Anda di halaman 1dari 2


Aufa Zatin Nirwana, Ida Mawadah, M. Herbert Hidayat, Nenes Prastita, and
Sa’diyatul Rizqie Amaliyah Firdaus
Offering H Biology 2017, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, State University of Malang,
Jl. Semarang No. 5, Malang 65145, Indonesia

CHAPTER I 1. To know the differentiate of each flowers.

INTRODUCTION 2. To understand the main part of flower, type
of floral symmetry, and also type of
Background of the research
flower’s shape.
Flowers represent the reproductive organ of
3. To categorize flowers based on its type.
flowering plants, and are very important in
identification because they provide typically
characters that are consistently expressed within a
taxon (either at the family, genus, or species level).
This is because floral characters are under strong The data that we gathered in this research
genetic control and generally are not affected by can be explained below:
changing environments. Certain floral characters
may remain the same throughout a family or genus,
while other characters are more variable and are
used only to differentiate species. For example, REFERRENCE
floral symmetry, usually are used to differentiate Flowers arise from the apical portion of a
families, while petal color or shape and size of stem in a region called the receptacle. They may be
floral parts are more commonly used to distinguish borne directly on a main stem axis or rachis
species. (sessile) or on a slender stalk or stem called a
Flower is the most important part of the plant. pedicel. They usually consist of four whorls of parts
They are beautiful and fragrant to attract pollinators that develop in the following series, from the outer
(insects, birds or bats) which play an important role whorl to the inner: sepals, petals, stamens, and
in the reproductive process of pollinating. carpels. These parts may develop in discrete cycles,
Essentially, the main function of the flower is to or be more or less continuous and spirally arranged.
perpetuate the species, to produce seeds from If all four whorls of floral parts are present, the
which new plants will grow in the future. A flower, flower is complete; if one or more whorls is
sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the missing, the flower is incomplete. The symmetry of
reproductive structure found in flowering plants flowers usually can be defined as radial
(plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called (actinomorphic) or bilateral (zygomorphic). In a
angiosperms). The biological function of a flower few groups the flowers are termed irregular
is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a (asymmetric) when the petals or sepals are
mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. dissimilar in form or orientation. (Gomez and
Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of Perfectti, 2010)
sperm and eggs from different individuals in a The variation shown by all parts of a flower
population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and (sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels). (Gomez and
egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce Perfectti)
diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Those parts can be explain below :
Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where
gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved
to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be
vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization,
the ovary of the flower develops into fruit
containing seeds.

Purpose of research
Peduncle: The stalk of a flower.
Receptacle: The part of a flower stalk where the
parts of the flower are attached.
Sepal: The outer parts of the flower (often green
and leaf-like) that enclose a developing bud.
Petal: The parts of a flower that are often
conspicuously colored.
Stamen: The pollen producing part of a flower,
usually with a slender filament supporting the
Anther: The part of the stamen where pollen is
Pistil: The ovule producing part of a flower. The
ovary often supports a long style, topped by a
stigma. The mature ovary is a fruit, and the mature
ovule is a seed.
Stigma: The part of the pistil where pollen
Ovary: The enlarged basal portion of the pistil
where ovules are produced.
The flowers also have typically characters
that can be seen from its shape or size and
symmetry. The type of flower’s symmetry can be
shown below:
This kind of
symmetrical shape is
called radial or