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OBJECTIVES

The main objective of this project is to fabricate the pedal water


pumping system. In this project the pump is operated without electric
power.

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SYNOPSIS
The pedal power is a very powerful natural resource and man
has used this energy to power his crafts across the oceans for
thousands of years.

There is a lot of pedal power energy going to waste every day


that we could possibly take advantage of to power land transport. In
order to explore this theory, “PEDAL PUMP” project using the pedal
power to run the water pump.

This project eliminates the use of fossil fuels like petrol, diesel
& electricity and save us from the high oil and power price hike.

This “PEDAL PUMP” is an eco-friendly water pump, which


does not pollute the world. It does not emit anything.

Finally the main reason for creation of this project is to ride a


pump without spending any money.

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INTRODUCTION
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural
resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat,
which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of
global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13%
coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating,
and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro,
modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for
another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables
in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity
coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.

Pedal power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a


worldwide installed capacity of 158 gigawatts (GW) in 2009, and is
widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of
2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21
GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.[Solar
thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest
of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave
Desert. The world's largest geothermal power installation is The
Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has
one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving
production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides
18% of the country's automotive fuel Ethanol fuel is also widely
available in the USA.

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While many renewable energy projects are large-scale,
renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas,
where energy is often crucial in human development globally; an
estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV
systems. Micro-hydro systems configured into village-scale or
county-scale mini-grids serve many areas More than 30 million rural
households get lighting and cooking from biogas made in household-
scale digesters. Biomass cook stoves are used by 160 million
households.

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LITERATURE SURVEY
Normally a human being has an average capacity of 0.5 HP and
can rotate the wheel at a rate of 50 revolution per minute. We will
increase the speed of 50 rpm to 1440 rpm by means of few set of
gears. The final shaft will be lead to a small positive displacement
pump of 0.5 hp.

Without electric motor a simple pumping device is proposed to


meet our domestic needs.

The pipe from the submersible is just that – a pipe .The


submersible pushes water up. When it reaches the pit less, it does a
right –angled bend, goes out through the side of the casing and runs
underground to your house. The pit less is, essentially, just a join that
redirects the water ninety degrees and fastens securely to the side of
the casing.

The simple pump is a completely separate system, alongside


your submersible. We can’t, somehow, use the submersible pipe
because our pipe is not JUST a hollow pipe – it contain a mechanism
that connects the lever arm at the top to the pump piston and cylinder
at the bottom.

So, there needs to be some way to get the water in the simple
pump drop pipe out through the side of the casing. That way is our
specially engineered pit less which allows pumping from the top
while diverting the water sideway. This is essential to the operation.

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So even if someone could do the “surgery” inside a well casing. We
couldn’t tie into that existing pit less. We have to take the water out
with our bit less. Once it is taken sideways outside the well casing,
the pipe can then easily to joined up, with a junction, with the pipe
coming from the submersible, so one pipe continues underground to
your house. Each branch of the T has a one way check valve, so the
operating pump doesn’t pump water DOWN the other branch to the
other pump.

A 2” casing is fairly flexible, when extending the usual 12-18


inches or so above the ground – even if metal. The leverage though
the securely mounted pump can actually make a 2” casing deflect – as
much as 2-3 inches for a metal casing or 6-7 inches for PVC. This
deflection makes pumping tricky and, if large, could actually damage
the top drop pipe. We need a rigid mounting for the Simple pump. The
best option is to not mount directly on the 2” casing at all.

This is a centrifugal water pump which is run by rotating the


pedal of a cycle. he system comprises a bicycle, rim, belt
pulley, impeller and inlet and delivery pipes. The back tire is replaced
by a bare rim which is connected to another pulley of smaller
diameter. The supporting shaft of the smaller pulley carries another
rim for second stage speed increment. a flywheel is also included in
the shaft to increase momentum of the system. The final supporting
shaft is connected with an impeller that rotates at high speed and
pumps water. The power generated by the process of pedaling the

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bicycle is used to lift the water and push the water from a pipe into the
farm for cultivation. useful for pumping water from rivers, ponds,
wells and similar water sources. The farmers can use this to pump
water for irrigation.

The pedal powered water pump, lifts water at 5-10 gallons per
minute from well sand boreholes up to 30 in meters depth, ( compared
to an electric pump that only pumps up to 30 in meters depth,
( compared to an electric pump that only pumps up to 12 meters
deep ). Provides irrigation and drinking water where electricity is not
available

some remarkable numbers are possible in pumping water without


electrical power. While it may not seen important to a developed
world’s reader – the ability to reduce fuel use or increase incomes in
less developed regions makes great sense. But even a thermal solar kit
rigged to a home under floor water heating system with the electricity
off could be roasty warm for a whole winter with a minimum of
effort.

The pedal pump was designed and constructed, so that a long


time operation is possible with a high efficiency. The constructed
pedal pump was found suitable for operation under a suction head up
to 2 meters for several hours (more than 2 hours). Islam (2004)
worked on twin treadle diaphragm pump and showed suction head
beyond 1.7 m depth the pump was failed to draw water and operator

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was unable to work more than 1.5 hour continuously. The operation of
the pedal pump was found more comfortable and suitability. It was
quantified by the maximum operation time during which an average
sized man can operate the pump without much physical troubles.
When the pump operated using piston valve type-II and check valve
type-III were found more suitable than those of compared to other
types of valves due to their lower frictional losses and input energy
requirement. Pedal pumps are capable of pumping in the range of
about 93.27 to 57.38 lpm, respectively under the suction head ranging
from 0.6 to 2.0 m with piston valve type-II and check valve type-III
whereas Islam (1995) worked on treadle pump and discharge was
found 65.4 lpm for a head of 1.12 m. Also, Khan (1998) and Alim
(1982) conducted on improved reciprocating hand pump and
reciprocating wheel pump and they were found that the discharge
were 33.95 lpm and 50 lpm under a head of 1.14 m and 2 m,
respectively. An average sized man can generate 0.1 hp or 93 w
(Anwaruzzaman, 1992). So, the pump could be driven continuously
for a long period because input power requirement for the pump
operation is smaller than that of the power generated by a man. The
highest efficiencies were obtained as 46.53 percent under a head of
1.65 m but Haq et al. (1994) worked on treadle pump and found 16
percent efficiency for low operating head.
Most of agricultural lands in Bangladesh are fragmented. So,
there is a good scope to use the pedal pump to lift water from shallow
depth. The pedal pump is capable to tap water from a shallow depth

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(up to 2 m) effectively and is, therefore, expected to be suitable to
supply irrigation water in small fragmented land holdings as well as in
small irrigation project areas. The pump is portable and can easily be
carried to the work place by an average sized adult man. The
construction cost is about low (Tk. 1360) due to availability of
materials and skills in the local market. Operation and maintenance of
the pedal pump is also simple almost to that like UNICEF No. 6
pump. Various parts of the pump are also available at PVC pipe
industry and so the pump could be installed at village level with a
minimum of cost to pump subsurface water either for irrigation or
drinking purposes. Therefore, it is expected that pedal pump due to its
lower cost, operation suitability and higher efficiency may gain quick
popularity if introduced in rural Bangladesh.

Irrigation plays a vital role as a leading input because the


productivity of other inputs such as improved seed and fertilizers
largely depend on the availability of ensured water supply in the
fields. With the supply of irrigation water, most of the agricultural
lands can be brought under cultivation of high yielding crops. The
productivity of the land now producing food under natural condition
can be increased considerably by the application of supplemental
irrigation. The socio-economic condition of Bangladesh farmer does
not permit large scale irrigation investment. Hence, introduction of
small scale irrigation like pedal pumps can play a vital role for
increasing food grain production in Bangladesh.

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Capital intensive technology like deep tube wells, shallow tube
wells are beyond the purchasing capacity of the poor farmers, while
they can afford labor intensive technologies such as pedal pump, hand
pumps, rower pumps, treadle pumps etc. due to their lower cost. In
the context of Bangladesh, where labors are abundant and most of the
farmers are poor, the pedal pump seems to be an appropriate irrigation
technology.

Such kind of irrigation technologies are operated and maintained


by farmers themselves from their own capital for producing crop in
the small fragmented lands. The average small farm sizes spreading
over a number of scattered plots are unsuitable to irrigate with a large
size of stream. But, the manually operated technology with a small
stream size is suitable for small and fragmented farm holding and
involves less mechanical and maintenance problems. In fact the poor
farmers represent 70% of population in Bangladesh and they own
only 20% of total land (GOB, 1986). Due to their extreme poverty,
they are gradually joining the landless group. In this context,
manually operated pedal pump is helpful for poor farmers to reduce
poverty. The current success of manually operated pump can be
explained in terms of factors like appropriate design, low cost,
effective marketing, and high cash returns (Orr et al., 1991). Some
researchers had focused their endeavor on the development of low lift
labor-intensive devices and had succeeded to develop some devices of
such characters like treadle pump, rower pump, wheel pump,
diaphragm pump, blower pump, etc. But these pumps still are not

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popular in the country due to their low efficiencies and discharges,
short service lives, high friction losses and many other mechanical
troubles. Operation of the devices is very laborious and operators
often complain about their suffering from various health hazards.
Nobody can work at much over 1/5th of a hp for very long (Allison,
1975). According to survey report (Faruk and Pramanik, 1995) many
users of these devices complained about their health troubles and
desired to get a better technology requiring less manual power and
mechanical troubles. High initial maintenance cost, non-availability of
spare parts, requirements of large irrigable land and similar other
restrictions make the poor illiterate farmers reluctant to use of deep
tube wells and shallow tube wells. But the components of pedal
pumps can be locally produced with low-cost and all spare parts are
available in the country. Hence, a study is needed to design and
develop the pedal pump to make it simple to ensure automatic
participation of farmers

Throughout history human, energy has generally been applied


through the use of the arms, hands, and back. With minor exceptions,
it was only with the invention of the sliding-seat rowing shell, and
particularly of the bicycle, that legs also began to be considered as a
"normal" means of developing power from human muscles.

A person can generate four times more power (1/4 horsepower


(hp)) by pedaling than by hand-cranking. At the rate of 1/4hp,
continuous pedaling can be done for only short periods, about 10

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minutes. However,, pedaling at half this power (1/8 hp) can be
sustained for around 60 minutes. Pedal power enables a person to
drive devices at the same rate as that achieved by hand-cranking, but
with far less effort and fatigue. Pedal power also lets one drive
devices at a faster rate than before (e.g. winnower), or operate devices
that require too much power for hand-cranking (e.g. thresher). Over
the centuries, the treadle has been the most common method of using
the legs to produce power. Treadles are still common in the low-
power range, especially for sewing machines. Historically, two
treadles were used for some tasks, but even then the maximum output
would have been quite small, perhaps only 0-15 percent of what an
individual using pedal operated cranks can produce under optimum
conditions.

However, the combination of pedals and cranks, which today seems


an obvious way to produce power, was not used for that purpose until
quite recently. It was almost 50 years after Karl von Krais invented
the steerable foot-propelled bicycle in 1817 that Pierre Michaud
added pedals and cranks, and started the enormous wave of
enthusiasm for bicycling that has lasted to the present.

The main use of pedal power today is still for bicycling, at least in
the high-power range (75 watts and above of mechanical power). In
the lower-power range there are a number of uses of pedal power--for
agriculture, construction, water pumping, and electrical generation--

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that seem to be potentially advantageous, at least when electrical or
internal-combustion engine power is unavailable

The dynapod is suited for a wide range of water lifting operations. It


can do low-lift pumping, raising 1250 liters per minute [330 gallons
per minute (gpm)] through a 30cm (12") distance. or 125 liters per
minute [33gpm] through a 3m

(118") distance. It can be attached to a modern version of the Persian


wheel or Chinese water bucket. Winch through 10m (11gpm through
29.5') or 125 liters per minute through 30m (3.3gpm through 88.5'),
the dynapod can power a reciprocating deep-well pump through a
crankshaft and rod.

The feet driven Pedal Pump was developed to fetch water for
domestic use or water to be used for agricultural irrigation. It’s made
of concrete, iron, plastics and wood. Workshops in the villages are
able to manufacture the pump. Favorable characteristics are the
astonishing discharge flow (80-100 liters per minute), high efficiency
due to low friction losses, economical and simple manufacture out of
local available material and simple maintenance mostly done by the
users itself.

The primary focus of this project was to research, design and


implement a fully functional, interactive, and entertaining public
display system which collects, stores, and distributes rainwater to a
vertical garden in order to demonstrate to the community the
practicality of sustainable water practices. The display drives to

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educate on the feasibility of rainwater use and demonstrate the work
required to move water.

The project includes a collection system of PVC piping, leaf


screen filters, first flush diverters, mosquito screens, and water safe
tanks. The piping moves the water from the roof through the filters
and into storage tanks. Leaf screen filters remove large debris from
the water before first flush filters remove polluted water from a new
rain, and mosquito screens keep mosquitoes from infesting the water
stored in the tanks.The pumping system includes a peristaltic, or roller
pump, attached to a bicycle powered by the user. The rear wheel of
the bicycle was removed and replaced with a stand and hybrid chain-
and-v-belt drive system to power the roller pump and support the user.
Standardized hose fittings attached to the pump allow garden hoses to
be connected to the pump and tanks, which permit a range of
applications and portability of the pump to any demonstration site.

The pump is capable of moving water to any height that this


demonstration requires, delivering large volumes of water even at roof
height. It has been tested for reliability, and functions well due to its
simplicity. The pump fits well within the site and is fairly lightweight,
allowing for easy storage and transport. It is simple to use and
requires little effort, which permits a large demographic to use the
system.

Multiple design changes were required to refine the human-


powered pump system, but the end result is a clean, elegant, and

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efficient device, capable of pumping water with little effort and no
electricity.

The result of this project is a completely functional rainwater


collection and irrigation system. The tanks are filling with clean, non-
potable water during every rain event, and the bicycle powered pump
is ready and capable of moving water for irrigation and display
purposes. Reciprocating pumps are normally used for drinking water
supply in addition to irrigation.

The main parts of the reciprocating pumps are the pump cylinder
in which an airtight piston or plunger moves up and -down with the
help of pump rod, handle for operation of pump, valves, pipe and
strainer. As the plunger rises, water is drawn through anon-return
valve at the bottom of cylinder into the cylinder, and on the downward
stroke the water is released to the upper side of plunger. On the next
upward movement of plunger water is raised to pump head and
discharged through the spout. By changing either the frequency of
reciprocation or stroke length of the piston the discharge rate can be
varied. The reciprocating pumps are available in various designs and
models, which can be operated manually, with animal power and
auxiliary power sources.

After analyzing the power sources that are available for pumping
water, many different pump designs need to be looked at. One of the
most common and well known pump designs for displacing water is
the piston or bucket pump. The following two figures below represent

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the piston or bucket pump installed on a hand pump, and a blown up
view of the piston itself with the internal components. As
portrayed in the figures below, water is sucked into the cylinder
through a check valve on the up-stroke, and the piston valve is held
closed due to the weight of the water above it; simultaneously the
water above the piston is propelled out of the pump with the up-
stroke. On the down stroke, the lower check valve is held closed by
both its weight and the water pressure, while the similar check valve
in the piston is forced open as the trapped water is displaced through
the piston ready for the next up-stroke. The figure on the left is
demonstrating the down-stroke showing the inlet check valve closed
and the piston check valve open.

There are many relationships between the output or discharge rate


“Q”, piston diameter “d”, stroke length of piston travel “s”, number of
strokes per minute “n”, and the volumetric efficiency, which is the
percentage of the swept volume that is pumped per stroke “nvol”. If
“n” is known in strokes per minute (rpm), then the volumetric
efficiency should be expressed in decimal form. The relationships
between all these variables are shown through the following
equations:

4dA2π= (Swept are of piston) (5)

V = As (Swept volume per stroke) (6)

V q n = vol (Discharge per stroke) (7)

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Q = nq (Pumping rate per minute) (8)

Another important equation that should be used when designing a


piston pump is the force required to lift the piston. This will consist of
the weight of the piston, Wp, plus the weight of the column of water
obtained in the cross-section of the piston cylinder, H.

The dynamic force is also critical which is the summed product of


the mass and the acceleration of the moving components (water, plus
piston, plus pump rod). The force required to lift the piston is
therefore represented through the following equation:

F = Wp + AρgH (9)

where Wp is in Newton’s, A is in m2, ρ is the density of water


(1,000 kg/m3), g is gravity 9.81 m/s2 and H is in meters; as a result F
will be in Newton’s.

The previous piston pump design was a single-acting pump,


where water is

discharged only on the up-stroke, leaving the down-stroke to fill the


chamber for the next 41 up-stroke. By exploring further designs, it is
possible to construct a pump to discharge water on both the up-stroke
and down-stroke. These pumps are known as double-acting pumps
and are much more productive than single-acting designs. In figure
12, many different pump designs are displayed some focusing on the
double-acting designs. Pumps A and B are conventional single-acting
pump designs which were examined previously. Pump C is a piston

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pump that has no check valve in the piston. It is similar to design B,
but the disadvantage is the discharge stroke requires the piston to be
pushed rather than pulled, which could lead to the rod buckling. Pump
D is again similar to C except it is a plunger pump rather than a piston
pump. This is a more robust pump meaning the seals are less likely to
wear through abrasive solids in the water and 42 where high pressures
and low flow rates are needed, a smaller plunger or closed piston is
possible; this is because a through valve is not needed through the
center. Pump E has a large valve opening and is used for low head
since the high flow rates are required to minimize the hydraulic losses
caused by forcing a lot of water through a small opening.

Another way to look at pump E is a cylinder is being pulled up


and down over a fixed piston. Pump F is similar to C except it is a
double-acting design. When the piston is on the up-stroke, it induces
water into the lower chamber and discharges through the upper
chamber and when continuing through the down-stroke water is
induced into the upper chamber and discharged through the lower.
Pump G is a differential pump and is doubleacting. The pump rod is
half the size of the cross-sectional area of the chamber and will
displace half the volume of the chamber on the down-stroke. On the
up-stroke, the volume will be discharged by the upward movement of
the piston. Pump H is again similar to G and is double-acting, but the
piston used is a closed piston. From the pump designs discussed
above, A, B, E, and G would be suitable for irrigation. Double-acting
pumps can be less effective than single-acting due to the fact they are

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larger and more complex; resulting in higher expenses. They can
experience flow reversal which causes water-hammer, resulting in
operating at a lower speed. Lastly there is heavy loading on both the
up and down-stroke; as a result the pump rods could experience
buckling on the down-stroke with the high compressive forces.

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COMPONENTS

S.No Components Quantity Material


1. Pedal and frame 3 Mild steel
2. Pulley arrangement 1 Cast iron
3. Wheel arrangement 3 Rubber
4. Pump casing 1 Aluminium
alloy
5. Water hose 2 Plastic

PARTS OF FUNCTION
PUMP

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A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or
sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified
into three major groups according to the method they use to move the
fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.

Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or


rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving
the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual
operation, electricity, an engine of some type, or pedal power.

Types

A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a


fixed amount and forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the
discharge pipe.

Some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the


suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid
flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the
liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume
is constant through each cycle of operation. Positive displacement
pumps, unlike centrifugal or roto-dynamic pumps, theoretically can
produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter what the
discharge pressure. Thus, positive displacement pumps are constant
flow machines. However, a slight increase in internal leakage as the
pressure increases prevents a truly constant flow rate.

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A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed
valve on the discharge side of the pump, because it has no shutoff
head like centrifugal pumps. A positive displacement pump operating
against a closed discharge valve continues to produce flow and the
pressure in the discharge line increases until the line bursts, the pump
is severely damaged, or both.

A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive


displacement pump is therefore necessary. The relief valve can be
internal or external. The pump manufacturer normally has the option
to supply internal relief or safety valves. The internal valve is usually
only used as a safety precaution. An external relief valve in the
discharge line, with a return line back to the suction line or supply
tank provides increased safety.

Positive displacement types

Screw pump

A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to


the mechanism used to move the fluid:

Rotary-type positive displacement: internal gear, screw, shuttle


block, flexible vane or sliding vane, circumferential piston, flexible
impeller, helical twisted roots (e.g. the Wendelkolben pump) or liquid
ring vacuum pumps.

Rotary vane pump

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Positive displacement rotary pumps move fluid using a rotating
mechanism that creates a vacuum that captures and draws in the
liquid. Rotary pumps are very efficient because they naturally remove
air from the lines, eliminating the need to bleed the air from the lines
manually.

Rotary positive displacement pumps fall into three main types:

Gear pumps - a simple type of rotary pump where the liquid is


pushed between two gears

Screw pumps - the shape of the internals of this pump usually two
screws turning against each other pump the liquid

Rotary vane pumps - similar to scroll compressors, these have a


cylindrical rotor encased in a similarly shaped housing. As the rotor
orbits, the vanes trap fluid between the rotor and the casing, drawing
the fluid through the pump.

Reciprocating positive displacement pumps

Reciprocating pumps move the fluid using one or more oscillating


pistons, plungers, or membranes (diaphragms), while valves restrict
fluid motion to the desired direction.

Pumps in this category range from simplex, with one cylinder, to in


some cases quad (four) cylinders, or more. Many reciprocating-type
pumps are duplex (two) or triplex (three) cylinder. They can be either
single-acting with suction during one direction of piston motion and
discharge on the other, or double-acting with suction and discharge in

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both directions. The pumps can be powered manually, by air or steam,
or by a belt driven by an engine. Now reciprocating pumps typically
pump highly viscous fluids like concrete and heavy oils, and serve in
special applications that demand low flow rates against high
resistance. Reciprocating hand pumps were widely used to pump
water from wells. Common bicycle pumps and foot pumps for
inflation use reciprocating action.

These positive displacement pumps have an expanding cavity on the


suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid
flows into the pumps as the cavity on the suction side expands and the
liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume
is constant given each cycle of operation.

Typical reciprocating pumps are:

Plunger pumps - a reciprocating plunger pushes the fluid through


one or two open valves, closed by suction on the way back.

Diaphragm pumps - similar to plunger pumps, where the plunger


pressurizes hydraulic oil which is used to flex a diaphragm in the
pumping cylinder. Diaphragm valves are used to pump hazardous and
toxic fluids.

Piston displacement pumps - usually simple devices for pumping


small amounts of liquid or gel manually.

Gear pump

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This is the simplest of rotary positive displacement pumps. It
consists of two meshed gears that rotate in a closely fitted casing. The
tooth spaces trap fluid and force it around the outer periphery. The
fluid does not travel back on the meshed part, because the teeth mesh
closely in the centre. Gear pumps see wide use in pump engine oil
pumps and in various hydraulic power packs.

Screw pump

A Screw pumps is a more complicated type of rotary pump that uses


two or three screws with opposing thread—e.g., one screw turns
clockwise and the other counterclockwise. The screws are mounted on
parallel shafts that have gears that mesh so the shafts turn together
and everything stays in place. The screws turn on the shafts and drive
fluid through the pump. As with other forms of rotary pumps, the
clearance between moving parts and the pump's casing is minimal.

Progressing cavity pump

Widely used for pumping difficult materials, such as sewage sludge


contaminated with large particles, this pump consists of a helical
rotor, about ten times as long as its width. This can be visualized as a
central core of diameter x with, typically, a curved spiral wound
around of thickness half x, though in reality it is manufactured in s
single casting. This shaft fits inside a heavy duty rubber sleeve, of
wall thickness also typically x. As the shaft rotates, the rotor gradually
forces fluid up the rubber sleeve. Such pumps can develop very high
pressure at low volumes.

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Roots-type pumps

Named after the Roots brothers who invented it, this lobe pump
displaces the liquid trapped between two long helical rotors, each
fitted into the other when perpendicular at 90°, rotating inside a
triangular shaped sealing line configuration, both at the point of
suction and at the point of discharge. This design produces a
continuous flow with equal volume and no vortex. It can work at low
pulsation rates, and offers gentle performance that some applications
require.

Plunger pumps

These consist of a cylinder with a reciprocating plunger. The suction


and discharge valves are mounted in the head of the cylinder. In the
suction stroke the plunger retracts and the suction valves open causing
suction of fluid into the cylinder. In the forward stroke the plunger
pushes the liquid out of the discharge valve.

Efficiency and common problems: With only one cylinder in plunger


pumps, the fluid flow varies between maximum flow when the
plunger moves through the middle positions, and zero flow when the
plunger is at the end positions. A lot of energy is wasted when the
fluid is accelerated in the piping system. Vibration and water hammer
may be a serious problem. In general the problems are compensated

26
for by using two or more cylinders not working in phase with each
other.

Velocity pumps

Rotodynamic pumps (or dynamic pumps) are a type of velocity


pump in which kinetic energy is added to the fluid by increasing the
flow velocity. This increase in energy is converted to a gain in
potential energy (pressure) when the velocity is reduced prior to or as
the flow exits the pump into the discharge pipe. This conversion of
kinetic energy to pressure is explained by the First law of
thermodynamics, or more specifically by Bernoulli's principle.

A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating


impeller to increase the pressure and flow rate of a fluid. Centrifugal
pumps are the most common type of pump used to move liquids
through a piping system. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or
near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing
radially outward or axially into a diffuser or volute chamber, from
where it exits into the downstream piping system. Centrifugal pumps
are typically used for large discharge through smaller heads.

Centrifugal pumps are most often associated with the radial-flow


type. However, the term "centrifugal pump" can be used to describe
all impeller type rotodynamic pumps including the radial, axial and
mixed-flow variations.

Radial-flow pumps

27
Often simply referred to as centrifugal pumps. The fluid enters
along the axial plane, is accelerated by the impeller and exits at right
angles to the shaft(radially). Radial-flow pumps operate at higher
pressures and lower flow rates than axial and mixed-flow pumps.

Axial-flow pumps

Axial-flow pumps differ from radial-flow in that the fluid enters and
exits along the same direction parallel to the rotating shaft. The fluid
is not accelerated but instead "lifted" by the action of the impeller.
They may be likened to a propeller spinning in a length of tube.
Axial-flow pumps operate at much lower pressures and higher flow
rates than radial-flow pumps.

Mixed-flow pumps

Mixed-flow pumps, as the name suggests, function as a compromise


between radial and axial-flow pumps, the fluid experiences both radial
acceleration and lift and exits the impeller somewhere between 0–90
degrees from the axial direction. As a consequence mixed-flow pumps
operate at higher pressures than axial-flow pumps while delivering
higher discharges than radial-flow pumps. The exit angle of the flow
dictates the pressure head-discharge characteristic in relation to radial
and mixed-flow.

Gravity pumps

28
Gravity pumps include the syphon and Heron's fountain—and there
also important qanat or foggara systems that simply use downhill flow
to take water from far-underground aquifers in high areas to
consumers at lower elevations. The hydraulic ram is also sometimes
called a gravity pump.

Steam pumps

Steam pumps have been for a long time mainly of historical interest.
They include any type of pump powered by a steam engine and also
piston less pumps such as Thomas Savery's, the Pulsometer steam
pump or the Steam injection pump.

Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in low power solar


steam pumps for use in smallholder irrigation in developing countries.
Previously small steam engines have not been viable because of
escalating inefficiencies as vapour engines decrease in size. However
the use of modern engineering materials coupled with alternative
engine configurations has meant that these types of system are now a
cost effective opportunity.

Types of centrifugal pumps

Centrifugal pumps can be classified into three general categorized


according to the way the impeller imparts energy to the fluid. Each of
these categories has a range of specific speeds and appropriate
applications.

The three main categories of centrifugal pumps:

29
1) Radial flow Impeller

2) Mixed Flow Impeller

3) Axial flow Impeller

Radial flow impeller

Most centrifugal pumps are of radial flow. Radial flow impellers


impart energy primarily by centrifugal force. Water enters the hub and
flows radically to the periphery. Flow leaves the impeller at 90 degree
angle from the direction it enters the pump.

Mixed flow impeller

Mixed flow impellers impart energy partially by centrifugal force


and partially as an axial compressor. This type of pump has a single
inlet impeller with flow entering axially and discharging in an axial
and radial direction. Mixed flow impellers are suitable for pumping
untreated waste water. They operate at high speeds than the radial
flow impeller pumps; are usually of lighter construction; and where
applicable, cost less than other pumps. Impeller may be either open or
enclosed, but enclosed is preferred.

Axial flow impeller

Axial flow impeller imparts energy to the water by acting as axial


flow compressors. The axial flow pump has a single inlet impeller
with flow entering and exiting along the axis of rotation (along the

30
pump drive shaft). These pumps are used in low head, large capacity
applications such as water supplies, irrigation, drainage etc.

HUMAN-POWERED WATER-LIFTERS

The choice of water lifters available is large and varied, making the
selection of an appropriate device difficult. In America and Europe
during the 19th century the design of mass-produced hand pumps
evolved by trial and error rather than through scientific research and
development. There are now a large number of adequate, rather than
optimum, designs conceived by local manufacturers, and it is hard to
know which pump is the best for each application. This brief presents
an overview of the types of human-powered water-lifters available,
the applications appropriate to them and their comparative
advantages.

Water-lifters can be broken down into the following categories:

• Groundwater (open-well, shallow-well and deep-well pumps)

• Surface Water (shadouf, dhone, chain and washer and Archimedean


screw)

Groundwater

When rain falls, it seeps into the ground and collects in an


underground reservoir known as groundwater. The upper limit of this
reservoir, the "water-table", may vary in depth, from just below the
surface (like in a spring or oasis) to well over 100 metres. The only
way to get at this water is to dig down.

31
Open-well

The simplest and cheapest method of lifting groundwater remains


the rope and bucket in a wide, shallow well. These can operate to a
depth of 100 metres, although they rarely exceed 45 metres, and can
last for a very long time without maintenance. It is worth considering
this design before proceeding with more complicated methods.

It may not be possible to construct an open-well if the water table is


too deep or if the foundations are very hard (such as rock) or very soft
(such as fine running sands). These restrictions also depend on the
method of construction.

If the groundwater can only be accessed through a bore, then a


groundwater pump must be used. Groundwater pumps can be split
into two categories, shallow-well and deep-well.

Shallow-well pumps

Most types of groundwater pump have a piston that moves back and
forth inside a two-valve cylinder (a valve allows water to pass in only
one direction - in this case, upwards):

Suction pumps have the cylinder situated above ground or near the
surface. This means that they can only be used for shallow wells. It is
called a suction pump because pulling up on the piston creates a low
pressure ("suction") in the cylinder, causing the atmospheric pressure
outside to push the water up to the surface. Because atmospheric

32
pressure is fairly low, the pressure difference between inside and
outside the cylinder is only large enough to raise water from a
maximum depth of about 7 metres.

It should also be noted that if a shallow-well is used too much, the


water-table may fall as the underground reservoir of water is reduced.
If this level falls below 7 metres, the pump will not work.

Four types of shallow-well pumps are shown below: rower, piston,


diaphragm and semi-rotary.

Rower

The rower pump is a simpler and cheaper version of the traditional


piston pump (see below). Its simple design means it can be easily

33
manufactured and maintained using locally available skills and
materials. This type of pump may require "priming", which means
pouring water into the cylinder so that the seal around the piston is
airtight. It is very important that clean water is used, to avoid
contamination of the pump and the spread of water-borne diseases.

Piston pump

Piston pumps are more widely used. There is a similar risk of


contamination from dirty priming water. In cases where the water is to
be delivered under pressure (such as to a village water mains) or to a
point higher than the cylinder (such as a water storage tank), a "force"
pump is required. The operation is the same, but the design is slightly
altered so that the top is airtight. This is done by putting a valve on the
spout and adding a "trap tube" and air chamber which maintains the
pressure (and therefore the flow) during the up-stroke.

Diaphragm

34
This design is often used for fuel pumps in cars. The Vergnet pump
is an adaptation of this principle for deep-well use, which can be used
in crooked wells, where a rod-operated pump would have problems,
and which is fairly easy to maintain.

Treadle pump

Because leg muscles are stronger than arm muscles, this design is
less tiring to use. Most of the parts can be manufactured locally, the
exceptions being the cylinders and pulley.

Deep-well pumps

Deep-well pumps can be used for depths over 7 metres because the
cylinder or lifting device is below ground, as shown in Figure 6, often
below the groundwater line. They are often known as "lift" pumps
because they do not rely on suction to raise the water. As a result of
their depth, they are harder to maintain than surface pumps, since the
pump-rod must be removed to get at the cylinder. Like suction pumps,
lift pumps can be made into force pumps by the addition of a spout
valve, air chamber and trap tube. Three types of deep-well pump are
described below: piston, helical rotor and direct action.

Piston

The design is very similar to the shallow-well pump and is capable


of lifting water from depths of up to 50 metres. However, the cylinder
is situated deep underground, below the groundwater-line, connected
to the pump handle via a long rod called a "pump rod". Sometimes the
outside pipe, called the "rising main", is of a larger diameter so that it

35
is possible to pull the whole cylinder up to the surface for repair
without taking the pump apart. However, this is more expensive.

Helical rotor (or "progressive cavity")

Helical rotors are capable of lifting water from depths of up to 100


metres. Instead of a piston, there is a metal "rotor" which has a
corkscrew shape and which turns inside a rubber "stator" or sleeve
The lever is replaced with one or two turning handles.

Direct action ( or "direct drive")

This
design is capable of lifting from a depth of 12 metres. The narrow
pump rod is replaced by a hollow plastic pipe which displaces water
as the pump handle is pushed down. During the up-stroke, the pipe
acts as a pump rod, the valve on the piston

Closes and water is lifted up. The pump is therefore capable of


pushing water up the rising main during both strokes. Because the

36
pipe is hollow, it floats, so the handle does not have to be pulled up so
hard.

Surface Water

Surface water lifters are generally less complicated than groundwater


lifters, because the water is so much more accessible. Four types are
described below: shadouf, dhone, chain and washer and archimedean
screw.

Shadouf (picottah)

The basic shadouf consists of a rope, pole, bucket and counterweight


and is capable of lifting water up to 4 metres. The counterweight can
be just a heavy rock, but in the more advanced "picottah" design, one
person guides the bucket while the other acts as a moving
counterweight.

Human powered water lifting devices Practical Action Dhone

This design replaces the bucket with a channel. It can also be adapted
for picottah-style operation.

These pumps have been used in China and Europe for many centuries.
Water is lifted by close-fitting washers in a pipe. Although in theory it
is possible to construct a vertical chain and washer pump to raise
water to any height, most do not exceed 20 metres. A variation of this
design is called the "dragon-spine" pump, which lies at a shallow
angle to the horizontal. In this case, lifting height is rarely more than 6
metres. However, the design is very flexible and can easily be adapted
to circumstances.

37
Archimedean screw Although this design looks quite complicated, it
is fairly easy to build using local materials and is readily
transportable. The inside, which is shaped like a corkscrew, is turned
by a handle, trapping water in the cavities as shown in Figure 9.
Although on a much larger scale, this is very similar to the operation
of the helical rotor. However, the lifting range is much smaller.Human
powered water lifting devices Practical Action

Selecting a water-lifter

The choice of water-lifter is determined by the application and the


resources available to the users. Demand for water may come from
domestic, community, industrial and agricultural needs. It is first
necessary to determine:

• where the water will come from (the source)

• where it will go to (the destination)

Once the source and destination has been determined, it is possible to


narrow down the choice of water-lifter. The table below summarises
the options available for different combinations of source and
destination.

Apart from the source and destination of the water, there are many
other criteria which should be considered before making a selection.
Where possible, the lifter should be suitable for Village Level
Operation and Maintenance (VLOM) or Management of Maintenance
(VLOMM). This reduces the reliance of the villagers upon large

38
institutions to sustain the development of the water supply. A check-
list of things to consider when choosing a pump is shown below.

39
WORKING PRINCIPLE
When the pedal is pressed by the man, the Kinetic energy of the
pedal power is converted into mechanical energy. This mechanical
energy is transmitted and speeds up by the belt and pulley
arrangement.

The mechanical power is transmitted to the pump shaft which is


coupled to the pulley arrangement. At the same time the pump is
running because of the electric motor, which gets power from the
other battery. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF CENTRIFUGAL
PUMP

The centrifugal pump works on the principle of forced vortex flow,


which means that when a certain mass of liquid is rotated by an
external flow, the rise in pressure head of the rotating liquid takes
place. The rise in pressure head at any point of the rotating liquid is
proportional to the square of tangential velocity of the liquid at that
point. Thus at the outlet of the impeller where the radius is more, the
rise in pressure head will be more and the liquid will be discharged at
the outlet with high pressure head. Due to high-pressure head, the

liquid can be lifted to a high level.

40
Advantages of using centrifugal pump

1) Simplicity of design

2) Easier installation

3) Low maintenance

4) Lower weight

5) Handles suspensions and slurry easily

Main parts of a centrifugal pump

The following are the main parts of centrifugal pumps

1) Shaft

2) Impeller

41
3) Casing

4) Suction pipes with a foot valve and a strainer

5) Delivery pipe

42
FABRICATION

“PEDAL PUMP” system consists of

 Pedal power and frame system

 Transmission system

 Water pumping system

Pedal power generation system consists of blades, rotor and


pedal power, and frame

Transmission system consists of gear box wheel axles and the


belt pulley arrangement

Water pumping system consists of centrifugal type water pump which


is used to lift the water from the low head to high head.

43
LINE DIAGRAM

MAN

PEDAL POWER

GEAR BOX
(PULLEY
ARRANGEMENT)

SHAFT OF WATER
PUMP

WATER FROM
WATER PUMPING SUMP

HIGH PRESSURE
WATER

44
PHOTOGRAPHY

45
ADVANTAGES

 No fuel is used

 No pollution

 Higher Performance

 It can be used in all areas

 Weight of the pump is less

 Low maintenance

 No running cost

46
APPLICATION

 All light duty applications

 Industrial

 Agriculture.

47
PROJECT SCHEDULE
This project has been started on the odd semester ie, in the fifth
semester and the title of the project and synopsis has been done
during the above period. During the sixth semester the fabrication of
the project is started and first and second review of the project was
held during the month of January and February. The project has
completed successfully with proper working condition.

48
COST ESTIMATION

S.No Components Quantity Cost


1. Pedal Frame - 2000
2. Pulley - 500
Arrangement
3. Wheel 3 500
Arrangement
4. Pump Casing 1 2000
5. Water Hose 2 100
6. Labour 800
Total 5900

BIBILIOGRAPHY

49
1. Yongning Chi, Yanhua Liu, Weisheng Wang, “Voltage Stability
Analysis of Pedal power Farm integration into Transmission
Network” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 21, issue 1, pp.
257-264, March. 2006.

2. Poller.M.A, "Doubly-fed induction machine models for


stability assessment of pedal power farms," Power Tech
Conference Proceedings, IEEE Bologna, Volume 3, 23-26 June
2003 Page(s):6 pp.

3. K. Nandigam, B. H. Chowdhury. "Power flow and stability


models for induction generators used in pedal powerturbines,"
IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting,

4. www.windpower.org

5. www.arrc.ou.edu

6. www.scribd.com

7. www.davidarling.info/encyclopedia

CONCLUSION

50
From the project we studied that pedal power has a lot of
potential in it and if properly harnessed then it can help solve the
energy crises in the world. The fabrication of pedal pump and its
characteristics showed that how it can be properly designed and used
to get the maximum output. Since the pedal pump converts pedal
power to electric energy, it eliminates the global warming problem.

This pump finds the solution for oil and power price hike. Pedal
pump can be used for commercial purpose. We can drive the pump
without any propellant. The user also operate this pump at free of
cost.

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