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Chapter 2


This Chapter presents some foreign and local

literatures and studies which the researchers deemed

relevant with the present study. Such literatures and

studies cited paved the way in determining the extent of

how far researchers have gone through along the area under


Related Literature

Jones (2010) cited that fundamental to the concept of

Community-Oriented Policing (COP) is the formation of a

cohesive, working partnership between the police and the

community to address both crime problems and quality of

life issues which may have an impact, indirectly on the

crime situation. Community-Oriented Policing aggressively

solicits input from the citizenry regarding their

perceptions of neighborhood problems, both individually,

through one-on-one street contacts and collectively through

regular community council meetings, church groups, schools,

recreation centers, etc.

Whitenand (2012) discussed police relationship with

the community, citing that police work depends largely on

its relationship with the community. He noted that without


community assistance, law enforcers would be hampered by

bottlenecks, wrong turns and obstacles on their crime-

solving missions.

Walker (2010) stated that the police are the most

visible entity of the criminal justice system. This by

design, as the police is one of the few public service

organizations responsible in handling emergencies. High

visibility allows rapid recognition of law enforcement

officers by innocent citizens as well as criminals. There

are positive aspects to this visibility. The readily

identifiable badge and uniform allow the officer to assume

command of a situation quickly, thus, eliminating the time

consuming procedure of producing identification to verify

that the person is a police officer. Law enforcement

officials have also urged that high visibility generates a

feeling of safety among the general population. The thrust

of the idea is that observation of marked police vehicles

and uniformed officers make people believe that the police

are always close enough to aid those in need. Furthermore,

many in law enforcement believe that this same visibility

strikes fear into would-be criminals, thereby deterring

criminal activity.

Murray (2012) states Health Promotion dates back up to

the time when religion and superstition influenced people’s


belief on health and illness. The Babylonians, the Greeks,

Egyptians, Palestinians, Romans, and the Chinese have laid

down the foundation of most of the health promotion

practices that we enjoy today. Concepts on hygiene and

sanitation were introduced to civilization by the Greeks

whose belief in health and illness was mandated by their

gods and goddesses; the quarantine practices that benefit

people of today especially in communicable diseases can be

traced back during the Palestinian times under the Mosaic

Code which emphasized the importance of segregation by

separating what is clean from the unclean. The public

health sanitation like street cleaning, building

construction, ventilation, heating, and water sanitation

that we enjoy today are some of the accomplishments of the

Romans and Egyptians.

Marks, et al, (2013) defends that even during that

time, health was already considered of prime importance and

its enhancement was necessary, some for the purpose of

achieving balance of the mind, body and spirit and some as

a form of luxury and personal indulgence. Whatever the

purpose may be, these ancient practices bear the underlying

fact that an individual, even in the earliest times, is

always in search of activities that can prolong life and

improve the quality of life.


Health Promotion Glossary, WHO, (2012), as Health

Promotion gains popularity, myriad of definitions rose and

overlap with one another. Oftentimes, the term health

promotion is used interchangeably with health education,

health maintenance, and health protection. The leading

organization in managing health, the World Health

Organization (WHO) defined Health Promotion as “the process

of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve

their health.(WHO, 1986)”. During this definition’s

inception, five key strategies were also identified namely

Building healthy public policy, Creating physical and

social environments supportive of individual change,

Strengthening community action, Developing personal skills

such as increased self-efficacy, and Reorienting health

services to the population and partnership with patients.

This definition coincides with the definition of Marks, et

al (2014) which is “any event, process, or activity that

facilitates the protection or improvement of the health

status of individuals, groups, communities, or

populations.” It targets a wider range of population as it

intends to focus on the community level which includes

environmental interventions such as “targeting the built

environment (e.g. fencing around dangerous sites) and

involve legislation to safeguard the natural environment”.


It encompasses a broader scope as it “represents a

comprehensive social and political process” and with

actions “directed towards changing social, environmental,

and economic conditions so as to alleviate their impact on

public and individual health.

Peace and Order Councils (2011), the reorganization of

the Peace and Order brought about by Executive Order No.

309 shows the critical importance of the participation of

the citizenry in the peace and order situation of the

community. The Peace and Order Council which is a measure

to counteract the threat of peace and order posed by

criminality, insurgency and subversion requires the

dedicated efforts of all government officials and the

citizens. The Council reorganized in the national,

regional, provincial and municipal levels is composed of

the following: Secretary of the Interior and Local

Government as Chairman; Vice-Chairman, the Secretary of

National Defense, and members, the Secretary of Justice,

Social Work and Development, Public Works and Highways,

Trade and Industry, Press Secretary, Director of the

National Security Council, the Director of the National

Bureau of Investigation, Chairman of the National Power

Corporation, Chairman of the Commission of Human Rights,

Executive Director of the Dangerous Drug Board, the Armed


Forces Chief of Staff, the Chief Constabulary/Director

General Integrated National Police and eight

representatives from the private sector representing the

academe, civic, religious, youth, labor, legal, business

and media organizations. The Municipal Peace and Order

Council is composed of the city or municipal counterparts

of the departments, offices and agencies composing the

national level with the City/Municipal Mayor as Chairman

and the respective Vice-Mayor as the Vice-Chairman. In

addition, there shall be one representative of the

Sangguniang Bayan. The Municipal Peace and Order Council

shall be responsible for the proper management and

supervision of the civilian volunteer organizations in

coordination with other appropriate government entities.

Campos (2012) regards social service activities as one

good motivating factor to attract public participation.

These social service activities include emergency medical

care, assisting the helpless, eliminating physical hazards,

giving directions, counseling of juveniles, providing legal

aid, relief and mercy operations, disaster control, etc.

Coronel (2013) Crime prevention is one of the foremost

duties of a police officer. Success and effectiveness of

police work is hardly measured by the number of cases

solved nor by the number of criminals prosecuted.


Criminality is best combated through prevention of crime

occurrence. Crime prevention, however, rests or depends

largely upon intelligence and effective patrol, yet much of

the success of the intelligence lies on the scope and

variability of informants. Of all sources of intelligence

data, the civilian public is the most effective owing to

its wide mass base. A good relationship with the public

therefore, affords the police agency with an intelligence

source that could effectively lead the police not only to

successful crime prevention, but also to solution of


Related Studies

Martin (2013), the academic people are in the position

to recognize social problems and take effective steps to

solve the problems. As a group, they are supposed to be

trained and experienced in social criticism and thus be

able to cut through rhetoric and apologetics to the roots

of problems. They are granted 'academic freedom' which

should enable to unfetter creative thinking and bold

experimentation towards the solution of social problems.

Finally, the academics are supposed to be self-reflective,

to critically examine their own ideas and actions.


Ajzen (2012) argued that a person's beliefs, a

representation of the information a person has about an

object or a situation, can determine attitude, which can

then have an effect on one's behavior towards an object or


Myers (2013) battled for the most important resources

of any organization and personnel. He covers well the

nature of personnel administration from handling personnel

problems, diagnosing organizational stability, building and

maintaining work teams and finally wages and work

administration plus employee services and programs. To this

author, management is personnel administration, for no

organization can operate without personnel, as the warm

bodies. Even with the coming of robotics, personnel must

program and operate the robots in factories. Personnel

administration must be the concern of all.

Mercado (2012) worked on the relationship between the

barangay and the PNP. In his findings, he pointed out the

role of the “tanods” and the “rondas” in helping the police

maintain law and order in the community.

Santos (2013) studied the problems of crime prevention

of the Manila Police Department. He presented the problems

in the implementation of a good crime prevention program.

His study threshed-out that there were problems encountered


along budgetary support and lack of trained men to

implement the program. In the light of these problems, he

recommended for full logistic support and good training

along crime prevention and assistance for other government

agencies. He also suggested the participation of the non-

government sector.

Magtibay (2013) was on a comprehensive coverage of the

causal factors of crime in the country. In his study, he

sought for the relationship of crime and society

enumerating the various significant factors of crime

occurrence. He found out that the development of

delinquency was based on the following; biological,

psychological and environmental.

Padua-Pontanal (2012) focused on analyzing trends and

patterns in police management of cases in conflict with the

law for a certain period; discussing the policies, programs

and projects of the government at the police level for

children in conflict with the law. Padua-Pontanal stressed

the PNP as premier law enforcement agency responsible in

protecting the rights of the people and promoting the

welfare of children in conflict with the law. The study

also analyzed how effective the government policies,

programs and projects at the police level in terms of

protecting the rights of children and determining


commission of crimes by children. Most importantly, it

discussed: a) the extent of compliance of the police and

frontline officers to prescribed standards and procedures;

and b) the effectiveness of inter-agency coordination in

addressing the problem. It provided National Police

Commission, PNP, LGU, DSWD, Rehabilitation Centers an

evaluation and analysis of police policies and procedures

for improving existing programs and services. Moreover,

Padua-Pontanal recommended for the PNP to understand their

vital roles as well as to establish a monitoring mechanism

to ensure that the police prescribed to rules and

procedures. He highlighted the police force’s role of

ensuring public safety as a universal requirement and

cornerstone of quality in Urban centers like Metro Manila.

The study also presented the undesirable perceptions

involving PNP members in car- napping, kidnapping,

extortion and drug pushing. Accordingly, PNP personnel are

committed to the vision of a professional promotion of

public welfare and safety.


The studies, foreign and local discussed are related

because it deals on community development program of

Barangay Officials. Such literatures and studies cited


paved the way in determining the extent of how far

researchers have gone through along the area under


According to Magtibay (2013), he cited the

relationship of crime and society enumerating the various

significant factors of crime occurrence. He found out that

the community development was based on the following;

biological, psychological and environmental.

Though the study at hand pertains to the roles of

Barangay Officials on community development program, it

will mainly focus in Amulung, Cagayan.