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Conventional buildings with underground basements are built by bottom-up

method where structure floors are constructed sequentially from the lowest level of
basement to the top of the super-structure. This conventional method, called the
bottom-up method, is simple in both design and construction, but it is not feasible
for large structures with limited time for construction, site constraints, deep
excavation, land with higher saturated soils and loose soils. In the Top down
method, the permanent structure is built from top to bottom of the basement along
with the excavation. Top down construction is an advanced method and is mainly
used for the structures like Metro Stations. In this method, basement concrete
slabs act as lateral bracing for the perimeter wall system. Ground level and
subsequent basement slabs are poured, with access holes left to allow excavation
beneath. As each subsequent sub grade level is completed, the floors act as
lateral bracing for the perimeter wall system. Perimeter wall which is generally
referred to as Diaphragm wall (or D wall) is a single, safe solution for all the
constructional problems encountered in underground construction. D walls provide
effective earth retention and good control over ground water movement. It’s
capable of carrying the superstructure loads, providing early utilization of the
superstructure even before the completion of substructure of that building.
 Distance between boundary wall of adjacent existing building and building
line for new building is too close and the depth of excavation is more than
6 meter and possibility of collapse the soil is higher during excavation.

 Using Top Down Construction more Building and Basement Area can use.
Suitable for two or more Basement.

 The first slab level slab will act in such area as a strut member and the
Retaining wall panels will not allow collapse of soil.

 Water table is too high and difficult to cast Retaining wall , Diaphragm wall
or continuous pile can use as a Retaining wall.
 Top Down Building construction

 Top Down Bridge construction

 Top Down Retaining Wall construction

 Basement of buildings

 Semi-basement with slope stabilization purpose

 Transport facilities such as railway station, tunnel and

pedestrian subway

 Access or services shaft

 Setting out for alignment of bore cast in situ of piles

 Bore Cast in situ piles to be cast and dowels bar to be kept for
retaining wall panels. The center of piles and retaining wall panels
center line to be kept in same line. The Diameter of piles preferred
600 mm. Distance between two piles center to center preferred3.33
m [Suit for C/C distance of column] Depth of piles to be confirmed
by structural constrains.

 Touching piles can use as a Retaining wall with supporting

arrangement during excavation.
 Use diaphragm wall as the side support for the

 Construction progress upwards and Downwards at

the same time

 Savings in construction time.

 Schematics and pictures give ideas on ongoing

activities during construction
 Step 1: Cast in situ piles which double as basement columns
and peripheral retaining to form below ground columns and
walls. Airey Taylor has refined this system to achieve a high
quality finish and plumb columns.

 Step 2: Ground Floor slab is cast atop the piles and perimeter

 Step 3: Start of above ground construction;

 Step 4: After concrete slab have reached certain strength,

excavation under the Ground Floor slab commences
 Columns with sufficient capacity to sustain the construction load and
to utilize as part of bracing system.

 Excavation for basement must be carried out with the support of

permanent retaining wall so that basement floor slabs can be utilized
as lateral bracing.

 Diaphragm wall of 0.8m to 1.2m in thickness with sufficient

embedment in firm soil.

 Prefabricated steel columns known as stanchions embedded in either

large diameter bored piles are utilized as structural columns.
 De-watering is not required
 This method enables above ground construction
work to be carried out simultaneously with
excavation of basement thus resulting in saving of
time and resources.
 It vastly improved the speed of project delivery to
the client.
 It offers dramatic Capital cost improvements while
providing excellence of finish to the build,
enhancing and reducing resource usage,
improving cost and reducing pollution.
 It eliminates the need for sheet piling.
 Dust levels are kept to minimum.
 Difficulty in removing soil due to restricted head space.
 If the underlying soil is too weak then this method is not