volumetric unit sediment discharge. It also assumes that there is
no lateral influx of sediment. This relationship clearly states that an increase in
sediment flux in the downstream direction results in lowering the bed elevation,
also called riverbed degradation. Conversely, a downstream decrease in sediment
flux results in riverbed aggradation and bed deposition of sediment.

3.3 Equations of motion


The Cartesian acceleration components are obtained directly after dividing the
terms of the velocity equations in Equation (3.1) by dt.

d vx ∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx
ax = = + vx + vy + vz (3.11a)
dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z
d vy ∂ vy ∂ vy ∂ vy ∂ vy
ay = = + vx + vy + vz (3.11b)
dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z
d vz ∂ vz ∂ vz ∂ vz ∂ vz
az = = + vx + vy + vz (3.11c)
dt ∂t
 ∂x ∂y ∂z
  
local conv ectiv e

The convective terms of the acceleration Equation (3.11a) can also be separated into
rotational and irrotational terms by adding and subtracting the terms vy ∂ vy /∂x and
vz ∂ vz /∂x, and by substituting ⊗y and ⊗z from Equation (3.4). Similar substitutions
38 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

can also be done in the y and z directions to give

∂ vx ∂(v 2 /2)
ax = + vz ⊗y −vy ⊗z + (3.11d)
∂t ∂x
∂ vy ∂(v 2 /2)
ay = + vx ⊗z −vz ⊗x + (3.11e)
∂t ∂y
∂ vz ∂(v 2 /2)
az = + vy ⊗x −vx ⊗y + (3.11f)
∂t
     ∂z 
conv ectiv e
local rotational conv ectiv e
irrotational

Equations (3.11d and f) show that the total acceleration can be separated into local
and convective acceleration terms, while the convective acceleration terms can be
subdivided into rotational and irrotational components.
As sketched in Figure 3.4, the forces acting on a Cartesian element of fluid
and sediment ( dx, dy, dz) are classified as either internal forces or external forces.
The internal accelerations, or body forces per unit mass, acting at the center of
mass of the element are denoted gx , gy , and gz . The external forces per unit
area applied on each face of the element are subdivided into normal and tan-
gential stress components. The normal stresses σx , σy , and σz are positive for
tension. Six shear stresses τxy , τyx , τxz , τzx , τyz , τzy , with two orthogonal components
on each face are applied, as shown in Figure 3.4. The first subscript indicates

∂s z dz
sz +
∂z ∂ zy dz
∂ zx  zy +
 zx + dz ∂z
∂z
∂ xz
xz + dx
∂x
sx ∂  yz dy
 yz +
 yx gz ∂y
sy  xy
∂s x xz ∂s y dy
sx + dx gx sy +
∂x ∂y
dz gy ∂  yx
 yx + dy
∂ xy  yz ∂y
xy + dx
∂x
z  zx dx
 zy
sz
dy

y
x

Figure 3.4. Surface stresses on a fluid element


3.3 Equations of motion 39

the direction normal to the face and the second subscript designates the direc-
tion of the applied stress component. The following identities: τxy = τyx ; τxz =
τzx ; τyz = τzy result from the sum of moments of shear stresses around the cen-
troid. If they were not equal, these stresses would spin an elementary fluid volume
infinitely fast.
The element of fluid in Figure 3.4 is considered in equilibrium when the sum
of the forces per unit mass in each direction x, y, and z equals the corresponding
Cartesian acceleration component ax , ay , and az :

1 ∂σx 1 ∂τyx 1 ∂τzx


ax = gx + + + (3.12a)
ρm ∂x ρm ∂y ρm ∂z
1 ∂σy 1 ∂τxy 1 ∂τzy
ay = gy + + + (3.12b)
ρm ∂y ρm ∂x ρm ∂z
1 ∂σz 1 ∂τxz 1 ∂τyz
az = g z + + + (3.12c)
ρm ∂z ρm ∂x ρm ∂y
These equations of motion are general without any restriction as to compressibility,
viscous shear, turbulence, or other effects.
The normal stresses can be rewritten as a function of the pressure p and additional
normal stresses τxx , τyy , and τzz accompanying deformation:

σx = −p + τxx (3.13a)
σy = −p + τyy (3.13b)
σz = −p + τzz (3.13c)

where all shear stress components will be defined in Chapter 5.


After expanding the acceleration components ax , ay , and az from Equation (3.11),
the equations of motion in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates can be
written as Equations (3.14)–(3.16) in Table 3.1.
After substituting the equations of motion from Equation (3.11d–f) and the nor-
mal stresses from Equation (3.13) into Equation (3.12), the following equations
can be obtained
  
∂ vx 1 ∂p ∂ v 2 /2 1 ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx
+ − gx + = + + + vy ⊗z −vz ⊗y
∂t ρm ∂x ∂x ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z
(3.17a)
 2  
∂ vy 1 ∂p ∂ v /2 1 ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy
+ − gy + = + + + vz ⊗x −vx ⊗z
∂t ρm ∂y ∂y ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z
(3.17b)
40 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

Table 3.1. Equations of motion

Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z)


x - component

∂vx ∂vx ∂vx ∂vx 1 ∂p 1 ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx
ax = + vx + vy + vz = gx − + + + (3.14a)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρm ∂x ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

y - component

∂vy ∂vy ∂vy ∂vy 1 ∂p 1 ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy
ay = + vx + vy + vz = gy − + + + (3.14b)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρm ∂y ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

z - component

∂vz ∂vz ∂vz ∂vz 1 ∂p 1 ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz
az = + vx + vy + vz = gz − + + + (3.14c)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρm ∂z ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

Cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z)


r - component
∂vr ∂vr vθ ∂vr vθ2 ∂vr
+ vr + − + vz = (3.15a)
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z 
1 ∂p 1 1 ∂ 1 ∂τθr τθθ ∂τzr
gr − + (rτrr ) + − +
ρm ∂r ρm r ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z

θ - component
∂vθ ∂vθ vθ ∂vθ vr vθ ∂vθ
+ vr + + + vz = (3.15b)
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z 
1 ∂p 1 1 ∂ 2 1 ∂τθθ ∂τzθ
gθ − + (r τ rθ ) + +
ρm r ∂θ ρm r 2 ∂r r ∂θ ∂z

z - component

∂vz ∂vz vθ ∂vz ∂vz 1 ∂p 1 1 ∂(rτrz ) 1 ∂τθ z ∂τzz
+ vr + + vz = gz − + + +
∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ρm ∂z ρm r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z
(3.15c)
Spherical coordinates (r, θ, ϕ)
r – component
∂vr ∂vr vθ ∂vr vϕ ∂vr vθ2 + vϕ2 1 ∂p
+ vr + + − = gr −
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r ρm ∂r

1 1 ∂ 2 1 ∂ 1 ∂τrϕ τθθ + τϕϕ
+ (r τrr ) + (τrθ sin θ) + − (3.16a)
ρm r 2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r
3.4 Euler equations 41

Table 3.1. (Cont.)

θ - component

∂vθ ∂vθ vθ ∂vθ vϕ ∂vθ vr vθ vϕ2 cot θ 1 ∂p


+ vr + + + − = gθ −
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r r ρm r ∂θ

1 1 ∂ 2 1 ∂ 1 ∂τθϕ τrθ τϕϕ cot θ
+ (r τrθ ) + (τθθ sin θ ) + + −
ρm r 2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r r
(3.16b)
ϕ - component
∂vϕ ∂vϕ vθ ∂vϕ vϕ ∂vϕ vϕ vr vθ vϕ 1 ∂p
+ vr + + + + cot θ = gϕ −
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r r ρm r sin θ ∂ϕ

1 1 ∂ 2 1 ∂τθϕ 1 ∂τϕϕ τrϕ 2τθϕ cot θ
+ (r τ rϕ ) + + + + (3.16c)
ρm r 2 ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r r

  
∂ vz 1 ∂p ∂ v 2 /2 1 ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz
+ − gz + = + +
∂t
 ρ ∂z ∂z ρ ∂x ∂y ∂z
m   m  
Euler Bernoulli sum v iscosity
(Chapter 3) (Chapters 3&4) (Chapter 5)

+ vx ⊗y −vy ⊗x (3.17c)
  
v orticity/turbulence
(Chapter 6)

The presentation of the upcoming chapters has been designed to explain the main
terms of the equations of motion. Chapter 3 will focus on the terms on the left-hand
side of Equation (3.17). The concepts of buoyancy force, momentum, and energy in
Chapter 3 will be primarily based on the analysis of the terms on the left-hand side
of Equation (3.17). The concept of lift force in Chapter 4 will involve applications
of the Bernoulli sum. The concept of drag force in Chapter 5 will involve the
shear stress terms on the right-hand side of Equation (3.17). Finally, the concept
of vorticity will be expanded into turbulence in Chapter 6 involving the rotational
terms on the right-hand side of Equation (3.17).

3.4 Euler equations


The Euler equations are simplified forms of the equations of motion (Eqs. 3.14–
3.16) for frictionless fluids. Without friction, the shear stress components due to
deformation are zero (all stress components in τ = 0) and the normal stresses are
42 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

equal and opposite to the pressure (σx = σy = σz = −p). Substitution into the
equations of motion yields, for Cartesian coordinates,
1 ∂p
ax = gx − (3.18a)
ρm ∂x
1 ∂p
ay = g y − (3.18b)
ρm ∂y
1 ∂p
az = gz − (3.18c)
ρm ∂z
These equations, valid for inviscid fluids, are known as Euler equations, or
−∂p
= ρm (ax − gx ) (3.19a)
∂x
−∂p  
= ρ m ay − g y (3.19b)
∂y
−∂p
= ρm (az − gz ) (3.19c)
∂z
An example of application of the Euler equations is the buoyancy force result-
ing from the integration of the pressure distribution around a submerged sphere
for inviscid fluids without convective acceleration. The buoyancy force has three
components, FBx , FBy , FBz that can be determined as follows from the divergence
theorem Equation (3.10).
  
∂x ∂p
FBx = −p dA = − d ∀ = ρm (ax − gx ) d ∀ (3.20a)
A ∂n ∀ ∂x ∀
  
∂y ∂p  
FBy = −p dA = − d ∀ = ρm ay − gy d ∀ (3.20b)
A ∂n ∀ ∂y ∀
  
∂z ∂p
FBz = −p dA = − d ∀ = ρm (az − gz ) d ∀ (3.20c)
A ∂n ∀ ∂z ∀

Example 3.4 shows an application of the Euler equations for hydrostatic


conditions and Example 3.5 is applied to an accelerated control volume.

Example 3.4. Buoyancy force on a sphere


Consider the hydrostatic pressure distribution around a sphere of radius R sub-
merged in a fluid of mass density ρm (Figure E-3.4.1). The pressure at the center
of the sphere is po and the vertical elevation ẑ at the surface of the sphere is R cos θ.
The hydrostatic pressure thus varies as p = po − ρm gR cos θ . After considering
3.4 Euler equations 43

z
Direction cosine
dz
cos θ =
x = R sin θ cos ϕ z
dn
∂x
= sin θ cos ϕ
∂n θ θ P n
P
ϕ
R dθ
R cos θ R
x d
R Po

θ
ϕ
θd
in
Rs
ρm
g x = g y = 0, g z = –g
g
Hydrostatic a x = a y = a z = 0

Figure E-3.4.1 Buoyancy force on a sphere

z = ẑ as the vertical direction and ∂z/∂n = cos θ, it is clear that gx = gy = 0


with gz = −g and hydrostatic conditions are described by ax = ay = az = 0. The
buoyancy force FB is calculated from the surface integral of the pressure along
the surface of the sphere.

 
∂z
FB = FBz = −p dA = − p cos θ dA (E-3.4.1)
A ∂n A

The elementary surface area is dA = (R sin θ d ϕ) (R d θ) and the integration is


performed for 0 < ϕ < 2π and 0 < θ < π

π 2π
FB = − p cos θ (R sin θ d ϕ) (R d θ)
o o
π 2π
2
FB = 0 + ρm gR 3
cos θ sin θ d θ
2
d ϕ = 2πγm R3 ×
3
o o

We learn that the integral of a constant on a closed surface is zero. The hydrostatic
pressure distribution therefore gives the following buoyancy force.


FB = γm R3 = γm ∀sphere (E-3.4.2)
3
44 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

It is interesting that the buoyancy force in Equation (E-3.4.1) can also be


easily obtained from the divergence theorem as
  
∂z ∂p
FB = −p dA = − d ∀ = ρm (az − gz ) d ∀ = ρm g∀ (E-3.4.3)
A ∂n ∀ ∂z ∀

It is important to notice that the buoyancy force is different from Archimedes’


principle when az = 0.

Example 3.5. Buoyancy force for accelerated fluids


Consider a neutrally buoyant sphere of radius R placed in a water container
accelerated in the horizontal direction at ax = g/2. Determine the buoyancy
force on the sphere sketched in Figure E-3.5.1.
The convective acceleration terms for a neutrally buoyant sphere vanish
because the fluid does not accelerate relative to the sphere. Acceleration com-
ponents are ax = ∂ vx /∂t = g/2, ay = az = 0. The gravitational acceleration
components are gx = gy = 0, and gz = −g. The buoyancy force component
FBy = 0, the others are
 
−∂p ρg
FBx = d ∀ = ρ (ax − gx ) d ∀ = ∀, and
∀ ∂x ∀ 2
 
FBz = ρ (az − gz ) d ∀ = ρ (0 + g) d ∀ = γ ∀sphere
∀ ∀

The
√ net buoyancy force from these two orthogonal components is FB =

2 γ ∀sphere acting at an angle of 26.56 from the vertical. The buoyancy force
5

only equals the Archimedes’ force in hydrostatic fluids.

γ∀
FBx =
2
∀ sphere
a x = g/2
FB = 5 γ ∀ FBz = γ ∀
2
z 26.6°

Figure E-3.5.1 Accelerated control volume


3.5 Bernoulli equation 45

3.5 Bernoulli equation


The Bernoulli equation represents a particular form of the equations of motion for
steady irrotational flow of frictionless fluids. A gravitation potential g = gẑ can be
defined with the axis ẑ vertical upward such that the body acceleration components
due to gravity are:
−∂g −∂g −∂g
gx = ; gy = ; and gz =
∂x ∂y ∂z
Since g is a constant, the directional acceleration components are g times the
cosine between ẑ and the component direction. After considering the equations of
motion (Eqs. 3.11 and 3.14), and the gravitation potential, the equations of motion
for incompressible sediment-laden fluids of mass density ρ m can be rewritten as
follows, with the Bernoulli terms on the left-hand side:
 
∂ p v2 ∂ vx 1 ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx
+ g + = (vy ⊗z −vz ⊗y ) − + + +
∂x ρm 2 ∂t ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z
(3.21a)
 
∂ p v2 ∂ vy 1 ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy
+ g + = (vz ⊗x −vx ⊗z ) − + + +
∂y ρm 2 ∂t ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z
(3.21b)
 
∂ p v2 ∂ vz 1 ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz
+ g + = (vx ⊗y −vy ⊗x ) − + + +
∂z ρm 2 ∂t ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z
(3.21c)
For steady irrotational flow of frictionless fluids, the right-hand side of Equations
(3.21a–c) vanishes and the Bernoulli sum H for homogeneous incompressible fluids
is constant throughout the fluid

p v2
H= + ẑ + = ct (3.22a)
γm 2g
∂H
g =0 (3.22b)
∂x
It is interesting to note that Equation (3.22a) describes a hydrodynamic formulation
of pressure compared to the hydrostatic formulation obtained when v = 0.
In the particular case of flow in a horizontal plane (constant ẑ) of a homogeneous
fluid (constant ρm ), the pressure at any point p where the velocity is v can be
calculated from the pressure pr at any reference point given the reference velocity vr :
ρm 2
p= vr − v 2 + pr (3.22c)
2
46 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

Accordingly, pressure is low when velocity is high and pressure is high at low
velocity.
When the flow is steady, frictionless, but rotational, the right-hand side of
Equation (3.21) equals zero only along a streamline (because of Eq. 3.8); hence for
a homogeneous rotational incompressible fluid,

p v2
H= + ẑ + = ct; along a streamline (3.22d)
γm 2g
For steady flow at a mean velocity V in a wide-rectangular channel at a bed slope θ,
the first and third terms of the Bernoulli sum describe the specific energy function
E defined as:
p V2 V2
E= + = h cos2 θ + (3.23a)
γm 2g 2g

Considering the unit discharge q = Vh and the Froude number Fr defined as Fr2 =
V 2 /gh = q2 /gh3 , the function E when θ is small is approximated by:
 
q2 Fr 2
E = h+ = h 1+ (3.23b)
2gh3 2

The properties of the function E are such that under constant unit discharge
 ∂Eq, the
critical depth hc and the critical velocity Vc correspond to the minimum ∂h = 0
V2 2
of Equation (3.23b). The minimum value Emin is found when Fr 2c = ghc = q 3 = 1.
 2 c ghc
3 q
One can easily demonstrate that q = ghc or hc = g , and Emin = 1.5hc , resulting
2 3

in the following identities for the Froude number


3/2
V q hc
Fr =  =  = (3.24)
gh h gh h

An open-channel flow application of the Bernoulli equation with specific energy is


presented in Example 3.6.

Example 3.6 Rapidly varied open channel flow


Consider steady flow in a wide-rectangular channel. Determine: (1) what is
the maximum possible elevation of a sill z at section A that will not cause
backwater?; and (2) what is the maximum lateral contraction of the channel at
section B that will not cause backwater? The accelerating flow is shown with
the specific energy diagram Figure E-3.6.1.
3.6 Momentum equations 47

h
Energy grade line
1 Sf h1

E1 h Emin hc
1 hc ΔE = Δz max
Δzmax
θ
A
h c Emin E1
(a) E

h
Q
h1 q2 =
W2
W1 W2 h2 = h c2 Q
q1 =
h c1 W1

1 A E min1 E1 = Emin2 E
(b)

Figure E-3.6.1 a) Flow near sill b) and abutment

(1) The maximum elevation of the sill zmax at section A is such that the flow will be
critical on top of the sill and zmax + Emin = E1 or zmax = E = E1 − (3/2)hc ;
(2) The minimum channel width W2 at section A without causing backwater is such that
the total discharge remains constant Q = W1 q1 = W2 q2 and the flow is critical in
the contracted section A2 , or hc2 = 0.67E1 = 0.67Emin2 ; and Fr 2c2 = 1 = q22 /gh3c2 , or

W2 = Q/ g(0.67E1 )3 .

3.6 Momentum equations


Momentum equations define the hydrodynamic forces exerted by sediment-laden
flows. After multiplying the equations of motion (Eqs. 3.14 to 3.16) by the mass
density of the mixture ρm , the volume integral of the terms on the left-hand side of
the equations represent the rate of momentum change per unit volume, while the
rate of impulse per unit volume is found on the right-hand side. Integration over
the control volume ∀ shows that the rate of momentum change equals the impulse
per unit time. For example, the x component in the Cartesian coordinates is:
   
∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx ∂p
ρm + vx + vy + vz d ∀ = ρm gx d ∀ − d∀
∀ ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∀ ∀ ∂x
 
∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx
+ + + d∀
∀ ∂x ∂y ∂z
(3.25)
48 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

The integrand on the left-hand side can be rewritten as follows:



∂ρm vx ∂ρm vx2 ∂ρm vx vy ∂ρm vx vz ∂ρm ∂ρm vx ∂ρm vy ∂ρm vz
+ + + − vx + + +
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z
(3.26)

By virtue of the continuity equation (Eq. 3.6a), the terms in parentheses in Equation
(3.26) can be dropped. The integral of the time derivative is equal to the total deriva-
tive of a volume integral. The volume integral of the remaining momentum and
stress terms can be transformed into surface integrals by means of the divergence
theorem (Eq. 3.10). The result is the general impulse–momentum relationship.

x - component
  
d ∂x ∂y ∂z
ρm vx d ∀ + ρm vx vx + vy + vz dA
dt ∀ A ∂n ∂n ∂n
   
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z
= ρm gx d ∀ − p dA + τxx + τyx + τzx dA (3.27a)
∀ A ∂n A ∂n ∂n ∂n

y - component
  
d ∂x ∂y ∂z
ρm vy d ∀ + ρm vy vx + vy + vz dA
dt ∀ A ∂n ∂n ∂n
   
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z
= ρm gy d ∀ − p dA + τxy + τyy + τzy dA (3.27b)
∀ A ∂n A ∂n ∂n ∂n

z - component
  
d ∂x ∂y ∂z
ρm vz d ∀ + ρm vz vx + vy + vz dA
dt ∀ A ∂n ∂n ∂n
   
∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z
= ρm gz d ∀ − p dA + τxz + τyz + τzz dA (3.27c)
∀ A ∂n A ∂n ∂n ∂n

It is observed that momentum is a vector quantity, the momentum change


due to convection is embodied in the surface integral on the left-hand side of
Equation (3.27), and all the stresses are expressed in terms of surface integrals.
Example 3.7 provides a detailed application of the momentum equations to open-
channel flows. To conclude this section, Example 3.8 introduces the concept of
added mass.
3.6 Momentum equations 49

Example 3.7 Momentum equations for open channels


With reference to the rectangular channel sketched on Figure E-3.7.1, the
momentum relationship (Eq. 3.27a) in the downstream x direction is applied
to an open channel, now subjected to rainfall at an angle θr and velocity Vr over
the free surface area Ar , wind shear τw , upstream bank shear τs , and bed shear
τb = τo = τzx :
  
d ∂x ∂y ∂z
ρm vx d ∀ + ρm vx vx + vy + vz dA
dt ∀ A ∂n ∂n ∂n
   
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z
= ρm gx d ∀ − p dA + τxx + τyx + τzx dA
∀ A ∂n A ∂n ∂n ∂n
Some integrals vanish for one-dimensional flow in impervious channels, vy =
vz = τxx = 0, except at the free surface where vz = −vr cos(θr + θ), leaving
 
dQ ∂x ∂z
ρm X + ρm vx2 dA + ρm vx vz dA
dt A ∂n A ∂n
   
∂x ∂z ∂y
+ p dA = ρm gx d ∀ + τzx dA + τyx dA
A ∂n ∀ A ∂n A ∂n
Consider an incompressible homogeneous fluid, constant ρ m , and define the
momentum correction factor β m , also called the Boussinesq coefficient, given
the cross-sectional averaged velocity Vx .

1
βm = v 2 dA (E-3.7.1)
AVx2 A x
For most practical applications, the value of βm is generally close to unity, the
reader can refer to Example 6.1 for a detailed calculation example. With average
values of pressure p, velocity V, and area A at the upstream cross-section 1 and

z 1 2
vr Energy grade line
θr 1
x y Sf
Area A1 EGL
1 1
Right bank p1 V1 Sw V2
ΔX 2g
2 τ yx Water surface HGL
τw p
Area A2 h γ
τ yx
p τb So
2
W θ S o Left bank 1 z
1 Datum
V2

Figure E-3.7.1 Momentum equations in open channels


50 Mechanics of sediment-laden flows

1 2
2 β m ρ m A 1 V1
ρ A r V r sin (θ +θ r ) cos (θ + θ r ) p1 A1

2
τ w WΔx τ s hΔ x
τ s hΔx z
γ ∀ sin θ
p2 A2
θ x y
2 τo WΔx
β m ρ m A 2 V2

Figure E-3.7.2 Force balance in open channels

downstream cross-section 2. The integration of the momentum equation for this


control volume ∀ of length X, width W and height h yields:

Q
ρm X + βm ρm A2 V22 + p2 A2 − βm ρm A1 V12 − p1 A1 − ρAr Vr2 sin(θ + θr )
t
cos(θ + θr ) = γm ∀ sin θ − τo W X − τs 2hX + τw W X (E-3.7.2a)

Notice here that on the right bank, τs = τyx but ∂y/∂n = −1, while on the left
bank, τs = −τyx but ∂y/∂n = +1. The net result is that both shear forces are
applied in the upstream (negative x) direction as shown in Figure E-3.7.2.
Assuming that the bed shear stress τ0 equals the bank shear stress τs , the
equation with negligible rainfall, Ar → 0, without wind shear, τw → 0, can be
rewritten when the channel inclination θ is small (sin θ ∼
= the bed slope So ) as

p2 A2 + βm ρm A2 V22 + τo (W + 2h)X

A1 + A 2
= p1 A1 + βm ρm A1 V1 + γm
2
XSo (E-3.7.2b)
2

Further reduction of this equation is possible for uniform flow (A = A1 = A2 ), in


which case, p1 A1 = p2 A2 , βm ρm V12 = βm ρm V22 and the friction slope Sf equals
both the water surface slope Sw and the bed slope So . The boundary shear stress
τo is thus related to the friction slope Sf in the following manner

A A
τo = γm Sf = γm Sf = γm Rh Sf (E-3.7.3)
(W + 2h) P

where the hydraulic radius Rh = A/P is the ratio of the cross-sectional area
A = Wh to the wetted perimeter P = W + 2h, as shown in Figure E-3.7.3.