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Diunggah oleh Lopez Alejandria Deyvis

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Anda di halaman 1dari 31

combine mass M , length L, and time T , the relation can be reduced to a function

of n − j dimensionless Π parameters in the form:

Π1 = F Π2 , Π3 , . . . , Πn−j (2.16)

The method of determining the Π parameters is to select j repeating variables

among the Z variables such that: (1) all j fundamental dimensions can be found in

the set of repeating variables; and (2) all repeating variables must have different

fundamental dimensions. For instance, one cannot select both the width and the

length as repeating variables because both parameters have the same fundamental

dimension L.

The steps in a dimensional analysis can be summarized as follows:

(1) Select the dependent variable Z1 as a function of the independent variables Z2 , . . . , Zn

in the functional relationship Z1 = F (Z2 , Z3 , . . . , Zn ).

(2) Write the variables in terms of fundamental dimensions and select the j repeating

variables. These variables must contain the j fundamental dimensions of the problem

and the dependent variable should not be selected as a repeating variable. Solve the

fundamental dimensions in terms of the j repeating variables.

(3) Obtain the Π parameters by dividing the non-repeating variables by their fundamental

dimensions written in terms of repeating variables.

(4) Write the functional relation F (Π1 , Π2 , . . . , Πn−j ) = 0 or Π1 = F (Π2 , . . . , Πn−j ), and

recombine if desired to alter the form of the dimensionless parameters Π, keeping the

same number of independent parameters.

The dimensional analysis method is illustrated in the following examples: (1) drag

force exerted on a sphere by relative ﬂuid motion in Example 2.1; and (2) soil

erosion by overland ﬂow in Example 2.2.

Consider the drag force FD exerted on a sphere in motion through a homogeneous

mixture (Figure E-2.1.1). The drag force is thought to vary with the relative

velocity u∞ , the spherical particle diameter ds , the mass density of the ﬂuid

mixture ρm , and the dynamic viscosity of the mixture μm . Use the method of

dimensional analysis to identify the dimensionless parameter.

Step 1. The dependent variable FD is a function of four independent variables,

with a total of n = 5 variables:

FD = F (u∞ , ds , ρm , μm )1 (E-2.1.1)

2.4 Dimensional analysis 21

FD

ds

rm

mm

u

fundamental dimensions (j = 3) are then rewritten in terms of repeating

variables:

⎫⎧

ds = L ⎬ ⎨ L = ds

u∞ = L/T T = ds /u∞

⎭⎩

ρm = M /L 3 M = ρm ds3

repeating variables divided by their fundamental dimensions, two Π terms

(n − j = 5 − 3 = 2) are obtained respectively from FD and μm :

FD T 2 FD ds2 FD

Π1 = = = (E-2.1.2)

ML ρm ds ds u∞ ρm u∞

3 2 2 d2

s

dimensionless parameter for dynamic viscosity is

μm LT μm ds ds μm 1

Π2 = = = =

M ρm ds u∞ ρm u∞ ds Rep

3

The parameter Π2 can be simply replaced by the Reynolds number of the particle

Rep .

Step 4. Π1 = F (Π2 ), or CD = F (Rep ), results in

πds2 ρm u∞

2

FD = F (Rep ) (E-2.1.3)

4 2

22 Physical properties and dimensional analysis

104

103

Drag coefficient, CD

6 r y2

2 4 6 8 10

10 10 10 10 10

10

Oseen

Goldstein

1

Stokes

Spheres

10–1 –3 –2 –1 2 3 4 5 6

10 10 10 1 10 10 10 10 10 10

u ds

Particle Reynolds number, Re p = ym

The advantage of the method of dimensional analysis in this case has been to

reduce the number of parameters from ﬁve in Equation (E-2.1.1) to two dimen-

sionless parameters, Π1 = CD and Π2 = Rep . Each of those two parameters is

dimensionless and a unique graph can be made with data from different systems

of units. The method, however, fails to provide any indication as to what kind

of relationship may exist between CD and Rep . For further analysis, the scientist

must carry out experiments and collect laboratory or ﬁeld measurements of CD

versus Rep . Measurements of drag coefﬁcients around spheres versus the par-

ticle Reynolds number Rep = u∞ ds /νm are shown in Figure E-2.1.2. Note that

a similar plot for natural sand particles is also shown in Figure 5.2. Chapter 5

shows that the ﬂow around a particle is laminar when Rep < 1 and turbulent at

large particle Reynolds numbers.

Consider the problem of sheet erosion induced by rainfall on a bare soil surface

(Fig. E-2.2.1). The method of dimensional analysis is ﬁrst used to reduce the

number of variables and deﬁne dimensionless parameters.

2.4 Dimensional analysis 23

h

Xr

r, y q

to

qt

So

1

function of the geometric, ﬂuid ﬂow and soil variables:

τc

qsm = F So , q, i, Xr , ρ, ν, (E-2.2.1)

τo

in which qsm is the rate of mass transport per unit width, q is the unit discharge,

i is the rainfall intensity, Xr is the length of runoff, ρ is the mass density of

the ﬂuid, v is the kinematic viscosity of the ﬂuid, τc and τo are respectively the

critical and applied boundary shear stresses and So is the bed surface slope. The

critical shear stress τc is the applied shear stress that is required to detach soil

particles and bring them into motion.

Besides the two dimensionless variables in Equation (E-2.2.1) (Π5 = τc /τo ,

Π2 = So ) the remaining variables (n = 6) are functions of three fundamental

dimensions (M, L, T , thus j = 3), and can be transformed into three (n − j = 3)

dimensionless parameters. Each variable is written in terms of the fundamental

dimensions M, L, and T as follows:

Xr = L; ν = L2 /T ; ρ = M /L3

variables Xr , ν, and ρ

⎫ ⎧

Xr = L ⎬ ⎨ M = ρXr3

ν = L /T

2 thus L = Xr

⎭ ⎩

ρ = M /L3 T = Xr2 /ν

24 Physical properties and dimensional analysis

Step 3. The three Π parameters are directly obtained from substituting the

fundamental dimensions into the relationships for qsm , q, and i, respectively

Π1 = LT = =

M ρXr3 ν ρν

qT qXr2 q

Π3 = = = = Re

L2 Xr2 ν ν

iT iX 2 iXr

Π4 = = r =

L Xr ν ν

Step 4. The ﬁve dimensionless parameters can thus be written

qsm q iXr τc

= F So , , , (E-2.2.2)

ρν ν ν τo

transport parameter function of the soil surface slope, the Reynolds number,

a dimensionless rainfall parameter, and the soil characteristics.

Further progress can only be achieved through physical understanding of the

erosion processes and through laboratory or ﬁeld experiments. For instance, the

rate of sediment transport in sheet ﬂow is assumed to be proportional to the

product of the powers of the Π parameters

q e3 iX e4

qsm r τc e5

= e1Soe2 1− (E-2.2.3)

ρν ν ν τo

in which e1, e2, e3, e4, and e5 are coefﬁcients to be determined from laboratory

or ﬁeld investigations.

The ﬁrst three factors (So , q, i) of Equation (E-2.2.3) represent the poten-

tial erosion or sediment transport capacity of overland ﬂow. It is interesting to

note that for one-dimensional overland ﬂow on impervious surfaces, q = iXr .

The sediment transport capacity is reduced by the last factor reﬂecting the soil

resistance to erosion. When τc remains small compared to τo and with q = i, Xr ,

Equation (E-2.2.3) can be rearranged in the following form:

showed that qsm (metric ton/ms) = 2.55 × 104 S 1.66 q2.035 . This relationship

will be used again in Chapter 11. At a given ﬁeld site (constant slope So ),

2.4 Dimensional analysis 25

This relationship deﬁnes the sediment-rating curve, and will also be used for

alluvial channels in Chapter 11. From ﬁeld observations in rivers, the value of

the exponent e3 typically varies between 1.3 and 2.

Exercises

2.1 Erosion losses from pasture areas are considered excessive when they exceed

5 tons/acre-year. Determine the equivalent annual losses in metric tons per hectare

per year and metric tons per square kilometer per year.

2.2 A sidecasting dredge operator tries to maintain the speciﬁc weight of the dredged

material in the pipeline at 1.5 times that of water. Determine the volumetric

concentration of sediment in this short pipeline.

2.3 Long pipelines tend to plug at volumetric sediment concentrations around 0.2.

Determine the corresponding speciﬁc weight of the mixture in lb/ft3 and kN/m3 .

Problems

Problem 2.1

Determine the mass density, speciﬁc weight, dynamic viscosity, and kinematic

viscosity of clear water at 20◦ C: (a) in SI; and (b) in the English system of units.

Answer:

ν = 1 × 10−6 m2 /s

ν = 1.1 × 10−5 ft 2 /s

Problem 2.2

Determine the sediment size, weight, mass density, speciﬁc weight, and sub-

merged speciﬁc weight of small quartz cobbles: (a) in SI units; and (b) in the

English system of units.

26 Physical properties and dimensional analysis

Problem 2.3

The volumetric sediment concentration of a sample is Cv = 0.05. Determine

the corresponding: (a) porosity po ; (b) void ratio e; (c) speciﬁc weight γm ; (d)

speciﬁc mass ρm ; (e) dry speciﬁc weight γmd ; and (f) dry speciﬁc mass ρmd .

Answer: po = 0.95, e = 19, γm = 10.6 kN/m3 , ρm = 1082 kg/m3

γmd = 1.29 kN/m3 , ρmd = 132 kg/m3 (see also Table 10.3 p. 240).

Problem 2.4

A 50g bed-sediment sample from Big Sand Creek, Mississippi, is analyzed for

particle size distribution.

ds < 0.15 0.9 0.9 1.8

0.15 < ds < 0.21 2.9 3.8 7.6

0.21 < ds < 0.30 16.0 19.8 39.6

0.30 < ds < 0.42 20.1 39.9 79.6

0.42 < ds < 0.60 8.9 48.8 97.6

0.60 < ds 1.2 50.0 100

(b) determine d16 , d35 , d50 , d65 , and d84 ; and

(c) calculate the gradation coefﬁcients σ g and Gr.

Problem 2.5

Consider energy losses HL in a straight open channel. The energy gradient

HL /Xc in a smooth channel with turbulent ﬂow depends upon the mean ﬂow

velocity V , the ﬂow depth h, the gravitational acceleration g, the mass density ρ,

and the dynamic viscosity μ. Determine the general form of the energy gradient

equation from dimensional

analysis.

HL ρVh V

Answer: = F Reynolds number Re = ; Froude number Fr =

Xc μ gh

Problem 2.6

Consider a near-bed turbulent velocity proﬁle. The time-average velocity u at a

distance z from the bed depends on the bed-material size ds , the ﬂow depth h,

the dynamic viscosity of the ﬂuid μ, the mass density ρ, and the boundary shear

stress τo . Use the method of dimensional analysis to obtain a complete set of

dimensionless parameters.

2.4 Dimensional analysis 27

Hint: Select h, ρ, and τo as repeating variables. Also notice that the problem

√

reduces to a kinematic problem after deﬁning the shear velocity u∗ = τo /ρ

and ν = μ/ρ.

ρ ρds τo z ds

Answer: F u , , , =0

τo μ ρ h h

Problem 2.7

A mass of 200 kg of sand is added to a cubic meter of water at 10◦ C in a container

that is 0.5m × 0.5m at the base.

(a) If the sand is maintained in suspension through constant mixing, determine the fol-

lowing properties of the mixture in SI units: total volume, concentration by volume,

concentration in mg/l, mass density, and speciﬁc weight of the mixture.

(b) Stop mixing and wait until all the sediment has settled at a dry speciﬁc weight of 93

pounds per cubic foot. Determine the following properties of the sediment deposit in

SI units: height of the deposit, dry speciﬁc mass, void ratio, porosity, and volumetric

concentration.

3

Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

to sediment-laden ﬂows. The major topics reviewed include: kinematics of ﬂow

(Section 3.1); continuity (Section 3.2); equations of motion (Section 3.3); Euler and

Bernoulli equations (Sections 3.4 and 3.5); momentum equations (Section 3.6); and

the power equation expressing the rate of work done (Section 3.7). Ten examples

illustrate these theoretical concepts with applications.

The kinematics of ﬂow describes the motion in terms of velocity and type of defor-

mation of ﬂuid elements. The three most common orthogonal coordinate systems

are: (1) Cartesian (x, y, z); (2) cylindrical (r, θ, z); and (3) spherical (r, θ, ϕ), as

shown in Figure 3.1.

The rate of change in the position of the center point of a ﬂuid element is a measure

of its velocity. Velocity is deﬁned as the ratio between the displacement ds and the

corresponding increment of time dt. Velocity is a vector quantity which varies both

in space (x, y, z) and time (t). Its scalar magnitude v at a given time equals

the square

root of the sum of the squares of its orthogonal components v = vx2 + vy2 + vz2 .

The differential velocity components over an inﬁnitesimal distance ds (dx,dy,dz)

and time increment dt are:

∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx

d vx = dt + dx + dy + dz (3.1a)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ vy ∂ vy ∂ vy ∂ vy

d vy = dt + dx + dy + dz (3.1b)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ vz ∂ vz ∂ vz ∂ vz

d vz = dt + dx + dy + dz (3.1c)

∂t ∂x ∂y

∂z

local conv ectiv e

28

3.1 Kinematics of ﬂow 29

The ﬂow is steady when the local terms are zero. Uniform ﬂow is obtained when

the convective terms are zero.

Now consider translation, linear deformation, angular deformation, and rotation

of a ﬂuid element as represented in Figure 3.2. The rate of linear deformation is

indicated by the quantities x , y , and z deﬁned from the velocity components

n Vector normal

z z

to the surface

Surface dA

(x, y, z)

or (r, u , z)

(x, y, z)

z or (r, u, w)

u r

z

r y y

u x w x

y y

x x

(a) (b)

∂vx dx

vx dt dt

∂x 2

∂vy dy

dt

vy ∂y 2

vy dt dy

vx

dx

∂vx dy ∂vx dy

dt dt

∂y 2 ∂y 2

∂vy dx ∂v y dx

dt dt

∂x 2 ∂x 2

a ﬂuid element

30 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

(vx , vy , vz ) as:

∂ vx ∂ vy ∂ vz

x = ; y = ; z = (3.2)

∂x ∂y ∂z

The velocity gradients in transverse directions (e.g. ∂ vx /∂y) represent the rate of

angular deformation of the element. The rates of angular deformation

in the

respective planes are

∂ vz ∂ vy ∂ vx ∂ vz ∂ vy ∂ vx

x = + ;

y = + ;

z = + (3.3)

∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y

The rates of rotation ⊗ in their respective planes are deﬁned as

∂ vz ∂ vy ∂ vx ∂ vz ∂ vy ∂ vx

⊗x = − ; ⊗y = − ; ⊗z = − (3.4)

∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y

"

The components ⊗x , ⊗y and ⊗z of the vorticity vector ⊗ correspond to clockwise

rotation rates about the Cartesian axes. The differential velocity components can

be written as a function of local, linear, angular, and rotational acceleration terms

∂ vx

z

y 1

d vx = dt + x dx + dy + dz + ⊗y dz − ⊗z dy (3.5a)

∂t 2 2 2

∂ vy

z

x 1

d vy = dt + y dy + dx + dz + (⊗z dx − ⊗x dz) (3.5b)

∂t 2 2 2

∂ vz

y

x 1

d vz = dt + z dz + dx + dy + ⊗x dy − ⊗y dx (3.5c)

∂t linear 2 2 2

local angular rotational

Accelerations are obtained from the time derivatives of velocity in Equations (3.1)

and (3.5).

The equation of continuity is based on the law of conservation of mass, stating

that mass cannot be created or destroyed. The continuity equation can be written

in either differential or integral form.

In differential form, consider an inﬁnitesimal control volume d ∀ = dx dy dz on

Figure 3.3 ﬁlled with ﬂuid of mass density ρm . The difference between the mass

ﬂuxes leaving and entering the differential control volume equal the rate of increase

3.2 Equation of continuity 31

r

rm nz + ∂ m vz dz

∂z

r m vx

∂rm vy dz

r m vy rm vy + dy

∂y

∂r m vx

r m vx + dx

∂x dx

z

dy

rm vz

y

x

of internal mass. For instance in the x direction, the mass ﬂux (M /T ) entering

the control volume is ρm vx dy dz. The mass ﬂux leaving the control volume is

∂ρm vx

∂x dx dy dz in excess of the entering mass ﬂux. This process is repeated in the y

and z directions, and the rate of increase of internal mass is ∂ρm∂td ∀ . The assumption

of a continuous ﬂuid medium yields the following differential relationships:

Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z)

∂ρm ∂ ∂ ∂

+ (ρm vx ) + (ρm vy ) + (ρm vz ) = 0 (3.6a)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

Cylindrical coordinates (r, θ , z)

∂ρm 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂

+ (ρm r v r ) + (ρm vθ ) + (ρm vz ) = 0 (3.6b)

∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z

Spherical coordinates (r, θ , ϕ)

∂ρm 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂

+ 2 (ρm r 2 vr ) + (ρm vθ sin θ) + (ρm vϕ ) = 0 (3.6c)

∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ

For incompressible ﬂuids, the continuity equation reduces to

∂ vx ∂ vy ∂ vz

+ + =0 (3.6d)

∂x ∂y ∂z

The conservation of solid mass is deﬁned in Example 3.1. The continuity

equations for solids are identical with Equations (3.6a–c) after replacing ρ m with Cv .

For homogeneous incompressible suspensions without settling, the mass density is

32 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

and the continuity equation reduces to Equation (3.6d).

It is also interesting, though far less important, to consider that the properties of

"

the vorticity vector ⊗ and the velocity vector v for homogeneous incompressible

ﬂuids are strikingly similar:

∂ vx ∂ vy ∂ vz

v=

div + + = 0; (3.7a)

∂x ∂y ∂z

" ∂⊗x ∂⊗y ∂⊗z

div⊗ = + + =0 (3.7b)

∂x ∂y ∂z

Likewise, streamlines and vortex lines are respectively deﬁned as

dx dy dz

= = (3.8a)

vx vy vz

dx dy dz

= = (3.8b)

⊗x ⊗y ⊗z

A line tangent to the velocity vector at every point at a given instant is known as a

streamline. The path line of a ﬂuid element is the locus of the element through time.

A streak line is deﬁned as the line connecting all ﬂuid elements that have passed

successively at a given point in space.

Derive the governing sediment continuity equation given the volumetric sedi-

ment concentration Cv . The net mass of sediment inside the control volume is

dm = ρs Cv dx dy dz. Let’s also consider a possible internal source of sediment

within the control volume at a rate ṁ = M/T added to the sediment suspension

in a cubic element dx dy dz. This internal mass change can be due to a chemical

reaction, ﬂocculation of dissolved solids, or a phase change. This analysis can

also apply to chemicals and contaminants, such that a conservative substance is

one where ṁ = 0. The total mass change per unit time inside the control volume

ṁ = (d/dt)(ρs Cv ) dx dy dz (E-3.1.1)

Let’s consider only advective ﬂuxes as shown in Figure E-3.1.1. The mass ﬂux

entering the control volume by advection in the x direction is ρs Cv vx dy dz

and the mass ﬂux leaving the control volume in the x direction is (ρs Cv vx +

∂

∂x (ρs Cv vx ) dx) dy dz. With similar considerations in the y and z directions,

similar to the x-direction ﬂuxes shown in Figure E-3.1.1, the rate of mass change

3.2 Equation of continuity 33

dz

ρ s Cv vx dy dz

+ y

∂ ( ρ s Cv vx ) dx dy dz dx

x

x dy

inside the control volume equals the net mass ﬂux entering from all three

directions, thus

∂

ṁ = (ρs Cv ) dx dy dz

∂t

∂

− ρs Cv vx dy dz + ρs Cv vx + (ρs Cv vx ) dx dy dz

∂x

∂

− ρs Cv vy dx dz + ρs Cv vy + (ρs Cv vy ) dy dx dz

∂y

∂

− ρs Cv vz dx dy + ρs Cv vz + (ρs Cv vz ) dz dx dy (E-3.1.2)

∂z

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ṁ

(ρs Cv ) + (ρs Cv vx ) + ρs Cv vy + (ρs Cv vz ) =

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz

(E-3.1.3)

which for a constant mass density of sediment ρs reduces to

∂Cv ∂(Cv vx ) ∂(Cv vy ) ∂(Cv vz )

+ + + = Ċv (E-3.1.4)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

˙

where Ċv = ∀∀st = ρṁ

s ∀t

is the volumetric source of sediment per unit time.

It is important to remember that this derivation only considers advective

ﬂuxes. In the case of sediment transport, diffusion and mixing can induce sed-

iment ﬂuxes even when all velocities are zero. Therefore, this term Ċv can

include the following processes: (1) diffusion, mixing, and dispersion (to be

discussed later in Section 10.2); (2) phase change of the substance (e.g. change

from dissolved solids to particle solids, like ﬂocculation); (3) chemical reac-

tions causing phase changes in the case of metal or contaminant transport; and

(4) decay functions of substances or ṁ = 0 (e.g. radioactive material).

34 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

The integral form of the continuity equation is simply the integral of the differential

form (Eq. 3.6a) over a control volume ∀. For an incompressible ﬂuid, the integral

form of conservation of mass is

∂ρm ∂ρm vx ∂ρm vy ∂ρm vz

d∀ + + + d∀ = 0 (3.9)

∀ ∂t ∀ ∂x ∂y ∂z

This volume integral of velocity gradients can be transformed into surface inte-

grals owing to the divergence theorem applied to an argument F of a partial space

derivative

∂F ∂x

d ∀ = F dA (3.10)

∀ ∂x A ∂n

in which ∂x/∂n is the cosine of the angle between the coordinate x and the normal

vector pointing outside of the control volume as shown in Figure 3.1. Example 3.2

illustrates how the integral continuity equation can be directly applied to open

channels. Example 3.3 shows an application of conservation of sediment mass in

open channels.

Consider the impervious rectangular channel of length X sketched in

Figure E-3.2.1. The differential continuity equation of (Eq. 3.6a) is multiplied

by d ∀ integrated over the control volume ∀ = WhX

∂ρm ∂ρm vx ∂ρm vy ∂ρm vz

d∀ + + + d∀ = 0 (E-3.2.1)

∀ ∂t ∀ ∂x ∂y ∂z

Considering that the free surface can rise at a rate dh/dt, the ﬁrst integral for

incompressible ﬂuids (ρm ∼

= ρ) corresponds to the mass change inside the control

volume ρm ∂(W Xh)/∂t. The divergence theorem (Equation 3.10) is applied to

the second integral, which reduces to

∂(W Xh) ∂x ∂y ∂z

ρm + ρm vx + ρm vy + ρm vz dA = 0.

∂t A ∂n ∂n ∂n

The values of ∂x/∂n, ∂y/∂n, and ∂z/∂n, are the cosines of the angle between

the vector normal to the surface n pointing outside of the control volume and

the Cartesian coordinates x, y, and z, respectively. For instance, Figure E-3.2.1

illustrates the direction cosines on the downstream face.

3.2 Equation of continuity 35

vy 1 V1

p1

ΔX 2

2

h n

p2

h

W θ So

W

1 z

V2 V2

∂z x y Direction cosines on

=1

∂n the downstream face

∂y ∂x

= ⫺1 ∂x

= ⫺1 ∂n = cos 0° = 1

∂n ∂n

∂y ∂z

= = cos 90° = 0

∂n ∂n

∂x ∂y

=1 =1

∂n ∂n

∂z

= ⫺1

∂n

Thus for a channel of length X and ﬂow depth h, the net ﬂux Q leaving the

control volume in the x direction is A2 V2 − A1 V1 . The net ﬂux entering laterally

in the y direction is Xq , where the unit lateral discharge q = hvy and the

change in control volume of ﬂuid is (WtXh) . The equation of conservation of

mass can be expressed as

(W Xh)

A2 V2 − A1 V1 − Xq + =0 (E-3.2.2)

t

After dividing by X given Q = AV and the cross-sectional area Ax = Wh, this

equation reduces to

Q Ax

+ = q (E-3.2.3a)

X t

At a constant channel width without lateral inﬂow (q = 0)

h −1Q

= (E-3.2.3b)

t W x

For steady ﬂow without lateral inﬂow, Q = 0 and

Q = A 1 V1 = A 2 V2 (E-3.2.4)

channels.

36 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

In a rectangular channel reach of width W and length X, consider sediment

transport by advection only (no molecular diffusion and no turbulent mixing) of

sediment particles (without phase change or ﬂocculation). Couple the volumetric

settling ﬂux Qs = volume of sediment per unit time, with the change in bed

elevation over time. Note that qsx is a volumetric sediment discharge per unit

width with dimension L2 /T and qs is the net unit sediment discharge from

lateral sources.

(a) + qs X − Qsettling = (E-3.3.1)

X t

zb

(b) Qsettling = W X (1 − po ) (E-3.3.2)

t

continuity of sediment where changes in unit sediment discharges by advec-

tion ﬂuxes correspond to changes in bed elevation or change in sediment in

suspension in the water column.

(zb W X ) (Cv ∀t )

qsx W − qs X + (1 − po ) + =0 (E-3.3.3)

t t

ad v ection ﬂuxes

change in bed elev ation internal mass

change in

suspension

∀s Settling volume

Q settling = =

T Time

∂qS

q SX + ΔX

h ∂x

Cv ∀s

C v bed = = 1⫺po

∀T

qSX

q Se

W

z zb

ΔX

y W

Q settling = ω C v W ΔX x ΔX

Qs base = 0

(a) (b)

3.3 Equations of motion 37

total volumetric sediment discharges Qsx = qsx W and Ax = ∀t /X = Wh as the

reach-average cross-sectional area.

Qsx Wzb Cv Ax

+ (1 − po ) + = qs (E-3.3.4)

X t t

one can consider that qs = 0 and dCv /dt = 0. The corresponding relationship

reduces to

zb −1 qsx

= (E-3.3.5)

t (1 − po ) X

This formulation is often referred to as the Exner equation. Notice that it assumes

that all the sediment in the water column will deposit within the distance X

and qsx is a volumetric unit sediment discharge. It also assumes that there is

no lateral inﬂux of sediment. This relationship clearly states that an increase in

sediment ﬂux in the downstream direction results in lowering the bed elevation,

also called riverbed degradation. Conversely, a downstream decrease in sediment

ﬂux results in riverbed aggradation and bed deposition of sediment.

The Cartesian acceleration components are obtained directly after dividing the

terms of the velocity equations in Equation (3.1) by dt.

d vx ∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx

ax = = + vx + vy + vz (3.11a)

dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

d vy ∂ vy ∂ vy ∂ vy ∂ vy

ay = = + vx + vy + vz (3.11b)

dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

d vz ∂ vz ∂ vz ∂ vz ∂ vz

az = = + vx + vy + vz (3.11c)

dt ∂t

∂x ∂y ∂z

local conv ectiv e

The convective terms of the acceleration Equation (3.11a) can also be separated into

rotational and irrotational terms by adding and subtracting the terms vy ∂ vy /∂x and

vz ∂ vz /∂x, and by substituting ⊗y and ⊗z from Equation (3.4). Similar substitutions

38 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

∂ vx ∂(v 2 /2)

ax = + vz ⊗y −vy ⊗z + (3.11d)

∂t ∂x

∂ vy ∂(v 2 /2)

ay = + vx ⊗z −vz ⊗x + (3.11e)

∂t ∂y

∂ vz ∂(v 2 /2)

az = + vy ⊗x −vx ⊗y + (3.11f)

∂t

∂z

conv ectiv e

local rotational conv ectiv e

irrotational

Equations (3.11d and f) show that the total acceleration can be separated into local

and convective acceleration terms, while the convective acceleration terms can be

subdivided into rotational and irrotational components.

As sketched in Figure 3.4, the forces acting on a Cartesian element of ﬂuid

and sediment ( dx, dy, dz) are classiﬁed as either internal forces or external forces.

The internal accelerations, or body forces per unit mass, acting at the center of

mass of the element are denoted gx , gy , and gz . The external forces per unit

area applied on each face of the element are subdivided into normal and tan-

gential stress components. The normal stresses σx , σy , and σz are positive for

tension. Six shear stresses τxy , τyx , τxz , τzx , τyz , τzy , with two orthogonal components

on each face are applied, as shown in Figure 3.4. The ﬁrst subscript indicates

∂s z dz

sz +

∂z ∂ zy dz

∂ zx zy +

zx + dz ∂z

∂z

∂ xz

xz + dx

∂x

sx ∂ yz dy

yz +

yx gz ∂y

sy xy

∂s x xz ∂s y dy

sx + dx gx sy +

∂x ∂y

dz gy ∂ yx

yx + dy

∂ xy yz ∂y

xy + dx

∂x

z zx dx

zy

sz

dy

y

x

3.3 Equations of motion 39

the direction normal to the face and the second subscript designates the direc-

tion of the applied stress component. The following identities: τxy = τyx ; τxz =

τzx ; τyz = τzy result from the sum of moments of shear stresses around the cen-

troid. If they were not equal, these stresses would spin an elementary ﬂuid volume

inﬁnitely fast.

The element of ﬂuid in Figure 3.4 is considered in equilibrium when the sum

of the forces per unit mass in each direction x, y, and z equals the corresponding

Cartesian acceleration component ax , ay , and az :

ax = gx + + + (3.12a)

ρm ∂x ρm ∂y ρm ∂z

1 ∂σy 1 ∂τxy 1 ∂τzy

ay = gy + + + (3.12b)

ρm ∂y ρm ∂x ρm ∂z

1 ∂σz 1 ∂τxz 1 ∂τyz

az = g z + + + (3.12c)

ρm ∂z ρm ∂x ρm ∂y

These equations of motion are general without any restriction as to compressibility,

viscous shear, turbulence, or other effects.

The normal stresses can be rewritten as a function of the pressure p and additional

normal stresses τxx , τyy , and τzz accompanying deformation:

σx = −p + τxx (3.13a)

σy = −p + τyy (3.13b)

σz = −p + τzz (3.13c)

After expanding the acceleration components ax , ay , and az from Equation (3.11),

the equations of motion in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates can be

written as Equations (3.14)–(3.16) in Table 3.1.

After substituting the equations of motion from Equation (3.11d–f) and the nor-

mal stresses from Equation (3.13) into Equation (3.12), the following equations

can be obtained

∂ vx 1 ∂p ∂ v 2 /2 1 ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx

+ − gx + = + + + vy ⊗z −vz ⊗y

∂t ρm ∂x ∂x ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

(3.17a)

2

∂ vy 1 ∂p ∂ v /2 1 ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy

+ − gy + = + + + vz ⊗x −vx ⊗z

∂t ρm ∂y ∂y ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

(3.17b)

40 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

x - component

∂vx ∂vx ∂vx ∂vx 1 ∂p 1 ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx

ax = + vx + vy + vz = gx − + + + (3.14a)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρm ∂x ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

y - component

∂vy ∂vy ∂vy ∂vy 1 ∂p 1 ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy

ay = + vx + vy + vz = gy − + + + (3.14b)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρm ∂y ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

z - component

∂vz ∂vz ∂vz ∂vz 1 ∂p 1 ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz

az = + vx + vy + vz = gz − + + + (3.14c)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρm ∂z ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

r - component

∂vr ∂vr vθ ∂vr vθ2 ∂vr

+ vr + − + vz = (3.15a)

∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z

1 ∂p 1 1 ∂ 1 ∂τθr τθθ ∂τzr

gr − + (rτrr ) + − +

ρm ∂r ρm r ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z

θ - component

∂vθ ∂vθ vθ ∂vθ vr vθ ∂vθ

+ vr + + + vz = (3.15b)

∂t ∂r r ∂θ
r ∂z

1 ∂p 1 1 ∂ 2 1 ∂τθθ ∂τzθ

gθ − + (r τ rθ ) + +

ρm r ∂θ ρm r 2 ∂r r ∂θ ∂z

z - component

∂vz ∂vz vθ ∂vz ∂vz 1 ∂p 1 1 ∂(rτrz ) 1 ∂τθ z ∂τzz

+ vr + + vz = gz − + + +

∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ρm ∂z ρm r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z

(3.15c)

Spherical coordinates (r, θ, ϕ)

r – component

∂vr ∂vr vθ ∂vr vϕ ∂vr vθ2 + vϕ2 1 ∂p

+ vr + + − = gr −

∂t ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r ρm ∂r

1 1 ∂ 2 1 ∂ 1 ∂τrϕ τθθ + τϕϕ

+ (r τrr ) + (τrθ sin θ) + − (3.16a)

ρm r 2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r

3.4 Euler equations 41

θ - component

+ vr + + + − = gθ −

∂t ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r r ρm r ∂θ

1 1 ∂ 2 1 ∂ 1 ∂τθϕ τrθ τϕϕ cot θ

+ (r τrθ ) + (τθθ sin θ ) + + −

ρm r 2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r r

(3.16b)

ϕ - component

∂vϕ ∂vϕ vθ ∂vϕ vϕ ∂vϕ vϕ vr vθ vϕ 1 ∂p

+ vr + + + + cot θ = gϕ −

∂t ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r r ρm r sin θ ∂ϕ

1 1 ∂ 2 1 ∂τθϕ 1 ∂τϕϕ τrϕ 2τθϕ cot θ

+ (r τ rϕ ) + + + + (3.16c)

ρm r 2 ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂ϕ r r

∂ vz 1 ∂p ∂ v 2 /2 1 ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz

+ − gz + = + +

∂t

ρ ∂z ∂z ρ ∂x ∂y ∂z

m m

Euler Bernoulli sum v iscosity

(Chapter 3) (Chapters 3&4) (Chapter 5)

+ vx ⊗y −vy ⊗x (3.17c)

v orticity/turbulence

(Chapter 6)

The presentation of the upcoming chapters has been designed to explain the main

terms of the equations of motion. Chapter 3 will focus on the terms on the left-hand

side of Equation (3.17). The concepts of buoyancy force, momentum, and energy in

Chapter 3 will be primarily based on the analysis of the terms on the left-hand side

of Equation (3.17). The concept of lift force in Chapter 4 will involve applications

of the Bernoulli sum. The concept of drag force in Chapter 5 will involve the

shear stress terms on the right-hand side of Equation (3.17). Finally, the concept

of vorticity will be expanded into turbulence in Chapter 6 involving the rotational

terms on the right-hand side of Equation (3.17).

The Euler equations are simpliﬁed forms of the equations of motion (Eqs. 3.14–

3.16) for frictionless ﬂuids. Without friction, the shear stress components due to

deformation are zero (all stress components in τ = 0) and the normal stresses are

42 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

equal and opposite to the pressure (σx = σy = σz = −p). Substitution into the

equations of motion yields, for Cartesian coordinates,

1 ∂p

ax = gx − (3.18a)

ρm ∂x

1 ∂p

ay = g y − (3.18b)

ρm ∂y

1 ∂p

az = gz − (3.18c)

ρm ∂z

These equations, valid for inviscid ﬂuids, are known as Euler equations, or

−∂p

= ρm (ax − gx ) (3.19a)

∂x

−∂p

= ρ m ay − g y (3.19b)

∂y

−∂p

= ρm (az − gz ) (3.19c)

∂z

An example of application of the Euler equations is the buoyancy force result-

ing from the integration of the pressure distribution around a submerged sphere

for inviscid ﬂuids without convective acceleration. The buoyancy force has three

components, FBx , FBy , FBz that can be determined as follows from the divergence

theorem Equation (3.10).

∂x ∂p

FBx = −p dA = − d ∀ = ρm (ax − gx ) d ∀ (3.20a)

A ∂n ∀ ∂x ∀

∂y ∂p

FBy = −p dA = − d ∀ = ρm ay − gy d ∀ (3.20b)

A ∂n ∀ ∂y ∀

∂z ∂p

FBz = −p dA = − d ∀ = ρm (az − gz ) d ∀ (3.20c)

A ∂n ∀ ∂z ∀

conditions and Example 3.5 is applied to an accelerated control volume.

Consider the hydrostatic pressure distribution around a sphere of radius R sub-

merged in a ﬂuid of mass density ρm (Figure E-3.4.1). The pressure at the center

of the sphere is po and the vertical elevation ẑ at the surface of the sphere is R cos θ.

The hydrostatic pressure thus varies as p = po − ρm gR cos θ . After considering

3.4 Euler equations 43

z

Direction cosine

dz

cos θ =

x = R sin θ cos ϕ z

dn

∂x

= sin θ cos ϕ

∂n θ θ P n

P

ϕ

R dθ

R cos θ R

x d

R Po

θ

ϕ

θd

in

Rs

ρm

g x = g y = 0, g z = –g

g

Hydrostatic a x = a y = a z = 0

with gz = −g and hydrostatic conditions are described by ax = ay = az = 0. The

buoyancy force FB is calculated from the surface integral of the pressure along

the surface of the sphere.

∂z

FB = FBz = −p dA = − p cos θ dA (E-3.4.1)

A ∂n A

performed for 0 < ϕ < 2π and 0 < θ < π

π 2π

FB = − p cos θ (R sin θ d ϕ) (R d θ)

o o

π 2π

2

FB = 0 + ρm gR 3

cos θ sin θ d θ

2

d ϕ = 2πγm R3 ×

3

o o

We learn that the integral of a constant on a closed surface is zero. The hydrostatic

pressure distribution therefore gives the following buoyancy force.

4π

FB = γm R3 = γm ∀sphere (E-3.4.2)

3

44 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

easily obtained from the divergence theorem as

∂z ∂p

FB = −p dA = − d ∀ = ρm (az − gz ) d ∀ = ρm g∀ (E-3.4.3)

A ∂n ∀ ∂z ∀

principle when az = 0.

Consider a neutrally buoyant sphere of radius R placed in a water container

accelerated in the horizontal direction at ax = g/2. Determine the buoyancy

force on the sphere sketched in Figure E-3.5.1.

The convective acceleration terms for a neutrally buoyant sphere vanish

because the ﬂuid does not accelerate relative to the sphere. Acceleration com-

ponents are ax = ∂ vx /∂t = g/2, ay = az = 0. The gravitational acceleration

components are gx = gy = 0, and gz = −g. The buoyancy force component

FBy = 0, the others are

−∂p ρg

FBx = d ∀ = ρ (ax − gx ) d ∀ = ∀, and

∀ ∂x ∀ 2

FBz = ρ (az − gz ) d ∀ = ρ (0 + g) d ∀ = γ ∀sphere

∀ ∀

The

√ net buoyancy force from these two orthogonal components is FB =

◦

2 γ ∀sphere acting at an angle of 26.56 from the vertical. The buoyancy force

5

γ∀

FBx =

2

∀ sphere

a x = g/2

FB = 5 γ ∀ FBz = γ ∀

2

z 26.6°

3.5 Bernoulli equation 45

The Bernoulli equation represents a particular form of the equations of motion for

steady irrotational ﬂow of frictionless ﬂuids. A gravitation potential g = gẑ can be

deﬁned with the axis ẑ vertical upward such that the body acceleration components

due to gravity are:

−∂g −∂g −∂g

gx = ; gy = ; and gz =

∂x ∂y ∂z

Since g is a constant, the directional acceleration components are g times the

cosine between ẑ and the component direction. After considering the equations of

motion (Eqs. 3.11 and 3.14), and the gravitation potential, the equations of motion

for incompressible sediment-laden ﬂuids of mass density ρ m can be rewritten as

follows, with the Bernoulli terms on the left-hand side:

∂ p v2 ∂ vx 1 ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx

+ g + = (vy ⊗z −vz ⊗y ) − + + +

∂x ρm 2 ∂t ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

(3.21a)

∂ p v2 ∂ vy 1 ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy

+ g + = (vz ⊗x −vx ⊗z ) − + + +

∂y ρm 2 ∂t ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

(3.21b)

∂ p v2 ∂ vz 1 ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz

+ g + = (vx ⊗y −vy ⊗x ) − + + +

∂z ρm 2 ∂t ρm ∂x ∂y ∂z

(3.21c)

For steady irrotational ﬂow of frictionless ﬂuids, the right-hand side of Equations

(3.21a–c) vanishes and the Bernoulli sum H for homogeneous incompressible ﬂuids

is constant throughout the ﬂuid

p v2

H= + ẑ + = ct (3.22a)

γm 2g

∂H

g =0 (3.22b)

∂x

It is interesting to note that Equation (3.22a) describes a hydrodynamic formulation

of pressure compared to the hydrostatic formulation obtained when v = 0.

In the particular case of ﬂow in a horizontal plane (constant ẑ) of a homogeneous

ﬂuid (constant ρm ), the pressure at any point p where the velocity is v can be

calculated from the pressure pr at any reference point given the reference velocity vr :

ρm 2

p= vr − v 2 + pr (3.22c)

2

46 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

Accordingly, pressure is low when velocity is high and pressure is high at low

velocity.

When the ﬂow is steady, frictionless, but rotational, the right-hand side of

Equation (3.21) equals zero only along a streamline (because of Eq. 3.8); hence for

a homogeneous rotational incompressible ﬂuid,

p v2

H= + ẑ + = ct; along a streamline (3.22d)

γm 2g

For steady ﬂow at a mean velocity V in a wide-rectangular channel at a bed slope θ,

the ﬁrst and third terms of the Bernoulli sum describe the speciﬁc energy function

E deﬁned as:

p V2 V2

E= + = h cos2 θ + (3.23a)

γm 2g 2g

Considering the unit discharge q = Vh and the Froude number Fr deﬁned as Fr2 =

V 2 /gh = q2 /gh3 , the function E when θ is small is approximated by:

q2 Fr 2

E = h+ = h 1+ (3.23b)

2gh3 2

The properties of the function E are such that under constant unit discharge

∂Eq, the

critical depth hc and the critical velocity Vc correspond to the minimum ∂h = 0

V2 2

of Equation (3.23b). The minimum value Emin is found when Fr 2c = ghc = q 3 = 1.

2 c ghc

3 q

One can easily demonstrate that q = ghc or hc = g , and Emin = 1.5hc , resulting

2 3

3/2

V q hc

Fr = = = (3.24)

gh h gh h

presented in Example 3.6.

Consider steady ﬂow in a wide-rectangular channel. Determine: (1) what is

the maximum possible elevation of a sill z at section A that will not cause

backwater?; and (2) what is the maximum lateral contraction of the channel at

section B that will not cause backwater? The accelerating ﬂow is shown with

the speciﬁc energy diagram Figure E-3.6.1.

3.6 Momentum equations 47

h

Energy grade line

1 Sf h1

E1 h Emin hc

1 hc ΔE = Δz max

Δzmax

θ

A

h c Emin E1

(a) E

h

Q

h1 q2 =

W2

W1 W2 h2 = h c2 Q

q1 =

h c1 W1

1 A E min1 E1 = Emin2 E

(b)

(1) The maximum elevation of the sill zmax at section A is such that the ﬂow will be

critical on top of the sill and zmax + Emin = E1 or zmax = E = E1 − (3/2)hc ;

(2) The minimum channel width W2 at section A without causing backwater is such that

the total discharge remains constant Q = W1 q1 = W2 q2 and the ﬂow is critical in

the contracted section A2 , or hc2 = 0.67E1 = 0.67Emin2 ; and Fr 2c2 = 1 = q22 /gh3c2 , or

W2 = Q/ g(0.67E1 )3 .

Momentum equations deﬁne the hydrodynamic forces exerted by sediment-laden

ﬂows. After multiplying the equations of motion (Eqs. 3.14 to 3.16) by the mass

density of the mixture ρm , the volume integral of the terms on the left-hand side of

the equations represent the rate of momentum change per unit volume, while the

rate of impulse per unit volume is found on the right-hand side. Integration over

the control volume ∀ shows that the rate of momentum change equals the impulse

per unit time. For example, the x component in the Cartesian coordinates is:

∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx ∂ vx ∂p

ρm + vx + vy + vz d ∀ = ρm gx d ∀ − d∀

∀ ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∀ ∀ ∂x

∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx

+ + + d∀

∀ ∂x ∂y ∂z

(3.25)

48 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

∂ρm vx ∂ρm vx2 ∂ρm vx vy ∂ρm vx vz ∂ρm ∂ρm vx ∂ρm vy ∂ρm vz

+ + + − vx + + +

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

(3.26)

By virtue of the continuity equation (Eq. 3.6a), the terms in parentheses in Equation

(3.26) can be dropped. The integral of the time derivative is equal to the total deriva-

tive of a volume integral. The volume integral of the remaining momentum and

stress terms can be transformed into surface integrals by means of the divergence

theorem (Eq. 3.10). The result is the general impulse–momentum relationship.

x - component

d ∂x ∂y ∂z

ρm vx d ∀ + ρm vx vx + vy + vz dA

dt ∀ A ∂n ∂n ∂n

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z

= ρm gx d ∀ − p dA + τxx + τyx + τzx dA (3.27a)

∀ A ∂n A ∂n ∂n ∂n

y - component

d ∂x ∂y ∂z

ρm vy d ∀ + ρm vy vx + vy + vz dA

dt ∀ A ∂n ∂n ∂n

∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z

= ρm gy d ∀ − p dA + τxy + τyy + τzy dA (3.27b)

∀ A ∂n A ∂n ∂n ∂n

z - component

d ∂x ∂y ∂z

ρm vz d ∀ + ρm vz vx + vy + vz dA

dt ∀ A ∂n ∂n ∂n

∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

= ρm gz d ∀ − p dA + τxz + τyz + τzz dA (3.27c)

∀ A ∂n A ∂n ∂n ∂n

due to convection is embodied in the surface integral on the left-hand side of

Equation (3.27), and all the stresses are expressed in terms of surface integrals.

Example 3.7 provides a detailed application of the momentum equations to open-

channel ﬂows. To conclude this section, Example 3.8 introduces the concept of

added mass.

3.6 Momentum equations 49

With reference to the rectangular channel sketched on Figure E-3.7.1, the

momentum relationship (Eq. 3.27a) in the downstream x direction is applied

to an open channel, now subjected to rainfall at an angle θr and velocity Vr over

the free surface area Ar , wind shear τw , upstream bank shear τs , and bed shear

τb = τo = τzx :

d ∂x ∂y ∂z

ρm vx d ∀ + ρm vx vx + vy + vz dA

dt ∀ A ∂n ∂n ∂n

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z

= ρm gx d ∀ − p dA + τxx + τyx + τzx dA

∀ A ∂n A ∂n ∂n ∂n

Some integrals vanish for one-dimensional ﬂow in impervious channels, vy =

vz = τxx = 0, except at the free surface where vz = −vr cos(θr + θ), leaving

dQ ∂x ∂z

ρm X + ρm vx2 dA + ρm vx vz dA

dt A ∂n A ∂n

∂x ∂z ∂y

+ p dA = ρm gx d ∀ + τzx dA + τyx dA

A ∂n ∀ A ∂n A ∂n

Consider an incompressible homogeneous ﬂuid, constant ρ m , and deﬁne the

momentum correction factor β m , also called the Boussinesq coefﬁcient, given

the cross-sectional averaged velocity Vx .

1

βm = v 2 dA (E-3.7.1)

AVx2 A x

For most practical applications, the value of βm is generally close to unity, the

reader can refer to Example 6.1 for a detailed calculation example. With average

values of pressure p, velocity V, and area A at the upstream cross-section 1 and

z 1 2

vr Energy grade line

θr 1

x y Sf

Area A1 EGL

1 1

Right bank p1 V1 Sw V2

ΔX 2g

2 τ yx Water surface HGL

τw p

Area A2 h γ

τ yx

p τb So

2

W θ S o Left bank 1 z

1 Datum

V2

50 Mechanics of sediment-laden ﬂows

1 2

2 β m ρ m A 1 V1

ρ A r V r sin (θ +θ r ) cos (θ + θ r ) p1 A1

2

τ w WΔx τ s hΔ x

τ s hΔx z

γ ∀ sin θ

p2 A2

θ x y

2 τo WΔx

β m ρ m A 2 V2

control volume ∀ of length X, width W and height h yields:

Q

ρm X + βm ρm A2 V22 + p2 A2 − βm ρm A1 V12 − p1 A1 − ρAr Vr2 sin(θ + θr )

t

cos(θ + θr ) = γm ∀ sin θ − τo W X − τs 2hX + τw W X (E-3.7.2a)

Notice here that on the right bank, τs = τyx but ∂y/∂n = −1, while on the left

bank, τs = −τyx but ∂y/∂n = +1. The net result is that both shear forces are

applied in the upstream (negative x) direction as shown in Figure E-3.7.2.

Assuming that the bed shear stress τ0 equals the bank shear stress τs , the

equation with negligible rainfall, Ar → 0, without wind shear, τw → 0, can be

rewritten when the channel inclination θ is small (sin θ ∼

= the bed slope So ) as

p2 A2 + βm ρm A2 V22 + τo (W + 2h)X

A1 + A 2

= p1 A1 + βm ρm A1 V1 + γm

2

XSo (E-3.7.2b)

2

which case, p1 A1 = p2 A2 , βm ρm V12 = βm ρm V22 and the friction slope Sf equals

both the water surface slope Sw and the bed slope So . The boundary shear stress

τo is thus related to the friction slope Sf in the following manner

A A

τo = γm Sf = γm Sf = γm Rh Sf (E-3.7.3)

(W + 2h) P

where the hydraulic radius Rh = A/P is the ratio of the cross-sectional area

A = Wh to the wetted perimeter P = W + 2h, as shown in Figure E-3.7.3.

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