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Density Based Traffic Signal

Control Using Microcontroller

Guide Name : Mr. Naveen Dubey Name : Krity Kumari

Roll No:1233331031
History of traffic light
• The world's very first traffic lights were invented
by J P Knight installed near London's House of
Commons, which was on the intersection of
George and Bridge Street, in 1868.
• In 1914 The American Traffic Signal Company
installed red and green traffic lights on every
corner of the intersection of 105th Street and
Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio.
• First traffic lights were all controlled by either
timing, or manually switched
• Come to complete stop at stop line or before
crosswalk or intersection.
• After stopping, you may turn right on red
at most intersections if the way is clear.
• Some school districts have local policies that
prohibit right turns on red by bus operators.
• Some intersections display “NO TURN ON RED,”
which you must obey.
• Stop if you can do so safely.
• The light will soon be red.

• Go, but only if intersection is clear.
• If turning left, wait for gap in oncoming traffic to
complete turn.

• The function of traffic lights is to provide

sophisticated control and coordination to ensure
that traffic moves as smoothly and safely as
• This project uses a LED light as an indicator and IR
sensor for receiving the signal from traffic.
• A microcontroller for auto change signal after a
specific time interval.
• The LEDs are automatically on and off by
making the corresponding port pin of the micro
controller high.
• Atmega32 Microcontroller
• IR Sensor
• Resistor (220 Ω)
• LED light (Red, Green, Yellow)
• PCB (zero size PCB)
• 12v Battery or adaptor(1 amp)
• Serial cable
• Connecting wires
• ISIS 7 Professional (Proteus)
Block diagram


Atmega32 LEDs

Power Supply
Circuit diagram
• In this system, we will use IR sensors to measure the
traffic density.
• We have to arrange one IR sensor for each road; these
sensors always sense the traffic on that particular road.
• All these sensors are interfaced to the microcontroller.
Based on these sensors, controller detects the traffic and
controls the traffic system.
• The main heart of this traffic system is microcontroller.
• IR sensors are connected to the PORT of the microcontroller
and traffic lights are connected to PORT of microcontroller.
• If there is a traffic on road then that particular sensor output
becomes logic 0 otherwise logic 1. By receiving these IR
sensor outputs, we have to write the program to control the
traffic system.
• If you receive logic 0 from any of these sensors, we have to give
the green signal to that particular path and give red signal to all
other paths. Here continuously we have to monitor the IR
sensors to check for the traffic.
• We have to place these IR pair in such a way that when we
place an obstacle in front of this IR pair, IR receiver should be
able to receive the IR rays. When we give the power, the
transmitted IR rays hit the object and reflect back to the IR
• Instead of traffic lights, you can use LEDs (RED, GREEN,
YELLOW). In normal traffic system, you have to glow the LEDs
on time basis. If the traffic density is high on any particular path,
then glows green LED of that particular path and glows the red
LEDs for remaining paths.
• This project can be enhanced in such a way as to control
automatically the signals depending on the traffic density
on the roads using sensors like IR detector/receiver module
extended with automatic turn off when no vehicles are
running on any side of the road which helps in power
consumption saving.
• By using this system configuration we can reduce the
possibilities of traffic jams caused by traffic lights to an extent.
The number of passing vehicles on the road decides the
density range of traffics and on the basis of vehicle count
microcontroller decides the traffic light delays.
• Senoo, Elisha, "Microcontroller Based Traffic Light Control System",
Final Year Thesis. June 2011.
• Sessions, Gordon M. (1971). "Traffic devices: historical
Washington." Institute of Traffic Engineers ,pp 27-28.OCLC 278619.
• S.S. Chavan, R.S. Deshpande, J.G. Rana, "Design of intelligent traffic
light controller using embedded system." Presented at the Second
International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and
• Chen and Yeng, "Minimization of a travel time and weighted
number of stops in a traffic light network," European Journal of
Operational Research, Vol. 144, pp 565-580.
• Automatic Traffic Control System”. SMEU Astana Solutions
Automatic Traffic Control System.htm