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INDEX.

Rudiments of Music..;..: l Different shades of Tone. 31

Duration of Notes : l Taking Breath 31

Comparative Table of the relative Minor Scales 34


value of Notes. 2 The double Sharp... 38
Bars. 3 The double Flat..... 39

Rests ; 3 Various Duets. .40


Dots 3 The Portamento. 45
Triplets, double Triplets and Groups.... 8 The Harmonic Minor Scale. 48
Time .. ... 4 The Appoggiatura. 49

Table of Times 4 The Gruppetto or Turn 50


Scales. :
_."_
4 The passing Shake. 51

Flats • 5 The Shake 51

Table of Signatures of Flat Keys. 5 Studies on Chords. 61

Sharps _. 5 Abbreviations. 66

Table of Signatures of Sharp Keys..... 5 Rests 66

Natural 5 Chromatic Studies 68

Introduction. ..:vr 6 Grand Studies. 70

General Instructions. 6 Transposing. 85

Complete Scales for the French The Echo 88

Horn with three Valves 8 Various passages from


The first Exercises 9 orchestral pieces. 89

The Pause , 19 »• • e
Thema with Variations
re
98
••!••• *•••• • \ 9 • • • • *
, .

.

Slur A.A.:.:V.':.':.?.:;A.l.v.L.:: £0 :
List of the principal words
Scales for shutting the Bell. _;.;.!..: :S2 in modern music 100

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RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.
Before the student can commence to play on any instrument, it is necessary that he should be ac-
quainted with the rudiments of notation.
The musical signs, which indicate the pitch and duration of a musical sound, are called Notes ,

and are figured thus.- o J J • J-* J etc.

They are named after seven letters of the alphabet: C, D, E,F,G,A,B, and are written on, between,
above or below five parallel lines :
called the Stave The names of the notes are deter-
.

mined by C lefs ,
placed on different lines

Music for the French Horn is m the Treble or


written in G clefs, placed on the second line ^fc

and for very low notes in the Bass or F clef, placed on the fourth. £2E

The names of the notes on the 5 °f t ^ie f° ur *P a ces ^=t


l
JES
'

^
five lines in the Treble clef are.
jp
^7^—
„ i i

J
I

*'
Tj-±J
BDF
between the lines. M i * —l
>H

E
E G F A C

These eleven notes being too limited in range to indicate


of the two notes above
higher and deeper sounds, Ledger lines have to be added,
and below the lines.
G above and below the stave
D

* .*!* *f
Notes on the ledger lines JL T j- £^E^ Notes on the ledger lines
"^
above the stave. mV : below the stave.

G F E
D C

Table of Notes in the Treble Clef.

mS^k
G ———A -B
C B E —
F B-
B C D E F

f g a "table of Notes in the Bass Clef.


C D e

m
W4
T G
i
A
H
B C
1
T> iE G I To ^ b fe 'F «
A B
£

DURATION OF NOTES.
Notes may be of longer or shorter duration, which is indicated by the form of each note.

Forms of different Notes.


:cr
¥=F- ¥
1
Semibreve Minim, Crotchet, Quaver, Semiquaver, Demi Semiquaver
ScmiQ

Groups of the latter three kinds


may also be written thus

2044-100
Quavers, Semiquavers, Demi Semiquavers.
COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE RELATIVE VALUE OF NOTES,

A Whole Note, ZEC

is equal to

2 Half Notes, £

or //\
4 Quarter Notes, £E

or

8 Eighth Notes,

or i \ / \ I \

18 Sixteenth Notes,

or
^ * 1~

S
1

32 Thirty second Notes. fTffffrfrffPfrffffff "_±?J

BARS.
Notes are ,divided into 'Bars by single or double lines drawn across the stave.

One line is placed after each bar. Each bar contains the same number or value of notes,

and must last precisely the same length of time. At the end of a composition or section of a composition,

two lines are placed forming a double Bar. J== | If either two or four dots are found by the side of

a double Bar. :||: j the whole section from the preceeding double bar, or if there is no earlier

double bar, from the beginning of the piece, is to be played again. This is called a Repeat.

RESTS.
Instead of a note a Rest indicating a pause of equal value may be used, thus.

i Eighth, Sixteenth, Thirty seticond.


Rest for a Whole Note, Half Note, Quarter,
1832 - 100
DOTS.
A Dot placed after any note increases its value one half. Thus:

2 is equal to or a to
^m or to 1 SJ
-

Two Dots placed after a note increases its value one half and a quarter or —F7-'— is equal to j^""r*~rn etc
|

TRIPLETS, DOUBLE TRIPLETS AND GROUPS.


Triplets are marked by a figure 3 placed over a group of three notes double Triplets are marked by a 6 ;

placed over a group of six notes. Three Quarter notes marked thus are to be played in the same

-rwnrm-m
time as two Quarter notes : "T f not so marked. Or six Eighth notes, like four Eighth notes

five, seven and nine or more notes.


7
"""^
— ^"~
9
not so marked There are
. also Groups of
m etc.

TIME.
how many Quarter notes, Eighth notes or Thirty
In order to denote second a bar contains, special
figures are placed at the beginnig of a movement, as under.

Common Time. Three four Time. Two four Time.


W W
P i
Contains four Quarter notes or the same Contains tliree Quarter notes or the same Contains two Quarter notes or the same
value of longer or shorter notes or value of longer or shorter notes or value of longer or shorter notes or
rests and four 1,2,3,4, have to be rests and three 1,3, #3, have to be rests and two 1,2, have to be counted
counted in a bar. counted in a bar. in a bar.

TABLE OF TIMES.
Single or commonTimes. Compound common Times. Single TripleTimes. CompoundTripleTimes.

^ or 4
m m
r, or ft or
m m
i
§E3E i t ffi

When aline ;
s drawn through the C thus (p it is called Alia Breve and two(l,2,) are counted in a bar.
1832-100
SCALES.
The ladder- like succession of eight sounds, starting from any note and ascending or descending by
tones anil semitones in regular order- is called a SCALE and each note of a scale is called a Degree.
Between these eight degrees there are seven intervals or distances, five of which are tones and two
semitones.
There are two principal kinds of Scales, termed Major and Minor whose ascension 'or descension is
diatonic /.^.intones and semitones; "and a third kind, whose ascension or descension is chromatic i.c.oriLy
in semitones.
For the present only the major scale will be treated.
In the major scale the semitones are situated between the third and fourth and the seventh and eight
degress of the scale.

Example.

Each diatonic scale derives its name from the name of the note on the first degree — or the Root .

There are twelve Major and twelve Minor Scales.


The distance from one note to another is called an Interval . Two notes placed on the same degree
do not produce any interval, they are said to be in Unison.
The intervals are named: the Second, the Third, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh the
Octave,, etc.

Table.

Degrees.
1. 6. 8.

i P
Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Octave.

FLATS.
A scale may be formed on any note-, but in order to produce semitones between the third and fourth

and the seventh and eighth degrees in any other but the scale of C -Major, it is necessary to employ
certain characters, wich raise, depress, or restore the pitch of any note in the scale.
One of these characters is called the Flat!?, which, when prefixed to a note, depresses it half a tone.
The number of Flats employed in a Scale, depends upon which note the scale is founded.

1832-100
5

The Flats succeed each other in the following order:

1. 2. 3. 4.

i
7
S £ £
$ ^//^/;
P I
Eflat; Aflat; I) flat;
1
GflaP, Cflat;
£
Fflat.

Thus it will be seen that if one flat is employed it must be prefixed to B, consequently all BV in that

piece must be depressed half atone. When two flats are employed, all B's and Es must be depressed and
when three flats all B's,Es and A's, and so on.
The flats placed at the commencement of each stave are called the Signature , while any, which appear

in course of the composition, are called Accidentals .

TABLE OF SIGNATURES OF FLAT KEYS.


Number of Flats. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.

1 s s fefe

Navies of the Keys. B^ Et, A\> Db G\, Ob

SHARPS.
A Sharp $ prefixed to a note raises it half tone. The Sharps succeed each other in the following order.

2. 5.

1 % t
*
F sharp; C
P
sharp; G
3E

sharp; D sharp;
*
A sharp; E sharp;
¥
B sharp.
The same rule, conerning Signatures, as in Flat Keys is to be observed here.

TABLE OF SIGNATURES OF SHARP KEYS.


Number of Sharps. 1, 2, 4, 6, 7.

Names of the Keys.


| »

G
l»ii

D
!*n^-.
A
jM«
E
Hi
B
|| %
F#
jgjj
C#
|

THE NATURAL \.
In order to restore any note which has been raised by a sharp % or depressed by a flat K to * ts original

pitch a Natural Ej is employed, thus S


zjjj
ft a
=: F raised by a sharp, is restored by the natural

fcp^ to its original sound F \ ; or B flat to B natural.

1832-100
I
6

INTRODUCTION.
The French Horn (in French called Le Cor and in German Das Waldhorn) is one of the oldest in-

struments known . Its name is very likely derived from its resemblance in form to animal horns.

Historians have noted that early instruments were prepared from horns of beasts.

In former times before the invention of the Valves, the different notes of the scale were produced
either by the natural open notes or by closing- more or less the Bell of the instrument with the right

hand, which however, in the hands of a medium player produced only dull sounds . On the invention

of valves, they were added to the French Horn as well as to other instruments. There are French
Horns with two and with three valves, the latter being generally adopted now, becausecapablemore
perfectly to render in time the entire chromatic scale, especially the lower notes, some of which

cannot be produced on the two valved instrument.

Some old players are still opposed to the entire use of valves, because they argue, that the charac-

ter of the original sound suffers in consequence. By comparing however, a chromatic scaleplayed

on either instrument, it will be found that the preference must be given to the valved Horn as it

renders every note with equal clearness.

The Compass of the French Horn with three valves is from /' to
|

A chromatic scale is, however? only possible from the low C iwm

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

I.

The performer may play in a standing or sitting position, but he should always keep the body
upright without stiffness, the chest well expanded to allow the free action of the lungs.

2044- 100
n.

The instrument is held with the left hand. The fore, medium and ring fingers rest loosely over
the valves, always ready for use the thumb pressing against the under part of the tube.
5

The instrument must not lean upon the body, only the ring of the bell is to rest against the right
haunch. The right hand, outstretched but with fingers close together inside the bell on that part
next the body, to be ready for use when partial closing of the bell is required.

III.

The mouthpiece is placed on the lips, as nearly as possible in the centre of the mouth, about two
thirds of the mouthpiece on the upper and about one third on the under lip. No strict rule as to the
size of the mouthpiece can be given, as for high notes a smaller one and for low notes a larger one
may answer best, very much however, depends upon the formation of the lips.

IV.

To produce a sound on the instrument, the lips shouldbe closed as in the act of smiling, the tongue
u
put between the teeth, quickly drawn back, and at the same time the word Too"or "Uoo" pronounced.
A compression of the lips will produce a higher sound and relaxing them, a lower one.

V.

Breathing should be effected without removing the mouthpiece from the lips. Breath must be taken
by opening a little each corner of the mouth, while steadily retaining the position of the mouthpiece.
Breath should never be taken through the mouthpiece. The cheeks should not be puffed out when
playing, it makes the tongue heavy and looks ugly. Take breath as slowly as time will permit,forthe
more slowly it is taken, the more the player will have at disposal. In any case it is desirable to be
sparing with the breath. It will enable you to respire oftener and is beneficical to health.

VI.

French Horn in keys of many Sharps or Flats, there are


In order to iacilitate the playing of the
Crooks for nearly every key. For the beginner it is advisable to practise only the El?, EC) or Fcrook.
At a later period however all the others may be practised.

2044- 100
— '

Complete Scales for the French Horn with three valves,

Some notes can also be taken with the valves as marked above.

O o o

1
¥
iP c
B^ B^
7> «5
V4 A
It G c fit
v>i E
very- difficult.
The same QOtes in the IB ass clef

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little used

-
r-*—
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r*n r4q r^ r4-
Q
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1 1
O 1
i I i 1 n
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O o o o O

o o C
o te
ft tfo n k
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F# G G# A BS p: c
G A B^ ,± c c# D n# E F
<3 ID F verydifficiih

The figures 1,2,3, indicate the three valves to be pulled down by the fore- middle - and ringfinger
respectively. The sign O means that the notes are open without valves.
I The Bass notes as written here, do in reality sound an octave higher, modern composers have there-
fore frequently written the Bass notes as they really sound. The conductor should in such cases point
out the fact to the performer.

Compartive Table of old and modern notation of Bass notes for the French
Horn. A difference of
Old Style, an Octave.

m «: tt o- "Or -o- _u_ o

Modern Style.
-«- _o_
m ^CT -O- m: -o- 3T -**- 3E -e- ^Q=

These two are


in unison.
o
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Table of open notes on the French Horn.

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THE PAUSE . fis

A Pause placed over a note, means that the note can be sustained to an indifinite length at the perfor-
mers pleasure, the counting being interrupted.

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A Slur-- drawn over two or more notes binds them together so that only one stroke of the tongue is
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applied to produce them. Articulate the notes as marked below from a high note to a lower''tee-oo and r
'

from a low note to a higher"too-ee'.'

116.^3
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Before proceeding to the use of the valves it will be very useful to acquire facility in producing
tl^ intermediate notes of the scale by opening and closing the bell wholly or partially with the
right hand.

The scales which are given here, will show the pupil how to do it.

The explanation of the signs is as follows.

The is for open notes.

The • is for a note requiring the bell entirely shut.

The r4 is to shut the bell one quarter.

The Vi is to shut the bell one half.

The % is to shut the bell three quarters.

'
The Bell means all the space inside which the right hand acts, and the signs refer only to the space

between the hand and the side of the bell, and not to the space occupied by the bell itself.

SCALES FOR SHUTTING THE BELL.

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as 4
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The ear is the only guide for the greater or less degree of opening or closing some notes in order
to play them in perfect tune.
2044-100
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2H
SCALE OF C MAJOR
L
a h. n O o *
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2044-100
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24

Moderato

130
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Scale of F Major
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131
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Some more Exercises for the Frenchhorn without Valves.

132. 3^ PPf g a
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26
Scales and Exercises for the French Horn with three Valves.
SCALE OF C MAJOR. Omit these high notes for the
present until a good emhou-
ehureis acquired.

2
1 1 2 O 1
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In Thirds.

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20 '»4-10
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Pi a
27

When dots are placed upon the notes thus


fff*? ^ the stroke of the

tongue should be short and the sound produced J ^5 N_ — ^.j.-rT T


should be similar to the following:
f
,.
g g
. j ,
7
f
T^^KJ ^r g g ?p ? ? g
l
,-»
l
This

kind of tongueing-is called staccato .

When dots and a slur are written thus:


£ ££ 7TlT^ the notes should

be played with a soft stroke of the tongue, pronouncing the word "Doo" A similar articulation is

employed when notes are written with a small line and a slur thus: =$z
only the notes in this case, should be played softly and long. §p=
:
i pt£ Sfe:

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In Seventh.

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In Octaves.

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2044-100
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Scale of C major in the low octave.


i i J L
£ -3 e- 9 - 3 a
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f r! 3

1 Ff^f
.
The same in Bass Clef.
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In Thirds.

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In Fifths.

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2014-100
31

DIFFERENT SHADES OF TONE.


p means: piano, soft.

pp means: pianissimo, very soft.

f means-, forte, loud.


ff means: fortissimo, very loud.

jf means-, mezzo forte, moderately loud.


,f

vresv. or —-= z means: crescendo, increasing the sound.

dim. decresc, or — means: diminuendo, decresccndo, diminishing sound.

sf,rfk, or;>~ means-. sforzando, rinforzando, accentuated.

Jp means: forte. piano, loud and immediatly soft again.


In order to acquire a full tone and along breath, long sustained notes should frequently fee practised
in the following manner.-

Adagio.
IE -<*-
136.3SB3 -©- -*V *> o ~^-
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PP < f^pp Pp^f^PP

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2CE -ev- -o- 30:
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xs: -©-
o ^ ""

TAKING BREATH.
In playing a wind instrument, it is very important to take breath at the proper time. This should be

done quietly, without noise .and without any motion of the body. As musical compositions consist of

phrases, care should betaken that such phrases are not interrupted. Much however, depends on the

construction of the body, for many players can keep the breath longer than others, so that no strict

rule can be given, where to take breath. Some Composers however have marked places to take fresh

breath by a •>
or + as the following example will show.

2044-100
— —
li'Z

137. S ^ Allegro moderato.

-0 — <s

con gracta.
0-
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r7M77 n=f^ -o-=-

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Andante grazioso'.
A
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MfT-TlT^]
+

^ £ pi
Allegro

/
^8 marcato.

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£ ^^ V
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Exercise with Syncopated Notes.

140. TjT^i i> J


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33
SCALE OF F MAJOR.
1 l 1

—— 1+<M 10 °i+ ° Q ' i! 1+ Q t

-w^^ -Q-4 0- 0-1-


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I- =0=^
?
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Andante

141. ^ k-b
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142. s Allegretto.

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MOZART.

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SCALE OF G MAJOR.

3ES a — o- J Q_
2

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143.
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"3"

Allegro. HANDEL
144.
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4. 1,

• mm'-m-m
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pr l
l l

MINOR SCALES.
Every maj or scale has its relative minor, the root of which is to be found on the sixth degree of the major
scale. Both scales bear the same signature. There are two kinds of minor scales, the Harmonic and the
Melodic of "which the latter from will now be explained.
,

the ascending of the melodic minor scale differs from descending, the former having its sixth and seventh
degrees raised by accidentals not essential to the Ke y. =_ In ascending, semitones are situated between the
second and third, and the seventh and eighth degress; and in descending between the sixth and fifth, and
the third and second degrees.

Scale of A minor.
without signature, relative to C major

tone I semitone I
tone I tone I tone tone I semitone

t t
l^degi /4th\ /5t]A fam fm /Sth\

tone tone Isemitone I tone tone semitone I tone

I i i ^
8tlA /7 th\ hy] /4th\

TABLE GF MINOR SCALES WITH THEIR RELATION TO MAJOR,


A MINOR E MINOR B MINOR F# MINOR C# MINOR G# MINOR Djf MINOR Ajf MINOR

"To
C MAJOR G
*
to
4
MAJOR D MAJOR A MAJOR E MAJOR
To
fcfe

To
H to
^i
to
B MAJOR
m mH ito
F# MAJOR
To
C# MAJOR

* *fc
« Hi u m
D MINOR G MINOR C MINOR F MINOR Bb MINOR E(? MINOR Ai? MINOR

to
I;

to
25=
He
to
mte
to
mm to
m to
ateE
to
P MAJOR B\> MAJOR El? MAJOR A\? MAJOR Th MAJOR Gb MAJOR C\? MAJOR

m ±t
£ a m ss
be
til

1S32-100
3

as
SCALE OF A MINOR.

— 2 1
* 2

r^
1 3
-a ^~ i- 3
-e
E rj
-» a £
» I ?—r-tf fe ,f

1 1

f j i
^
a q_

^Ff
,

g *>

146. m s §§ Andantino.

P
f7> ^s
jm^-5.- i

r~r
CEJI
PPP
cEt'tt P
|b
LL*
j
P ^ 5 1
J)
|
s MZiiSZM
l!r#

|
f
J "
J f|J^]J^
J
B ^T | f
r
>
f
g I
^J » * #
SW
141
ffgBte
Andante.

* i
J
77 & irr h W &!rTr*J
c i te
«-
-^f •i^
sg
jjj^ i r rrirP
ife
WJ
Jji^^ i

j^JWrc; g
^ aJ J 3V'.J# I \
rrLTT r tc^f '
r
i/P?r pita
SCALE OF E MINOR,
I 1 l
Q 3 °, g 2 g ° 0,0.0a g Q a o oi o a o
<'.j] i J Ji
r
i

if"
irff r 1 yiy | «• — "-I©
^lf
-3-3-
1 1
3z=g: -O— -
-s — a- 2

iFt
—"-« -<5> ^"r'rirrr £ • ' o
** 3* °
Allegro.

148.
4
1 jp i i
j:
^ i

U" '

O 7
u ^tt^vttthji

1fr0 7
|

^ 7|
jJ j> 7| l> ,7| Ji
7
|
e^M-9^1
2044-100
An d ant in o.
148
#i ¥ :» *_n M.'J J I J i

f^W^ m * c s i -J2.

•> .' I

«L, z ^ t i=±
^
#
IS sc

Mr *-
-«»-
*
1*J
SCALE OF D MINOR. "

i
l

1 1 °,
a , 2
i
2 o+O 1 T ° 1 1 +
BE j j ^ tic ~if 1;

r
b
r
^W
-3 — 4-
1
.'{
+
, 1
2 — 4-
1+01 ^TT -*V
o 1

£=tf
if*:* or: 1

Moderato.

149. -fr* ± i

.^J^f'f3 *
k I gS '

fcl
«
_• rs^g=B
3EfcE5EE£=5 ^S s » . » :

7 £ 7

m«/

/-
rS ^^ » ».
=r
£ ^
P^^ -*~T
* •

' f *
yH^
^_s
*
1
.

s
l^^^bTTTiT]^^ t ^ E* • #,
£3z
ZZj

""-= —#- k

I


-
Sr
* EEE
jarJTWg? J Fr^^z^g
2Jf

i 7 £ 7 • a *

M -^ —~«*is
^7
20*4-100
ij, 1
HH^ *-* y * S=^
*3fc3£ ST
9
V3
• _i :
r * ^
37
Scale of B[> Major

^=^ i — -^ F- rrnvSt
f^ £
<*

Scale of G Minor.

H r^ 75" "
*^» r \* %* '
°
+ i i

P i fat!tml
I p—

A ^ + +

Scale of D Major.
+ +
& 1 i

I E^F^ £ -*?»--»
W-^^F* EZ±I J» I* :

Scale of B Minor.
+
=6
^hF — #Mf f ^ ^
^t^1K -i^-

fe=
3~p ^ * ^ V
Scale of
f
Eb Major.
Eg
or O or

i ^ P

T>

dl
^3£
3i 1
a — +
i g ^^ * # 3
^Wl
^JgfF^
a

4
+

^^ Scale of
+
C Minor-
:d=*:

frfr ,f
^ + I

b
O
r^
#

3
-* F o-

^^3^i *=F * •
J RFff zzz

n ? bj ^ « j
* b# F'Tl
bi
& -& -75-?
Scale of A Major.

r^gj
l afcizS
P
jt
s£ F^ ^i iff
Scnle of Ffj Minor.

204-1-100
g^D'vftJfr
1 +

t=3=tz
J, 1 *^-g—r -#^
Wt.
j
=
ww ^^ wrt^
^ — 3t
38
SCALE OF Al> MAJOR.

&
&I3E
IP ^ SCALE OFF MINOR.
t
w M3=3
3 ~
•^
g£^
i p 'ji^ i
j i3 ^ p4f# #^rtr^
^ i
rr :

te
4 fcz
j
Hkj u 1 1 1 u j ^ 'j j ^ ^ |J
i i
SCALE OF E MAJOR.

#
tt k> 44
-^
M *=£
+
£=* i
i +

* 3
-^ —
^
SCALE OF Cjt MINOR.

& 5 •— L~ Pgf 6S J I
-1
f
f "V'^ S=—
'##
:

SCALE OF Dl? MAJOR, 1 '

# yfes
f\.
\ e
^^ +

SCALE OF Bk MINOR
t
i
+

"cr

gypff i
l=^P=P p
f^
m. §s
-3 1

^
» 1
3
»>!;

* i; v 77

SCALE OF B MAJOR. 2
+
aPf? i +
fei ^^
# ^pi 77
pp
+ J
ifeii 1 n -2 2 ^v —2
3
2,
9 a II

-e»-

THE DOUBLE SHARP. 54

When a double sharp x is prefixed to a note the note must be raised a whole tone
, . Thus

F double sharp will sound like gs J G natural.

SCALE OF G(t MINOR.


^+
i iiJEHC
i n

"
*-
j ^»p
i-.fi

! f ititlYs ^
2044-100
P U Jp 3 1
I

W'JijjLj
.

39

SCALE OF F# MAJOR.

^s
*y
rr^
A _+
22 i ^
i

*=ff
1 „ + 1

mi
9 w

* ^jj'j i Z7 =:

*&*
W.jjjij.ffir ^
SCALE OF D# MINOR.
+ i

SCALE OF Gb MAJOR.
+

pp i^rfP E
i==st
Ty

w^ 9 pB33 -& jj|g r r ri rrr i rM


£ -»
^
SCALE OP Eb MINOR.

1 1,1^1, g jj |
J
^ 5^
r
ff
^^^WfffP T5

THE DOUBLE FLATM>.


^_^
When a double flat W?is prefixed to a note, the note must be depressed a whole tone. Thus w*
fk<

— A natural
Bdouble flat will sound like
Like fa
^^ J

Example.

bh>L i* Ji,u>
p
P ^^ ^ ct
J i r J i gjj
J- 1 i
- i

The following articulations shall serve an as example, in which different forms all scales should be prac-
tised.

i j u -#
f r i
f r
zz: * -**

A
£
f #=3K i ^^ J H
J J J "J J "J^

2044-100
<*u
# — —

4*^ fflir r?f f rr,f ff f f ij i


r
p. \s^m
Various Duets for two French Horns.
NQl. Fans are.

14 Horn.
^m 5
E PS ##
fcs-ft
£ E 7 £ 7
l.af U
£+h^ ^^ K :
*=ff
£ ^
2 ni l Horn.
^5 7^ 7
PP P 0-0-0-0
^ 5
*^ 5^^
-^L

f
3
^ Ei=zi
j^£g ^S
» »
See? S
E^* PSS ^^
T^T' jg -^ ^m m m P * J«
**:
^ 7^ 7:

N?2.
* # » F #

II 1 H P
7

i #= — —
i #- • • #L
—# * a -• 0-

f—w m •
i
m p i r r r r i f - r r r
^
# w» , O
« P #£^S « r e
1 * :
&
#

20 44-100
41

N?3. Allegro.

^m ~~X^P-

p
• ft

/
^ ^
i> / 2>

i^ -6>

/ P
-6^-
» * s»

f
£

r* fir* r i'rrr ir rr lf
1 ^4r * r |r** | l
: :

8w/ F

^ » m^ » f=#=
i>

p~=f
-s»-
Si

/
1
/
p~% I p > I
?
£*
i> /
s £i£

££* 3 ^ff 1

f
£ P£
f
S* 1
f
g: ; m

i
r
t=
*
f i
r^ ^ I
<&

£
j r
-
wr- r?
§ * »
^g *-£-
« s s* »
Sicilian Fisher Song,
N9 4. Andante.
5L Q P
SE
P =F PP

I £ EEpp i^tel £ ^ tt s^ :£?


Q

+ d '
3 •
P ^ £
•"^
^ -o-

^^^
-/
in.

I
r * •
T% -* Thf-r* ^^ -
3
XT
20.44-100
42

N?5. Allegro moderato.

S «*

dolve
fc

t

p
*>
Sf P a
^ f f -
rs:
^*£> r^» >, »

3^
m w zt -&-
PS ip i 5E
3
32= ^¥
i

»>

P £
^5f

»Kb
W » £ a*
Si p?^
Fm S 2
T

p 3? s* r
fe* J'HJ
fT^f
TW
t 22: -<&-
? P*
n
S P P £ s f P «
^ff W iC^fc • «#

I ==£ fc*
==P1«— -•- 22: +-r+ s M& -Q-

N9.6. Allegro

^ i -(9-

P
Z2I -&-
i m s ^^£ ^F=^
forte e marcato

3E*
J ^ ^ fW ;g^ •w * 1
*
Pi F=t ^ 77
f 3=

m
fe
~»T^
t t H +S -1
-5-
F
-&-

"27
¥? -&
& £ ^ *-d -o-
i Jj fTrr ±e-
f
rr
^
p
nrr?
f
q*Pjfr
i£ i p i ^ i «3
/ *>*>

IptfMf i/
2044-100
i^ -©
V
p^ ^^ ^ ^9
— — #

43
N?7. Vivace.

^0—
Si £ fe gp^ ^f> ft I P">
1 PP P P
ft
i
if P
1
:.
* m
P
fif
-
^ f ff-f fe 0-0 i « £#
#-l I ^ #3 0-

p?w ^ ^ T^m §m
m a
&£ 2 m m E^
// /
/#

ffl J
"
J J J-^«
«±*
aa ^=Fi^
HP i aa
^ ^g £ fa^

f^FF
I
ff=n
P
#
i
m r
eH^ [IfLLfl
^ §^
if
ii^^p fe
^ i i
§
0+0 — ^s
Ss -•
i
» .J— F* i 3^
Hunting Song,
N?8. Quasi allegretto.

if
f
i P
^^ ^S J J J --< :

W
p i j • j j j i j .
ip ^^ V * * *
5

^S 1.

^3 P
/
^P P £

n *
ppi S£i "' 0' £
f
P ^^
II. 2.

T * g 0-
P^

2044-100
m v f * *
t
^ t

44
N?9. Menuetto.

mm
s
#-'-•-

S _*jiJL
£* *=*=
* »
P m
M
3
/
» » 5? ?=^
*? *lif
-* 0*-0-0 t

122 f~0 W ft f if ..
i
»•
1

4'
(i
ZT
f
^ p
'
~
|
J 'J # =f~* ^f '
==: -* :

£
i
^
S » I ,
»
m /
Pi0' • I

tst
• »
^

I$* s^ iS V
«L-^ #- -# #•
0'

f
'
00
= '
#
f
TRIO.
1. II 2. # »
£=~± • r .

SP f^CT Pg? =«EF

F^fg *fii » # • j¥~


Fine.

3* B
i>
s
ss F^ 1 *zff=t

^^ ^^ g^^ ^^ g=fczt

3^ ^^ * ^fe S^ ^^ ^3
iidi
^S icspc grf*
1 3£ =F*=
S W m

2044-100
45


^£ i^p T» P~ » r-rT

^s m S^ ^^ 3^$ ^
t £ ^ I !
II

i B
II

^ E£3E 3=?^ tn=y 3^ £3 E


Mm netto DC.
10. Moderate.

m i>
* * j. ^Z3C
r^
^ i 3
3 • *
«-^

±Eh±
r
*i'i,U P ^— ir
=* ^ 3 J- 7 f-+a
O.Ji
'
^^g
H# £ ^=*=3Se S ^ ^
(

^IP f '4- £E&


C* • •-
w ^ ^ ^ »

T=?
m ^ #^ «—d P ?=?=K
B
^e Ǥ a

^^f rr^ P*
»^ ^ ^7"
3
r=^

^
§S ^ i ? £ 1 m
i S£
2044-100
-j^ ji-^ '

SS a ^>#-
^ +-m
f
46
± ^
N°ll. Polacca,

tip i $L ?\L
*— **==#

i e sp 3P
. c*

I
u?
-
? i?
<u
*P^
^ £
Ft ==3 ^
PH
PSM Q*fft] g^F
Cj
Qw
^^ ^f ? s as y
^
JJr r J> * j bh

* r v
e TU*
I

^P?ut^i irtf 1
3E

^gcrar^ l^Eg i^ 2E
r^ ^
in
' m- m
i if* EN I Lfitflr

I f^l #^ ^s^
£? *—
afe *
pg^l ? *t
-ft- 2 —#-

2044-rlOO
»
47

N? 12. Vivace. Hunting Chorus From"DerFreishutz."


C.M.v WEBER.

1f m m /
^ S ^^ ^S ||P
r P I # •
q
.

(ita
f S f 10 8
^r
e e
as
Pf 3=*^
i «l-#
-hr

F^ £# PP a^ S J-VJ i
^ £P £& ^
4—4-4
^ -4—40 *=3C 4 4 4 l
4 44 4 4
l
4—4-4-^4
B
d Ad 4

— -^TT
hv\} mei ^^ #^ — KTfr. I J"H 1 *3 zz: ^H _£v

i
JfFfp if* * J* J *
1

m •
i
••
# » » j -#
*** ^
22
US
I
N9 13. Allegretto.
*

§ *LlU
M
m i ^ Song.

;^E5E
—4—4
ng
F.SCHUBERT.

4-4tw-0
s*

mm -w%h ^^ I ^
S? gg^
I pT»
frF^ ft

^^ gS
#^-
C\

^ nY.
^ r\

« tempo.
£ Si
^
-/

^ S
ffl!

Ulil ^S§ i=
\J
*=*
r\
^f
2044-100
48

N9 14. Moderate

£
S^§i -r9-=-
g ^m V •
I J J s ^=n
P * ¥
J-*
±± i
ip^ ^ w* mm .22 J*JJ?J:

r,.,^.
^
&-

m ps^ SUP ?•
pp
^
r>

ffe^ P ^ * n P ^ ;££

(9-= ss
(9

P ^fc P S J1E3E
^=22: -^ J2j

¥* vet
*=^ ^ m im ^ err
22
f
^^ ^H ^ 22:

» PP pi
-»-

w mmwm
mm ^^ ^
S tf** P^ p
-su-
22
• •
^ i ^s ^
N915.FANSARE.

^m » »
M .
P

i
•m» ii
? ^^ r. rr i f rCrn
2 r >*

iig P g& V- V s
* I^ P *
-#-=-#
p S ^T^

2044- K>0
Graces, Embellishments or Ornaments of Melody.

THE APPOGGIATURA.
The appoggiatura is a grace note, placed abuse or below a principal note. When it is placed above it is
always at the intervals of either a tone or a semitone. When it is placed below the principal note, it should

always be at the intervals of a semitone. When the appoggiatura is written thus (k T i


f

the value of it is one half of the following note. When crossed by a small line, thus

its value is but one fourth of the note that follows it.

Examples

As -written. B^^¥ £ m ms #=E


F
*?m 'f^m
As played. E wm mm n
There is also a double appoggiatura, which is composed of two grace notes, placed: The
3s3i: i ^^ first one degree
below the principal note and the second one degree above.

Example.

As written.
w
As played. i E £=N^4
Allegretto.

^ihg-l'J^UJ Q \

f}
h^i
P ^S ^
£=£ n-^g
PP

a* £ i '-r i
Prcj
sdk
(J

^ F->>

-** Cadenza.

e i
£:* f *=£
cre.se. f dim.
pp
^#rf
* The Cadenza is
P

W t- »~pr

a term which indicates that the measure of time is


i
j|p ^jijji 1^
suspended, and its performance left to the players pleasure, who
should execute is tastefully and in correspondence with the preceeding movement.
1832-1 oo
— —
THE GRUPPETTO OR TURN.
iscomposed of three grace notes, placed between or after aprincipal note.
The Turn is marked thus: co. A small sharp placed under the sign f indicates that the lowest of the three
grace notes is sharpened. Should the sharp be placed above the sign thus-, Je the upper grace note must
be sharpened. In case of a sharp above and below the sign cg> the upper and lower grace notes mus t be sharp-
ened. The same rule applies to Flats, only the grace notes must be depressed half atone in that case.

Examples.

As written. « r
oc

gt r
oo

err p —
*>1»
CO

Pf p
mm
& M
cc

*d V
As playedJ (fo C J

fflp
With sharps and flats'.

£
ess

£
OB

w I Mcc
*

£
7 i» p m P- ffat
a^ I e# ^* si

# 3Bz=P
S P
0>C
I,

s5 P I

S Si *OE m
m «
rx
# es n
Moderate

97; *K jfltrte # rrnr [rrr r r^^rf j

P v^i — g? i^Bd^^B^i^i^^ f^
§ ¥4m
0^- -0 i

^ i j

*--*-+
ftm
C£^N JJJ «TO ^ ^ r lt i

lt" cr i

r^M i

i <9 ^=1*
EflCfTCf Thefci
same as bar P
Jl I
« ffi
cc

PS ^
1
1832V- 100
E£&fri±^-P r^pi i
P
51

THE PASSING SHAKE.


lie passing shake, often written thus *v must be played quickly and round in the following manner-,

Example.

As written fe f 1 f f f f
or

As played » . P $m =

THE SHAKE.
The Shake or Trillo marked thus 4r consists
, in the alternate repetition of the notes marked, with
the note in the next degree above it.

Example.

As written

As played.

Chain of Shakes.

As written.

As played,

A shake with two open notes requires constant practice because it is entirely produced by the pressure
from the lips. The shakes, where valves are employed, are easier. To acquire a fine shake, it should be
practised first slowly, then with gradually increasing velocity in the following manner.

» P (i P mPmPmPm P m P m p-rP-rf P f P P
ff f T fT.
-

W ^SI
Adagio.

^^u^AApm
°fyy *fc

tf
vr-rr
% %
P
&
m
2044-100
?r j I
rfp ^ *E
mj
<#\.

-\
t
<tr

.>rr^= feE=£i
g J l

52
Short Studies on Scales.

fe
2.
~#~a: J J JJ i
ji^p |(>ji Jj |
J J.
<t> ^
i ~c^—r* rtiTt^ fnn^ ir M
* jj ijj j ij 3 £
f «l 'Jjj
*=*= *
' * Ji > i

e# jj^j i j jjj u jjj ij


j1

7f ^rTr 'rrT
p

p rrji.jjjw
f SB y =#^ *=*
f*2
4.

fl PlHlg/ grip
I JJ^l* l^l'jjjjftlf lJ^/l[ jfl l
|
I^Qll l^EU
i»prf

r i
Srir i6 cr J i i

cff
U i^tm^gigg| f Ai
5.

i r *^ <
rrp^ i
J7r] /jr^jrj r,
j i

6.

*^^€ E I i J s ef£r<TOiJ7J? ^
BE rmjrp. ULLf Ld;T tm J

U —I*
— — —^ -
9 • a""^ 1 * —r0 *m * Cp • m — f~mp —
1

- n

m m~
i i

ft *~
h
* <• * .
m
f J --«--
m*
^"P
r-j^
f~
iii— m
• _t—v^v
m•

-_-s =

tH^cSj i
drr a Lffij|JTOjj ^
a
10.
<7>
i 3ti* -fi>-

2«.44-100
r

53

11.

P '"JJTJ^
13.
| J
"JiW '^^i^^jjjn '

j
'

JLp_«- n-===
g» * uj i jJ J J
:===
^
u^jjf^j
- 3^
u*'j^^> "-9ff9^^
rrrrn rr iJ ^
L - tL
H -
g
i |LJ -

j Cl J i' cl T LctT ciji


l
^# pr^jJ?|T'j
^^j^H-jjjjj
< i_^j^Li-j
j jj^ i

jjjfi
*
14.

gg p #-F
S ^~* j^J I J*TJj J ^ J J I
^l!> r rr '
f
p
§
".
I I

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66

ABBREVIATIONS.
Abbreviations are employed in written music, to avoid repetitions of a single bar or passage, Thus in-

stead of writing four quavers a minim, marked with a thick line E2: will indicate

»
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for T T * or or * etc.

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RESTS.
When a composition requires a prolonged silence for any instrument, it is indicated by numbered rests.
1 2 6 10
or or or etc.

Meaning that so many bars of the movement should be counted in silence.

2044-100
THE HARMONIC MINOR SCALE.
The Harmonic minor Scale differs from the Melodic, as only its seventh degree is raised by an accidental,
whether ascending or descending.
SCALE OF A MINOR.

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BB -<5>
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THE PORTAMENTO.
is an expression denoting the slurring of one sound into another which is done by means of the
, lips.'

Increase the sound when from lower to higher notes, decrease it when from higher to lower notes.
The Portamento should only be applied in parts specially adapted for this kind of phrasing, and it should
on no account be overdone, otherwise it becomes ridiculous. .

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GRAND STUDIES.
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82
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TRANSPOSING.
The French Horn having crooks for almost any key, the music for it is generally written without any
signature. In many compositions however Ihe player has not sufficient time to change the crook, the rests
not allowing time enough fur doing so. It is therefore very important that the player should he able
to transpose , i. e. by playing the notes on another crook, than the one marked by the composer wether
higher or lower.
The following examples will show, on which crook the various Transpositions are most easy to execute.

Horn in Bk
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This passage 6-
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In AB (occurs seldom.)
In At? (occurs seldom.)

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play a fifth lower. play a fifth lower.

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SYMPHONIE in C
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For the following passage it would be preferable to use the original A crook, at it is much easier on
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A Major Synphonie.

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THE ECHO.
A charming effect called the Echo"can be produced by a clever player on the French Horn ,by shutting
the Bell ?4 with the right hand and at the same time transposing the notes half atone lower. By shutting
the Bell \ , the sound is raised a half tone , this the transposition produces the original pitch.

With open Bell.

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VARIOUS PASSAGES FROM ORCHESTRAL PIECES.
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SYMPHONIE IN A.

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With their Abbreviations and Explanations.
A . to, in, or at; a tempo in time. Me no Less.
Accelerando Gradually increasing the speed. Mezzo '. .Half.
Adagio ......:• .Very slow. [strict time. Minore Minor key. [ ly quick.
Ad libitum. As the performer pleases; not in Moderato : Moderately. Allegro moderate, moderate-
Agitato . Restless with agitation. Molto Much.
Al or Alia To or in the style of a March. Morendo Dying away.
Alia Marcia In the style of a March. MOSSO Moved. Piu mosso, quicker.
Allegretto Moderately quick. Molo Motion. Con molo, with animation.
Allegro : Quick and lively. Nbn Not.
Andante In moderately slow time. Obligato. . An indispensable part.
Andantino A little less slow than Andante. Opus or Op A work.
Amoroso. , .Affectionately. Ottava or 8va To be played an octavo higher.
Anima, con, Pause The sign indicating . stoppage.
With animation-
Animato Perdendosi Dying away.
A piacere .'.
At pleasure. Pesante . Heavily.
Appassionato Impassioned. [chord. Pianissimo or pp .As soft as possible. .

Arpeggio Separating or breaking the notes of a Piano or p. ...... Soft. .

Assai Very. Piu More.


A tempo In time. [ movement. Piu tosto Quicker.
Attacca Proceed at once to the following Poco or un poco. .A little. . .

Barcarolle • • • • A boating song. Poco a poco ....... Gradually, by degrees.


Ben . Well. Ben marcato, well marked. Pol Then, afterwards.
Bis Twice. Prestissimo As quick as possible.
Bravoura . • , . . Brilliant execution. Presto Very quick.
Brillante Gay, rapid, brilliant. Primo or 1™° The first.
Brio, con With much spirit. [belishment. Perdendosi Losing itself, dying away.
Cadenza A passage introduced by way of em- Pomposo ......... .Pompous, grand.
Calando Gradually softer and slower. Quartetto A.piece for four performers.
Cantabile In a singing style. Quasi similar to. As if,

Canzonetta A
short song or air. Quintetto for five performers. A piece
Capriccio ) (A composition of irregular con- Rallentando or rail. Gradually slower.
Caprice c ( struction. Ritardando or rit. .Slackening speed. [peats.
Cavatina .'....- An Italian air. Replica Repetition. Senza replica, without re-
Chord A combination of two or more sounds. Rinjbrzando ..... .With emphasis.
Coda A
supplement at the end-of a compo- Risoluto Resolutely, bold.
. . . ;

Col or con With. [ sition. Ritenuto Retarding the time.


Crescendo or cres Gradually louder. Scherzando Playfully.
Da or dal. : From. Secondo or 2<l The second.
Da Capo or D.C. the beginning. From Seconda volta .... The second time.. ',

Dal Segno the sign. From Semplice Simply.


Decrescendo or decresc. Decreasing in strength. Sempre Always.
Diminuendo or dim. . . Gradually softer. Senza Without. Senza sordino, without mute.
Dolce or dol. Softly, sweetly. Simile The same.
Duetto or duo A piece for two performers. Sino As far as.
E '..And. Smorzando Diminishing the sound.
Energico With energy. Solo For one performer only. Soli, for all.
Espressivo With expression. Sordino Mute. Con so rdino, with the mute.
Fine or H Fine The end. Sostenutoi Sustained.
Forte or J* Loud. Sotto Under. Sotto voce, in a subdued tone.
Fortissimoor J^f Very loud. Spirito spiritoso. . .Spirit, spirited.
Forzando orfz> Accentuate the note. Staccato ."
Detached.
Forza Force of tone. Stretto An increase of speed.
Fuoco, con . . .\ ..... . With fire. Tacet. . . . .
»•:
•. .-. . - . .Silent.
Furioso Furiously. TJwma The subject of melody. [ commencemei
Gracioso Graceful. Tempo . . Time. Tempo primo,the same time as att

Giocoso Joyously. _ Tenuto or ten. ... . . Held for the full value.
Giusto Just, exact. Tranquilla Quietly.
Grave Very slow and solemn. Tremolando) „ ... ., _„„+
Trembling, rapid movement.
Gusto . .
."'
Taste. Tremolo {

Harmony A combination of musical sounds. Trio A piece for three performers.


Key note The first degree of the Scale. _ ( Too much. Allegro, ma non troppo,
Jroppo £quick> but not t00 quick
LargJietto Slow, but not so slow as Largo.
Largo Broad and slow. Tutti All, all the instruments.
Legato Smoothly, the reverse of Staccato. Un A, one.
Leggiero .- Lightly. Unisono . . . Ln unison.
Lento Slow. Una corda . .
. , On one string.
L'istesso tempo The same time, [octavo higher or lower. Veloce Quick.
Loco In place. Play as written, no longer an Vivace With vivacity.
Ma But. Ma non troppo, but not too much. Vivo Lively.
Maestoso Majestically. Variatione. . .\. .-. .... Variation of a mt
Maggiore Major Key. Vblkslied. A national song.
Marcato Marked. Voce • • The voice. ^?
Mancando Dying away. Tblti Subito or VS. . . Turn over quickly
Boston Public Library
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Division of
Reference and Research Services

Music Department

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