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I M. F.

Professor of Mechanical Engineering
f The Technological Institute
Northwestern University


Design of
Machine Elements

Englewood ous« N. J.
( )

1. Machine design. Machine design is the art of planning or devis­
ing new or improved machines to accomplish specific purposes. In
general, a machine will consist of a combination of several different
mechanical elements properly designed and arranged to work together, as
a whole. During the initial planning of a machine, fundamental deci­
sions IXlUSt be made concerning loading, type Of kinematic elements to be
,r used, and correct utilization of the properties of engineering materials.
le Economic considerations are usually of prime importance when the design
of new machinery is undertaken. In general, the lowest over­all cost is
desired. Consideration should be given not only to the cost of design,
manufacture, sale, and installation, but also to the cost of servicing.
The machine should of course incorporate the necessary safety features
and be of pleasing external appearance. The objective is to produce a
machine which is not only sufficiently rugged to function properly for a
reasonable life, but is at the same time cheap enough to be economically
The engineer in charge of the design of a machine should not only
have adequate technical training, but must be a man of sound judgment
and wide experience, qualities which are usually acquired only after
considerable time has been spent in actual professional work. A .start
in this direction can be made with a good teacher while the student is
yet at theuniversity, However, the would­be designer must expect to
get a substantial portion of his training after leaving school through
further reading and study, and especially by being associated in his work
with competent engineers.
2. Design of machine elements. This book, as the title indicates,
will not deal with the broader aspects of the design of complete machines,
but will attempt to explain the fundamental principles required for the
correct design of the separate elements which compose the machine.
The principles of design are of course universal. The same theory
or equations may be applied to a very small part, as in an instrument,
or to a larger but similar part used in a piece of heavy equipment. In
no case, however, should mathematical calculations be looked upon as
absolute and final. They are all subject to the accuracy of the various
( I
assumptions which must necessarily be made in engineering work. Some­
times only a portion of the total number of parts in a machine are designed
on the basis of analytic calculations. The form and size of the remaining
parts are then usually determined by practical considerations. On the
other hand, if the machine is very expensive, or if weight is a factor, as
in airplanes, design computations may then be made for almost all the
parts. Contents
The purpose of the design calculations is of course to attempt to
predict the stress or deformation in the part in order that it may safely
carry the loads which will be imposed upon it, and that it may last for
the expected life of the machine. All calculations are, of course, depend­ I. Fundamental Principles.
ent on the physical properties of the construction materials as determined 1
by laboratory tests. A rational method of design attempts to take the 1. Static�! equilibrium. 2. Engineering materials. 3. Tension and
results of relatively simple and fundamental tests such as tension, com­ :�:press1on s_tress. 4. Statically indeterminate problems in tension
pression, torsion, and fatigue and apply them to all the complicated and compre�10n. 5. Center of gravity. 6. Bending of beams. 7
Moment of inertia 8 Pr. · 1
involved situations encountered in present­day machinery. . . . ·
mc1p e o f superposition. ··
9. Additional·
bea1;11 equations. 10. Deflection of beams. 11. Effect of ribs on
In addition, it has been amply proved that such details as surface
:Stings. 12. Shearing stress. 13. Transverse shearing stress in
condition, fillets, notches, manufacturing tolerances, and heat treatment ams. _14. Shear and bending moment diagrams. 15. Slender
have a marked effect on the strength and useful life of, a machine part.
;;m;�ss:n ;:1e�bers or columns. 16. Stresses in any given direction.
The design and drafting departments must specify completely all such tio�s e o r c1r�le. 18. Stresses and deformations in two diree­
particulars, and thus exercise the necessary close control over the finished . 19. Deflection of beam from shearing stress 20 p . . 1 f
product. St. Venant. · · nncip e o
Training in rapid and accurate numerical work is invaluable to the
designer. The designer should keep an accurate notebook, as it is fre­
2. Working Stresses .
quently necessary for him to refer to work which he has done in the past. 67
A sketch, carefully drawn to scale, is also a necessity, and provides a
convenient place for putting down a portion of the data used in connection
with the problem. It goes without saying that all data, assumptions, ·
equations, and calculations should be written down in full in order to be
h .
1 Stress­st · d"
cf ange�n
ram ragrams. 2. Stress concentration cau� by sudden

a ec mg atigue st
3. Stress concentration facto�. 4. Endurance limit
off mt.a nfa . 5. Interpretation of service fractures 6 Factors
th 7 T . . .
and b ittl . . reng . . ypes of failure. Ductile materials
intelligible when referred to at a later date. The student should start M' . n e ;:iatenals. 8. Ductile materials with steady stres� 9
forming such habits, and it is recommended that the problems in this book tio:;m�7 s��r theory of failure. 10. Normal stresses in two direc�
be worked out and preserved as reference materiat. ! t . . I . . h1ses­Hencky or distortion energy theory 12 Ductile
ma ena s wit alte ti · ·
bined ste d d l rna m� stress. 13. Ductile materials with com­
gram. l�. YB:�tl a terna�mg s�ress. 14. The modified Goodman dia­
with flu t ti le matenals with steady stress. 16. Brittle materials
c ua mg oads 17 S iti .
Factor of safety. . . ensi IVIty to stress concentration. 18.

3. Shafting.
1. Torsion of circular 8h ft 2
she · t a · · Horsepower. 3 Maximum static
5 • -:n� s ress.h 4· ASME Code for design of tra�mission shafting.
shaft"sxnnum sKear theory forshaft"mg. 6 · Mises­Hencky theory for
mg. 7 · eys. 8. Stress concentration. 9. Couplings. 10.
' )

c xv
Bending loads in two planes. 11. Shaft on three supports. 12.
Crankshafts. 13. Critical speed of rotating shaft. 14. Deflection of 8. Lubrication. 294
shaft of nonuniform diameter. 15. Slope of shaft by elastic energy.
16. Torsion of noncircular shaft. 17. Torsion of wide rectangular 1. Viscosity and Newton's law. 2. Measurement of viscosity. 3.
bar. 18. Torsion of rectangular bars, general case. 19. Composite Viscosity index. 4. Types of plain sleeve bearings. 5. The Zn/p
curve. 6. Petroff's bearing equation. 7. Load carrying journal.
sections. 20. Materials used for shafting.
bearing. 8. Load and friction curves for Journal bearings. 9. Heat
balance of bearings. 10. Designing for film temperature and mini­
4. Springs . 155 mum film thickness. 11. Pressure lubricated bearing. 12. Thin
film or boundary lubrication. Oiliness. 13. Bearing materials. 14.
1. Helical springs. 2. Effect of end turns for compression springs. Bea�ing loads. 15. Construction of bearings. 16. Elastic matching.
3. Properties of spring materials. 4. Design for fluctuating loads.
5. Vibration or surging of helical springs. 6. Commercial tolerances. 9. Ball and Roller Bearings. 330
i. Helical extension springs. 8. Helical springs of rectangular wire.
9. Helical springs with torsional loading. 10. Leaf springs. 11. 1. Construction and types of ball bearings. 2. Selection of ball bear­
Energy storage by springs. 12. Rubber springs. ings. 3. Design for variable loading. 4. Friction and lubrication of
ball bearings. 5. Mounting of ball bearings. 6. Permissible mis­
alignment. 7. Other types of ball bearings. 8. Relative advantages
5. Screws 191
of ball and plain bearings. 9. Roller bearings. 10. Contact stress
between cylinders.
1. Kinds of threads. 2. Standardized threads. 3. Unified threads.
4. American National threads. 5. Identification symbols. 6. Effect
of initial stress. 7. Effect of spring washers and gaskets. 8. Power 10. Spur Gears . 351
screws. 9, Stress due to impact load. 10. Friction of screws. 11.
Stress concentration. 12. Locknuts. 13. Materials and methods of 1. Introduction. 2. Fundamental law of toothed gearing. 3. Kine­
manufacture. matics of involute gear teeth. 4. Cycloidal gear teeth. 5. Pitches of
gear teeth. 6. Standard system of gearing. 7. Methods of manu­
facture. 8. Transmitted or horsepower load. 9. Bending capacity
6. Belts, Clutches, Brakes 219 in spur gear teeth. 10. Form or Lewis factors for spur teeth. 11.
Dynamic load. 12. Limit load for wear. 13. Direct calculation for
1. Forces in flat belts. 2. Action of belt on pulley. 3. Coefficient of diametral pitch. 14. Number of pairs of teeth in contact. 15.
friction and working stresses. 4. Design of belts by tables. 5. Materials for gears. 16. Determination of tooth loads. 17. Lubri­
Pivoted motor drive. 6. Length of belt. 7. Y­belts. 8. Designing cation and mounting of gears. 18. Backlash. 19. Dimensioning of
when pulleys are of unequal diameters. 9. Disk clutch. 10. Cone gears. 20. Undercutting in gear teeth. 21. Long and short adden­
clutch. 11. Band brakes. 12. Block brake with short shoe. 13. dum gearing. 22. Internal or annular gears. 23. Speed ratios of
Pivoted block brake with long shoe. 14. Brake with pivoted sym­ gear trains. 24. Planetary gear trains.
metrical shoe. 15. Lining pressures. 16. Heating of brakes.
11. Bevel, Worm and Helical Gears 399

7. Welded and Riveted Connections . 263 · 1. Straight tooth bevel gears. 2. Beam strength of bevel gears. 3.
Formative or virtual number of teeth. 4. Dynamic l�ad and limit
1. Fabrication by welding. 2. Fusion welding. 3. Strength of load for wear of bevel gears. 5. Tooth loads of bevel gears. 6. Spiral
fusion welds. 4. Design equations for fillet weld. 5. Stress concen­ bevel gears. 7. Worm gears. 8. Geometric relationships of worm
tration in welds. 6. Eccentrically loaded welds. 7. Resistance gears. 9. Beam strength, dynamic load, and wear of worm gears.
welding. 8. Soldering and brazing. 9. Furnace brazing. 10. 10. Tooth loads and efficiency of worm gears. 11. Thermal capacity
Riveted joint with central load. 11. Stresses in rivets. 12. Stresses of worm gear reductions. 12. Helical gears. 13. Pitch diameter of
in cylindrical shell. 13. Riveted joint with eccentric load. helical gear. 14. Formative number of teeth. 15. Center distance
of mating gears. 16. Solution when shafts are at right angles. 17.
Tooth loads of helical gears. 18. Beam strength, dynamic load, and
wear of helical gears.

12. Miscellaneous Machine Elements. 430

1. Stresses in thick cylinder. 2. Shrink and press fit stresses. 3.

Stress concentration caused by press fit. 4. Stresses in disk flywheel.
5. Flywheel with spokes and rim. 6. Flywheel requirements. 7.
Impact of elastic bodies. 8. Force produced by falling weight. 9.
Impact of weight on beam. 10. Gaskets and seals. 11. Wire rope.
12. Curved beams. 13. Curved beam of rectangular cross section.
14. Curved beam of circular cross section. 15. Angular deflection of
curved bar. 16. Cams. 17. Circular arc cams with roller follower.
18. Circular arc cam with mushroom follower. 19. Straight sided
cam with roller followers. 20. Roller chains. 21. Snap rings.

13. Dimensioning and Details . 490 Design of Machine Elements

1. Dimensioning. 2. Redundant dimensioning. 3. Dimensioning of THIRD EDITION
cylindrical fits. Maximum metal. Minimum metal. 4. Unilateral
and bilateral tolerances. 5. Selective assembly. 6. Cumulative and
noncumulative tolerances. 7. Datum and functional surfaces. 8.
Dimensioning of hole centers. 9. Dimensioning of tapers. 10. Posi­
tional tolerances. 11. Concentricity. 12. Manufacturing and gage
tolerances. 13. Standardized cylindrical fits. 14. Production proc­
ess in statistical control. 15. Dimensioning of assemblies. 16. As­
sembly of parts with loose bolts. 17. Preferred numbers. 18. Sur­
face roughness. 19. Detailing.

14. Engineering Materials 523

L The tension test. 2. Physical constitution of steel._ 3. Types of

steel used in machine construction. 4. Numbering systems for car­
bon and alloy steels. 5. Plain carbon steel. 6. Alloy steels. 7.
High strength low alloy steel, HSLA. 8. Cost of steel. 9. Heat
treatment of steel. IO. Residual stresses from heat treatment.
11. Carburizing and nitriding. 12. Flame hardening. 13. Strain
hardening. 14. Hardness. 15. Machinability. 16. Grain size. 17.
Corrosion. Stainless steel. 18. Wear. 19. Short­time effects of
high temperatures. 20. Creep of steel at high temperature. 21. Cast
iron. 22. Cast steel. 23. Tool steel. 24. Aluminum alloys. 25.
Magnesium alloys. 26. Copper alloys. 27. Alloys for die castings.

Index. 575
l�I ( (


DESIGN methods for the various machine elements are founded on the
theories of mechanics and strength of materials. The scope of such theo­
ries is very extensive, and the purpose of this chapter is to present, for
review and ready reference, those topics which are generally used by de­
signers, and which will be referred to throughout the book. These theories
are more or less simplified approximations, and attention should be di­
rected to the limitations imposed by the assumptions which had to be
made in arriving at working formulas.
A thorough grounding in these fundamentals will prove of great value
in attacking new and unfamiliar problems. In fact, only after such theories
have become working tools is it possible to. achieve the broad perspective
and balanced judgment which must be expressed by the really competent
machine designer.
A, area G, modulus of elasticity in shear
b, width of cross section parallel to h, height of cross section perpendicu­
neutral axis lar to neutral axis
c, maximum distance, neutral axis to i, radius of gyration
edge of cross section I, moment of inertia
d, distance, diameter of circle t, length
E, modulus of elasticity M, bending moment,
FS, factor of safety P, load


r, radius of circle, radius to center o, distance on cross section of 'ises there may be a considerable·varit1,tion between the
of curvature of deflected beam beam perpendicular to neutral the body and the stresses obtained from the equations
a, s,., normal stress axis ·
substance. A material may exhibit a high degree of elasticity for small
a,, shear stress V, total shear force on cross section
a,., normal stress, x­direction w, distributed load, lb per unit loads, but may retain a permanent deformation when the loads become
a,,, normal stress, y­direction . length sufficiently great.
s,.11, shear stress, x- and y­directionli Y, deflection of beam · (b) Homogeneity. A homogeneous body is one that has the same prop­
s,, maximum normal stress 'Y, (gamma), shearing deformation, •· erties throughout its entire extent.
s2, minimum normal stress wt. per cu in. of a material (c) Isotropy. An isotropic material is one whose elastic properties are
s,,.u, maximum shear.stresa __ ll, (delta.), axial deformation
81111, yield point stress E, (epsilon), strain or elongation
the same in all directions.
µ, (mu), Poisson's ratio Actually, a metal is not a homogeneous substance. It consists of an
aggregate of very small crystals whose strength depends upon their orien­.
tation with respect to the applied force. When· the minute crystals have
L Statical Equilibrium
a random orientation, the location in the body, or the inclination at which
When a body is at rest, or in motion with constant velocity, the external a test specimen is taken, has no effect on the results of the test. The
forces acting upon it are in equilibrium. This statement applies to the assumption that the material is homogeneous and isotropic, for all prac­
body as· a :whole­ or to any portion of it. When a force analysis is to be tical purposes, is fulfilled. This is true for cast, hot rolled, or annealed
· , · .:. ·: · · · .,,,. .. ·.· eomrtoconsider only a portion of the body metals. In contrast, materials that have been cold rolled or drawn may
w. . ' ,. �� �bta• •, assuming that cutting planes are passed through have a preferred orientation of crystals, and may exhibit a definite grain
t the desired locatio11s. The internal forces which were acting effect with a variation in strength depending on the direction of the
.,. tions o{ the cuts must then be represented as a system of exter­ applied load. The assumption cannot be made that such materials are
n - s properly distributed to maintain equilibrium of the separate homogeneous and isotropic.
parts a_:µd to preserve the original state of stress in the material. When a
pi:okle� is a�alyzed in this manner the loading will consist entirely of 3. Tension and Compression Stress
'ext,£�rces an:d moments. It is not necessary to consider the internal
·stressllsV'· 1,· · ­, ,,. : ! • . The eyebar, in Fig. 1­l(a), which supports the load P, is said to be in

· · · :st�treal equilibrium means that both forces and moments are in bal­ tension, or to have an internal force of
ance:'_When a in equilibrium, the sum of the components of the tension. Such a force causes an increase
forc�s hi any given direction must be equal to zero. Likewise the moments in the length of the bar. A solution for
· ab�ut 'ahy given line as an axis must be equal to zero. If the body is under­ the stress can be effected by means of
�omg 1tcbel�ratio11, the effects of inertia must be included in the equilib­ cutting planes as described in Section 1. sic,Tona,-

num equations. If the bar, shown in Fig. 1­l(a), is cut area, A Total forc11 P
normal to its axis, as shown in Fig.
2 .: Engmeerirlg 1.faterials 1­l(b), equal and opposite tension forces, fa)
uniformly distributed, must be applied
. The mathematical equations used in designing are derived for an ideal­ to the cut surfaces. In magnitude, each
ized material ';hie� �s assumed to have the following properties. must be equivalent to the load P. The Fig. 1­1. Eye­bar loaded in tension.
. �a) Perfect Ela�ticity: Loads or forces acting on a body cause changes average stress s, or force per unit of
m its shape and dimensions, A perfectly elastic material is one that returns cross­sectional area A, is then equal to P divided by A. Hence
to �orm immediately upon removal of the loads. The equation; p (1)
used_1� designing are n�arl! always derived on the assumption of perfect s =A
elasticity. If the material is such that this assumption cannot be made
t�e mathematical complications, in many cases, become too great for prae­ Thus the magnitude of the external forces on the cross sections in Fig.
ucal calculations. It should never be forgotten, however, that in some 1­l(b) constitutes the measure of the internal force in the bar shown in
Fig. 1­l(a). Forces are usually expressed in pounds and areas in square
ion stress and increase of positive, Whereas com­
inches. pressive stress and decrease in length are considered negative.
It is of course obvious that this solution is correct only if the assump­
' , f .
tion regarding the distribution of stress on the cut sur aces is correct. Example I. In Fig. 1­1, let load P be equal to 5,000 lb, and let the bar be 3 in.
Had the bar been cut near one end where the shape is no longer a prism, wide and 0.5 in. thick. The uniform portion of the bar is 60 in. long. The material
it is apparent that the situation would be more complicated, and the stress is steel.
system would no longer be simple tension uniformly distributed over the
cross section. (a) Find the stress in the uniform portion of the bar.
Since the.assumptiorr.relative to homogeneity of the material is never (b) Find the deformation of the uniform portion of the bar.
exactly fulfilled, th�· on the cross section will not be entirely uni­
form but \Villbt$1Jpj�ctt.O small local variations. Equation (1) does, how­ Solution.

ever, giJ!,]�r.,t����/'\71;1,lue of the tensile stress. Cross­sectional area: A = 3 X 0.5 = 1.5 in. 2
:A.qo11.tprf§�ti�#r�1fispne which causes a decrease in the length of the
ho on
. <>f the force. Stress, by Eq. (1): 5,000 = 3, 333 psi.
s = --
f·le11gth in a uniform body caused by an axial load 1.5
i@, o. If the deformation is divided by the original 5,000 X 60
Deformation, by Eq. (4): 0 = = 0.00667 in.
the result is the deformation per unit length, and 1.5 X 30,000,000
. or strain, E. It �an be represented mathematically by
For statical equilibrium, the summation of the forces in any direction must
0 equal zero, and the summation of the moments about any axis also must equal
E=y (2)
zero. The following equations must therefore be fulfilled.

fong�ti9I1.Ei�a dimensionless number, it is customary to Speak '];,F = 0, '];,M = 0

Ill:� ? per inch.
µi,1;1,t£irials used in engineering, stress and strain are directly 4. Statically Indeterminate Problems in Tension and Compression
i when this condition exists, the material is said to follow
. Tlifl linear relationship between stress and strain can be rep­ Machine parts are sometimes arranged in a manner whereby the axial
,;a.n equation if a constant of proportionality is introduced as forces cannot be determined by the equations of statics alone. Such force
systems are said to be statically indeterminate. They are characterized
by the presence of more supports or members than the minimum required
8 = EE or (3) for the equilibrium of the structure. For such situations, the deformations
of the parts must be taken into consideration. The following example will
Consta�JE itcalled the modulus of elasticity, or Young1s modulus, for the illustrate a typical method for solving such problems.
:material.It.ha.a the dimension of stress and can be visualized as the tensile
stress which would cause a body to double in length, E = 1, provided the Example 2. Find the force in each of the vertical bars in Fig. 1­2. The weight
material would remain elastic with such excessive loading. Values of E can be assumed to be rigid and to maintain the connections for the three vertical
for common materials used in engineering are given in Table 2­1 of the bars in a straight line. Assume the support at the top to be rigid also.
following chapter.
Substitution of Eqs. (1) and (3) into Eq. (2) gives the important Solution. Because both geometry and loading are symmetrical, the forces will
relationship be equal in the two outer bars. From statical equilibrium, the following equation
can be written:
0 - .!:i (4) (a)
- AE
Since two unknowns are present, it is necessary to obtain another equation to
Equations (3) and (4) are valid either for tension or compression. Ten­
effect a solution. This can be done by considering the deformations of the bars.
( (
Combine Eqs. (a) and (b): Pa = 10,435 lb load in aluminum
From the given data; all bars will have the same amount of deformation. Hence
P. = 19,565 lb load in brass
F1l1 F.J.i
or A1E1 = A2E1 (b)

Numerical values should be substituted into the equation above. By deformation, see Fig. l­3(b): 0 = Ob 0 + 0.002
F136 Fi36 (b)
Pa12 A12 + 0_002 (c)
------ = or 3F 1 = 4F 2. 4'1!"10,000,000 51!'15,000,000
0.2 X 30,000,000 0.3 X 15, 000 , 000
. --·--·- ­­·­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­'­·­­­­­ ­ Combine Eqs. (a) and (c): P 0 = 24,137 lb load in aluminum
Equations (a) and (b) should now be solved simultaneously to give Pb = 5,863 lb load in brass
== 1,818 lb and F2 = 1,364 lb (c) o = al AT

Al o = 0.0000128 X 12 X 64 = 0.00983 in.

o = 0.0000102 X 12 X 64 0;00783 in.

Brass =

� Al
Al. Net difference in length = 0.00983 ­ 0.00783 = 0.002 in.
Bross Bross
Hence, the change in temperature has produced the same change in length and
(b} the same change in the forces as was produced by the error in machining of part
loJ 6#
Fig. 1­3. Example 3.
As was illustrated by part (b) in the example above, the distribution of
the forces in an indeterminate structure is sensitive to small variations in
''iii: J'.:3 � circular cylinder of aluminum is surrounded by a the dimensions of the parts. A small undetected error in machining a
,'J:Ylin.<!er:,of brass. Assume that the foundation beneath and the dimension can cause a large change in the distribution of the loads. Any
,,;}����;',fh,�.Jit between the parts is sufficiently loose to permit calculations made by the designer will not be valid unless the fit of the
'ansion;,: ' : ' parts can be rigidly maintained as originally planned.
A variation in temperature may change the values of the forces in an
'pi�d�ad{hafo�d by the aluminum and by the brass. indeterminate system. If temperature causes a relative change between
"se the aluminum is mistakenly machined 0.002 in. too long and that ·,{
.,1i. the lengths of the various parts of the assembly, the effect can be similar
the.#; . . , ,, '.".' .· asselllblea;,Find the force in each member. to that of the misfit of part (b) in the foregoing example. The designer
(c}i§� pqire,tlie pa.rt,s are machined to the same length at the same tempera­
ture.'·!iTu9 tlj.e,forp� c�ed by each should the temperature rise by 64 deg. F.
must consider temperature variations as well as dimensional errors in
his calculations for an indeterminate structure.
Sol�ti��,:· (a)
' { 5. Center of Gravity
Area, aluminum: Aa =4 = 41r in. 2 An equation for finding the center of gravity of an area can be derived
r(62 ­ 42}
Fig. 1­4. The distance from the x­axis to
Area, brass: Ab = = 5r in. 2 the center of gravity is called fi, and the distance 1
•. to an element dA parallel to the x­axis is called y.
By statics: Pa+ Pb= 30,000 '. The moment arm for dA about a horizontal axis
through the center of gravity C is equal to (y - fi). """­1.­­­­v­
By deformation: or f.�athematica.lly, center of gravity means that •
,rthe sum of the moments of the areas about the Fig. 1•4. Center of

41r 10,000,000 51!'15,000,000

or 15P. = 8Pb (b)
' • !JJI IUUI through C must be equal to zero as indicated .,.v•Y·
. ­ ......
.. ,

( (
i: .\



by the following equation: H are applied. Laboratory experiments
f (y - y)dA = 0 have in general verified this assump­ JI

tion. After bending, some of the ele­

_ fydA _ fydA ments have been lengthened, some
or Y = f dA - A

b have been shortened, and at one loca­

JI fa/

A similar equation can be written for the moments about the y­axis tion, called the neutral surface, no
change in length has taken place.
which permits x to be found.
Acomposite­figure:c�n::usually­be divided into simple areas, and Eq. (5) The loading of Fig. 1­6 is called

�::ms Ii d b ·· mlikirig the numerator equal to the sum of the f Y dA

b pure bending. No shear or tangential I(

e 0�Pih�e sep:.�t�'p�rj;s. The denominator is the total �rea. If t�e stress will exist on the end surfaces
of AB, and the only stress will be o:...-------+-..---+--"
location of the center·<>{ gravity for each of the separate areas 18 kn.own'. it
: \ .);, is not necessary to perform .mathematical m­ e, acting normally to the surfaces as
··';L· ·.f . ;.·:c}Jegrations. Each f y dA term can be r�placed shown. An equation can be derived
for giving the value of this bending
· · t·i�1ctW:fJ>:;·:£Jit'fit)i\by the product of the area time� the ?1stance
from the axis to its center of gravity as is shown stress at any desired distance v from
�;.:..,..,.­­­­::­,.w......,_ig. r­s. Thus the neutral surface. Let 01 be the ,
center of curvature for slice AB of
_ A11i1 + A21i2 + (6) the deflected beam. Let d'{) be the Fig. 1­6. Bending stress for beam
y = A1 + A2 + · · · small angle included between the cut­ loaded by moments at ends.
ting planes, and let r be the radius
.Example 4. Find the location of the center of
of curvature. Consider a horizontal element located a distance v below
;;gravity of the T­shaped cross section in Fig. l­2l(b).
the neutral surface. Draw line BC parallel to 01A. Angle A01B is equal
< ' Solution. Divide the area into two parts of 6 in. 2
to angle CBD and the following proportion can be written.
­ . ·..· 'and 4 in. 2 by extending the vertical sides of the stem
e­>cro!IS·seetion. Let the axis of moments be taken along the v v d'()
-=--=E (a)
r dx
Since the total deformation of the element v d'() divided by the original
length dx is the unit deformation or strain E, Eq. (a) indicates that the
elongation of the element varies directly with the distance v from the
s. oeated.2 in. up from the bottom. neutral surface. Let it be assumed that the material of the.beam follows
}�;1�,_L��, + ·: �
Hooke's law. Substitution of E = sf E into Eq.. (a) gives

or 8 =E
Suppo�t­Iong, thin, straight beam is bent into a curve by moments M
applied it the ends, as s_hown in Fig. 1­6(a). The beam and moments lie
Thus the stress also varies directly with the distance from the neutr�l
in the"ityiplane :with the origin at the left end and the y­axis positive
surface, becoming larger as v increases. Equation (7) is of course vahd
downward, At. distance x from the left end, the deflection of the beam is only for stresses in the elastic range of the material. Above the neutral
given by distance y, as shown. Figure l­6(b) shows, enlarged, a slice surface, for negative values of v, the stress is compressive and i?creases
AB of differential length dx cut from the beam at location x. uniformly with the distance from the neutral surface. Equation �7),
The planes cutting the right and left end surfaces of AB are taken
obtained from the geometry of the deformed beam, gives �nl! a po�i:n
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the originally straight beam. It is of the solution. It is now necessary to consider the equilibrium O t e
customary to assume that these cross sections will remain plane and per­
pendicular to the longitudinal elements of the beam after moments M �­ h b
Figure 1­7(a) shows the beam after the left­hand portion as een
) )

remove'dhy pa.ssipg a.., single· cutting pl�ne at A. _It �ill be ?bserved that equal to the moment M. Hence
the strf�'.­ qn''.lJie.l�ft:b�n�_ cross section are distributed m a?chordhancde
witl,l. E9. ..{7), a'ddtlil�tlie·given moment !f is acting at. the ng t- an
end. A�erspective of the.EJtress system is shown m Fig. 1­7(b}. The
- M = f sv dA = I� v2 dA =� f v2 dA = �I (9)

intersectiot(pf the neutrkl sµrface with the cross section upon which the
The integral J v2 dA is customarily called the moment of inertia of the
stresses are a�ting iEJ .called the neutral axis. . . . . . - area and is represented by the letter I. This substitution has been m d
The portion of the �m in Fig. 1­7(a) must be m eqmh?rmm ':1th
in the last form of Eq. (9). If the radius of curvature r is eliminated
­ respect­both­to­­for­ces­­a.n!i­moments. Since the given loading M IS a
, .. _.,. .>, , Eqs. (7) and (9), it results in the important equation

s=r (10)

Nsulral equation gives the value of the bending stress at any distance v from
surfa cs neutral axis. The greatest stress is found at the location on the cross
where v is the largest. This maximum value of v is usually denoted
c, and the equation for the maximum bending stress then becomes

s=r (11)
BtreBB caused by bending moment. �hould be noted that the magnitude of the stress s given by Eq. (11)
_ mdependent of the kind of material composing the beam. The ratio
'< :ViCrieJe­� that the forces acting on the left end surface is called the section modulus of the cross section.
'�thern�lves. The force on an element of area dA, shown ­Alt�ough Fig. 1­7 illustrates a rectangular beam, the foregoing theory
�,a dA. When this force is added up for the entire valid for any shape of cross section. The maximum stress is located on
'iful'finuat be equal to zero. The value of s from Eq. (7) boundary at the point farthest removed from the neutral axis
itutJa as follows: . _ ): · According to the original assumption, this theory should be �pplied

Jr.� 1f',� Ii if
' . :"fI'�llly .t? long, thin beams loaded in pure bending. However, under most
,';.}_conditions, the equations give satisfactory results for bending stress
v dA = v dA = o (b)
;,�)f'.'\Vhen the bending moment is caused by transverse forces applied to the

o�'.",:;i�:,Jf;�\�,}�J; d�. = vA = o _ (8)

}!'beam. Transverse forces also cause compressive stress between the
'.�s e1ements in the neighborhood Of the loads. I
:'\s;,;rlf the material in the beam does not follow Hooke's law the magnitude
, . Tli�;iht1tr�f�fEq. (8) represents the total moment of area about the : ­Of ,, . the s t ress IS • no. longer proportional
• .
to the distance from
the neutral
neutral axis�)As,"aa shown in Section 5, it can be set equal to the product tt��:t,8,· I! Eq. (11) is applied to such beams, the results may only be
of the area\A .of the cross section times the distance v of its center of ,)i�f,PProximate.
gravity from thJ neutral axis. The only way in which this product can be :�:rJ;_y<_. '_:
zero is for v to have a zero value. It must therefore be concluded that the
neutral axis passes through the center of gravity of the cross section.
'. :­rf,��rnple 5. Let the beam in Fig. 1­6 2 3
be in. wide and in. deep. Let the
..­ �­ �g moment M at each end be equal to 40,000 in­lb. Find the value of the
Since the beam in Fig. 1­7(a) is in equilibrium, the moment of the · • n(ling stress.

stresses of the left­hand end surface must be equal to the applied moment
load M. The force on an element of area, s dA, when multiplied by the . , p, 146 of reference 9, Bibliography. Complete bibliographical information is
distance v to the neutral axis, and integrated over the entire area, is at end of each chapter.

Iv_·, ,u·· JU!l

( ( (
Another expression for the bending stress of a beam of rectangular cross
section can be secured by substituting Eq. (12) into Eq. (11).
By Eq. (12): I _ bh3 = 2 X 3• = 4_5 in.!
­ 12 12 6M
s = bh2 (13)
By Eq. (11):
Mc_ 40,000 X 1.5 = .
s=-- 13
. , 330 psi
I 4.5 For a circle of diameter d or radius r about a diameter through the
center, the value of the integral J v2 dA becomes
Example 6. A steel handsaw blade is 0.028 in. thick. Find the. valu� of the
bending stress when the blade is passing around a pulley of 18 m. diameter. 1rd4 1l-r4
E = 30,000,000 psi. I= 64 = 4 (14)

Solution. When Eq. (14) is substituted into Eq. (11), the following expression for
the bending stress of a beam of circular cross section is obtained.
By Eq. (7): 8
= Ev = 30,000,000 X 0.014 = 461670 psi 32M
r 9
s = 1rd3 (15)

7. Moment of Inertia Suppose that the moment of inertia for the shaded rectangle in Fig.
1­9 is desired about axis 1. Axis O should be drawn
The integral f v2 dA appeared in connection with the bending theory of through the center of gravity parallel to axis 1 about c.� dA
beams. For convenience in writing, this integral, as was mentioned in the which the moment of inertia is desired. The inte­
foregoing section, is usually replaced by the symbol I and is called the gral of distance squared times differential area then Ar o
becomes I I' 1
Ii= J(v + sv dA = J(v2 + 2y v + y )dA 2 (a) I :
The integration can be made term by term and is L--J
to extend over the shaded area. The first integral, Fig. 1­9. Moment
I v2 dA, is equal to the moment of inertia about ofaxis.inertia a bout parallel
axis O and may be written I 0• The second term,
2y f v dA, is equal to zero since it represents merely the moment of the
area about an axis through the center of gravity. The third term is seen
Fig. 1­8. Moment of inertia and polar moment of inertia. \ to be equal ·to Ay2, where A is the area. The moment of inertia for area
A about axis I is then equal to

moment of inertia. Expressions for I for the commonly used geometric l1=lo+Ay2 (16)
shapes of cross sections can be found in the mechanical engineering hand­ This equation is known as the parallel axis theorem. The moment of inertia
books. See also Fig. 1­8.
for a composite cross section can be found by dividing it into elementary
If the integral is computed for a rectangle of width band depth h about parts, finding the moment of inertia about the desired axis for each by
an axis parallel to side b through the center of gravity, as shown in Eq. (16), and then adding the results together. Axis 0, however, must be
Fig. 1­8, it is found to be equal to
taken through the center of gravity of the area under consideration and
I = bh3 (12) must be parallel to the axis about which the total value of I is desired.
12 The equation for moment of inertia is sometimes written
Width b is parallel to the axis about which the moment tries to rotate (b)
the cross section.
where i is called the radius of gyration for the area. It is the hypothetical
( ( (
distance at which the entire area A would have to be concentrated in The mome�t arm is the distance from the line of action of the force to the
order to give the same value for I as determined by the integral. center of gravity of the cross­sectional area.
Mc 3,600 X 1.125 X 1 .
Example 7. Find the value of the moment of inertia of the T­shaped cross In Eq. (11): s = T =
= 8,100 psi bending stress
section of Fig. 1­21(b).
Solution. By Exampie 4, the center of gravity is located 2 in. up from the Superposition applies and the resultant stress is given by
bottom. P Mc
1 61
By Eq. (16), for the stem: I = X +6 X l2 = 24 in.4
12 On the inside edge: s = 2,400 + 8,100 = 10,500 psi tension

By Eq. (16), for the T: I = 4 X l3 + 4 X 1.52 = 9.33 in. 4 On the outside edge: s = 2,400 ­ 8,100 = ­5,700 psi compression
Total: I = 24 + 9.33 = 33.33 in. 4 Views (c) and (d) show the effect of moment and direct stress separately; the
resultant stress on a cross section through the main body of the link is given by
8. Principle of Superposition

3,600 lb

· Stresses and­deforiiiations are produced in a body by the forces which

are exerted.Upon it. It is natural to assume that the resultant effect at any
chosen point is the sum of the effects of the various loads. In general,
s•S,700 ps,
experimentshave shown that this is so. The idea that the resultant effect M=4,050 Eff11t:I of momut
in. lb ·
is the sum ofthe separate effects is known as the principle of superposition. (OJ
.---+��, �
In general, itis valid for cases of loading only where the magnitude of the
i--....:2,:...--u.- ,·
stress and· deflection is directly proportional to the load. i (bJ ,

Eff11t:I of
Example. 8.• Calculate and plot the distribution of stress over a cross section dir11t:l lood
of the offset link shown in Fig. 1­lO(a). The main body of the link is straight and
is i in. thick. 3,600/b 3,600lb 3,600 lb
It Ia obvious. that the loading of Fig. 1­lO(a) produces both direct tension and Offs,/ link Equfrolrnl loading /luu/lant stress
bending stress on the cross section. The principle of superposition applies, and,
each stress can be computed separately. The two stresses can then be added\ Fig. 1­10. Offset link with tension load.
algebraically to obtain the resultant. _
At this point, good use may be made of a principle from statics whereby a �e). Note that views (b) and (e) are in static equilibrium. AJso note that the
given force may be resolved into a parallel force and� couple. By doing so, the hne. of zero stress no longer passes through the center of gravity of the cross
equivalent loading on the cross section shown by Fig. 1­lO(b) is secured. The
moment arm is equal to the distance from the line of action of the force to the
center of gravity of the cross section. · . Superposition cannot be applied if the loads produce deflections which
are so great that the basic configuration of the system is thereby changed.
Solution. The computations are as follows.
T�ke, for example, the leaf spring with the load on the end shown in
3 . . Fig. 1­ll(a). Suppose, upon doubling the load that the deflection, shown
A = 4x 2 = 1.5 ID, 3 ?Y the dashed outline, becomes so large that the moment arm of the loads
� reduced. The stress and deflection will not be twice as great as for a
bh1 3 1 . l!Ulgle load. ..
12 4 12 =05m
l=-=-X8X- . .4
. Another example where the fundamental configuration of the system
3,600 = 2,400 psi. diirect stress
p = ­­ � chan�ed by the application of a load is given in Fig. 1­ll(b). A change
In Eq. (1): s = A
1.5 in loading causes a change in deflection, which in turn causes a change
in the length of the span. The load and deflection therefore are not z, the loading for slice AB is more complicated than in the case of pure
proportional to each other.2 •
bending previously considered. Shearing forces, as well as moments
In general, superposition is not valid for slender members loaded m exist on the end surfaces of the slice. In general the top surface of th;
compression as shown in Fig. 1­ll(c). After the load reaches a value beam is acted upon by transverse loads.
A slice from such a beam is shown in Fig. 1­12. The rate at which the
bending moment is changing in value is equal to dM /dx, and the distance
over which this change takes place in

passing from A to Bis dz, The change in . )(

­­1 4-�p
value for the moment then is (dM /dx)dx.
The moment on the right end is equal to

(bl 0;11,ction causes chang, (cl st,nd,, bat

(al s,am with la,g,
d,11,ction in span length - /oad,d in
the moment M of the left end plus the
increment or change. Similarly, the shear y
Fig. 1­11. Examples where deflection changes original geometry; superposition does not
force, as a function of x, changes from a
value V on the left to the amount on Fig.
1­12· !t:�!���:�d by
known as the critical or buckling load, a large lateral deflection of the the right, as shown. Should either the
member results from a small additional increase in the axial load. · moment or shear be decreasing with increasing z, the corresponding
derivative would be negative, and would thus effect a reduction for the
9: Additional. Bea�- Equations right­hand value. All shears and moments in Fig. 1­12 have positive
directions. Note, however, that the arrows3 have opposite directions on
For niost beams used in engineering, the slope r.p, shown in Fig. 1­6, ends A and B.
has a very small value. Therefore, the tangent dy/dx can be considered Section AB of the beam in Fig. 1­12 is in equilibrium. The algebraic
as having a value very close to the angle 'P· Then sum of the vertical forces must then be equal to zero. Hence,
dy dq, d2y
'P = dx and dx = dx2 V + dV
dx dx + wdx - V = O (a)

The slope 'P is reduced in Fig. 1­6 in passing from A to B, and the or dV
dx = -w (19)
increment dq, of the angle is thus a negative quantity. From the figure
dx = ­ rd». Then The derivative with respect to x of the expression for the shear is therefore
d'(J = _! = d2y (17) the negative of the value of the load.
dx r dx2
. The moments also must be in equilibrium. The equation for moments
The negative sign is inserted because both dx and rare positive quantitie\ ' , about point A, for example, is
Substitution of Eq. (9) gives
d2y M (18)
'M + dd� dx - [V + !� dx] dx - w dx X d; - M = 0 (b)
dx2 = ­ EI
When differentials of higher order are neglected, this equation reduces to
Equation (18) is the fundamental equation of beam theory. For
dM = V (20)
the general case of loading, moment 111 is a function of x and not a con­ dx
stant as in Fig. 1­6. If the beam has a large deflection, as, for example,
a leaf spring in some types of service, the approximation 'P = dy/dx The derivative of the moment, as a function of x, gives the expression for
cannot be used, and the mathematics of the solution becomes very the shearing force. Differentiate Eq. (20) and substitute in Eq. (19)
complicated. d2M = -w
­ (21)
When the bending moment of the beam is not constant, but varies with dx2
1'. 2
See also Section 13.
2 See pp. 4, 162, of reference 4, Bibliography.
( (
Differentiate Eq . .(ts) and substitute Eq. (20) I. 2.
dx' = - EI
V (22) ;Er­­­=­:;:::=:­4,£�­­
The third derivative of the equation for the deflection y gives an expres­
sion which is proportional to the shear. Finally, differentiate Eq. (22) v
')( o V=o
and substitute Eq. (19) to obtain x
d 4y . W
dx• = Elj
o:::: ::::::::::::i�;:;:: :::::J


M 1x 1 M./1

The fourth derivative of y with respect to x is thus proportional to the 9z= EI; Y= 2EI ,· Y,,,ax=m
load w.
The location of the point of maximum bending moment is found by
differentiating M with respect to x and setting the result equal to zero.
However, dM/dx is equal to V by Eq. (20). Therefore, a maximum (or a
minimum) value of the bending moment occurs at those points for which y l
. the ..shear V j_��_g1,1a.l to zero. The load w on the top surface of the beam
may be uniform, may vary with x, or may be equal to zero except at the
0 ::::::::::::::;;;;t�c:;,:;:3
I x
points .where concentrated forces or moments are acting.
� 1·,�ll-xJ
10. Deflection of Beams Af� x
The foregoing equations can be used for deriving equations for the de­ e,=m; e1=m; �= �
M. 9,3£1
flections of beams. If the expression for. the bending moment, as a function Y= 6IE7(2l1x-3lx1+xs)
of x, is substituted in Eq. (18), and if two integrations are performed and
the constants of integration are evaluated, the equation for the deflection
y at location z is obtained. The process is illustrated by the following

g lz J .
Example 9. Derive the equation for the de­
,. lb�;;mazzn zzzzzzzz, y
flection for values of x located between the .'.
_7, J- supports. for the bea� shown in Fig. 1­13. ,: ; .
· . Solution. By. taking moments, the values ): :
Fig. 1­13. Example 9. of the reactions are fQ!!Dd to be R1 = 3wl/8 ·i
and R2 = 9wl/8. '.
3 w:i;I
At location x: M=-wlx--
8 2
In Eq. (18): El-= -M
= ­ 3­8 wlx + wx
1 For O<x(J;

El dy = _ 3wlx2 + wx'
Integrate: dx 16 6 + Ci Fig. l­14. Shear, moment, and deflection in beams of uniform cross section.

Since the slope dy/dx is not known for any point on the beam, constant C1 �t the left end, x = 0 a�d y = 0. When these are substituted, C2 = 0. At the
must be retained and evaluated later. Integrate: nght end, x = l and Y = 0. When these are substituted
3wlx3 wx4 wl3
Ely = - + 48 + C1x + C2
24 C,=-
Chap. 1 Sec. 10
8. 13.

,Yv I

0- • �]!!l x v...,.��.,..
2 0
M · E:te.:::] x

8 ;r
e w[:1. .sa:
_Pab(li-b). Pbx I I I x
,- 6l£I ' Y, =6/£1 (I -b -x J 8,=82=24ll' Ymax=� 0
Pao .., . Pab Pb
81 =e2 = Pa{l-aJ 9,= 6£I; 8., • 6£I (2 l+ b)

8 _Pab(/+aJ. Paz (I I-a I -z 'J
Ye=6lfl £I l -2 x +x :J)
WX ( :J / I
Y=24 2EI
'I- 61£1 '

·¥ For a-cs <ea, Yi= [3a{l-a)-x1/

For {)lt.•�o.
9. Es.oo--x--"'--�k--"'-�_AM,= ?� For a<.x<.fl-a), y1= :ti {3x(l-x)-a2/

I 'RJ,____.,___.'------i i«
Ymax= 24Pa (.
£I 3 -4a

16. p

Maximum moment·
Mmo.c= P(e
I ff
: Pe St'C °j '{ fl
(c) °"l't
Maximum stress:
Smo.c -x
P/, ec I
(I+ ;,secziViiE
,r1EI p = 4,r1EI
�' = 4/2 Cl [2
P e Where A= area al crosssection
Critical or buckling loads for centrally loaded
2 ..
1 = li7A, radius al gyrolian

columns. c =·distance from neutral

r P,.l--T'
axis lo ed(J"P of section

s ,. s ,Pl""_r_Y
Far o<!x,e (1-c) p 1= � For o<x,e{/-c) p2= £�
M Psin= EI
Sp sm pl
sin px - £§ x
y = - P sinh pc sinh px + Pc x
Sp smh pl Sl
Equations far slope and moment con be found Equations far slope and moment con be found
by differentiation. by differenfio lion.

Fig. 1­16: Shear, moment and deflection in beams and columns.

Fig. 1­15. Shear, moment, and deflection in beams of uniform cross section. integration process must be started with Eq. (23) and four constants of integra­
tion evaluated.
The equation for the deflection thus is
A transverse load on a beam causes a deflection or change in elevation at the
w point of application. However, a reaction generally remains fixed in elevation
y = -- (2x4
­ 3lx3 + l3x) even though it carries a force.
For indeterminate beams, when the expression for JJ as a function of x cannot Figures 1­14 to 1­17 inc. give the shears, moments, and deflections for
be found by statics, the equation for deflection can still be secured, but the a number of beams of various types of loads and conditions of support.
( ( (
19 20 Solution. (a) By the conditions of the problem the deflection at the center is
O.OlOl/12, where l is the length in inches. Hence by No. 8 of Fig. 1­15,

5wl4 O.OlOl _ 0.010 X 384EJ

384El = � or 3
l - 12 X 5w

1rd4 1r34

By Eq. (14): I = - = - = 3.976 m. 4
64 64

j ;;;;;;i;::::::a

�" .!£
y.....,= 6£I (2a+3
w =
32 .
-yA = 0.283 r4 = 2.00 lb/in.

M1a ..!!!J!!... • �(a+ 3b}
Substitution of these values gives
e,= 6£1 • 92=�£'I • 6s : 3£1
l3 = 3,817,000 or t = 156.3 in. = 13.02 ft
Far 0:1!._x�a, }',=-6:}� (a2-1r2J

Far O� 1r1:!!. b, y ir
2• 6 (2ax, + 3x,2J (b) M = wl2 = 2 X 156.3'
8 8
= 6,106 in­lb

= Mc = 6,106 X 1.5 = 2 300 psi
I 3.976 '

If the beam has a cross­section width 8 or 10 or more times as great

as the thickness, the beam is stiffer, and the deflection is less than that
indicated by the equation for a narrow beam. The large cross­section
width prevents the lateral expansion and contraction of the material, and
the deflection is thereby reduced. A better value for the deflection of a
"wide" beam is obtained by multiplying the result given in the equation
for a narrow beam by (I ­ µ2) where µ is Poisson's ratio.

11. Effect of Ribs on Castings

Ribs are sometimes added to the webs of castings to give greater
F7111u1,,r4� 0 M2 M2=R�l2·
\ strength and rigidity. It is possible, however, that the addition of a shal­
low rib to a body loaded in bending may cause an increase in stress rather
D,fl«:fions can laund /Jr elMIMIDry Deflections can be found by elemMtary
equDfillfls and sup,rpositian
than a decrease. The low rib gives a small increase in the moment of
�quations and suprrPosiliot1s
inertia, but the distance from the neutral axis to the edge of the cross sec­
Fig. 1­17. Shear, moment, and deflection in beams of uniform cross section.
tion becomes relatively greater, and the stress is accordingly increased.
The situation is illustrated by the following example.
In these figures, a simple support is assumed to offer no resistance to
lateral motion or to rotation in the plane of the moments. Example II. Figure 1­18 represents the
Example 10. Suppose it is specified that the deflection from its own weight cross section through a simply supported
at the center of a simply supported steel shaft should not exceed 0.010 in. per beam 60 in. long that carries a 200 lb load
foot of span. at the center. E = 15,000,000 psi.

(a) Find the maximum permissible length for a 3 in. diameter shaft. (a) Find the value of the bending stress
(b) Find the stress caused by the weight of the shaft. For steel, 'Y = 0.283 and the deflection at the center if the ribs Fig. l­lS. Cross section for ribbed
lb/in. 3, E = 30,000,000 psi. were omitted. beam, Example 11.
( (
(b) Find the value of the bending stress and the deflection at the center when 12. Shearing Stress
the ribs are present.
Suppose an element is loaded by shearing stresses acting tangentially
Solution, (a) to its sides as shown in perspective in Fig. l­19(a) or in plan in Figs.
1­19(b) and (c). Such loading causes no change in the length of the sides
. I = bh3 = 4.2 X l3 = 0.35 in." of the element, but merely produces a distortion or change in the value of
12 12 . the 90° angles in the corners.
M == Pl == 200 X 60 = 3,000 in­lb
4 4
_ Mc = 3,000 X 0.5 = 4 290 psi
- I 0.35 ' y
_ Pl3 _ 200 X 603 = 0.1714 in.
y - 48El - 48 X 15,000,000 X 0.35
(b) Area, A = 4.2 X 1 +2 X 0.2 X 0.6 = 4.44 in.2
fa) £!11ment loaded ,n sh1101 fb) Pos) h v11 shear
To find­y,­take­the­ axis along top of the cross section.
F'ig. 1­19. Element loaded by shearing or tangential stress.
4.44jj = 4.2 X 0.5 + 0.24 X 1.1 = 2.364

y = 0.5324 in. Shearing stresses are usually denoted by double subscripts. The first
subscript indicates the direction of the normal to the plane under con­
For the main area: I = bh
3 + Ayz = 0.35 + 4.2 X· 0.0324 2 = 0.3544 in. 4 sideration, and the second subscript indicates the direction of the stress.
Hence stress s"II lies in a plane whose normal is in the z­direction, while
For the ribs: I = 1.2 X O.V + 0.24 X 0.5676 = 0.0813 in.
2 4 the stress acts in the y­direction. For similar reasons 811:r: indicates that the
12 stress is in a plane perpendicular to the y­axis, and is parallel to the x­axis.
Total: I = 0.3544 + 0.0813 = 0.4357 in. 4 the element is in equilibrium, the moments of the forces about a
say A, must add up to zero. The stress should be multiplied by
= Mc = 3,000 X 0.6676 = 4 600 si
I 0.4357 ' p area and then by the moment arm to give

= Pl3 = 200 X 603 = 0.1377 in. Szy dx dy h - Sy:r: dx dy h = 0

y 48EI 48 X 15,000,000 X 0.4357
8:r:y = Sy:r: (24)

As shown above, shallow ribs cause an increase ­in the bending stress. Equation (24) shows that the shearing stresses in two perpendicular
The deflection, however, has been decreased. If the ribs are made some­ directions at a point are equal. Usually no distinction in notation is made,
what larger, the stress would be decreased, and the beam would be and both would be represented by the same symbol.
stronger.4 It should be noted, however, that four arrows are necessary to specify
Ribbed structures are frequently made of a brittle material such as a state of shear for an element, and for equilibrium these arrows must be
cast iron which is weak in tension. If possible, the ribs should be in com­ arranged either as in Fig. l­19(b) for positive shear, or as in Fig. l­19(c)
pression. When a cast iron body with parallel ribs is bent and the ribs for negative shear. Thus if the direction of one arrow is reversed, all four
are in tension, care must be exercised to make certain that all ribs are of · must be reversed. In other words if shearing stress exists on one side of
the same height, or they may fail progressively beginning with the highest. an e1 ement, then, m '
· general, shearing · must exist on all four srid es,
Therefore, the full strength of the body cannot be realized. as shown in Fig. 1­19. .
The shearing strain or angular deformation 'Y is proportional to the
\. 4 See references 10 and 11, Bibliography.
( ( (
shearing stress for values within the elastic range, and Hooke's law for cated at a distance V1 below the neutral surface. Moment Mis acting on
shear becomes the cross section of the left end of the slice, while moment M + dM is
8zy = -y(} (25) acting on the right.
The constant of proportionality, G, is c�lled �he modulus of elasticity To maintain equilibrium in the horizontal direction, shearing stress e,
in shear. It has dimensions of psi. In magmtu�e it would be equal to the must act towards the left on surface AB. This shear is necessary because
stress which would cause the angular deformat10� to b�come equ�l to one the normal stresses from the bending moment are assumed to be larger
radian provided Hooke's law is valid for such imagmary loadmg. The on surface BC on the right than on surface AD on the left.
mathematical relationship between the three elastic constants E, G, and An element of area dA on surface AD has the normal force s dA or
µ is given by
Mv dA/1 acting as shown in Fig. 1­20(b). The total force on the left end
extending from A to D is then
G = 2(1 + µ) [c, Mv dA
}., I (a)
whereµ is Poisson's ratio."
Similarly, the total force on the right end BC is
13. Trajisv.erse Shearing Stress in Beams [c, (M + dM)v dA (b)
}., I
. . In addition to the bending stresaes, the loads on a b�a� may also. cause ,
shearing stresses between the elements. The designer is mter.ested m �he The shearing force on the horizontal surface AB is s.b dx, where bis the
magnit11:de,�fthe�st;resses, since machine parts made of ductile materials width of the beam at the location where the shear stress s, is acting.

a:r� 'ii�6·�tly designed 6ri the basis of shearing stress. The equilibrium equation for horizontal forces for ABCD is then

le, - + dM)v
:-. :-; --� :'. -� ·=_-; ,

Mv dA - (M dA
s,bdx + 1- - I (c)

1 .,

or _ 1 (c, dM v dA _ V
(oJ SJ/ding of lommot,d
s, - b }., di -r - lb •• v dA (26)
•trip• with tronsr1,rs, foods.
In the last form of Eq. (26), shear V has been substituted for dM/dx. In
Eq. (26), v dA represents the moment of the area of the element about the
Neutral OXIS
neutral axis. This is integrated over the entire surface from v1, the location
where the shearing stress s, is desired, to the outer edge. This integral

\ can also be written iiA where Aa is the shaded area of view A-A, and

ii is the distance from its center of gravity to the neutral axis. Equation
(26) can 'then be written
(c) View A-A
(bJ Side . .,,.,, ol beam
Cross sut,on V_A (27)
S, = Jb V a
Fig. 1­20. Transverse shearing stress in beam.
As was proved in the preceding section, the shearing stress on the
If a vertical load is supported by a stack of laminated strips, the shear­ vertical end surfaces at distance v1 from the neutral axis is also equal to
ing effect is as shown in Fig. 1­20(a). In a solid beam the elements do not the horizontal shear stress s, as determined by Eqs. (26) or (27).
slide on each other, but the shearing stress tending to make them do so For composite cross sections it is convenient to divide area Aa into
is present. . several parts, find iiAa for each of them, and then add together for the
Figure 1­20(b) shows a portion ABCD cut from a beam of umform final result. For such beams, Eq. (27) is written
cross section by two adjacent vertical planes and a horizontal plane, lo­
5 See p. 57 of reference 1, Bibliography.
Chap. 1
( c
The total shear force on the cross section is represented by V. The second­degree parabola in v1• Its value is proportional to the length of
distance from the neutral axis to the point where the shearing stress is the arrows in Fig. l­22(a). The maximum value occurs at the neutral
desired is given by v. axis, where Vi = 0, and is equal to
Example 12. Find the transverse shear in the material 3 in. from the top 8'
= 2A (30)
surface for the beam of Fig. 1­21(a). Also find the value of the transverse shearing
stress at the neutral axis. The shear decreases both above and below the axis in accordance with
Eq, (29) until at the upper and lower edges it becomes zero.' The end
S�Iiition. " shown In Example 4, the center of gravity of the cross section
surface of the beam in Fig. 1­22(a) is also acted upon by the system of
in Fig. 1­21(b) is found to be 2 in. up from the bottom. As shown in Example 7,
the moment of inertia about the horizontal axis through the center of gravity is normal stresses caused by the bending moment, as shown by Fig. 1­7(b).
found to be 33.33 in.! In Fig. l­22(a) these have been omitted for greater clarity.

Aa=Jin.2 Aa=41itz

r;*'k­ : ­1�­­�!
- _ -_ _ I , [{ [ A;=.Jin.2
. • ... "1 'le.. ......

­_­ .:­.·­_·­··· ii_ __

­­­­­­­­­8­­ � -Z ·�
fc) Vorioli1,n of p
_ _ - . If?, _ _ � A11=4111. shror d11formolion
.---. (al.':'· -- --_- · (J,J (c) (d) t,J
Fig. 1­21. Example 12.
­ Referring to Fig.1­2l(c), it is seen for location 3 in. from the top that ii = 2.5
in. and Aa .;. 3 in.2 Substitution in Eq. (27) gives
f b) Shroring sfr,ss
10,000 . 011 rl•m•nl A 8 CO ( di snea« w«> of
3, = X X 2.5 X 3 = 2,250 psi axis
strns on
33.33 1 (0) cul from bHm 1-brom

It is ofcou.rse immaterial whether A is taken above or below the location at

.l"ig. 1­22. Distribution of shearing stress over cross section of beam.
which the stres.sis desired. If taken below, the situation is as shown in Fig.
1­2l(d). Equation (28) gives Within reasonable limits, the presence of the shearing stress has no
effect on the value of the bending stress, and vice versa.
10,000 .
+ 0.5 X 3) The shearing deformation also varies over the surface of a cross sec­
8• = 33_33 X 1 (1.5 X 4 = 2,250 psi
tion; it is maximum at the neutral axis and zero at the top and bottom.
At the neutral surface, values of ii and .4. shown in Fig. 1­21 (e) are used, and
The shearing stress causes a warping of the cross sections which were
the value of the shearing stress becomes originally plane and perpendicular to the longitudinal elements of the
beam. 7 For a cantilever with a load on the end, the situation is as shown
10,000 .
3• = X X 4 X 2 = 2,400 psi in Fig. 1­22(c).
33_33 1
For a solid circular cross section, Eq. (26) gives the following value for
the maximum transverse shear which occurs at the neutral axis. 8
When Eq. (26) is applied to rectangular cross sections, dA = b dv and
c1 = h(2. After making these substitutions and integrating, the following· 4 V (31)
Ssmaz = 3•A
result is obtained.

s = £
• 21
(h24 ­ v 2)1
= 3V
(1 -
h2 (29) ; Seep. 116 of reference 1, Bibliography. . .
For deflection of beams caused by shear, see p. 170 of reference 1, Bibhograph!.
8 A more exact analysis gives values or l.38P/;l and l.23P/A for the shearing

The transverse shearing stress in a rectangular beam thus varies as a stress at the center and ends, respectively, or the neutral axis. See P· 290 of reference 3,
( ( (
pressure of the fluid. The equivalent loading is shown in F" 1 24(b)
For a circular tube with very thin walls, the maximum transverse shear In Fig. l­24(c} the vertical bar is loaded at the base by the �!m;nt w�
stress at the neutral axis is given by as well as_ by the force P. The equivalent loading is shown in Fig. 1­24(d).
v (32) In solvmg . most stress
. problems it is first necessary to find the reac tiions
s,,..a:i: == 2 A w h.ich . the given. loading produces. It is customary to make use of th e
foII owmg equations from statics.
The distribution of transverse shear stress for an I­beam is shown in
�F,, = 0, �Fil= 0, �F. = 0
Fig. 1­22(d). The stress is practically uniform except in the regions �ear
�M,, = 0, �Mil =0, �M. = 0
the top arid bottom:.­.A. good approximate value for the stress is o�tamed
by dividing the total shearing force V by the area of the web td with the According �o these equations, the components of the forces, as well as the
web considered as extending the entire depth of the beam. moments, m each of the three coordinate directions must add to zero.

14. Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

The effects of the forces and moments which act upon the different
parts of a machine are of primary importance to the machine designer.
fb}Mcf°IJIOJJjlJIJOj,)M M=Wa

M�a tn2=y (I
loading for

R,=¥� A x Equ1val•nl loading r•rlical arm

r I ar
for floor b1om
fbJ Equ1val1111I loading for zx-p/111111 for fa}.
Fig. 1­24. Examples of beams with moment loads.
z: i
For static equilibrium, each of these equations must be satisfied. It
(t:J This is 1101 11quivolt111I should be noted that each is satisfied independently of the others. So
(a) Actu'11 laildlng 011 snafl. loading b1c11ust1 forc11s P
ar11 not in confocf with shall far as the reactions are concerned, a force can be considered to be acting
anywhere along its line of action, and a moment load can be considered
Fig.l­23.• Actual and equivalent load diagram for shaft.
to be acting anywhere in its plane. The state of stress in the material
however, is determined by the location, on the line of action at which the
Forces arisefrom a variety of causes. A force may be due to weight or to force is considered to be applied. '
inertia if a body is being accelerated. A force may be transmitted to the T�e shearing force and bending moment, acting internally on the cross
body by another member of the machine at the point where the two parts \ section of a _b_ea� at any point, are equal to the force and moment required
are in contact. It is common practice to represent forces by means of for the equilibrium of each portion of the beam after it has been cut in
arrows on sketches in solving force problems. It is very important, except two at !he �iven point. For example, consider the simply supported beam,
for gravity and inertia, to keep in mind that the body must have contact shown in Fig. 1­25(a), with load P and reactions R1 and R2• In (b) and
with the rest of the structure at the point where a force, represented by an (c), after cutting at distance x from the left end shear V and moment
arrow, is considered as acting. As an example, consider the shaft of Fig. M1 are _required to maintain equilibrium of each portion.1 Reactions R,
1­23(a). The entire loading occurs at point A, where the bracket is a_nd R2 m (b) and (c) are the same as in (a). Shear V1 is found by summa­
attached to the shaft. The equivalent loading diagram is shown in Fig. tion of vertical forces. Moment M1 is found by making a summation of
1­23(b). The diagram of Fig. 1­23(c) is incorrect because forces P are moments, with the location of the cut taken as the moment center. The
not in contact with the shaft. shear and moment diagrams shown in (d) and (e) are constructed by
Moment loads such as those described in Fig. 1­23(b) frequently occur taking different values of x and finding v and M for each until a sufficient
in machine parts. Thus in the tank shown in Fig. 1­24(a) the floor beam number of values has been found to plot the diagrams. It is generally
not only resists the vertical pressure of the fluid, but has moments applied assumed that a reaction does not change in elevation. Other transverse
to it at the ends by the uprights which are acted upon by the horizontal
( ( (
loads deflect the beam, and the elevations of the loads are thereby Solution. Reaction R1 can be found by writing a moment equation for the
entire beam with center of moments taken at R2. The resulting equation is
changed. . . · ti ,
Moments and shears can, of course, be either positive or nega .rv e,
depending on the direction in which they act. The shear and �ome_nt 64R1 = 25,000; R1 = 390.6 lb
at point A for the beam shown m Fig. Reaction R2 can be found by a moment equation with R1 taken as the center.
1­25 are both positive. Positive direc­
tions for the arrows representing these 64R2 = 25,000; R2 = 390.6 lb
quantities are accordingly shown in the The moment diagram consists of segments of straight lines. Let it be assumed
figures. Even though both shear and that the beam is cut just to the left of the point of application of the moment
moment are positive at A, note that a load. The bending moment is positive and is equal to
reversal in direction for both the V 1 and M = 36R1 = 36 X 390.6 = 14,062.5 in­lb
M 1 arrows occurs in (b) and ( c). The
direction of the arrow thus depends on Again let it be assumed that the beam is cut just to the right of the point of
whether the portion of the beam to the application of the load. The moment is negative.
right of the cut, as in (b), is considere?, M = 28R2 = 28 X 390.6 = 10,937.5 in­lb
or whether the portion to the left, as in
(c), is considered. Note that both (b) and
15. Slender Compression Members or Columns
(c) are in agreement with Fig. 1­1_9�b)
I with respect to direction of positive When a short block is loaded in compression as in Fig. 1­28(a), the
shear. Although the y­axis is taken posi­ average compressive stress in the material is found by dividing the load
Fig. 1­25. Snt:.:.nd moment in tive downward, both the V- and M­axes
are taken positive upward.
Depending on the loading and method of supporting the beam, the
shear .at a cross section may have one sign, and the moment may have (oJ Shorl block (bJ Long slt1ndt1r m11mbt1r

the oppositEl sign. Fig. 1­28. Bodies under compressive load. method for determining the sign of the moment is shown in
Fig. l­2(t Here a moment tending to bow the beam concavely upward is by the cross­sectional area. However, when the member is long and slen­
considered positive, whereas a moment tending to make the beam concave der, as that shown in Fig. 1­28(b), the situation is complicated by the
downward is negative. possibility of lateral buckling. Buckling does not occur when the bar is

\ straight and a load, smaller than the critical value, is centrally applied.
Such a column is stable; the bar, if given a lateral deflection, returns to
its originally straight condition upon removal of the lateral force.
Force Pin Fig. 1­28(b) can be increased until the straight form of the
bar becomes unstable, and the axial loads will then maintain the bar in a
curved form. The smallest load capable of maintaining the bar in a slightly
Pos1livt1 N1golivt1 bent form is called the critical or buckling load Pc,· A load only slightly
mom,nl moment greater than Pc, causes a relatively large lateral deflection. After buckling
Fig. 1­27. Example 13. the stress increases rapidly· in addition to the direct compression, a bend­
Fig. 1­26. Sign convention for moments.
. '
mg stress from moment Py is present.
Example 13. A simply supported beam is loaded by a concentrated moment Hence the phenomenon of stability or buckling is quite different from
of 25,000 in­lb as shown in Fig. 1­27. Find values of reactions R1 and R2, and draw the phenomenon of bending. A beam with lateral load starts to d�flect
and dimension the bending moment diagram. :
.as soon as any load is present , and the deflection is directly proportional
( ( (
to the magnitude of the load. A slend�r memb�� in compres�ion, in con­ load on the column that causes the maximum stress to be equal to the
trast, exhibits no lateral deflection until the critical or �uckhng load has yield point value s11,,. Let the working load P be equal to P11,, divided by
been reached. Any increase of load then causes a large mcrease of �e�ec­ the factor of safety.
tion with accompanying danger of failure. It is obvious that the principle
of superposition does not apply to columns. . p _ PIIP
- FS (33)
Sometimes only a portion of a stressed body is in compress10�, as, for
example, the compression flange of a beam ', The �anger of bucklmg may
be presenthere if sufficient_lateral support is lackmg. The secant equation for stress can then be written

l {P;,,]
+ i2ec sec�\}AE

:1!}]!_ I s11,, = A 1 (34)

v ­­
­­� i- [....­­ '­
___ L--- L--- L--- L­­­
.._... ­

Equation (34) is difficult to use in design work. Results can be obtained

/ orP .
­ i- !..­­­
'­­ '­­

1­ much more easily by using curves that have been plotted from it. Figure

v i--
L-- !..-- L-::: L--- L--- i-

1...-- '­­ '­­
.'. L. /.
0·1 L,.......­i...­­­ ­
­­­ 1--" i- i..- ._ ­ 1­29 shows such a family of curves for steel columns (E = 30,000,000 psi)
r- ::::::­­
Jh for various values of ec/i2• It should be noted that it was necessary to
I' I/ L---
v � L---
/ O· 4 -
v multiply both sides of the equation by l2/i2 to obtain coordinates suitable
--- O··· /
/ l.,....,--" i..---"""
' •,::,; f·t I/) � �Vi..o-
)_ . c ._,,.. .....­ 8 ......-
­­­­ for plotting.
� ,_,,..,
;; 1;17{ !it/ � V/", rz·; (;.....- t>
I.'4l7iT Example 14. A steel column has an l/i value of 100 and an ec/i2 value of 0.1.

/I /IPyp(, ec [I Pyp)
-:,•rP="'iT 1+7sec
� rY
I. I I
Find the value of the permissible working stress P/A if the factor of safety is
·- ..... [{' k­'o' to be 2.5. The yield point value for the material is 40,000 psi.
0.5­ •: .,,.
. - Solution •
2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
; 871p
= 1002 x 40,000 = 4 x 108

Curves for designing steel columns by the secant equation.

From Fig. 1­29: 10­s � · PA,, = 2.42
The values of the critical or buckling loads for three cases of centrally \
loaded '·columns are given" in No. 15 of Fig. 1­16. Equations applicable ·
A= 2.42
rnoz = 24 , 200 psi.
to a column with eccentrically applied loads are given in No. 16 of Fig. 24•200
1­16. These ate known as the secant equations. The permissible loading � = = 9 700 psi
A 2.5 '
depends upon the slenderness ratio l/i, where i = yl/A, the radius of
gyration for the cross section. 10
· Example 15. A load of 50,000 lb is to be carried by a solid circular column
As for other machine elements, a factor of safety must be used in column
with hinged ends. The material is steel with a yield point value of 50,000 psi. The
design. Because the stress is not proportional to the load, the factor of length of column is 36 in. with an assumed eccentricity in application of the load
safety FS is applied to the load rather than to the stress. Let P11p be the equal to irI of the diameter. The factor of safety is to be equal to 4. Find the
required diameter of the column.
For derivation see books on strength of materials, e.g., references 2 and 5, Bib­
10 Books sometimes represent radius of gyration by r. When this is done, care
Solution. This type of problem is best solved by trial and error. A value �or
must be taken not to confuse radius of gyration with the radius r of a round cross the area is chosen and the computations are carried out to see if the load capacity
section. of the column is satisfactory.
( (
Chap. 1
Sec. 16
I rd' 4 d2 When the critical load 1r2EI /l2 is substituted for Pin the secant equa­
i2 = A= 64 x 1rd2 = 16
tion, an infinite value is obtained for the deflection. Although physically
ec - i_ � X 16 = 0.2 there can be no such deflection, it is characteristic of column equations to
­:f2­4ox2 d2 indicate the buckling phenomenon in this manner.
p IIP = 4 X 50,000 = 200,000 Ib

Assume: A = 5.4 in.2 16. Stresses in Any Given Direction

4A 88.m. 2 The stresses in a body, as found by the equations of this chapter, have
d2 = - = 6.
11' definite directions. It is sometimes necessary to have the stresses at direc­
tions other than those given by the equations.
ii = d2 = 6.88 = 0.430 in. z
16 16 Figure l­30(a) shows an element. of a plate with the vertical surfaces
subjected to the general two­dimensional state of stress. The element has
� = 36 x 36 x 50 000 = 1.51 x 108
i2 s,,. 0.430 '

From Fig. 1­29: 10­8 �. P11,. = 1.12

i2 A

P11,. = 112 X 0.430 X 108 = 37,160 psi

A . 36X36
P11P = 37,160 X 5.4 = 200,700 lb
Assumed value of A is satisfactory. Hence (a/ Two-dtmtutsional stres« fb/ Plan "'"" of (Cl Componrnts af slr1ss
t1l1m11nt shown in fa/ in dlrt1clion11 n and n•
d = V 6.88 = 2.622 in.
Fig. 1­30. Shear and normal stress on element at any angle ,p.

For hinged or pin­connected ends, the assumption is made that there

is no restraint against rotation at the ends of the column. For fixed ends, been cut from a larger plate so that stresses e., s,,, and sx,, represent the
all rotation is prevented as shown by No. 15(c) of Fig. 1­16. The deflec­ effect of the surrounding material on the element. A plan view of the ele­
tion curve consists of two quarter­waves and one­half­wave. Bending ment is shown in Fig. l­30(b). Suppose stresses s,., s,,, and s,,11 are known,
moments are present at the ends, but no moments act at the inflection and that it is necessary to find the values of the stresses on an inclined
points. Calculations are usually made by taking one­half the actual length surface whose normal makes an angle <P with the x­axis as shown in Fig.
for l in the equations for columns with hinged ends. For many practical l­30(c). Angle <P is an arbitrarily chosen angle and determines the direc­
cases, the end conditions are intermediate between being completely tions of the n- and n' ­axes,
hinged and completely restrained. . Assume that stress Sr must be applied to the cut surface in order to
An actual column under load may behave differently from an ideal maintain equilibrium of the remaining portion of the plate. Resultant
column, and the design of this element therefore presents many di�c�l­ stress Sr can be resolved into the components of normal stress Sn and shear
ties. Uncertainties such as amount of restraint at the ends, eccentr1C1ty stress s, as shown.
of the load, initial crookedness, nonhomogeneity of the material, and · If the area of the inclined surface is A then the area of the horizontal
deflection caused by the load can produce large variations in the behavior of the body will be A sin <P, and the area of the vertical side, A cos <P·
of a column. The choice of a suitable value for the factor of safety also Smee the plate of Fig. l­30(c) is in equilibrium, the projections of the
presents great difficulties.11 Empirical equations are frequently used for forces on the perpendicular to the inclined surface must be equilibrium. in
column designing.'! The possibility of buckling about both of the princi­ Multiplication of stress by area and then by the appropriate trigonometric
pal axes of the cross section should be investigated. function gives the following equation for Sn,
11 See Chapter 3 of reference 5. Sn = 2Szy sin cp COS cp + Sx COS2 <(J + Sy sin 2 '()
( ( (
. To find the stresses on an element oriented at angle <P, as shown in
The trigonometric terms should be changed by the substitution of the
Fig. 1­31(c), the angle 2,p is laid off from CA, the x­axis of the circle in
equations involving the double angles. Hence, the same direction as angle e is turned in the body. Diameter DE is thus
_ 8s
8,. -
+ +�
-z- 2
cos 2,,, +
sin 2,p (35) located.
The h?r�zontal projection of CD has the value shown in the figure.
Thus the 1�ormal stress in the plate at any desired angle <P can be found When this is added to OC, the result is the value of Sn as given by Eq. (35).
by means of Eq. (35). If a negative value is secured for 8,., the normal
stress for that value of ,p will be compression. ...... s,
In a similar manner, 8, can be found by making the sum of the pro­
jections of all forces parallel to the cut surface equal to zero. Hence,
.... Ss=a sin (29-211
= alsin29 cos 21 - cos 29sin211

fs,, s..-s, l
8, = 8zu (cos2 ,p - sin2 ,p) - (8,, - 81) sin <P cos <P
=a1acas 2t/>-2osin 2,1

s,, - 811 • 2 (36)

:;::;.... s..-s, 2ip
= s,, cos 2,- -2-sin
or 8, = 8zu cos 2,p ­ ­­2­ sm <P

The shear stress 8, at any desired angle ,p can thus be found by Eq. 0
Normal s/r,ss, s•
(36).A positive teJmlt for 8, means that the stress is directed as in Fig. S,,•
1­30(c), and a negative result means that the stress is directed opposite�y. ::­ (b}
Angle ,p is positive when taken clockwise as in Fig. 1­30(c) and vice

17. The Mohr Circle

A graphical solution to the combined stress problem, known as the
Mohr circle, will now be given. Use of this method rather than the previ­
ously derived equations usually effects a considerable saving in time. How­
ever, certain conventions regarding signs and directions must be under­
stood and carefully followed.
Figure 1­31 shows the perpendicular axes 8,. and 8,. Normal stresses,
regardless of the inclination of the surface on which they act, are plotted (a} Givttn slaltt (c} Slrttsses on ttlttmttnl (d} Principal slresstts (tt} Maximum snear
al sfr�ss orittnlttd al ongltt ; stress
horizontally­positive, or tension, to the right of the origin, and negative,
or compression, to the left. Shear stresses are plotted vertically upward Fig. 1­31. Mohr circle for two­dimensional stress.
or downward on the diagram. The normal and shear stress at a point in
The vertical projection of CD has the value shown on the figure. This is
the body thus become the coordinates of a point on the circle.
Stresses 8,, and s,,11 acting on the right and left edges of the plate in equal to s, as given by Eq. (36). It is plain that the coordinates of point D
Fig. 1­30(b) locate point A in Fig. 1­31. Tension s., is plotted to the right of the circle are equal to the normal and shear stresses as found by the
in accordance with the above­mentioned rule. Since shear stress s"l/ tends combined stress equations.
to rotate the element in a clockwise direction, it is plotted upward. Stresses Stresses Sn• ands. for the surface, in Fig. 1­31(c), whose normal lies at
s11 and s,,11 of the upper and lower edges of the plate shown in Fig. l­30(b) angle (90° +
,p) from the x­axis, are given by the coordinates of point E.
locate point Bin Fig. 1­31. Tension s11 is plotted to the right. Since shear A clockwise angle <P on the body corresponds to a clockwise angle of
2<P on the circle, and vice versa
stress s,,11 on these surfaces tends to produce counterclockwise rotation, it values of stresses s,., s,.,, and s,. change as angle ,p is changed. The maxi­.
is plotted downward. The Mohr circle is drawn with line AB as a diam­
IIlum and minimum values of the normal stresses are called the principal
eter. Greater facility in the determination of angles will be obtained if st:resse s, an d are d eaignatsd
· · · l b
81 and 82, respectively. Their va ues can e
radii AC and BC are marked x­axis and y­axis, respectively.
( ( (
found from the abscissas for points F and Gin Fig. 1­3l(b). The element Example 17. Let the state of stress at some point in a body be defined as
for the principal stresses is oriented at angle O to the x­axis as shown in follows.
Fig. l­3l(d). As shown by the circle, the value of O can be found by the 8,, = 20,000 psi, S11 = ­4,000 psi, Szy = 5,000 psi
following equation.
(a) Draw the view of the clement for the given state of stress and mark values
tan 20 = �. for principal stresses (37) thereon.
S:r: - Su (b) Draw the Mohr circle for the given state of stress and mark completely.
(c) Draw the element oriented 30° clockwise from x­axis and show values of all
The .radius of the circle has the value shown. The equations for 81 and stresses.
82 are as follows.
(d) Draw the element correctly oriented for principal stresses and show values.
(e) Draw the element for maximum shear stress and mark values of all stresses.
81 _ S:r:
­ ­­ + + '\J'(S" ­2 811)2 + S
2­ xy
2 (38)
Solution. The given state of stress and the Mohr ·circle are shown in Figs.

s �(s"­­2­
- 811)2 +
l­32(a) and (b), respectively.
8,, + 11 ­
= ­­2­ 8 "ll 2 (39)
Sr •8,000 psi
Ss ,,..,, •13,000 psi
It should be noted that the sides of the element for principal stresses are s,
. f;ee from shearing stress. If shear stress s,,11 should be equal to zero, stresses 5,,,.20,000 psi
8,, and 811 would become the principal stresses.

The maximum shearing stress to which the material is subjected has s,,,,, 5,000 psi
a value equal to the radius of the circle. On the circle, point H is located
90° from points F and G for principal stresses. In the body, the surfaces fa} Gi•t111 slat, al slrt1ss
for maximum shear stress are thus inclined 45° to the surfaces for the
principal stresses. The element of maximum shearing stress, as shown in
Fig. l­3l(e), is inclined at 81 to the x­axis. As shown by the circle, the
value of 01 can be found by the following equation.
8,, - 811
tan 2 01 = ­ ­­­, for max. shear stress (40)
The value of the maximum shearing stress is

8,maz - �[ 8:,; - 811
--2­ ]2 +­ 2
8:ti, _ (41)
Ss .,.,, = 13,000 psi
Let the axes for maximum shear stress be called 1' and 2'. In Fig. 1­31, S,:-:8.000
I - 1
. \S,-=8,000psi
p$1 2'
the element for maximum shear stress has normal stresses on the sides of r;j Maximum sh�a,ing stres«
value Fig. 1­32. Solution of Example 17 by Mohr circle.

81' = 82'
+ 811
= ­­2­ (42)
(c) Diameter ECD should be drawn at 60° clockwise to the x­axis of the circle,
an? stresses s,. and s,., scaled and placed on the element of Fig. l­32(c). Sin?e
Another useful equation for maximum shear stress is obtained by sub­ point D lies below the s,.­axis shear stress s crosses the n­axis of Fig. 1­32(c) m
tracting 82 from s1. the direction that causes a counterclockwise moment on the element. Likewise,
si_nce E lies above the s,.­axis, stress e, crosses the n'­axis in sketch (c) in the
8,ma:i, = 21 (s1 ­ 82) (43) direction that causes a clockwise moment on the element.
(d) Principal stresses s1. and s2, together with their angle of inclination, are
J :;if
( (' (
42 43
scaled directly from the circle, and are shown acting on an element properly effect is given by
oriented in Fig. 1­32(d).
(e) The maximum shear stress s,,...,. and the corresponding nor�al stress E., = ]: (s., - µs11) in.fin.
are shown on the element of Fig. 1­32(e). The arrows are directed m accord­ (46) .
ance with the previously explained rules.
In the y­direction a similar equation applies.
The advantages of the graphical method for solving combined str�ss 1
pr<:>J:>l�.D!S should now be apparent. Not only is the method more rapid, E11 = E ( 811 - µs.,) (47)
but the state of �t�e� for any direction can be scaled directly from the
circle. When the equations are used for solving a. problem, a. sep�ra.te Equations (46) and (47) represent Hooke's law for two­dimensional
computation must be made for each desired direction. The Mohr circle
also aids in forming a mental picture of the state of stress in the body.
In working problems, care must be exercised that all necessar! informa­
tion is placed on the drawing for the circle as well as on the views of the
various elements.
The reader should check all values shown in Figs. 1­32(c), (d), and (e) �
.. by using the appropriate equations. Note that for 'P = 30°, Eq. (36) gives
Fig. 1­33. Deflections due to Fig. 1­34. Defiectiona due F"ig, 1­35. Tension in two
a negative result for s,. This result checks with the circle and indicates stress Br, to stress By, directions.
that the shear stress for this direction is acting oppositely to that shown
in Fig. 1­30(c). s�ress. These equations can be solved simultaneously for the stresses to
18. Stresses and Deformations in Two Directions E
The elongation Es in the z­direction caused by the tensile stress s,. is
Sz = ­1­­2

(Ez + l,IE11) (48)
accompanied by a decrease in the width of the body at right angles to the E
stress, as shown in Fig. 1­33. This decrease of width is a definite propor­ 811 = l _ µ2 (E11 + P,Ez) (49)
tion of the increase of length and is expressed by the equation
19. Deflection of Beam from Shearing Stress
. In addition to the bending, warping of the cross sections, shown in
where the factor µ. is known as Poisson's ratio. In a similar manner, a Fig. l­2�(c), from the shearing stress causes additional deflection of a
tensile stress in the y­direction causes a decrease of the length in the beam: The t�tal deflection at the center for a simply supported beam
z­direction equal to carrying a uniform load w per unit length is given by

(45) 5wl4 ( 25al)

384EJ 1
E >i y = + z2A (50)

Conversely, a compressive stress causes an increase in the width at right ?; if.he shear increment is represented by the second term of the parentheses.
angles to the stress. This result is confirmed by Eqs. (44) and (45), since here .a represents the ratio of the maximum shearing stress to the average
compressive or negative stress values are substituted in the equations. For ; eanng stress, VIA, on the cross section. It therefore has the value 3/2
rectangular cross sections and 4/3 for circular cross sections. For other
most metals in engineering service, µ has a value between 0.25. and 0.30.
Superposition of the stresses shown in Figs. 1­33 and 1­34 gives those
8 :r
\ . · aJ>es the �alue must be computed. In Eq. (50) it is assumed that there
shown in Fig. 1­35. Stress s., causes an increase in length in the z­direction, , {rd1I::;? restramt to the free warping of the cross sections.
whereas in this same direction a shortening occurs because of Sy, The net " .· or a simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load P at the
center, the equation is beam in a number of ways as shown in Fig. 1­36. It is obvious that the
_ Pl'
Y - 48E/
(i + 31.2a/)
ZA 2
state.of s!ress near the .end of the beam in Fig. l­36(a) is not the same as
that 1? Fig. l­7(b�, which represents the distribution for s = Mc/I. The
same is true for Fig. l­36(b). Equation (11) might be applied all the wa
to the end of the beam for sketch (o) because the basic assumption that
Example 18, Find the per cent of increase in deflection for a sim�ly supported
gin. I­beam with load pat the center. Area A is 7.09 in.2 The th1ck�ess of the
t?e cross sections are planes is substantially fulfilled. At locations suffi­
web is 0.24 in. The moment of inertia I is 83.4 in. 4 Length of the span is equal to men:ly far from :he ends in Fig. 1­36(a) and (b), the use of Eq. (11) for
findmg the bendmg stress is satisfactory.
10 times the depth of the beam.
The remarks made above can be applied to the stress situation in the
Solution. In accord with Section 13, the maximum shearing stress will be neighborhood of a concentrated force (either
taken as the shear force V divided by the area of the web. load or reaction). In Fig. 1­37 the stress situa­ fP
tion for cross section 00' at the load is com­


v plicated by the vertical compressive stresses i f
Max; 8' 0.24 X 8 1.92
between the elements from the load. For cross N
. Fig. 1­37. Beam with con­
v v section NN' located a distance equal to or centrated load.
The average shearing stress: Av. e, =A= 7.09 greater than the depth of the beam from 00',
7·09 the stress situation is approximately the same as that represented by
Then: a= 1.92
= 3.69 Fig. l­7(b) for bending stress and Fig. l­22(b) for shear stress.
The phenomenon that the stress system tends to become regular at
_ Pl3 ( 31.2 X 3.69 X 83.4) = Pl3 (l + 0.212) distances removed from the disturbance is known as the principle of St.
By Eq. (51): y - 48EI 1 + 802 X 7.09 48E/
Venant. This principle states that if the forces acting on a small region of
The deflection due to shear is thus 21.2 per cent as great as that due to bending." the body are replaced by a different, but statically equivalent system, no
change in the stress or deformation will be experienced at points suffi­
ciently far removed from the loads.P It is valid for both normal and shear
20. Principle of St. Venant stress.
It was pointed out in Section 3 that equation s = P / A was not appli­ A sudden change in shape or form, arising from notches, holes, or fillets,
cable in the region close to the eye of the eyebar. At some distance away, causes the stresses to be increased beyond the values indicated by the
equations of this chapter. This increase in stress is usually local in nature,
and occurs in the immediate neighborhood of the discontinuity. It is taken
care of in the computations by multiplying the stress, as given in the
usual equation, by a stress concentration factor which will be explained
in the following chapter.

Fig. 1­36. Methods for applying moment to end of beam. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Volume number shown in hold face type. The number immediately following is
however, the stress distribution becomes simple tension uniformly distrib­ the page on which the article begins.
uted, and the use of the equation for finding the value of the stress is
justified. I. Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, 2d ed., Vol. 1. New York: D. Van
A similar situation prevails for the use of equation s = Mc/ I for find­ Nostrand Company, Inc., 1940.
ing bending stress. The moments Min Fig. 1­6 could be applied to the 2. Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, 2d ed., Vol. 2. New York: D. Van Nos­
trand Company, Inc., 1941.
u For derivation of Eqs. (50) and (51) as well as for a more precise method for
computing a, see Chapter 5, reference 1, Bibliography. See p. 95, reference 3, Bibliography.
Chap. 1

3. Timoshenko, S., Theory of Elasticity. New York: McGraw­Hill Book Com­ 3. The ho!�m me�ber in Fig. 1­40 is of uniform cross section and can be
assumed to be rigid. Its hinge is frictionless. Find the number of degrees of rotation
pany, lnc., 1934. of the lower member. A ns. 'fJ = 0.137°.
4. Southwell, R. V., Theory of Elasticity, 2d ed. New York: Oxford University

Press, 1941.
5. Timoshenko, S., Theory of Elastic Stability. New York: McGraw­Hill Book 'round
ff dia. Aluminum
Company, Inc., 1936. round
6. Roark, Raymond J., Formulas for Stress and Strain, 2d ed. New York: Mc­ f,1,0

Graw­Hill Book Company, Inc., 1943.
Marin, Joseph, Mechanical Properties of Materials and Design. New York:
() {dia.
McGraw­Hill Book Company, Inc., 1942. Bross
A ·fdio.
8. Murphy, Glenn, Advanced Strength of .Materials. New York: McGraw­Hill round

Book Company, Inc., 1946.
Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, 1st ed., Vol. 1. New York: D. Van 15• 27'
1. 15" .,. ZI' .,
Nostrand Company, Inc., 1930. Fig. 1­40. Problem 3. Fig. 1­41. Problem 4. Fig. 1­42. Problem 5.
10. Marini Joseph, "Stiffness of Ribbed Plates," Ma.chine Design, 19, May, 145
. _4. The bottom member in Fig. 1­41 is of uniform cross section. Its hinge is
­ '( 194­'7­);­­­·­· ­·,·· ­ . Irictionless. The rods are of steel. Find the distance point A drops upon attach­
11. Radich, E. A., "Strength and Stiffness of Ribbed Plates," .Machine Design, ment of the weight. Ans. a = 0.00475 in.
21, Sept., 149 (1949). 5. In Fig. 1­42, find the drop of the 500 lb weight. Ans. a = 0.0126 in ..
6. In Fig. 1­43 the lower member is of uniform cross section and can be as­
PROBLEMS sumed to be rigid. Find the angular rotation of the lower member in degrees.
See Table 2­1 of next chapter for mechanical properties of engineering materials. · Ans. 'fJ = 0.0286°.

1. The lower ends of the two hangers in Fig. 1­38 were at the same elevation
before the loads were applied. The horizontal member is of uniform cross section.
Find.the value of length l if the horizontal member (assumed to be rigid) is hori­

f'dio round
zontal after all loads are acting. Ans. l = 38.3 in. fd,a
42' 21• u: 49•
dia. Aluminum A/11minum
,. dio.
Fig. 1­43. Problem 6. Fig. 1­44. Problem 7.
/"d,a. round I dia.
round 7. In Fig. 1­44 the lower member is of uniform cross section and can be as­
/( '�""T'"n to be rigid. Find the change in elevation of the left end because of the
of the rods. Ans. Drop = 0.0352 in.
w 8. The memb�rs in Fig. 1­45 have a neat fit at the time of assembly. Find the
caused by an mcrease in temperature of 100 degrees F. Supports are immov­
1. 36"
Ans. F = 25,050 lb.
Fig. 1­39. Problem 2.
Fig. 1­38. Problem 1.

2. The bottom member in Fig. 1­39 is of uniform cross section and can be as­
sumed to be rigid. Find the value of the distance x if the lower member is to be
horizontal. · Ans. x = 22.2 in. Fig. 1­45. Problem 8.
( (
9. After being drawn up snug, the nut in Fig. 1­46 is given one­quarter addi­ 3• 300,000 lb
tional turn. Find the force in the pipe and bolt. Ans. F = 13,750 lb.


Brass tub,
Ar,a,2in.2 8" 8"

Fig. 1­50. Problem 13. Fig. 1­51. Problem 14.

Fig. 1­46. Problem 9. Fig. 1­47. Problem 10. 14. In Fig. 1­51, the struts are of the same material and have equal cross­
sectional areas. Members on top and bottom can be considered rigid. Find the
force in each bar. Ans. 43,750 lb, 100,000 lb, 156,25o lb.
IO. The bars in Fig. 1­47 are fitted top and bottom to immovable supports.
The bars are of same material and have the same cross section. Find the force in l�. Find the distance x in Fig. 1­52 that causes the 1,000 lb weight to remain
each bar. Ans. Top, 11,430 lb; bottom, 8,570 lb. level. if the lower ends of the hanger are at the same elevation before the weight is
Ans. x = 21.2 in.
n.In Fig. 1­48 th� outer bars are symmetrically placed with respect to the
center bar. The top member is rigid and located symmetrically on the supports.
Find the load carried by each of the supports.
Ans. Center, 8,312 lb; outer, 5,844 lb. 20"

2,000lb 5,000lb
Fig. 1­52. Problem 15. Fig. 1­53. Problem 16.
Aluminum 16. Find the force in each bar in Fig. 1­53. E1 = 2E2. The 5,000 lb weight can
2· 6" be considered rigid. Ans. F1 = 1,600 lb; F2 = 1,440 lb.
17. The rigid beam in Fig. 1­54 was level before the load was applied. Find the
(Rigid/ force in each hanger. Ans. Steel, 10,210 lb; aluminum, 7,660 lb.

Fig. 1­48. Problem 11. Fig. 1­49. Problem 12.

12. In Fig. 1­49, the hollow cylinder has a small amount of clearance with the
inner cylinder. Both bodies have the same length at the time of assembly.
(a) Find the load carried by each member.
(b) What change in temperature must occur if each body is to carry one­
half the load. Ans. (a) Inner, 54,540 lb; outer, 145,460 lb; I0,000 lb 20,000 lb
(b) 85 deg F rise.
Fig. 1­54. Problem 17. Fig. 1­55. Problem 18.
13. Because of an error in machining, the center strut in Fig. 1­50 was made
0.010 in. shorter than the other two. The members on top and bottom can be con­ 18. The bars in Fig. 1­55 are of the same material and have equal cross­sec­
sidered rigid. Bars are made of the same material and have equal cross sections. tional areas. There is no stress in the bars before the load is applied. Find the load
Find the load carried by each bar. Ans. Outer, 173,330 lb; inner, 53,330 lb. carried by each bar. Ans. Outer, 4,390 lb; inner, 7,470 lb.
( (
27. Figure 1­63 illustrates
. . the front side rod of a steam locomot'rve. Find the
19. The bars in Fig. 1­56 have the same cross­sectional area. There is no stress
be n din g stress from inertia and dead weight for a train speed of 90 h w · h
in the bars before the load is applied. Esch bar is 0.5 in. square. of _steel equals 0.�3 lb/in. i Assume the rod to be a simply suppo:d ·be::n.g t

(a) Find the force in each bar. uniform cross section A-A. Ans. 8 = 12,430 ;:/
(b) Find the force in each bar if the temperature drops 100 deg F .
•4ns. (a) Steel, 8,340 lb; brass, 5,560 lb;
(b) Steel, 8,100 lb; brass, 5,9i0 lb.

6" 4•wid�
2,000"' . :Fig. 1­64. Problem 28.
30" 20· Rz

Fig. 1­57. Problem 20.

75* 60

Fig. 1­58. Problem 21. Fig. 1­63. Problem 27. Fig. 1­65. Problem 29 .
Fig._1­66. Problem 19.

. Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams for the beams shown in the 28. The deflection of the beam shown in Fig. 1­64 is given by the equation
following figures and find the values of the maximum bending stress.
20. Figure 1­57. Ans. s = 1,000 psi.
y = 360Ell2 (x6 ­ 5zaxa + 4l6x)
21. Figure1�58. Ans. s = 19,500 psi. d_the expression for the load at any location z. Find the two reactions and the
Ans. s = 12,220 psi. , ocstion of the maximum bending moment and its value.
22. Figure 1­59,
Ans. Max. M = 0.039w1l2•
1,00011 ,ootr
2-J-" d/4 shall 29. Compute the change of elevation of the end of the light pointer attached to
tii,e beam of Fig. 1­65 upon the application of the load. The beam is 4 in. wide.
R, 20· 400• 30• so: R1t
eo: = 1,500,000 psi.

Fi&.1­59. Problem 22, Fig. l­60. Problem 23. 30 ", ts M 1 and M 2 are applied to the ends of the simply supported beam
. own in Fig, 1­66. Light pointers of lengths 2l/3 and l/3 are attached to the ends
23. Figure 1­60. .4.ns. s = 9,450 psi. :o� and are _directed along the axis of the beam before applying the moments.
e distance a is measured, and if E, I, and l are known show that moment M 1
24. A steel saw blade 0.05 in. thick is bent into an arc of a circle of 2 ft radius. equal to 6Ela/lt. '
Find the bending stress. Ans. s = 31,250 psi. :
25. Find the reactions and also the value of the bending stress at a point 5 ft
from the left end for the beam of Fig. 1­61. Ans. s = 18,090 psi.

5,000 lb 3,000· 4,00011

3"dia. shaff
5"d10 shaft 1,000 lb/ft Fig. 1­66. Problem 30. Fig. 1­67. Problem 31.
3' r ­·.·.The· ·
� i---4�·-.i---=-6'�....,.....!C4_'� idea of this problem can be used for finding the value of the unknown end
Rz s,ooo•
oments acting on a beam. The pointers are clamped in position, and distance a
Fig. 1­61. Problem 25. Fi&, 1­62. Problem 26.
measured. Length l must be free from transverse loads.

26. Find the reactions and also the value of the bending stress at a point 6.5 ft
:n. Find the deflection at the end C of the beam in Fig. 1­67. E = 1,600,000 psi.
Ans. Ye= 0.17 in. up.
from the left end for the beam in Fig. 1­62. Ans. s = 10,880 psi.
( (
38. The steel beams in Fig. 1­74 are J.!.11 in. wide and 2 in deep F' d th d fl
32. Find the deflection of the end A of the beam in Fig. 1­68. E = l ,5�,000 psi. ti f • • m e e ec­
Ans. Yo = 0.126 m. down. 10n o each beam. Ans. Top • 0.160 in ·,. bo ttom, O . 8 13 m.

25• 20• 15•

4 fl 411



Fig. 1­69. Problem 33. 511

· ·Fig. 1�68. Problem 32. 2,400"
600" 2,400"
33. Find the deflection of the end A of the beam of Fig. 1­69. E = 1,500,000.
Ans. Yo = 0.158 in. down. Fig. 1­74. Problem 38. Fig. 1­75. Problem 39.

34. Find the deflection at A in Fig. 1­70. Steel. Ans. y = 0.518 in.
39 ", Fin? the value of the stress in the steel band when it is passing around a
pulley m Fig. 1­75. Pulley bearings are frictionless. Ans. s = 140,000 psi .
. 40. Compute the values of the transverse shear at points 1 in., 2 in., 3 in., and
4 m. below the·top surface of the beam in Fig. 1­76 for cross sections to left of the
load. The beam is 6 in. wide and 8 in. deep.
. Ans. s, = 328 psi, 563 psi, 703 psi, and 750 psi.
Ano, l5in.Z Fmd the value of the maximum transverse shear for the beams of the following

f '2,000 lb

·ll , "'"�
R1� 9' 6' tR

40,000 lb '\... �- 2
Fig. 1­70. Problem 34. Fig. 1-71. Problem 35.
� ::: • Cross
R, .._.,2c,:4c...•-..i.__,3�·-�
35 •. The supports top and bottom in Fig. 1­71 can be considered immovable. 60• Rz
The upper strut was found to be ..J,; in. too long to be assembled without stress. If
this member is driven into place, what force will be induced therein? All parts are Fig. 1­76. Problem 40. Fig. 1­77. Problem 41.
of steel.' Ans. F = 27,040 lb.
36. The steel bar in Fig. 1­72 was welded into place with a neat fit at time of 41. Figure 1­77. Ans. s, = 1,170 psi.
assembly. Find the force in the bar if the temperature drops 120 deg F. Supports 42. Figure 1­78. Ans. s, = 2,400 psi.
can be considered rigid. Ans. F = 9,510 lb.

!"000 lb
10,000 lb

Aluminum, 2•wid,

SIHI, I" wid,

Fig, 1­78. Problem 42. Fig. 1­79. Problem 43.
Fig. 1­72. Problem 36. Fig. 1­73. Problem 37.

Ans. o = 0.185 in. 43. Figure 1­79. Ans. s, = 99 psi.

37. Find the deflection of the weight in Fig. 1­73.
( (
44. Findtliethicknese ofithe web required to make the value of the maximum
transven,e>·sbeantri:fstressi,quaHo 600 psi for the beam in Fig. 1­80. 51. The loading and general arrangement of a link are the same as for Problem
· · · · · · ·· ·.. · ··· · Ans. t = 0.33 in. but the cross section is shown in Fig. 1­84. Find wiclth·of.�ge:t,•· .: .
. ··.Ans. b = 1.55 in.

2f 111,et

«: r:
Fig. 1­84. Problem 51.
Fig. 1­85. Problem 62.

. Cut the tension member shown in Fig.1­85 along line A-A, plot the distri­
tion of stress on the cut surface, and mark the four significant values.
Fig. 1­81. Problem 48. · Ans. Max. s = 7,480 psi.
· 53. Make a sketch showing the equivalent loading of axial force and moments
'k!Eq. (31). ut the x- and y­axes for the bar shown in Fig. 1­86. Compute and show on
� or­thtHtansverse shear for a hollow circular shaft metric sketches the distribution of stress on cross section ABCD caused by
. ·. . V(r13 - r23) · h of the separate loads. Also make a sketch showing resultant distribution of
Ans. e, =
31(T1 )· and mark the value at each corner. Dimension the location of the neutral
- Tz
for the cross section. Ans. Max. s = 600 psi.
''.�lie distribution of stress over the cross section of
}he point of zero stress. Ans. s. = 1,400 psi.
'the distribution of stress over the cross section of
point of zero stress. Ans. s, = 6,860 psi.



fig. 1­86. Problem 53.
Fig. 1­87. Problem 54.

54. Make a sketch for the equivalent loading for the bar of Fig. 1­87. What
'''\ rnust be the dimension b in order that the maximum stress on a typical cross sec­
.· tion, such as ABCD, will be equal to 1,000 psi? Make sketches and mark values
6,000 Ill
for the stresses due to the separate loads. Also make the sketch for the resultant
Fig. 1­821 · �blem ­i9. Fig. 1­83. Problem 50.
streBSes and mark values at corners. Dimension the location of the neutral axis.
Ans. b = 4.29 in.
50. Determine the width d of the offset link of Fig. 1­83 if the permissible value 55. The inclined load shown in view .ilf-ilf, Fig. 1­88, is applied to the pin at
of the working stress is 8,000 psi. Carry out the work in a manner similar to the end of the beam. Resolve load into horizontal and vertical components and
Example 8. Ans. d = 2.73 in. find the bending stress due to each. Add algebraically to get the stress at points
A, B, C, and D. Ans. at A, s = 1,562.5 psi.
( ( (
61. Draw and dimension the bending moment diagram for the member shown
Ans. Max. ill = 28,800 in­lb.
,�, in Fig. 1­94.

Vl�rt M-M 2�---·· 2

Fig. 1­88. Problem 55. Fig. 1­89. Problem 56.

· 56. The moment of inertia about axis 1­1 in Fig. 1­89 is equal to 120 in. 4 The
area is equal to 20 in.2 Find the moment of inertia about axis 2­2. .
Ans. 12 = 220 in.:' Fig. 1­94. Problem 61. Fig. 1­95. Problem 62.
57. The moment of inertia about axis 1­1 in Fig. 1­90 is equal to 540 in. Area 62. Repeat Problem 61 for Fig. 1­95.
is equal to 60 in. 2 Fi�d the moment of inertia about axis 2­2. .
Ans. I 2 = 1,440 m. 4 63. Cut the AB portion of the beam of Fig. 1­96 free from the balance of the
beam and place the shears and moments on the end surfaces which were acting
before cutting. Is this portion of the beam now in equilibrium?

e.g., 100.000/b
� I�
­ .
I I �
50 �
,,, 3' 2'
R2 84
J" 5!J:,c.-c r,octions J"
77"c.-c. journal•

Fig. 1­96. Problem 63. Fig. 1­97. Problem 64.

Fig. 1­90. Problem 57. Fig. 1­91. Problem 58.
64. Figure 1­97 shows the loads and general dimensions of a freight car. The
horizontal load is due to centrifugal effects in passing around a curve. If the car
58. Find the value of the moment of inertia about the left edge in Fig. 1­91. has four axles all equally loaded, make a force diagram showing the equilibrium
Ans. I= 75:]in.4 of a unit consisting of one axle and two wheels. The centrifugal force is assumed
59. Find the reactions, draw shear and moment diagram, and dimenst:, sig­ to be applied to the axle at the inner bearing only, and to be resisted by the flange
nificant points for the beam shown in Fig. 1­92. ­ Ans. R, = 1,350 lb. of the outer wheel only. Also draw and dimension the bending moment diagram
for the axle. Ans. Max. M = 832,800 in­lb.
Draw and dimension the load and reaction diagram, the shear diagram, and
2,400 fl-lb
the bending moment diagram for the beams shown in the following figures:
65. Figure 1­98.

Fig. 1­92. Problem 59. Fig. 1­93·. Problem 60.

60. Repeat Problem 59 using the beam of Fig. 1­93. Does the curve for shear
have a horizontal tangent at a point 6 ft from the left end? Why? Also find the

", l----4-0-.--�Ll,L...8..J"
Fig. 1­98. Problem 65, Fig. 1­99. Problem 66.
value of the maximum bending moment and its location.
Ans, Max. M = 2,770 ft­lb at 2.54 ft from left end. 66. Figure 1­99.
( (

77. Draw and dimension the load and shear diagrams for th b
67. Figure 1­100. moment diagram is represented by Fig. 1­108. e earn whose


12"1 R, 40"
R1 20"

Fig. 1­101. Problem 68.

Fig. 1­100. Problem 67. I(

68. Figure 1­101. Fig. 1­108. Problem 77. Fig. 1­109. Problem 78.
69. Figure 1­102.
78, Repeat Problem 77 for the moment diagram shown in Fig. 1­109.
5• 79, Make an exploded isometric view of the three portions of the beam of Fi .
1­110 and show all forces and moments necessary for equilibrium. g
50" Rz

RI 24"

Fig. 1­102. ­i>roblem­69. Fig. 1­103. Problem 70.

70. Draw: �cl:dime11sion the shear and load diagram for the beam whose
moment dia�111is mven in Fig. 1­103.
1i. If the�11,luesip Fig.1­104 represent pounds of shear, draw and dimension
the corresponding load 'and moment diagrams for this beam.
72, U, how�ver, .the values in Fig. 1­104 represent foot­pounds of moment, Fig. 1­110. Problem 79. Fig. 1­111. Problem 80.
draw and dimension the­corresponding load and shear diagrams.
80. Repeat Problem 79 using Fig. 1­111.

. 81. Draw and dimension the bending moment diagram for the beam shown in
Fig. 1­112. Find the location where the moment is maximum and find its value.
Ans. Max. M = 4,900 in­lb.
, Fig. 1­104. Problem 71. Fig. 1­105. Problem 73.

73•• R.e.feat Problem 71

using Fig. 1­105.
( 8 I" !hick c 0
74. Repeat Problem 72 using Fig. 1­105.
,s·· "' .JO"
75� Draw and dimension the load and moment diagrams for the beam whose
shear diagram is represented by Fig. 1­106.


Fig. 1­112. Problem 81. Fig. 1­113. Problem 82.

Fig. 1­106. Problem 75. Fig. 1­107. Problem 76.

82. Find the deflection of point D in Fig. 1­113. All parts are steel.
76. Repeat Problem 75 for the beam whose shear diagram is given in Fig, Ans. 0.485 in. at D.
( (
· 1 ted beam is 60 in long and carries a 5,000 lb load at the (b) Find the load for an eccentricity of 0.2 in.
83. A simp y suppor · Ans. (a) 10,250 lb; (b) 6,790 lb.
center. h tsid d5· 88. The material in a body is subjected to the following stresses: sz = ­10 000
(a) If the cross section is a hollow square 6 in. high on t e ou 1 e an m.
h" h on the inside find the value of the maximum bending stress. psi, Su = ­4,000 psi, and Szu = 4,000 psi. Draw the Mohr circle and mark all
ig (b) Suppose the cross section is a hollow circle of the same �rea as for p�rt significant points. Draw a view of the element, properly oriented, for maximum
(a) with wall thickness equal to 0.5 in. Find the value of the maximum bendm� normal stress and show values of all stresses. Do the same for the element with
Ans. (a) s = 4,020 psi. maximun shearing stress.
stress. (b) s = 4,090 psi. Ans. S1 = ­2,000 psi, Sz = ­12,000 psi, S,maz = 5,000 psi .

89, A uniformly distributed normal stress, either ten­
. 84. A simply supported cast iron beam is 36 in. long and carries a 300 lb load at
the center. Note that the three cross sections in Fig. 1­114 have areas equal to each sion or compression, is applied to the edges of the plate of is• I
other. Find the stress and deflection at the center for each beam. E "'.' 15,000,0?0· Fig. 1­116 in the z­direction, and a uniform tension or
Ans. (b) s = 4,460 psi; y = 0.0472 m. c?mpression is also applied in the y­direction. The dim�n� :_ Plat, I" !hick 1t
sions of the deformed plate are 15.010 in. and 9.996 m. '­­­+­­­­­'
Find the stresses Sz and Su. E = 30,000,000 psi. Poisson's


�11�.I �
ratio µ. = 0.3.
.. ·--4-.__._. bi. ,• \ ,· I, ,· \a�
90, Draw the Mohr circle for a prismatic bar loaded in
tension and prove the rule: "The maximum shearing stress
Fig. 1­116. Problem
89 .
fbJ a os 12 o.s 06
is equal to one­half the axial stress and is located at 45° to the direction of the
Fig. 1­114. Problem 84.
axial stress."
91. Draw the Mohr ci:rcle for an element loaded on pure shear, and determine
the value of the maximum normal stress and its direction.
85, Three beams have the equal cross­sectional areas shown in Fig. 1­115. Find
92. An element is acted upon by the following stresses: s,. = 7,000 psi, s11 =
the stress in each beam for a bending moment of 30,000 in­lb. ­2,000 psi, and s,11 = 2,000 psi.
Ans. (b) s = 8,820 psi.
(a) By means of the equations compute the stresses on the sides of an ele­
ment oriented 30° clockwise with the x­axis.
(b) Find the value of ,p for maximum and minimum normal stress and
i compute the values of these stresses.
· (c) Repeat (b) for maximum shear.
(d) Make a view showing the given state of stress, and draw the corre­
sponding Mohr circle. Scale the stresses for the element oriented 30° from the x­axis,
as and compare.them with the results secured by use of the equations. Draw a view
,· ( of this element with the stresses placed thereon.
(ej.Bcale the values of the maximum and minimum normal stress and
represent them by arrows on an element oriented at the proper angle.
Fig. 1­115. Problem 85. (f) Repeat for the element which is subjected to the maximum shearing
Ans. Max. s = 7,420 psi; max. s, = 4,920 psi.
86. A 2 by 2 in. steel column 60 in. long with hinged ends has a yield point 93. Repeat Problem 92 using given stresses of s. = 1,500 psi, Su = 22,500 psi,
value of 40,000 psi. The load to be carried is 35,000 lb. Find the value of the maxi­ and Bz11 = ­10,000 psi. Ans. Max. s = 26,500 psi; max. s, = 14,500 psi.
mum permissible eccentricity if the column is to have a factor of safety of 2.5. 94. The total normal force uniformly distributed over edge AB of the plate of
Ans. e = 0.046 in. Fig. 1­117 is 15,000 lb, and the total shear force is 12 000 lb. For edge BC the
87, A 12 ft column is made of 4 in. standard steel pipe (OD = 4.5 in., ID = normal and shear forces are 135,000 and 30,000 lb, r�spectively. Draw a �ew
showing an element with the given state of stress and also draw the corresponding
4.03 in.), yield point = 36,000 psi, FS = 10.
(a) Find the permissible load if the column has hinged ends and the load Mohr circle. Draw an element with sides parallel to the z­ and y­axes and show
the stresses acting on it. Ans. s, = ­2,710 psi.
centrally applied.
( (
100. Draw a view of the element at A in Fig. 1­123 with horizontal and vertical
sides and show all stresses acting on it. Ans. s = 62.5 psi.

i-1., 12,000• 'IO 6" wide

y ..... " �
Fig:T­'fl 7. Problem 94. Fig. 1­118. Problem 95. :1'-s"
s:o: 6,ooo•f
95, The uniformly distributed normal and shear forces for edge AB of the Fig. 1­124. Problem 101.
Fig. 1­123. Problem 100.
plate of Fig. 1­118 are 15,000 lb and 24,000 lb, respectively. For edge BC the
normal and shear forces are 100,000 lb and 32,000 lb, respectively. Draw an ele­ 101. Draw a view of the clement at A in Fig. 1­124 with horizontal and vertical
ment for the given state of stress; also draw the Mohr circle. Draw the element sides and show all stresses acting on it. Ans. s = 750 psi, s, = 140.6 psi.
with sides parallel to the z­ and y­axes and show the stresses which are acting on i�. 102. Draw a view of the element at A in Fig. 1­125 with horizontal and vertical
Ans. s, = 5,050 psi. sides and show all stresses acting on it. Draw the Mohr circle for this element and
. 96, For the loading shown in Fig. 1­119, draw the element located at 45° from . determine the value of the maximum normal stress and the maximum shear stress.
­ thex­=­axis ancfp}a.ce the stresses thereon which are acting
OD it. Ans. s.,u = 707 psi, s,., •• = 382 psi.
Ans. s, = 4,000 psi.
Tolol 1orc•,12po()III

• Sl.,.14,000pll
"' JI
45• ,,
Tolol fore•
..... ,s,ooo• 6y"
y aoou r'
Fig. 1­119. Fig. 1­120. Problem 97. y
Problem 96.
Fig. 1­125. Problem 102. Fig. 1­126. Problem 103.
97, .In Fig. 1­120 the elements show the normal stresses which are acting at the
103. Strain gage measurements at a certain point on a body give the elongations
, same point in a body. Determine the values of the shearing stresses for both ele­
shown by Fig. 1­126. Draw a view of the element with horizontal and vertical sides
ments andmark them with arrows properly directed.
show all normal and shear stresses acting on it. Do the same for the element
98. Make a drawing for the element at A of the beam in Fig. 1­121 with/hori­ whose sides are inclined 45° with the x­axis. Check all results with the Mohr circle.
zontal and vertical sides, and show the stresses acting O!!, it. Construct the( corre­ E = 30,000,000 psi;µ = 0.3.
sponding Mohr circle. Draw the element for the principal stresses correctly Ans. s, = 20,770 psi; Su = 39,230 psi; s,,v = 18,460 psi.
oriented and show the stresses acting on it. Do the same for the element of maxi­
104. Repeat Problem 103 for the strain gage readings shown by Fig. 1­127.
mum shear stress. Ans. Min. s = ­2,940 psi; max. s, = 1,570 psi.
Ans. s,, = 10,880 psi; Sv• = 6,260 psi; s_.•u• = 11,540 psi.

Fig. 1­121. Problem 98. Fig. 1­122. Problem 99.

99. Repeat Problem 98 for the element at A of Fig. 1­122. r r

Ans. Min. s = ­3,060 psi; max. s, = 2,390 psi. Fig. 1­127. Problem 104. Fig. 1­128. Problem 105.
( (
64 65
105. Prove that the strain mea.suremeuts when taken as in Fig. 1­128 must Ill. The load shown on the beam of Fig. 1­133 is removed and l d b
new I oad w umiform l Y diistrilbuted over
· · rep ace
the entire beam · The m ax1mum ya
be nding
fulfill the equation . ·
Ez + E• = Ez' + Eu' moments for both loadings are the same. Find the value of w.
106. When free of loads, a steel plate is 15 in. long in the x­direction and 12 in.

I ·· ; .­f�,­ i , . �
long in they­direction. After the loads are applied the 12 in. length becomes 12.006
in. Find the value of 811 if 8., = 20,000 psi. Ans. Su = 21,000 psi. u 75'
107. After loads in the x- and y­directions are applied to the steel plate of Fig.
1­l29J;_he J�mgth in_the y­direction is increased by 0.01 in. Find the change of
length in the x­direction. Ans. o., = ­0.0184 in.
Fig. 1­133. Problem 111. Fig. 1­134. Problem 112.

ll2 ..In Fig. 1­134 let the bearings be considered simple supports. The shaft is
steel. Fmd the deflection at point A.

ll3. The pins in Fig. 1­135 are all at the same elevation. The bar is of spring
s, steel. If the bar was originally straight, find the value of the maximum bending

� 20· .,
' , Tofolloiu 120, OOO•

}),r,)'J29. Problem 107. Fig. 1­130. Problem 108.

108. Aµiji(Jrmly distributed stress, either tension or compression, is applied to

15• 12"
the right;an'4,}�ft edges of the plate shown in Fig. 1­130. A uniform tension or com­
pression �;�}si,�pplied to the top and bottom edges. After the loads are acting, Fig. 1­135. Problem 113. Fig. 1­136. Problem 115.
the final\lim¢plilQl,18 of the plate are 11.988 in. and 20.008 in.
(af Find".the values of 8,: and 811 if the material is 1045 steel in the as­rolled
condition. ' . 1�4. �t the cross section through an industrial car be similar to that of the
fl>) Find 8,, and 811 if the material is Class 25 cast iron. car.m Fig. 1­�7. The l�ading for a single axle is 4,000 lb vertical and 1,000 lb
'· · Ans. (a) 8,, = 3,300 psi; 811 = ­29,010 psi horizontal. Rails are 36 m. center to center, and journals are 44 in. center to cen­
(b) s., = 1,560 psi; s11 = ­13,730 psi. ter. Wheels are 16 in. diameter. The center of gravity of load is 19 in. above the
Ttie following problems are presented without answers. center of the axle. Draw and dimension the bending moment diagram for the axle.
109 -. ihoment of inertia about the 1­1 axis in Fig. 1­131 is equal to 4,320 in.
4 ll5. Fi�d the deflection at the midpoint between the bearings in Fig. 1­136.
The shaft is steel.
Area is eqlJ'�lto 120 in.2 Find the moment of inertia about axis 2­2. (
. ll6. In, Fig. 1­137 assume that the forces in the oil films are symmetrically
I· ,o.. ·1 di��osed about the center line of the bearing. Determine the value of the eccen­
2• tricity e so that the sl.ope assumed by the bearing is the same as the slope of the
shaft at A. The shaft is steel. The bearing is Class 30 cast iron.
2" 2·

/8" 10•
Body of
Symm. rrffolulion

1,---,�����-\-�.f- I

6" 2•
2 -L--------l,-L 2
Fig. 1­131. Problem 109. Fig. 1­132. Problem 110. �- 2,000"'

4 is· 3"
IIO. The moment of inertia about axis A in Fig. 1­132 is equal to 880 in.
Find moment of inertia about axis B. Fig. 1­137. Problem 116. Fig. 1­13S. Problem 118.
( c
nr. A 12 in. standard I­beam of 31.8 lb per ft has J,. = �15.8 in.4_ and I,.=
9.5 in.! The width of the flange is 5 in. Find th� pe�centage �ncrease m �ndmg
stress caused by ch angmg mna 8 vertical load to one mclined at 1 to the vertical.

us. The casting shown in section in Fig. 1­138 has its center of gravity located
as shown. Assume that all loads can be considered as acting at the center of the
3 in. bearing. Find the value of the bending stress for this pomt.
U9. An element in two­diniensional stress has s, = 1�,000 psi, s, = ­.4,000
psi, and 8,., = 3,900 psi. Draw and dimension the Mo_hr circle. D�aw and dimen­
.... ·ror
·· ·­­­ · •cc
­ ·­­ ··· tn·e­ e··1 emen
sion · · - - ·• - · ·1 stress and for the maximum shearing stress.
· - - prmcipa
120. Strain gage readings for a point in a stressed show E"' .= ­:­0.0006
in./in., E, = .0026 in.fin., E',. = 0.0022 in./in., and. E 11 = ;0.0002 m./m. Axes
x and x' are at 45° to each other. E = 30,000,000 psi, I-' = "9"·
(a} Draw the view of an element with horizontal and vertical sides and
show values of the stresses acting on it.
(b) Do the same for an element which is inclined 45°.
Check all results by making a Mohr circle.
­­­­­­121­.­­­­The­valve�push.rodJor an overhead valve engine is tin. in diameter a�d
14 in. long. Find the critical load when the rod is considered as a colum� with
Working Stresses
round ends;

THE PROBLEM of mechanical strength is one of the most important

features of the design of machine parts. Stress equations in general are
applicable to idealized homogeneous materials subjected to steady loads.
This chapter will extend the theories of designing to include cases of
fluctuating loads where the fatigue strength of the material has an
important influence on the success of the design. Machine parts should
be shaped so that stress concentrations at points of high loading are
avoided as much as possible. Suitable adjustments must also be made
when the material carries loads in two. directions. A distinction must be
made between ductile and brittle materials. Lack of knowledge or
( appreciation of the behavior of engineering materials under actual service
­ conditions has been the cause of many expensive failures.

FS, factor of safety s,, range stress

K, stress concentration factor s., shear stress
· s•• , average stress su,., yield point stress, tension
s., endurance limit stress for re­ s.u,,, yield point stress, shear
versed bending s ••, ultimate stress, compression
•1, s1, principal stresses s.,, ultimate stress, tension
1. Stress­strain Diagrams
Much useful information concerning the behavior of materials and their
suitability for engineering purposes can be obtained by making tensile
( ('
Chap. 2 Sec. 1
. h f the relationship between stress and strain. �fter passing the proportional limit, as shown in Fig. 2­l(b). If the load­
tests and plottmg a grap or b te 1
The characteristic shape of the stress­straindditahgrtamthfo�::;::; f��:we� mg were stopped at point A at a higher stress than the elastic limit and
. shown m
1s 1 · 2­ l(a) · It should be note
· Fig . a eh h lf f the if the specimen were then unloaded and readings taken, the curve would
Hooke's law until the loading became a httle more _t an �ne­ a o follow the dashed line, and a permanent set, or plastic deformation would
ultimate strength. This material has a well­define� yield �oint or s_tress at exist. For such materials, the stress corresponding to some given perma­
which a marked increase in elongation occurs without mcrease m load. nent set (usually 0.001 or 0.002 in.fin.) is called the yield strength, and is
.... ...
taken as the limit of the engineering usefulness of the material.
Most materials do not . exhibit a permanent set if loaded slightly
beyond the proportional limit. The maximum value of such stress is
�� known as the elastic limit, which is usually difficult to determine experi­
.. ­­­­­­­ mentally. Proof loads or proof stresses refer to loading which the material
Eloslit: limit
Y_f.'.!.d_f!_O.!f'_! _ Proplimil- -
'ii,op-:;1,;,;,- �. or part must sustain while fulfilling specified conditions relative to failure
,,,, ;;
. or deformation .
.! For ductile materials, the value of the yield strength in shear is equal
§ to about 0.5 to 0.6 of the yield strength in tension.
Offut Strain, e in./in N onductile or brittle materials such as cast iron and concrete do not
Elongation or strain,
e in./in (usually 0.001 follow Hooke's law to any noticeable degree. The characteristic stress­
or 0.002 in./inJ
Low carbon st,,1
Cold drawn or 11101 fr,ol1d ,1,,1
strain diagram for either tension or compression is shown in Fig. 2­l(c)
Leather and rubber have diagrams similar to that in Fig. 2­l(d).
:f . . .
v; .,;­
Mechanical properties for a number of widely used engineering mate­
rials are given in Table 2­1.
(t:} (d}

Strain, e ill/in Strain, £ in./in Average Values for Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials
L,otfl,r, rullll1r
Co•t Iron
Fig. 2-1. Stress­strain diagrams for various kinds of materials. Modulus of Elasticity
a, Coefficient of
Material -r, Wt Linear Expansion
The proportional limit marks the maximum value of the �tress for which Tension, psi Shear, psi lb/in.3
in./in./deg F
Hooke's law holds. The modulus of elasticity of the material can be found E G
from the slope, s/ "• of the straight­line portion of the curve, or from Eq. (3) iron
of Chapter 1, E = s/t. , . . Ji See Table
0.256 0.000 0056
After the ultimate stress is reached, soft steerspecimens unJ,ergo a ... Steel 30,000,000 11,500,000 0.283 0.000 0065
marked reduction in diameter, called necking, at some point in the s ressed t'.itfr)Stainless steel, 18-8 28,000,000 10,000,000 0.295 0.000 0096
material. It is customary, however, to construct the diagram on the Z,.)3rass, bronze 15,000,000 5,300,000 0.30-0.32 0.000 0102
1(.Jluminum 10,000,000 3,850,000 0.100 0.000 0128
basis of stresses computed by using the original cross­sectional area. j Magnesium 6,500,000 2,400,000 0.065 0.000 0145
The ratio of the loss of cross­sectional area at failure to the original area
of the specimen is called the reduction of area. This quantity, t?gether to�o?'• ratio, µ = 0.3.
,..._ anat1ons in values shown in Table 2­1 are possible, depending on composition and method of
with the elongation at failure, gives useful informatio� conc�rnmg th: ..... nufacture.

ductility of the material. The speed at which the load is applied affect
the shape of the diagram. The yield point and ultimate stresses become . . . . ·. . •. . Elementary elastic theories as discussed in Chapter 1 apply, in general,
higher as the speed of loading increases. . . .·. to bodies of uniform cross section and are unable to take account of the
Many steels do not have a well­defined elastic limit, but yield gradually · effect of a change in shape on the resulting stresses.
( (
Th' . 71
�s irregularity in the stress distribution caused by abr
2. Stress Concentration Caused by Sudden Change in Form form_ is called stress concentration. It occurs for all kinds o�ps� changes of
Only rarely does the failure of a machine part occur because of the bending, or shear, in the presence of fillets holes t h ress, axial,
sudden application of a. single heavy load. Breakage, in the great majority
sPl.mes,. t oo 1 marks ' or accidental t h I' l . ' no c es ' keyways,
· scra c es. nc us1ons and fl .
of cases, is caused by repeated or fatigue loading, and takes place at a material or on the surface also serve as stress raisers. The maxi;ws m the
point of stress concentration where an abrupt change in the form of the o! the stress at such points is found by multiplying the . lum value
part occurs. Such failures can occur without warning or plastic deforma­ given by the elementar . nomma stress as
hi h . d fi Y equation by a stress concentration fa t K
tion. The 'average stress for the cross section may be below the elastic w re is e ned as follows. c or
limit for the material. K .. . highest value of actual stress on fillet, notch hole tc
Consider, for example, the state of stress in the tension member of two ·
nominal stress as given ' , e ·
by elementary equation for minimum cross section (1)
widths illustrated in Fig. 2­2. Near each end of the bar the internal force
hv;i�es �f stress �oncen�ration factors can be found experimentally b
p o oe astie analysis or direct strain gage measurement For a Y
cases, solutions have been obtained �Y mathematical analysis, number of

3. Stress Concentration Factor�

. . .rs
Fig. 2­2. Stress concentration caused by sudden change in cross section.
: �: :;:z::::
· .. Stress concentration factors have been determined for a . d .
s�a�es �nd types of loading. The factors for rec:�g:��r�:�
s m nsion or compression are given by the curves of Fig. 2­4.

I!. ,, I I I
I i �d--0.05
I. 21--!-�

I!. 0'-- ... -1.;
� �
0./ 0.2
Fig. 2­3. Stress concentration for bar with hole loaded in tension.
..... �
� i---

r% ... ­­ ­­
... I.S / a2T wlhl�BHUwlt#6

, ­n.»­
is uniformly distributed over the cross sections. The nominal stress in the
,.,, h v ­­ ­­ ­­ --
right portion can be found by dividing the total load by the smaller cross­ qs
sectional area; the stress in the left portion can be found by dividing by the
larger area.. However, in the region where the width is changing, a redis­
u ,,. JP ii

tribution of the force within the bar must take place. In this portiqn the lO
0 lO so
load is no longer uniform at a.11 points on a cross section, but the m�terial
near the edges in Fig. 2­2 is stressed considerably higher than the average Factors of stress concentration f fill t O f
'* .
sion to be applied to th t ?r e s _varymg depths in tension or compres­
value. The stress situation is thus more complicated, and the elementary e s ress in the section of the plate of width d,
equation PI A is no longer valid. The maximum stress occurs at some
.When such a bar is loaded ·
can be obtai d f p· in pure ben dimg, the stress concentration factors
point on the fillet, as at B, and is directed parallel to the boundary at that
fo__• Uowi'n me rom Ig · 2­5 · The use of sue h curves rs .
. illustrated by the
.·· g examp1e.
Another example is a bar in tension with a circular hole as shown in
Fig. 2­3(a). If the bar is cut on the cross section of the hole, the tension
Example I. Let the min id h · . . .
stresses will be as shown in Fig. 2­3(b). The stress distribution along the 2.25 in and th ad' f he wi t Ill Fig. 2­2 be 1.25 in., the major width be
•. ·, e r ms O t e fillet be 0.25 in. ·
cut surface is practically uniform until �h,, of the hole is
reached, where it suddenly increases. High­stresses such as these cause a
fatigue crack to start under fluctuating loading.
· 111 (a)
ten Find
the value of the st ress concentration
· · loaded
factor when the bar rs
Sec. 3
-- ­­
I sc ­·;.
(b) Find the value of the stress concentration factor if the loading is a pure !. I o9f,­
·a? .,
2.8 I­­�­­.!.�­
moment instead of tension. � ��.,... ,- 0-�
2.6 ,__--i-._..,
i / ,......v-
Solution. (a) d = 1.25 in., r = 0.25 in., h = 0.5 in. 2.4 -t
•V/ __ .... -- CZ;� -
r/d = 0.2, h/r = 2 Iv/·- 0.225 �
... 2.0

From Fig. 2­4: K = 1.80 1.8 'b /"""" ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ,9L ­­

- ­­­ ­­­­ �- -.9� ­­­
­­ ­­­­ ·---- a72_

/.9 1---�

,.7 iJ-�""�:::t===r--+--1
,.a�_ ...., I
"ii :II ---- -t---t--1,-i--1
'.,,, /.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
� l5l-J.J/.__ .,,.i.....�.t-�====r::::.:::r=--t-t--t-='"r"'==i�1 Fig. 2­6. Factors of stress concentration for grooves of varying depths in tension or
compression to be applied to the stress in the section of the plate of width d.
­­­·­­­·­·­ ·­·­­­­ :.:I­Jjf'A.."/"­l­+­t­­+­ta�2:­7t­1 f�r 0 2.6 .
­­­ ..­­­�­­ ­­ ­­­ �!­ _______.. 2.4 ­i?­­�
'lcac 'f
tlZ+��, '\.It
l �
LO 2.0 3.0

4.0 5.0 6.0


-� I ---

/J .... a2
Fig. 2­5. Factors of stress concentration for fillets of varying depths in pure bending to be ff/ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ g�.�.
­ ­­ ­­­
applied to the bending stress in the plate of depth d. 1.4

� a.z5
The maximum tension stress in the bar is found by taking 1.80 times the PI A
value for the narrower width. lO 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
Fi�. 2­7. Fa�tori: of stress concentration for grooves of varying depths in pure bending to
be applied to the bending stress in the section of the plate of depth d.
From Fig. 2­5: _ K = 1.52 _
The maximu� bending stress in the bar is found by takTng 1.52 times the(.Mc/1 found for'Figs, 2­6 and 2­7, respectively. The stress concentration factors
value for the narrower width. �or a bar containing a circular hole1 are shown in Fig. 2­8. If a circular hole
The stress concentration factor for this bar would be increased if the width in a plate _contains a pin through which the load is applied, the stress
of the left portion were increased. A decrease in fillet radius also causes an concentration factors2 will be as shown in Fig. 2­9 .
increase in the factor. . The stress concentration factors for a T­head supported on the flange3 are
given in Fig. 2­10. Stress concentration factors for bodies of other shapes
It is customary to represent the stress concentration factor by K. How­ and loadings are given in references 6 8 20 and 31 of the Bibliography.
ever Figs. 2,­4 to 2­10 inc. are reproduced from technical literature in which The curves for Figs. 2­4 to 2­10 inclusive were determined for flat
the stress concentration factor was designated by k. Plates or two­dimensional bodies. It should be noted that symbols d and
In general, a stress concentration factor is applied to the stress com­ ; See reference 2, Bibliography, for Figs. 2-4 to 2­8 inclusive.
puted for the net or smallest cross section. . See reference 3, Bibliography.
The effect of notches on the stresses for tension and bendmg can be 'See reference 4, Bibliography.
( (
I I I I would have stress concentration factors for the given loading approxi­
­,jd mately equal to the values shown by the curves for flat plates.

.J.2 ,__
\- ·11­mf I J·
. 2r

Filltll -
Inspection of the curves in Figs. 2­4 to 2­10 inclusive indicates that
stress concentration factors are reduced by the use of larger fillets or by
Stmi-elrt:11/11r ,,_.,
2.11 ­,,,, holt
Clrt:11/11r (el

(bl I I I
­�­,... r-..._ rWoh/-8#11/wkH
ts � J,.50
or.2�­ r --- ­­­­­
.....!.. i-..
Cireulor ho!, . - �



2. 0 ..... --; II h - .60
r,..._ • s....,,.
Lii ......... � ..... '"'Clrc".-: IO
-D---.11 , y / I/
,_., I/ 1/17 , /.....
.......... � �­.;,.;:
.!'f!!-,;-� ......,___


vv 1/1/ ,I/ v I/ I/� V' v· 75=!
!J 70
I. 4

:I/ .,,._,,.
8 I/.
I. 2 _,, "°'i..,.80
Vt,, t­ I.., [..,/ I/ ­' y"

t.00 0.1 0.2 as o.4 0.5 0.6 0.1 0.8 as LO 7

.,. -
........ I,., v � ..... /
I/ - .85
'/ti 6
L..- - l­1,., ; _1.; _I,., ,.,.I/ i>
._ L­1.., I,.,� f::: /[..,. 95

L­ I/

ii .......
Fig. 2­8. Invariant cases in tension or compression. L..- ­t...:: i..-1::: t,., t- !.., l IO
5 '­­
,_i..- L--- i­ ._i­ l 20
l .JO
II \
I 4 '­­

- Exprrynrntal dola
\ _2

1J .. o..J�
1­­ l50 2.00
II 2.50
I\. Fie. 2­10. Stress concentration factor for T­heads with a constant fillet ratio of R/d =
" '\' 1, 0.075.

­­­ I b
I'--.._ i"-J
-.......i.._ 't­­­1 ­
[_ __?{:_ _] __
lf•t.O orgr.ot•r-·
( "�·=;;;;;_;;;-::
­­ 8
­­­­­­­­­­­­ 'r-1
------ ---

W W ffl
0./0 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.10..tL o.ea Fig. 2­11. Reduction of stress concentration by removal of material.

Fig. 2­9. Stress concentration factors around a central circular hole in a plate loaded
through a pin in the hok­. more gradual transitions from cross sections of one size to those of
another. Sometimes the designer can specify the removal of material in
D have the meaning of width and not of diameter. It has been proved. such a. way as to secure a more gradual· transition in size. Thus in Fig.
however that the curves for two­dimensional bodies can be used for 2­ll(b) it is easy to visualize that the stress concentration would be less
three­dimensional members with but small errors which will be on the safe when the notches B are present than when the main notch stands alone.
side.' For example, a shaft with an axial section similar to these figures For the same reason, a bolt with a continuous thread shows less concentra­
• See reference 7, Bibliography.
tion effects than a bar with a single circumferential groove. The narrow
( (
Chap.·2 Sec. 4 WORKING STRESSES 77
I ::
projection of Fig. 2­ll(d), into which the force cannot spread, has less
increase in stress than the wide projection of Fig. 2­ll(c). It may be
beneficial to use a stress­relieving groove, as shown in Fig. 2­ll(f), on a
shaft with a sudden change in diameter if it is not
possible to use a fillet of suitable size at the junction.0
A reduction of stress concentration can be had by
{ using fillets of elliptical shape as shown in Fig. 2­12. (bl Endurance limit stren Is highHI
110/ue of completely rhersed bending
Fig. 2­12 .. Fillet of Fillets are needed only in regions of high stress. At (o) Mochint1 for applying uniform stress for continuous operation.

elliptical form. points of low stress, undercuts may simplify machin­ bt1nding momt1nt lo spf!cim,n.
Fig. 2­13. Rotating beam type of fatigue testing machine (schematic drawing).
ing and grinding operations. The designer can frequent�y reduce t?e
harmful effects of a stress concentration by carefully studymg the details
and by making minor changes in the outline of the parts. �� ....

I I .I I

9000 0
\ o
i.... 120.i iercenf Carbon steel.,
Oil Quencheil and i 1o-awn
4. Endurance Limit of Materials
· ·­­­W..mking­.stresses..which have been determined from the ultimate or 8000 0 l'I�.
yield point values of the material by a factor of safety give safe and reliable '.?�.
results onlyfor static loading. Many machine parts, however, are sub­ ;:_4�/.
7000 0 i,,IL,S'!ee!, 01? Quenched�
jected to a loadingcycle in which the stress is not steady but continu­
iii ond,l�a�
ously varying. Failures in machine parts are generally caused by such .0..
-60000 �imen --0.5"3 I
repeated loadings and at stresses which are considerably below the yield
point. For many materials, long experience has proved that when the

-iiidnof I
'I'/ � I :,.,• 'Steel-
cem Cai;/J
��ncned. on'd ;,, �;..,_ '
stress is below a certain value called the fatigue or endurance limit, the th·soooo
part will last indefinitely so far as ill effects from the stress are concerned. E::,
However, for slightly greater values of the stress, failure can be expected
...... jq �
E 40000
after a certain number of repetitions of the stress cycle. Fracture occurs x ��"­:'<;;>/
� ...........
without perceptible stretching and .::esembles the failure of a brittle mate­ ""�/�""'. !As 'Rolled.
rial. Although such.breaks are called fatigue failures, no change has taken 30000
a..i.....J I I
placein the material except in the immediate neighborhood of the fracture ,f�,,.,1.1'�
I �­?J­c;

itself. Failure has been brought about by a tiny crack which started at a 20000 Co,.o�
�� � h ��iP>?i :,�1,neoled-
1.111 ��t,,
stress conc�ntration or at a flaw in the material at a.highly stresse��oint.
The crack itself serves as a stress concentration, and grows eonti ually
�"" b I
- ,_.l'J!:
10000 Grqy CG :i( lln:v,
larger until the failure of the part occurs. I I

Methods of testing have been developed which aid in evaluating the

ability of a material to resist failure by fatigue. The rotating­beam test is 0
IOOOO 100000 1000000 10000000 100000000
in widest use. It applies a bending moment to the specimen, shown Cycles of Reversed Flexure for Fracture , log scale.
schematically in Fig. 2­13(a). As the specimen rotates, the bending stress
varies continuously from a maximum tension to a maximum compression, Fig. 2­14.�S­N curves.
which can be represented on the time­stress axes by the curve of Fig.
2­13(b). A record is kept of the number of cycles required to produce defined as the maximum value of the completely reversed bending stress
failure at a given stress, and the results are plotted as shown by the typical which a plain specimen can sustain for 10 million or more load cycles
S-N or stress­cycle curves6 of Fig. 2­14. The endurance-limit stress s, is without failure. If a specimen of ferrous material lasts for this number of
cycles, in general it can be assumed that it will last indefinitely.
• See p. 142, reference 8, Bibliography. Fatigue testing is also done for types of loading other than the com­
6 See p, 21. reference 91 Bibliography.
c 79
. stress described above. Many kinds of stresses 6. Factors Affecting Fatigue Strength
pletely reve�sed banding . a variable or fluctuating component on
can be obtamed by superposmg. hi built which will give The value of the enduranes limit is dependent on the condition of the
. d tress Testmg mac mes are surface of the specimen. The endurance stress s, for ground and polished
a static . or . stea.
. Yt s sses ·of varrous
. it d to the specimen. It is
magm u es specimens, when no stress concentrations are present, is frequently found
fluctuatmg axia1 s re. materials with a pulsating shearing stress that to be approximately equal to one­half the ultimate strength for wrought
customary to test sprmg .
. f to some maximum va1ue. steels. For a somewhat rougher surface, as produced by machining, the
varies continuous1Y rom zero . th t mon Torsion failures
Fa.ti e failures due to bending are e mos com · · endurance limit may be only 35 or 40 per cent of the ultimate strength.
gu . d to axial loading are rare. Once started, a fatigue The endurance limit is further reduced if the surface is covered with scale next, and.failure ue ­ · ­ ­ ­_ h · t ss A fatigue
crack follows a general direction normal to t e tension s re . from hot rolling or forging. Corrosion from water or acids may reduce the
failure usually takes place across the crystals. endurance limit to a very low value. The small pits which form on the
surface act as stress raisers. The endurance limit ­is reduced for tempera­
tures above room temperature. Carbon and alloy wrought steels .give the
5. Interpretation, of Service Fractures
most consistent results with respect to fatigue strength. For steel castings
The a eara.fice:i:ltlle fractured section gives information about the and cast iron, the endurance limit is about 40 per cent of the ultimate
PP. · , · ·····. "•· .,,. . d th f ·1 e For example the fracture strength.
magnitude of the stress that cause e ar ur · ,
� "' shaft ­iii bending is usually composed of smooth and coarse areas as Unfortunately, information on the value of the endurance limit for
- ---0-� .. . · ----- ·· ··· · · F' 2 15 Th smooth area was
• ·> .x· shown m ig. ­ . e . steels with different types of surfaces is unavailable, or at best difficult
· · · "·· ca.used by the opening and closing of the to obtain. Hence, the designer is usually forced to estimate the value of
._. crack during its development. The coarse �rea this important quantity, The references in the bibliography will prove
was ca.used by the final rupture. A fatigue helpful. Apparently no relationship exists between the endurance limit
. starts under cyclic loading if the �tress . and the yield point, impact strength, or ductility. Experiments have
exceeds the strength of the weakest gram on shown that the endurance limit for reversed torsion is about 0.56 of that
cross section. Continued operation causes for reversed bending.
the crack to grow as the strength of adjacent Fatigue cracks can start not only at easily recognized changes of form,
grains is exceeded by the high stress at the but also at frequently overlooked stress raisers such as file and tool marks,
end of the , accidental and grinding scratches, quenching cracks, or part number and
If the stress was originally at a high value, inspection stamps, which produce a high value for the stress and serve as
.· the strength at a. number of grains around the . the starting point for the progressive failure. The attention of the designer
•···· • . /. edge of the cross section was probably exceeded. therefore be focused on such "sore spots" whenever they are
Cracks started a.t,tliese;a.nd spread until they united with each othe�. in a region of high tension stress.
The circumfereritial crack then progressed tow�rds the cen�k until Since, fatigue cracks are due to tensile stress, 8 a residual stress of ten­
final rupture occurred .• it can therefore be concluded, when the \re tured sion on the surface of the part constitutes an additional fatigue hazard.
area. is near the center of the cross section, that the stress was consi erably · Such a tensile stress, for example, may arise from a cold­working opera­
greater than the endurance limit for the material. Failure may have been .. tion on the part without stress relieving. Parts which are finished by
caused by only a. few hundred thousands of stress cycles. . grinding frequently have an extremely thin surface layer, which is highly
When the final ruptured area is far to one side, the stress was probably .stressed in tension. Such residual stresses, combined with the tensile
only slightly above a. safe value, so that the endurance limit was exceeded stress from the loading, may give a resultant stress sufficiently great to
at but a single point on the boundary. Several million cycles may have · cause a fatigue crack to start.
been required to produce failure, and a small improvement may make Any residual surface tension should be removed, or better still, con­
the part safe for indefinite opera.tion.7 • • • verted into a layer of compression. A prestressed surface layer of com­
A fatigue crack at approximately 45° to the axis md1cates that the pression can be secured by such shop operations as shot blasting, peening,
stress was mainly alternating torsion. a See reference 11, Bibliography
1 See reference 10, and Chapter 13 of reference 1, Bibliography.
tumbling, or cold working by rolling between hardened . steel rolls.
. When . rimmed steels with respect to crack propagation.12 Killed st el d
the surface 1 ayer is m co · mpression , the resultant workmg. stress m tension idi d · e s are e­
oxi rze m the furnace or ladle before being poured into the in t Id
may have a 1 ow va1 ue. Sometimes
the part can be subjected to an exces­
id 1 R.imme d steels are not so degasified.
· go mo .
sive load and the yield point stress ?xceeded in s�ch a way that a re�1 ua The life of a part can be reduced by factors other than fatigue such
stress of compression · can be obtamed at a pomt where the maximum �s wear, corr?sion� and high temperatures. If, for example, the useful
working stress is ension. Any cold working of the . part must, of course,
· t · ·d d hfe of a m�chme wil� be hm1ted by wear of some of the parts, it would be
be done under controlled conditions. Sand blastmg must. b� avoi e uneconomical to design the other parts for infinite life in fatigue The
since the.scratches serve as stress raisers. Carburized and mtnded p�rts hi . . use
of igher workmg stresses in fatigue can sometimes be justified in order
have a compressive · surface layer , which . may . account
. for the
. effective­
t? make the life of all the parts approximately equal. Precise informa­
ness of such parts in resisting fatigue. A fi�1sh grmdm.g operat10�, �owev�r, tion on the _S-N cu�ve for the material is required for such exact designing,
may leave the surface in tension, as previously mentioned. Additional dis­ and extensive testmg must be conducted on the finished product. Ball
cussion of residual stress is given in Chapter 14. bearings, and sometimes automotive parts, are designed on the basis of
A weak decarburized layer on the surface of a heat­tre�ted part has a finite life.
low endurance limit. This condition is especially harmful m sprmgs. Re­
ductions in strength are also brought about by residual �t�es�es such. as
7. Types of Failure. Ductile Materials and Brittle Materials
. thQ.E1�1!!.Qduced b;y.J)_r��S.. a.nd shrink fit�. A press­fitted, antifriction be�n11:g
race also causes a reduction in the fatigue strength of the part to which it Two �YP?S of mechanical failures occur in materials: yielding and frac­
is fitted.! Th� rough surface of a weld or an inter11;a� void also serves. as a ture '. Yielding or permanent deformation is a pronounced sliding along
stress concentration. A layer of hot­dipped galvamzmg causes a consi�er­ cer�am angular planes in the material. It takes place without rupture. The
able reduction in the fatigue strength. The same is true for chromium engmeenng usefulness for most machine parts is ended after a sufficient
platings; •Electroplated zinc coatings have been. found to be h�rmless. amount o� yielding has taken place. Therefore, yielding can properly be
Many nonferrous.materials do not have a defimtely defined endurance termed failure. Fracture is a separation failure that occurs on a cross sec­
limit. • 1 · tion normal to the tension stress.
The par value for the material is the endura�ce limit for a P am A ductile material can be defined as one whose resistance to sliding is
polished specimen. Fatigue tests with various kinds of not�hes show smaller tha? its resi�tance to separation. Failure takes place by yielding.
how much of the potential strength is being sacrificed by a particular type Many ductile materials have the same yield point value in compression
of notch. It is usually difficult if not impossible to devise a notched as for tension.
specimen which has the same fatigue strength as a machine part of a A brittle material is one whose resistance to separation is less than its
particular shspe.t" Apparently such fatigue values can be obtame� only resistance _to sliding. Failure takes place by fracture. A limit of about
from tests on the actual part. The results of. tests on notched specimens 5 per cent elongation is usually taken as the dividing line between ductile
may, however, serve as a better guide for the selection of a suitable steel �aterial� and brittle materials. Most brittle materials have a considerably
than endurance tests made with plain specimens. f higher value for the ultimate strength in compression than for tension.
If proper attention has been given to the effect of stress concentration, Under certain conditions, a material ordinarily said to be ductile will
failure in service is due mainly to accidental overload or abuse of the part undergo a fracture or separation failure similar to
which could not be anticipated by the designer. Thus the ability to with­ that of a brittle material. Some of these condi­ ­­ �
stand overload is a very desirable quality in engineering materials. Some­ tions are: (a) cyclic loading at normal tempera­ �
times a material of low endurance limit exhibits better resistance to over­ tures (fatigue); (b) long­time static loading at Fig. 2­16. Bar in ten­
loads in fatigue than do high­strength, heat­treated materials. The a.bility ele�ated temperatures (creep); (c) impact or very sion with deep groove.
to resist crack propagation after a crack has started is another de�1rable ra�1dly applied loading, especially at low temperatures; (d) work hard­
quality." Experiments have shown that killed steels are superior to enmg by a sufficient amount of yielding; (e) severe quenching in heat
• See reference 12, Bibliography.
treatment if not followed by tempering; (f) a three­dimensional state
10 See reference 13, Bibliography. of stress in which sliding is prevented, as at the bottom of the narrow
11 See reference 14, Bibliography. See reference 15, Bibliography.
( (
Chap.2 Sec. 9
groove in the bar shown in Fig. 2­16. Internal cavities or voids in castings �alxdimu� shear t�eory postulates that the material will then be at th
or forgings may have a similar effect. yie pomt value m shear. e

Thus 1
8. Ductile Materials with Steady Stress S,11p = 2 S,,p (5)
. Under steady or static loading, a machine part made of a ductile m�te­ This can be substituted into Eq. (3) to give
rial fails by yielding. The working stress is therefore based on the yield
pomt. stress:··­ s, ..u = FS

It is possible for the yield point to be exceeded by the stress concen­ {6)
tration as a result of a sudden change of form even though the elementary Failur� in shear is assumed to occur along the 45° d4'ections of Fig. 2­18(a)
equation indicates that the average stress at the cross section has a safe Equations (5) and (6) are valid only when it is understood that the maxi�
value. In genera.I·. no. damage occurs provided that the load is steady mum shear theory of failure is being employed.
and the material' is ductile. The material merely yields locally in the
small overstressed regions, and the stress is thereby relieved. Hence'. it
is customary for .4e�igners to neglect the effects of stress concentration
· ·wheirth�e­steady and the material is ductile. s
(a) ,Simple /Pertsloft or Compression. When the material is subjected to
simple tensioirhfcoinpression the working stress 8 is given by the equation
Working stress: 8 = 811p (2) (aJ
where FS 4'i ;the,factor of· safety. (bJ
(b) Pure Shear. For pure shear loading, the equation for working stress
Fig. 2­17. Element in simple tension and
in shear­is corresponding Mohr circle. Fig. 2­18. Planes of maximum shear stresa
for bar with tensile load.
Working stress: (3)
. In �ddition to the shear stresses, an element oriented at 45° to the
The expressions maximum stress or working stress are usually used direction of s in Fig. 2­17(�) has normal stresses on all sides of 0.5s.
interchangeably. · ' The complete loading for this element is then given by Fig. 2­18(b).

9. Maximum Shear Theory of Failure ­ Example �· Suppose the part of Example 1 is 0.5 in. thick and is loaded by
a steady tensile force of 18,750 lb. The material is soft steel with a yi· Id · t
Because ductile materials fail by shearing, the maximum shear 1 daory of
value 45, 000 psi.. Fin d th e va I ue of the factor of safety based on the yieldepoint.
failure is in wide use by designers. The theory is applied by firs;�ding Solution.
the maximum shearing stress for the given loading and then dividing it
into the yield point stress in shear to find the factor of safety. It is thus an By maximum shear theory:
application of Eq. (3). s,,,:,, = 0.5 X 45,000 = 22,500 psi

The Mohr circle in Fig. 2­17 indicates that a body with simple tension A = 1.25 X 0.5 = 0.625 in.2
stress s has shear stresses equal to one­half this value at directions 45° to In right portion: P 18,750 .
the direction of s, s = A = o.625 = ao,ooo psi
1 (4) 8,mu = 0.5 X 30,000 = 15,000 psi
S,mao: =
FS = s,,,,, = 22,500 = 1 5
If stress sin this figure would be increased to the yield point value, the s, .. u 15,000 .

( ( (
84 85
As found m · E l 1 the stress concentration factor for the fillets is equal to (2) Both stresses are compression as in Fig. 2­22. The weakest plane is
xsmp e , d l · ldi
1.8. The stress thus reaches the yield point value on �he fillets, an 1oca yie ng BCDF because stress s1 has no effect on this plane Since 8 is nu · 11y
· these regions. The stress for the cross section as a whole, however, .re­ h l · . · 2 merica
occurs m t e arger, failure is determined solely by stress s2. Equations (2) to (6)
mams· at a safe VMUe.
-• It is thus l. ustified to neglect the effect of stress concentration apply.
for ductile materials and steady loads.


Fig. 2­19. Elements and Mohr circle for pure shear stress.
Fig. 2­20. Principal stresses in two dimen­ Fig. 2­21. Plane of failure for two dimen­
Consider the element of Fig. 2­19(a) loaded in pure shear. The corre­ sions. sional stress. All stresses tension.
sponding Mohr circle is shown in sketch (b). For such loading, an element
oriented at 45° to the pure shearing stresses is loaded only by the normal
stresses of Fig. 2­19(c). The stresses of sketches (a) and (c) can be con­
sidered as being equivalent.

10. Normal Stresses in Two Directions

For two­ and three­dimensional states of stress, the failure of an engi­
neering material is a complicated phenomenon. In addition, test data s,
for combined loading is nearly always lacking, and the design must Fig. 2­22. Plane of failure for two dimen­ Fig. 2­23. Plane of failure for two dimen­
therefore be based solely on the yield point or ultimate strength values sional stress. All stresses compression. sional stress. s, tension. s, compression.
as found by the simple tension test. It is under such conditions that a
theory of failure is most useful. (3) Stress 81 is tension, and stress s2 is compression as in Fig. 2­23.
Let the theories for combined stress of Chapter 1 be applied to the The weakest plane is ACEF. Both stresses contribute to the shear stress
case of general loading for stresses s.,, s11, and sZ11, and thus obtain the on this plane. The value of the maximum shear stress is
principal stresses s1 and s2 of Fig. 2­20. For convenience, �hese are shown
in the horizontal and vertical directions. The algebraic�y larger of the 8,m..,. = 21 (81 - 82)
= "f[s� ]2 + 8%!/2 (7)
two stresses is designated s1. If shear stress sz11 is equal to zero, s,, and Sy
are principal stresses. Equation (6) applies.
To arrive at suitable values for the working stresses, it is necessary to . The maximum shear theory of failure is thus very easy to apply to two­
know how the element in Fig. 2­20 will fail. The presence of two stresses d1mensional stress problems.
makes the situation more complicated than the case of' simple tension of
Fig. 2­17. 11. Mises­Hencky or Distortion Energy Theory
Figure 2­21 shows a perspective of the element in Fig. 2­20. Since all
bodies are three­dimensional, three planes of failure must be investigated. Another criterion that fits experimental results closely is the Mises-
(1) Both stresses are tension as shown in Fig. 2­21. The weakest plane !fencky or distortion energy theory. For two­dimensional stress the equation
is BADE because s2 has no effect on this plane. Failure is determined 18

solely by stress s1. Equations (2) to (6) apply. (8)

( (
86 WoRKING STRESSES Chap. 2 Sec. 13
Substitution of Eqs. (38) and (39) of Chapter 1 for 81 and s2 gives (b)

st = s"2 - s,,s11 + 8112 + 3s"i (9) By Eq. (8):

8 = v'22,000 + 2,000
2 2 ­ 22,000 x 2,000
Stress s can b e consiidered as the equivalent working stress inf simple
f = 21,070 psi
tension, which makes it possible to apply Eq. (2) for the factor o sa ety. FS 40,000
= 21,070 = l.90
Exam�le 3. The stresses at a poi�t in a body are s" = 13'.000 psi, 811 = 3,000
psi) and __8�11 = 12,000 psi. The material tests 811,. = 40,000 psi.
Example 5. A 2 in. diameter shaft is loaded statically in pure torque at a
(a) Find the factor of safety by the maximum shear theory of failure. shearing stress of 10,000 psi. Find the FS if the material is 4140 hot­rolled steel.
Use the Mises­Hencky theory.
(b) Find the factor of safety by the Mises­Hencky theory.
Solution. (a) By the Mohr circle or the combined s�ress equations the fol­
lowing values for the principal stresses 81 and 82 are obtamed.
By Fig. 2­19{c): S,ma,e = 81 = ­82 = 10,000 psi
81 = 21,000 psi; 82 = ­5,000 psi By Eq. (8): s2 = 10,0002 + 10,000 10,000( ­10,000)
2 ­

The weakest shearing plane is the one to which both 81 and 82 contribute to the 10,000 v'a = 17,320 psi
shearing stresfl as, Fig. 2­23. Hence
By Table 14­5:
s =
s11,. = 63,000 psi
��- 1 .
By Eq. (7): . ,.,��" = (21,000 ­ (­5,000)] = 13,000 psi
2 By Eq. (2): FS = s11,. = 63,000 =
8 17,320
By Eq. _{5): II_!,� = 0.5 X 40,000 = 20,000 psi

By Eq. (3): Ji'S == 20,000 = 1.54 12. Ductile Materials with Completely Reversing Stress
, As mentioned at the beginning of Section 8, local yielding under steady
By Eq. (8): 8 = v121,0002 + < ­5,000)2 ­ 21,oooc ­5,ooo) load takes place if the yield point is exceeded at certain points of stress
= 23,900 psi concentration. However, when the load is fluctuating, such local relief
cannot be obtained, and a suitable stress concentration factor K must be
Hence FS = ::: = 1.67 applied. Failure from such loading will be by fracture.
When the. load is alternating or completely reversing, the endurance
Example 4. The same body as that used in Example 3 has stresses 8., = 20,000 limit stress s., as determined by testing, is the criterion used for deter­
psi, 811 = 4,000 psi, and Ssw = 6,000 psi. ­ .mining the factor of safety. For such loading, the working stress can be
called the range stress s,. Hence
(a) Find the factor of safety by the maximum shear theory of\faiiure.
(b) Find the factor of safety by the Mises­Hencky theory. \ FS=� (10)
Solution. (a) The principal stresses are found to be
A. similar equation could be written for completely reversed shearing
81 = 22,000 82 = 2,000 psi stress.
The weakest shearing plane is the one affected by s1 alone as in Fig. 2­21. For
this plane
13. Ductile Materials with Combined Steady and Alternating Stress
By Eq. (4): s, ..u = 0.5 X 22,000 = 11,000 psi
In the great majority of strength problems, the major components
By Eq. {3): _ FS = 20,000 = 1.82 of stress are static, with less accurately known alternating stresses super­
posed. Most failures originate with stresses of this type. 'The problem
Chap. 2
presents great difficulties because of the fundamentally different mecha­ rather than to point B for the ultimate stress Th I'
nisms of failure in the two sources of stress. actual .working stresses in them a t ena . d rawn a f. t er beothmes arepresenting
. I is
Suppose the tensile load P on the bar of Fig. 2­24(a) is continuously . d
been divided by the factor of safety FS as shown in Fig 2­;4(n) Sup have
varying in magnitude as shown by the graph of Fig. 2­24(b). This load Hastr�ss concen t ration· exists, as illustrated by Fig.· 2_­c 24(d)
can be considered as being made up of two parts, the steady or average cross section for which the stresses are computed it · ' at the
load P,,., and the variable or range load P,. As illustrated by the figure, l t d f ' IS commonly n
ec e so ar as the average stress s,,� is concerned. Howevei· · eg­
the maximum load is equal to the average load plus the range load; the
concentration must be taken into account for alternating �:;:�e str:s
minimum. equal to the average minus the range load. Normal
:�ge stress_ e- must b� multiplied by the stress concentration ra::�r ;
stresses s0• and e- are found by dividing loads P "' and P, by the cross­
ore plottmg. If a point determined by s,.. and Ks, as coordinate f II
sectional area A. When the average stress is high, the material will safely
on '" below the working­stress line, the part is assumed to be sa: � s
contmuous operation. ­, e or
The_ situation �n b� handled conveniently by equations as follows.

tr, <, Al! pomts along !me DE can be assumed to be equally safe This · l d
pomt E St OE · me u es
-Approxlmat/011 to curv, · . ress , or s = Syp/FS, can then be considered as the static
of failtln stress
it · eqmvalent to the fluctuating stress 8"' + ­ Ksr- By 81· m1·1 ar t nang
· 1 es
'' I is easy to show that GE is equal to s1/P K'-"T/sS• '
' ­, 0

'' Then _ + --
Ks Sr
S= � , £qt1iralt>nl
£ c 8 s.,, S ­ Sa,
e, (11)

slalic '«Jf'lri slrt'ss
(cJ S.11 !his is someti�es called Soderberg's equation. When stress s is obtained
It can be used m Eq. (2) to determine the factor of safety. '
Fjg, 2­24. Working stress diagram for non­steady loading. Example 6.
carcy only a small additional range component. However, if the average
(3:) F�nd the area required for the safe continuous operation of a uniform b ·
stress is small; a larger range component can be permitted. tension if p = 50 000 lb d . ar m
In.order to take care of the unlimited number of combinations of range psi and s ::_""' ' . an p"''" = 20,000 lb. Material tests s.. 11 = 90,000
. Id . 11p - 60,000 psi. Take the factor of safetv FS equal to 1 5 based on th
and average stress, the line of failure of the material must be used. yie pomt. Let s. = 0.5s.. u. • . e
Specimens are tested with fluctuating loads which are low enough to (b) Repeat (a) using the bar of two widths shown in Fig 2­2�(b) Let h
permit continuous operation but high enough so that any increase in and d = 2h'. · a · r = ,
either the average or range load will eventually cause failure. The s,,.
Soluti$)n. (a) s = o 5 X 90 000 _ 45 000
str� for the test is plotted as the abscissa, and the s; stress as the fact f f • · ' ­ ' . .
psi.. Divide 811,. and s each bv
ordinate, Thus, a typical point F is located, as in Fig. 2­24(c). After �;Asa e�y 1.5 and plot as shown. P•• = 35,000 lb and P, = 15 000 lb. Sa .,,:
35 ' an 8' = 15,000/A, where A is the required area. ' •
other combinations of s,,. and s, have been determined, the points are
plotted to form a curve of failure. Point A, where the average stress is
z�ro, represents the endur3:nce limit for completely revJrsed stress 3.s
By Eq. (11): 8
= 60,000 = 35,00� + 60,000 15,000
1.5 A 45,000 X �
given by the s, value of Fig. 2­13. Point B, where the r\nge stress is
From which: A = 1.375 in.2
zero, represents the static ultimate stress for the material.
Since experimental data for the line of failure are usually not at hand, (b) h/r
since - o · 5 , th e va 1 ue of K from Fig.
and r/d ­
For=h/rI) =is I1.42_ . 2­8,
. 2­4 (also from Fig.
it is customary to make the conservative approximation that it is a
straight line. u To be still further on the safe side, the line is drawn from 60,000 35,000 + 60,000 1.42 X 15,000
the endurance limit value at A to point C, representing the yield point, Then: 8
= =
1.5 A 45,000 X A
13 See reference 16, and Chapter 10 of reference 1, Bibliography. From which: A = L585in,2
( (
The stress concentration caused by widening the left part has increased the ---- FS
s,,,, -----1
possibility of failure so that the right portion must be increased also.
Although Eq. (11) refers to normal stress, the development could ha":e been
made equally well for shear stress. The equation for static shear stress s, equivalent
to the variable shear loading s.,.. ± Sor is
S, = S,ay + -- S,r
Stress s, can be used in Eq. (3) for determination of the factor of safety. In the

(II) Sa, Syp

��O' Sa,

�--FS_ s,,11

sr • 15•000: 10• 9/0psl

Fig. 2­26. Modified Goodman diagram for fluctuating stress.

ks,• 21A:JOO" l$,440p•I

15. Brittle Materials with Steady Stress

(oJ 7f•40,000psi·----..i Failure. in brittle materials takes place by fracture. The ultimate
. strength is used as the basis for determining the working stress. It is
Fig. 2­25. Working stress diagram for Example 6.
necessary to have separate equations for the factor of safety in tension
and _for the factor of safety in compression. Brittle materials are unable
equation above ratio s,.,/s, is taken as approximately equal to s,11,,/s,. data for to yield locally a� points of high stress caused by changes of form, and
.vhich is usually not available. stre5.s c?ncentrat1on factors are customarily applied even when the
loadmg is steady.
The case of fluctuating loading for combined normal and shear stress
�a) Simple Tension or Compression. The following equations can be
ls discussed in Section 4 of the following chapter on shafting. written. .

14. The Modified Goodman Diagram For tension, s, FS = But

Other types of diagrams have been devised for determining the values
of the working stresses for parts subjected to fluctuating loads. The where Sui represents the ultimate stress in tension.
modified Goodman diagram is one of these. When the line for average
stress is inclined at 45° as in Fig. 2­26(a), values for sma,, ands,,.;,. can be
For compression, sc, FS = Sue 0.4)
scaled directly from the figure. Instead of drawing the complete figure, a
diagram consisting only of line CBD can be drawn, as sp.own in Fig. where Bue represents the ultimate stress in compression.
2­26(b). Such a diagram will give the same values for the "average and (b) Normal Stress in Two Directions. Two cases must be considered.
range stress for a point such as E providing A'B' is made equal to AB. (l) Both principal stresses of same sign. In accord with Figs. 2­21
This diagram permits somewhat higher stress values than Fig. 2­24 be­ and 2­22, failure is assumed to be due only to the principle stress of
cause line C' B' is directed towards the ultimate stress rather than towards larger _magnitude without regard to the stress at right angles thereto.
Equat10ns (13) and (14) apply.
the yield point stress.
Chap. 2
92 I · 93
n using this equation, Sue must be substituted as a n .
(2) Principal stresses have opposite signs as shown in Fig. 2­27(a). Stress concentration factors can b rd h �gat1ve number.
The problem is as yet poorly understood. The best­known rational example. e app ie as s own m t�e following
method is due to Mohr and is based on maximum shear stress theory.
The ultimate stress circles for the loading of simple tension s1 and Example 7. Assume that the computed stresses at a point. .
compression 32 are shown in Fig. 2­27(b). The assumption is now made14 are as follows:
Bx = 2 000 psi
_ . d m a cast iron body
, 8 v - - 6, 000 psi, an s.,v = 3 000 · Th
concentration factor is equal to 2 for all stresses. Material
and s uc ­
t psi. e stress
80 , 000 psi.· F"md the value of the factor of safety. s s Bui = 20 ' 000 psi·
- -

Solution. ·

In Eq. (38), Chapter 1: Ks, = 2( ­2,000 + V4,0002 + 3 ' 0002) ­­ 6 ' 000 PSI·

In Eq. (39), Chapter 1: Ks2 = 2(­2,000 ­ y·4­:­,­=­oo­,­o,­2­­+­3,­0­00­2) = ­14,000 psi

:1-r •
6,000 ­14,000 1
In Eq. (15):
J 20,000 + ­80,000 = FS
FS = = 2.1
2 38

f The_ mechanism of failure for brittle materials is very complex and th

oregomg treatment must_ be considered only as a rough approximatio e
h(c) Pur::_ Shear. Equa!10� (15) is applicable for pure shear loadi:�
Fig. 2­27. Mohr circles for brittle materials.
w �re 81 - -82 = 8, as indicated in Fig. 2­19. Let s = -C h
Ci is a constant. Substitution in Eq. (15) gives the following. 18..1, w ere
that any stress condition at which failure is imminent can be represented
by a circle that is somewhere tangent to FG. Suppose in Fig. 2­27(a) that
the combination of working stresses of tension 81 and compression 82
Sut -Cis,.,
represents the highest permissible state of stress for the material. When The equation above can be reduced to
these stresses are multiplied by the factor of safety FS, the dashed circle
tangent to FG in Fig. 2­27(b) results. Ci+ 1 s, 1
Triangles ABC and ADE are similar. If all lengths are considered C--:-. s,., = FS (16)

positive, the following proportion of corresponding sides can be written.

16· Bri�e Materials with Fluctuating Loads
ifD = AB Although _successful applications can be cited, brittle materials are
Values of the terms from Fig. 2­27(b) can be substituted to give usually considered unsatisfactory where the load is fluctuating. Large

U (82 + 81)FS -1 1 s,,1] (sue + 8.,1)

values for the factor of safety must be used.

= [1 (82 ­ S1)FS 1 1
+ s.,,] (sue - 8,,1) 17. Sensitivity to Stress Concentration

st The actual reduction

. in fa tiigue strength, as indicated
. . .
by the theoretical
This equation, when reduced to lowest terms, becomes the following. ress
fin concentration
. d h facto ·
rs, is approached only by large parts made of
e­gram� eat­treated steels. The effect of stress concentration in
-� + 82 = ___!__ \ (15) coarse­gramed
are ff d annealed
b st ee l s may b e considerably
. .
less. Small specimens
Sut Sue FS
a ecte ess Y stress concentration than much larger parts made of
14 Sec p. 480 of reference 1, Bibliography.

,. fl
c 95
the same material. The size effect in steel is attributed mainly to �h� grain Som�times the shape of the parts, or the method of support, can be modi­
size of.the material. When the crystal size is taken into account, 1t is seen fied in such a way that the design equations may fit the conditions more
that there is not complete geometric similarity between large and s�all accurately. Perhaps a more uniform and reliable construction material
· f th same ma.terial Although a heat­treated part of expensive can be used.
specimens o e · d f of The strength of materials is usually obtained by laboratory tests.
alloy steel may have a higher endurance limit than one ma � o as ter
nonheat­treated material, the advantage may be largely lost in the pres­ It must be kept in mind, however, that conventional laboratory tests
rarely reproduce the conditions that the material must meet in service.
ence of a stress concentration. .
A wide variation exists in the notch sensitivity of different materials. Surface conditions in particular may be different for the test specimen
For some quenched and"tempered steels the effect of a sharp �otch �ay tha.� for an actual part. A much greater amount of knowledge of engi­
be so great that a high strength material may be no better �n fatigue neermg materials, than is now available, must be gained before the de­
than one of lower strength. Materials which work harden rapidly, �uch signer will be able to apply test data to conditions that differ appreciably
as the 18­8 stainless steels, may show great resistance to loss of fat�gue from the conditions of the test. The best method, whenever it is possible
. to make final adjustment in the proportioning of the components by'
strength due to notches. Notches have but little effect on the fatigue
strength of cast iron, but may have a. large effect as far as i�pact l�ads tests on the completed product.
are concerned. However the impact strength of some steels is but little In general it is not economical to use safety factors large enough to
eliminate all possibility of failure resulting from the worst possible com­
a.ffected .l)y notches. . . .
A limited a.mmin.t­­of ­data are available for making a quant1tat1ve bination of circumstances. The designer attempts to reduce the proba­
estiniate/�(\t� sensitivity of a steel to stress concentration, but the bility of failure to a suitable level which necessarily depends on each
metl>.ods.��·.beyond the scope of this book. However, when. the full particular application. A failure that involves only a little inconvenience
theoretical"stress concentration factor is applied to the fluctuating com­ or loss of time might be allowed more frequently than one involving
ponent, .the.·result will be on the safe side. large financial loss or human life. Provision should be made for easy
and rapid replacement of failed parts. If the product operates under
. conditions of frequent service inspection, smaller values for the factor of
18. \r�ctor �'Safety
,:_,._...->.-,-;: ' . ­. safety can sometimes be used. A more thorough and detailed analysis of
It;iEl>irometimes hard to evaluate accurately all the different factors ; the problem may show that smaller factors of safety can be used, and
that:X,re>dnvolved in an engineering design problem. It is particularly • may justify the additional engineering expense involved.
diffi.ehlt{,in.some cases, to determine the magnitude of the various forces ,) . When building one general product, the engineer usually does not think
to''whicl'l:.''!l'lllachine part is subjected. Sometimes the shape of the p�rt ­m terms of the factor of safety. He has learned from experience that cer­
is such thll.t no design equations are available for accurate computation rtain materials under certain conditions, with working stresses of given
, values, will 'lead to satisfactory results. Although the determination 16 of
of the stresses.Variations and nonuniformity in the strength of the mate­
rial must be kept in mind, as well as the consequences that might result r suitable values for the factor of safety is a matter of great importance,
from failure of the part. Jhe subject has been much neglected and is in an unsatisfactory state.
Engineers employ a. so­called "factor of safety" to insure against Experience, which can only be accumulated as a result of a long period
uncertain or unknown conditions as mentioned above. The working stress 'of trial and error, is the ultimate basis for the prediction of failure in
is determined from the yield or ultimate strength of the material by ,·engineering designs. Many failures are due to circumstances that the
means of a factor of safety, as demonstrated by the equations of this 'designer failed to consider.
chapter. For columns and other elements where load and stress are not
proportional, the factor of safety should be applied to the load on the BIBLIOGRAPHY
member rather than to the stress.
Static loads can sometimes be det�rmined accuratel�, �ut the values Volume number shown in bold face type. The number immediately following is
the page on which the article begins.
of fluctuating loads are more uncertain. The effects of 1mp�ct loads and
residual stress are particularly difficult to evaluate. Consideration must 1. Hetenyi, M., editor, Handbook of Experimental Stress Analysis. New York:
also be given to the long­term effects of corrosion and high temperatures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950.
' ­�­ II
See reference 18, Bibliography,
u See references 10 and 17, also Chapter 4 of reference 30, Bibliography.
( ( (
22. Marin, Joseph, Engineering Materials: Their Mechanical p t"
2. Frocht, M. M., "Factors of Stress Concentration Photoelastically Deter­
Applications. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice­Hall, Inc. 19r50oper ies and
mined," Trans. ASME, 57, A­67 (1935). 23 S . h , .
3. Frocht, M. M., and Hill, H. N ., "Stress­Concentration Factors Around a · mit , Ja:ries 0.,. "Effect of Range of Stress on the Fatigue Stren th Of
Central Circular Hole in a Plate Loaded Through Pin in the Hole," Trans. Metals,' Bulletin 334, University of Illinois Engineering E · g
tion, 1942. xpenmsnt Sta­
ASME, 62, A­5 (1940).
4. Hetenyi, M., "Some Applications of Photoelasticity in Turbine­Generator 1 ts."
24· Jacobsen, L. S., "Torsional Stresses in Shafts Having Grooves or Fill
Trans. ASME, 47, 619 (1925); 57, A­154 (1935). e '
Design," Trans. ASME, 61, A­151 (1939).
5. Lipson, Charles, Noll, G. C., and Clock, L. S., Stress and Strength of ill anufac- 25. Poole, S. W., and Johnson, R. J., "A Review of Some Mechanical Fail f
Steel Plant Machine Equipment," Proc. Soc. Exptl. Stress Anal 7 uNres 2°
tured Parts. New York: McGraw­Hill Book Company, Inc., 1950. 17 (1949). ., , o, ,
6. Neugebauer, G. H., "Stress Concentration Factors and Their Effect on De­
26. McFarland, F. R., "Experiences with Highly­Stressed Aircraft Engine Parts ,,
sign," Product Eng., 14, 82, 168 (1943). Proc. Soc. Exptl. Stress Anal., 3, No. I, 112 (1945). '
7. Peterson, R. E., and Wahl, A. M., "Two­ and Three­Dimensional Cases of
27 · N oil, G. C., and Lipson, C., "Allowable Working Stresses," Proc. Soc. Ex tl
Stress Concentration and Comparison with Fatigue Tests," Trans. ASME,
Stress Anal., 3, No. 2, 89 (1946). p ·
58, A­15 (1936).
8. Battelle Memorial Institute, Prevention of Fatigue of Metals. New York: John
28. Nol�, ?·c_., ��d Erickson, M. A., "Allowable Stresses for Steel Members of
Fm1te Life, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Stress Anal., 5, No. 2, 132 (1948).
­­­­­Wiley­&­Sons­;Inc.,·.1941. 29. Karpov, A. V., "Modern Stress Theories," Proc. ASCE, 62, 1128 (1936). See
9. Moore, H .. F., "Stress, Strain, and Structural Damage," Proc. ASTM, 39, also, Metals & Alloys, IO, 346, 381 (1939).
549 (1939). 30. Mur�ay, Wm. M., editor, Fati,gue and Fracture of Metals. New York: John
10. Peterson, R. E., "Stress Concentration Phenomena in Fatigue of Metals," Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952.
Trans. ASME, 55, APM­55­19, 157 (1933). 31. Peterson, R. E., Stress Concentration Desi,gn·Factors. New York: John w·1
11. Almen, J. 0., "Shot Blasting to Increase Fatigue Resistance," SAE Journal and Sons, Inc., 1953. · ey
(Trans.) 51, 249 (1943). 32. Stark�y, W. L., a�d Marco, S. M., "Effects of Stress­Time Cycles on the
12. Peterson, R. E., and Wahl, A. M., "Fatigue of Shafts at Fitted Members, . Fatigue Properties of Metals," Trans. ASME, 79, 1329 (1957).
With a Related Photoelastic Analysis," Trans. ASME, 57, A­1 (1935). 33. Findley, W. N., "Fatigue of Metals under Combinations of Stresses" Trans
13. Almen, J. 0., and Boegehold, A. L., "Rear Axle Gears," Proc. ASTM, 35, ASME, 79, 1337 (1957). ' .
Part 2, 99 (1935). 34. Frisch, J., and Thomsen, E.G., "Residual Grinding Stresses in Mild Steel"
14. deForest, A. V., "The Rate of Growth of Fatigue Cracks," Trans. ASME, 58, Trans. ASME, 73, 337 (1951). '
A­23, A­114 (1936).
15. Wilson, W. M., and Burke, J. L., "Rate of Propegation of Fatigue Cracks PROBLEMS
... ," Bulletin 371, University of Illinois Experiment Station, 1947.
16. Soderberg, C. R., "Factors of Safety and Working Stress," Trans. ASME, I. Find the value of the stress at each hole in Fig. 2­28.
52(1), APM­13 (1930); 55, APM­131 (1933); 57, A­106 (1935). Ans. A, Ks= 29,710 psi; B, Ks = 31,330 psi; C, Ks = 35,680 psi.
17. Peterson, R. E., "Relation Between Life Testing and Conventional Tests of
Materials," ASTM Bull. 133, March, 9 (1945).
18. Freudenthal, A. M., "The Safety of Structures," Trans. ASCE, 71, 1157
(1945); 72, 111 (1946); 73, 208 (1947).
19. Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, 2d ed., Vol. 2. New York: D. Van Nos­ 11"---Yie
trand Company, Inc., 1941, Chap. 9. Fig. 2­28. Problem I. Fig. 2­29. Problem 2.
20. Roark, Raymond J., Formulas for Stress and Strain, 2d ed. New York: Mc­
Graw­Hill Book Company, Inc., 1943. . :· The loading on an element of 1045 steel in the as­rolled condition is shown
21. Moore, H. F., Material,s of Engineering, 6th ed. New York: McGraw­Hill in �g. 2­29. Loads are steady and no stress concentrations are present. Assume
maXIInum shear theory to be valid.
Book Company, Inc., 1941.
1�i·'ft_,_·.·f·: ...
(a) Find the value of the FS for the CDEF plane. 99
(b) Find the value of the FS for the ACGE plane. IO. The plate .shown in Fig. 2­31 is ­} in. thick. Load P varies from 20 ()()() lb to
10,0?0 lb. �a�r1al �ts Bw:,, = 42,000 psi; e, = 24,000 psi. Factor of saf�ty based
(o) Find the value of t!�S �:; �; �:.�r�:)�S = 5.45; (c) FS = 12. on yield point is 2. Find the maximum permissible value of width D.

3 • A pa l te of 1045 steel in the as­rolled. condition is subjected to the following Ans. D = 3.86 in.
II. The plate of Fig. 2­32 is 1 in. thick. The load varies from 50,000 lb to 30 000
stresses: s"' = 3,300 psi; s. = ­29,000 psi; s,.11 "." 0 •
(a) Find the value of the FS by the maximum shear theory. . lb. Fa�tor of safety = 2; s11,, = 40,300 psi; s, = 28,000 psi. (a) Find the value of d
(b) Find the value of the FS by the Mises­Henck_y theory. (b) Fmd d if the minimum load is 20,000 lb, other data remaining unchanged. •
. ­ . (cy Find Ji'S if the plate is made of Class 25 cast iron. S 2 37 Ans. d = 3.13 in. and 3.45 in .
Ans. (a) Ji'S = 1.86; (b) FS = 1.95; (c) F = . · . · 12. Fi?d the diameter of the hole and the total width of the plate of Fig. 2­33 if
4. A machine part has a FS of 3 by the Mises­Hencky th.eory. The material is the part is to be safe for continuous operation. The load varies from 36,000 lb to
4140 steel hot rolled and annealed. Ifs"' is equal to 24,000 psi, find t?e va9lu00e0of 8�· 20,000 lb. Use stress values of s11,,/FS = 30,000 psi and s,/FS = 18 000 psi. The

8s• ' Ans. 811 = 15,000 psi or , psi. plate is 1 in. thick. Ans. = 2.55 in.
· lh ield oint
s. A shaft is loaded by a torque of 40,000 in.­lb. The materia as a Y1 P
= 0.

of 50,000 psi. FS is equal to 2. . ,.

(a) Find the required diameter by the m�ximum shear theory.
(b) Find the required diameter by the Mises­Hencky theory. .
' ·· · · Ans. (a) d = 2.535 in.; (b) d = 2.417 m.
6. A 15 by 15 in. plate of 1045 steel in the �­rolled c�ndition h� normal
Fig. 2­33. Problem 12.
· stresses only acting on all edges. Stress Bs is tension and s,, is compressio�. The
length in they­direction is reduced by 0.008 in. Ji'S is equal to 2 by the maximum
shear theory. Find the values of the stresses. . .
Ans. s,. = 20,000 psi; 811 = ­1 0 ' 000. psi.
i 7. A 12 by 12 in. steel plate has normal str�ses only acti�g on all �d���
Stress 8., equals 12,000 psi tension. s11 is compression.
=v= m lengt� �n
· o 006 in If FS is equal to 2.5 by the maximum shear t eory,
z­ rec on is . · 55 000 si Fig. 2­34. Problem 13.
Fig. 2­35. Problem 14.
what is the yield point value for the material? Ans. 8111> = , P ·
8 A 15 b 15 in. plate of 1045 steel in the as­rolled condi�ion h�s norm�l

stresses ·
·only yacting on all edges. Stress 8s equals 6 ' 000 psi tension.h h811 is . 13. A part is designed as shown in Fig. 2­34. Check the design by plotting the
compression. For a Ji'S equal to 3 by the maximum shear theory , find t e c ange
. line of failure and points representing the stress values for the material at the
in length in the z­direction.. _ Ans. o,. = . 0.0051 in,of
hole and fillet. Is the part safe for continuous operation? The load varies from
9, The link shown in Fig. 2­30 is subjected to a completely reversmg load
12,000 lb to 2,000 lb. s,,,,
= 41,000 psi; s, = 28,500 psi. Plate is -h in. thick.
20 000 lb. Find the maximum value of stress at each hole; . ( 14. FigUJ'e 2­35 shows a shaft with load P varying from 1,000 Jb to 3,000 lb.
' Ans. Top, Ks, = 17,880 psi; bottom, Ks, = 17,540 psi. ,·The material tests s,,,, s.
= 42,000 psi, and = 24,000 psi. Factor of safety is equal
. to 2. Find the permissible value for· D if stress conditions at the fillets are to
r- o.s: _be satisfactory for continuous operation. Ans. D = 3.63 in.
p .p iC !S. Material for the eyebolt of Fig. 2­36 tests s,,,, = 39,000 psi and s, = 26,000
pet. The factor of safety equals 2. Threads are American National. Let stress con­
,ntration factor for the threads be equal to 2.5. Upon assembly, the spring is
Fie;. 2­31. Problem 10. ven an initial stretch. During operation, the lower end of the spring moves 1 in.
eac.h way from its initial position. Find the permissible amount of initial stretch
'..which may be given to the spring if eyebolt is to be safe for continuous operation.
-f Ans. 5.45 in.
0. .p. �If).""
-,:, ';· 16. The shaft of Fig. 2­37 rotates but carries no torque. For the material, s, =

� �,500 psi. Determine the value of the bending stress at the fillet. (a) ls the shaft
Fig. 2­30. Problem 9.
safe for continuous operation? What is the value of the factor of safety? (b) Sup­
Fig. 2­32. Problem 11.
PQse in the turning operation the radius of the fillet is made k in. and that the
inspectors do not discover the mistake. Is the part now safe for continuous op­ 2J;. The plates in_Fig. 2­42 a�e made of a brittle. material and are identical. The
erat.ion ? Ans. (a) FS = 1.32.
loadi�g for �a) consists �fa uniform tension _applied at. each end. In (b) the hole
contains a pm tha� cames the �oad and a uniform tension is applied to the other
end of the plate. Find the maximum tensile stress for each type of load" N t
th at l oadimg through a pm· mg. o e
as for (b) gives a higher stress. .H > Din F"ig. 2­9 .
Ans. (a) Ks = 4,890 psi; (b) Ks = 6,110 psi.

Fig. 2­37. Problem 16.


Fig. 2­36. Problem 15. Fig. 2­38. Problem 17. ,o,ooo':,.::.------I---.....J,o,ooo•
­17, The shaft in Fig. 2­38 rotates. Find the length l if the bending stress at the Fig. 2­42. Problem 21.
fillet is equal to the stress at the center. Ans. l = 96.1 in. 22. The plates shown in Fig. 2­43 are made of a brittle material. Assume each
18, The part in Fig. 2­39 is made of 1045 steel, quenched and drawn at 1,000 F. rivet transfers one­half the load. Find the value of the maximum tensile stress in
Bending moment varies from 10,000 in.­lb to 50,000 in.­lb. Assume s, = 0.5s.,u. the thicker plate. Ans. 8 = 8, 7 40 psi.
Find the factor of safety. Ans. FS = 1.91.
19, The tensile load on the bolt of Fig. 2­40 varies from 12,000 lb to 20,000 lb.
The stress concentration factor for the threads is equal to 3 and for the fillet 1.2.
Material is 8742 steel, oil quenched and drawn at 1,200 F. If threads are safe for
continuous operation, find the value of area A1 necessary to make the fillet safe
for continuous operation. Ans. Ai = 0.402 in.2
20. The beam shown in Fig. 2­41 is made of a brittle material. Find the value of
the maximum bending stress at cross section A. Ans. · s = 5,625 psi.

A 10,000*1
Fig. 2­43. Problem 22 .

23. Find the value of the maximum stress on the fillet in Fig. 2­44 if the stress
. •... r
\002$" concentration factor is equal to 1.6. What is the FS if the part is made of Class 25

3"widt! dia.hol�s
cast iron? Ans. FS = 3.12.

"' ,
20· 12·
I ."l
!"thick 1• lltick

Fig. 2­39. Problem 18.

Fig. 2­40. Problem 19. Fig. 2­41. Problem 20.

l Fig. 2­44. Problem 23. Fig. 2­45. Problem 24.

24. Find the value of the maximum stress on the fillet in Fig. 2­45 if the stress
conc�ntration factor is equal to 1.75. What is the FS if the part is made of Class 30
cast iron? Ans. FS = 3.57.
25. (a) Find the, value of the FS if the part in Fig. 2­46 is made of 1045 steel in
the as­rolled condition.
(b) Find the value o
f th FS 1'f the same part in Fig. 2­46 is made of Class
, 150,000•

20 cast iron.
­ ­­­­ ­­­


.J. # 12• d'1t1. I

I 7
Fig. 2­47. Problem 26.
­� I
­­ ­ ­­­ I

Fig. 2­49. Problem 28. Fig. 2­50. Problem 29.

30. The hollow cylinder in Fig. 2­51 is fixed at the wall and has an OD of 6 in.
and an ID of 4.5 in. Stress concentration factor at wall is equal to 3.

(a) Find value of FS if material is Class 25 cast iron.
(b) Find value of FS if material is 0.33 carbon cast steel normalized.
Ans. (a) FS = 4; (b) FS = 20.8.


Fig. 2­46. Problem 25. Fig. 2­48. Problem 27.

26. The element in Fig. 2­47 is located at the inner ed�e of a hub tha� has been
press fitted on a shaft. Stress a, or pis equal to ­6,000 psi, and stress 81 is equal to
10,000 psi. · d f t l 'th
(a) Find the FS by maximum shear theory if the hub is ma e o s ee WI
a yield point value of 60,000 psi. .
(b) Find the FS if the hub is made of Class 25 cast iron.
Ans. (a) FS = 3.75; (b) FS =2.17.
27. The state of stress for a material is shown in Fig. 2­48. . .
(a) Find the FS by the maximum shear theory if the material is 1045 steel Fig. 2­51. Problem 30.
in the as­rolled condition. Fig. 2­52. Problem 31.
(b) Find the FS by the Mises­Heneky theory.
(e) Find the FS if the material is Class 30 cast iron.
Ana. (a) FS = 4.62; (b) FS = 5.09; (c) FS = 2.77. 31. The shaft in Fig. 2­52 is made of Class 20 cast iron. The ends are simply
28. The hollow cylinder in Fig. 2­49 is made of Class 25 cast iron and is filled supported, but are keyed against rotation. The stress concentration factor at
with a fluid at a pressure of 250 psi. Find the FS for the material in the wall. bracket is equal to 2. Find the FS for the shaft on either side of the bracket.
Ana. FS = 5.5. Ans. Left, FS = 6.07; right, FS = 2.82.
­ 29. The shaft in Fig. 2­50 is rigidly attached to th� wall and is _ma�e of Class ;5 The following problems are presented without answers.
cast iron. Stress concentration at the wall for bendmg and torsion is equal to ·
Find the value of the FS. Ans. FS = 3.08.
J�. 32. Find the diameter of the hole in Fig. 2­53 if the stress concentration factor
the.. is to be the same a, at the fillet.
( (


Fig. 2­55. Problem 42.

43. A 2 in. diameter shaft carries a torque that fluctuates 25 per cent each
way from the average value of 20,000 in­lb. The stress concentration factor is
Fig. 2­54. Problem 33. 2.5. The FS based on the yield point is 2. If the endurance­limit in shear is equal
Fig. 2­53. Problem 32.
to 0.6 of the yield point in shear, determine the minimum value of the yield
point in shear which the material must have if the shaft is to be safe for continuous
33. Find values of lengths x and x1 in Fig. 2­54 if the bending stress at the operation.
groove and at the fillet are to be equal. Stress concentration should be taken into 44. A body loaded by normal stresses 81 and 82 has a FS by the Mises­Hencky
­ aecount­.­s­·­·­­­­�­­­­­­­­­­­­ theory that is 10 per' cent greater than the FS when· computed by the maximum
34. In Fig. 2.­50, let the 15 in. dimension become 12 in., and the 20 in. dimen­ shear theory. If 81 is 10,000 psi, find the value of 82.
sion become 10 in. The shaft is of 1045 hot­rolled steel. Find the permissible load 45. In Fig. 2­56, the leaf spring is straight and.unstressed when the cam and
at end of arm if FS by the Mises­Henclcy theory is to be 2.5. shaft are removed. The material is cold drawn chrome­moly steel 4140. The stress
35. A steel plate 20 by 10 in. has normal stresses only on the four edges. After concentration is zero. Asstime 8• is equal to 0.5 of s ..11. If the cam rotates con­
the loads are applied, the dimensions become 20.0066 in. and 9.9981 in. Material tinuously, find FS for the spring.
is 1035 cold­rolled steel. Find the FS by the maximum shear theory.
36. A 2 in. diameter nonrotating shaft of 1045 hot­rolled steel has a steady
bending moment of 10,000 Find the permissible steady torque that can
be superposed on the bending moment if the FS is to be 3 by the Mises­Hencky
37. An element of 1045 hot­rolled steel has a steady axial stress of 10,000 psi.
Find the permissible shearing stress that can be superposed if the FS is to be
2.5 by the Mises­Hencky theory. Fig. ·2­56. Problem 45. Fig. 2­57. Problem 47.
38. Work Problem 7 by the Mises­Hencky theory.
39. Work Problem 7, but with 0.006 in. as 0.0048 in. and 8,. as 9,600 psi. 46. Work Problem 27(c) with 8,. = 17,000 psi.
40. A 15 by 20 by 0.5 in. plate of 1045 hot­rolled steel carries a uniformly 47. For a FS of 4, find the total force Pin Fig. 2­57 if the material is Class 30
distributed tension of 90,000 lb on the 15 in. edge. Find the compressive stress ?cast iron.
on the 20 in. edge if the FS is 2 by the maximum shear theory. Find the dimen­ �. Work Problem 29, but find the FS for an element at the wall at midheight
sions of the plate after the loads are acting. · . on the surface of the shaft on the side towards the observer.
41. In Fig. 2­52, the 16 in. dimension becomes 8 in. with the load at the end 49. A 10 by 20 in. plate of Class 50 cast iron has normal stresses only acting
of the bracket equal to 2,500 lb. The shaft material tests 54,000 psi yield and on the edges.
90,000 psi ultimate. Find the FS by the maximum shear theory for an element on (a) Find the FS if the dimensions become 9.9981 by 20.0066 in. after the
the top surface 4 in. to the left of the bracket. Do the same by the Mises­Hencky loads are applied.
theory. (b) Do the same, but with dimensions of 10.0011 by 20.0048 in.
42. The part shown in Fig. 2­55 is made from 87 42 steel quenched and tem­ Find the relationship between 8,11p and 811p by the Mises­Hencky theory.
pered at 1,200 F. The load varies continuously from 30,000 lb to 50,000 lb. If
the endurance limit is equal to one­half the ultimate strength, find the FS.
c. 1 SHAFTING 107
. Torsion of Circular Shaft
Figure 3­1 shows a circular shaft of uniform cross section loaded · at

3 the ends by the torques T which twist it about the longitudinal axis.
The shaft is assumed to be much longer
with respect to the diameter than is in­ ­� I
dicated by the figure. It can be shown "t1
'experimentally that cross sections per­
; pendicular to the axis before loading
remain plane and perpendicular to the
axis after the loads T have been applied.
The diameter of the bar is unchanged
and radial lines remain straight and
radial after twisting. _
· The only deformation in · the bar is
the rotation of the cross sections with
respect to each other. As shown in Fig.
3­1, the bottom cross section has been
;, rotated with respect to the top through
the angle q,.
,,kinds of machinery and mechanical equipment. The sides of an element on the cylin­
, theory for a circular shaft with static torsi?nal drical surface of radius r1 are unchanged
·a'.ns are subjected to fluctuating loads of combmed in length, but the angles in the corners
'iith· various degrees of stress concentration. For
hiem is fundamentally one of fatigue loading. In
are changed by angle 'Y from their orig­ Fig. 3­1. Circular shaft twisted by
. inal 90° values. The element is thus torques at ends.
:;;}�elf, the design usually must include th� calculs­ stressed in pure shear. As shown by Fig.
c'keys and couplings. The normal ope:atm� speed 3­1, r1q, = lv, Substitution of Hooke's law, 'Y = s./G, where G is the
'be close to a critical speed, or large vibrations are modulus of elasticity in shear, gives
i{h:q�tions are given for finding the deflections of
s r: < p •·· i1n'
'diameters. Machine parts with non circular cross q,Grl
s, = -l- (1)
se�ti� . •. }e6����es loaded in torsion; the designer must therefore_ be
al>le t()'det�9Piile the stresses and deformations sustgined by such bodies.
Since "'' G; and l are constants in Fig. 3­1, the value of the shearing stress s.
d, 4i�,e�:· ,· ­. . . . . . n, revolutions per minute varies directly with the radius r1.
If the portion of the bar above the element dA in Fig. 3­1 were removed,
fp!f�1�f�ttti�i�y rp�: �:��:tions per minute reversed
FB, faci;t):r'of i,a.!ety 8,, endurance limit stress,
the torque of the shearing stress s., if integrated over the whole cross sec­
G, m<)duhis of elasticity in shear bending tion, would be equal to the applied torque T. Hence,
hp, horsepower B, shearing stress
I, moment of inertia 8,P: yield point stress, t�nsioEnn . · (a)
J, polar moment of inertia SAE, Society of Automotive gineers
K, stress concentration factor, nor­ T, torque .
mal stress V, velocity, feet per minute
The right side is multiplied and divided by r1; by Eq. (1), ratio s./r1 is a
K1, stress concentration factor, shear y, deflection . constant and can be removed from the integral. Thus
stress <P, (phi) angular deforma�ion .
l, length "'• (omega) angular velocity, radians (b)
M, bending moment per second ·
SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 1 SHAFTING c 109
In the last form of Eq. (b), the symbol J, called polar moment of inertia, l6T 16 X 9,000 .
By Eq. (2):
has been substituted for the integral r12 dA. J s. = rd' = ir8 ·"" 5, 730 psi
The maximum value of the shearing stress occurs at the outer surface,
If it is assumed that the shaft is cut, at the right edge of t.he element, the given
where r1 = r, Hence, from Eq. (b),
Tr 16T I'', torque causes the shear stress s, to have
the direction shown in Fig. 3­2(b). The
s. J = 1rd3 (2) t'<
, .•'.:i.·

transverse shear stress for element .4

r» 9,000 ,n. lb
f is equal to zero.
The similarity of Eq. (2) to Eq. (11) of Chapter 1 for bending stress,
(b) Element atB. The torsional shear
s =·Mc/I, should benoted. The ratio J/r is called the section modulus of stress _has the same value as in part (a).
the shaft.
For a solid circular cross section,
The transverse shear stress is found by
Eq. (31) of Chapter 1. +­­­'
1rd4 1rT4 S, = 6, l50psl
J=32=2 (3) 4V 4 X 1,000 .
s, = aA = 3r = 420 psi Fig. 3­2. Example 1.

It should be noted that the value of J for a circle is twice as great as the If it is assumed that the shaft is cut at the right edge of the element, the trans­
corresponding.value of I. For a hollow shaft with outside diameter do and verse shear stress acting upon the element is directed upward. The total shear
inside__cliariieteuli,.. the. net value for the polar moment of inertia is equal stress has the value shown in Fig. 3­2(c). The bending stress is zero for the
to the value of J for the outer circle minus the J for the inner circle. element at B.
Hence, ;for a hollow shaft,
Example 2. A hollow shaft must carry a torque of 30,000 in­lb at a shearing
J = ;2 (do4 ­ d,4) = ; (ro4 ­ r;') (4) stress of 8,000 psi. The inside diameter is to be 0.65 of the outside diameter.
Find the value of the outside diameter.
Eliminatio11 i:lfs. between Eqs. (b) and (1) gives
Tl Solution. d, = 0.65d.
'P = JG

This equation can be easily committed to memory when its analogy to In Eq. (4): J = :!_ (d.4 ­ 0.654d.') = 0.08065d.4
Eq. (4), Chapter 1, o = Pl/ AE, for axial deformation is noticed.
· An�l��'P is in radian measure. It should be recalled that 1 ° is equal to In Eq. (2)� J = 30,00� �0.5d. = 0.08065d.'
r/180. rililian, or 1 radian = 57.296°. '
In order that the foregoing equations may be valid in the neighborhood d03 = 23.2486
of the ends, moments T must be applied by means of stresses which vary d. = 2.854 in.
in intensity with the distance from the axis. Since this condition rarely
occurs in. practice, Eq. (2) gives correct results only atcross sections some­ Example 3. Suppose it is specified that the angular deformation _in a shaft
what removed from the points where loads T are applied. should not exceed 1 ° in a length of 6 ft. The permissible shearing stress is 12,000
psi. Find the diameter of the shaft. The material is steel.
Example I. The shaft in Fig. 3­2 does not rotate; the loads are steady.
(a) Make a sketch for the element at A on the bottom surface of the shaft 1r .

and show the values of the stresses.

Solution. 'fJ = 1 ° =­
(b) Do the same for the element at Bat the elevation o�he shaft axis.

Solution. (a) Element at A. By Eqs. (2) and (5): T = s.,J • ({)JG
T l
By Eq. 05), Chapter 1:
or T - 8,l = 12,000 X 72 X 180 -= 4.305 in.
32 X 3 500
= 4 460 psi, tension
ea 11,500,000,r
t d = 8.609 in.
c 111
Example 4. The shaft in Fig. 3­3 carries the torque of 10,000 in­lb at the Velocity V in Fig. 3­4 is equal to
location shown. If the ends of the shaft are fixed
against rotation, find the values of the torque re­ V = rdn
12 (9)
actions T 1 and T 2,
Solution. where n is rpm or revolutions per minute. When this substitution is
made in Eq. (6) the following equation results.
15T, 'l'n
By Eq. (5), Ang. def. for AB: <P1 = JG hp= 63,025 (10)
Fig. 3­3. Example 4. By Eq. (5), Ang. def. for BC: <P2 = JG Torque T in this equation has dimensions in in­lb.

The angular deformation in AB is equal to the angular deformation in BC. 3. Maximum Static Shearing Stress
The values for q,1 and q,2 should be equated.

Many shafts carry combined loads of bending and torque. The bending
15T1 ­ 24T2 = 0 (c) moment kJ causes a normal stress in the axial direction of the shaft as
shown by s in Fig. 3­5(a), and the torque T
By stat16s: T1 + T2 = 10,000
produces the shearing stress .�•. The normal
The equations above should now be solved simultaneously to give stress in the y­direction, or at right angles to
the shaft axis, is in general equal to zero. y s,
Ti = 6,154 in­lb; T2 = 3,846 in­lb (o}
From the Mohr circle for this element, shown
in Fig. 3­5(b), the value of the maximum
2. Horsepower shearing stress for static loading is given by
the equation
Power is defined as the rate at which work is performed. The unit is
the horsepower, which is equal to 33,000 ft­lb per minute. If a force of
F pounds acts at a velocity of V feet per minute, the work done per
S,ma,: = 0.5811p
FS = \J'[. 2s]2 +-·
e.: {11) s.,

minute is FV, and the equation for horsepower is The equations for the stresses for a solid cir­
FV cular shaft,
hp= ­­­ (6) Fig. 3­5. Stresses on element
33,000 32M 16'1' of shaft surface.
8 =--
' rd'
and s. = 1rd3 {12)
In machinery where power is transmitted by shafting, it is necessary to
transform Eq. (6) into angular dimensions. If fo�ce F is acting at radius should now be substituted into Eq. (11) to give the following equation for
r in. as shown in Fig. 3­4, the angular velocity, w rad./sec, the maximum shearing stress for static loads.
is equal to
Sama:,; -
- 0.5Syp - 16 ­ IM2
FS - 1rd3 V 1
+ T2 (13)
Substitution of s•mu, = 0.5s11p/FS implies that the maximum shear
The value of V from Eq. (7) should now be substituted Fig. 3­4. Re­
theory of failure has been assumed to be applicable. This is in accord
in Eq. (6) to give · Ia tionships for with Eq. (6) of Chapter 2.
deriving horse­
h _ Tw (8)
power equations.
p - 12 X 550 4. ASME Code for Design of Transmission Shafting

In Eq. (8) the product Fr has been replaced by torque T, which has di­ Since the loads on most shafts in machinery are not constant, it is
mensions in in­lb. necessary to make proper allowance for the harmful effects of the fluctua­
( ( (
112 SHAF'l'ING Chap. 3 I! Sec. 5 SHAFTING Ill
t" Th ASME Code for the Design of Transmission Shafting, �17e­ 16
In Eq. (15):;;: 01.s x 21,oom2 +
11;;7, do:s this by insertitli constants C,,. and C, into the equation for d3 = rn.2002 ee a7.026

stress as follows: d =­ 3.333 in.

8,ma:r - -
_ O_:_�sy1,
= /(­­��)2
'\j 2
+ (C,s.)� (14) Example 6. A 2 in. diameter rotating shaft carries a torque of 12,000 in­lb
which may be applied suddenly and a bending moment of 8,000 in­lb which also
may be applied suddenly. Material tests Bwp = 70,000 psi. Find the value of the
= }!i v(£};.MJ2­+(c,7')2 (15) FS by the ASME Code.
or - �p
s.,,. • ., _ FS 1rda -
Solution. Assume C,.. = 2 and C, = 1.5.
where Cm = numerical combined shock and fatigue factor to be applied
in every case to the computed bending moment
and C, = the corresponding factor to be applied to the computed By Eq. (15): 0.5 �}�!JOO = ::3 y (2 X 8,000)2 + (1.5 X 12,000)2

torque. . . .
The recommended values for the shock and fatigue f�ctors are given
. 35;.�00 = -� x 24.083
in Table 3­1. For rotating shafts, the bending stress s is not constant;
or FS = 2.28
Constants for ASME Code S. Maximum Shear Theory when Loads Are Fluctuating
Values/or It will now be shown1 that the maximum shear theory of failure can
Nature of Loading be applied when the normal and shear stresses in a
c; c, shaft are fluctuating. The loading for an element on
the shaft surface is shown in Fig. :3­6. Stresses nor­
Stationary shafts:
1.0 1.0 mal to the shaft axis are zero. It is assumed that the
Gradually applied load
Suddenly applied load 1.5­2.0 1.5­2.0 normal and shear stresses reach their maximum and Fig. 3­6. Element
minimum values simultaneously. loaded by fluctuating
Rotating shafts: Soderberg's Eq. (11), presented in Chapter 2,
Gradually applied or steady load 1.5 1.0
applied to the fluctuating normal stress of Fig. 3­6 gives the equivalent
Suddenly applied loads, minor shocks only 1. 5­­2 .0
2.0­3.0 1.5­3.0 static normal stress s as
Suddenly applied loads, heavy shocks
it varies continuously from maximum tension to maximum compr�ssion
as the shaft rotates. For steady loads, the table indicates that smta?le The equivalent static shear stress s, for Fig. 3­6 has the value
compensation can be made for the alternating nature of the bending
stress by using a value of 1.5 for C,,.. If the shaft is hollow, factor l6/ird3
8, = s�av + tc«;
88, (b)
ean be replaced by r/J, where r is the outside radius, and J is computed
Equations (a) and (b) are now substituted into Eq. (11) to give the
for the net area.
resultant static shear stress s,ma"'·
Example 5. Find the diameter by the ASME Code for a rotating sh.aft
subjected to a maximum steady torque of 16,200 in­lb, and a steady bending 8,maz -
_ 0.5s11P
FS - "4
_ /i (Sav + S.-
P )2
+ (
8,av + K1s11P
Se 8,r
) 2 (16)
moment of 27,000 in­lb. The shaft has akeywav.
Solution. s, ... , = 0.75 X 8,000 �, 6,000 psi. Hee Section 20. or
= 0.581/P = �
FS 1rd3
'\J a• + Ks11p M )2 + (r + K1811p r.)2
Se r nv Se

From Table 3­1: C,. = 1.5, and C1 = 1.0

See reference 5, Bibliography; and p. 487 of reference 2.

1'.; ... --�------------.........- .....

114 SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 7 SHAFTING 115
Stress concentration factors for the appropriate change of form and 6. Mises­Hencky Theory for Shafting
type of loading can be determined from the curves of Chapter 2 and from
Section 8 of this chapter. For a shaft element loaded as in Fig. 3­6, Eq. (9) of Chapter 2 for
The equations above apply to solid circular shafts. When a keyway average and range stress becomes
is present at the section for which the calculations are made, the strength
is reduced not only because of stress concentration but because of loss of
cross section as well. A theoretical determination of this latter quantity 8
r -
__ r.:T+­3
V Sr- 8,r

would be very involved, but its magnitude may be estimated by the prin­
ciples exptainea­'iii Section 16. Perhaps the best way of taking care of the These are now substituted into Eq. (11) of Chapter 2 to obtain the equiva­
situation in a design is to use a lower value for the working stress in shear. lent static working stress in tension.
Fortunately, the form of the equation is such that this correction could be
considerably in error without causing very much difference in the resulting 8 -
- Suv - - /
FS - ·y Sav
2 + 3• Buv 2 + Ks11v -
V Sr.
S., (18)
diameter of the shaft.
Equations (12) are now substituted to give
Exaiii�ie 7. Suppose the loads are the same as those given in Example 5 except
T. = O}T...,. Stress concentration is caused by a keyway and is equal to 1.35 for 8 = i's = ::. [ v'4Ma. + 3T<J.2 + 2 �IIP v'4M,2 + 37',2] (19)
both­J>imchng anatorque. Material tests Bull = 120,000 psi; Sn,= 100,000 psi.
TheJ,c re of safety equals 2. Let s. = 0.58uU· Because of the keyway, let the Example 8. Determine the required shaft diameter by the Mises­Hencky
W'<>i:kiµ �,be reduced. to 90 per cent of the value for a solid shaft. For an theory using the data in Example 7.
· :,rotating shaft, the average moment is zero.
Solution. Substitutionof the values for moments and torques should be made
Ma. = 0, M. = 27,000 in­lb into Eq. (19).
Ta. = 16,200 in­lb, T, = 1,620 in­lb
Equivalent working stress in tension:
s, = 0.5 X 120,000 = 60,000 psi
= O 9 871p = 0.9 X 100,000 = 45 000 .
.. 0.5 X 100,000 s . FS 2 ' psi
,\1'hk�s·"l"� = 0.9. . = 22,500 psi working stress

�.;yr: :><u··
In Eq. (i})j;{ ...
d3 = 45,��llir [ v'a x 16,2002 + 1.35 � 100 v4 x 21,000 + a x 1,620 2 2]

d' � X 27,000 ]' + [ 16,200 + '::t X �·· X 1,620 ]'

45, OOOr (28,060 + 2.25 X 54,070) = 16.945
16 )<63,900
22,500,r . = 14.466 d = 2.569 in.
d = 2Aa7in. A slightly larger shaft is required when the design is made by the Mises­Hencky
. T�e use 0.f a high­strength, heat­treated steel makes a considerable reduction
m size possible. A smaUer diameter shaft sometimes gives additional savings 7. Keys
because smaller bearings can be used, and smaller hubs can be used as well on the
shafts and pulleys. If the working stress is reduced to the extremely conservative Shafts and hubs are usually fastened together by means of keys. Sev­
value of 75 per cent of the s�ress for a solid shaft, the diameter for the example eral different kinds of keys are shown in Fig. 3­7. The square and flat
above comes out to be 2.589 m., or an increase of slightly more than kin. type of keys are in wide use for general machine construction. Dimensions
( ( (
116 SHAFTING Chap. 3
Sec. 7 SHAFTING 117
for square keys are given in Table a­2. Kennedy keys are usually made
tapered and are driven tightly into p�ace upon a�sembly. The! are Movement between shaft and hub can be prevented by a taper pin
adapted for rough, heavy service. The \\' oodruff key is much used m the driven tightly into place. The so­called "roll pin" is not solid. It has the
cross section shown in Fig. 3­7. It has sufficient flexibility to accommodate

itself to small amounts of misalignment and variation in hole diameters,
and will not come loose under vibrating loads.
For high­grade construction, and for cases where axial movement
between shaft, and hub is required, relative rotation is prevented by means
Sttuar11 Flat Round K•11n11dy of splines machined on the shaft and into the bore. One type of spline
uses the involute curve as the outline. The spline on the shaft can be
cut by a hobbing process similar to that used for cutting gears.

Cross Section of Roll Pin

. __ '[ap�ed p{n Gib-h11ad key

fa) Fore•• on k•y which fits lb) Forc11s acting°"

lfthtly top ond bottom. loonly tiffed key.

Woodruff /,wo/ut11 spline Fig. 3­8. Forces on key.

I•'ig. :3­7. Types of keys.
Tables of dimensions for the foregoing machine elements may be
automotive and machine tool industries. The gib­head key facilitates found in engineering handbooks and catalogs of various supply houses.
removal, although the projecting head for some applications constitutes The distribution of the force on the surfaces of a key is very compli­
a hazard for workmen. cated. It is dependent upon the fit of the key in the grooves of shaft
and hub, as illustrated by Figs. 3­8(a) and (b), in which the distributed
TABLE 3­2 loads are represented by single arrows. In addition, the stresses are not
Dimensions of Square Keys. ASA 817.1­1943 uniform along the key in the axial direction; they are highest near the
I Size ''I , ISize I
Sh f, Is·ize
Dia. Shaft I Key 1.,na.
0 o 1a,t I Key Dia. a l , Key Because of many uncertainties, an exact analysis of the stresses usually
cannot be made. 2 Engineers commonly assume that the entire torque is
t to /ir ' t I­is­ t:­­;; 1­·­ �­ ·--I :1j to af 1·­­;· carried by a tangential force F located at the shaft surface. That is,
f to t f6 111­H to 2f !­ :11 to 4f I l T = Fr (20)
ft to l{ {­ 2/6 to 2{­ � 4{ to fif l{
l nrto
ls3 , 5
Tu I
., 7 1
2,. to :3:r :1
·, fit to
Ii 11
2 Shearing and compressive stresses are computed for the key from force F,
and a sufficiently large factor of safety is employed.
In addition to a key, setscrews are usually employed to keep the hub
from shifting axially on the shaft. Generally, two serewsure placed in Example 9. A 3­h in. diameter shaft is made from material with a yield point
value of 58,000 psi. A t by t in. kev is to be used of material with a yield point
the hub: one screw bears on the key and the other bears on the shaft.
value of'48,000 psi. Let 8,11p = 0.5s,,;. The factor of safety is equal to 2.
Fol' light service, rotation between �haft and huh may be prevented by Find the required length of key based on the torque value of the gross shaft.
setscrews alone. 2
See reference 6, Bibliography.
( �------------
-----------------------------�������· ( ....
Chap. 3 Sec. 8 SHAFTING 119
118 The results of some tests to determine the fatigue strength reduction
Solution, factors6 for alternating bending stresses for shafts with keyways are given
in Table 3­3. Two kinds of steel were used: a medium­carbon steel, and
58 000 = 29,0OO
= -'- psi·
Shaft: 811p = 58,000 psi, working stress, 8
= -- = 14,500 psi.
8,v,. = 29,000 psi, working stress, S• 2

s = 48,000 = 24,000 psi

Key: 8yp = 48,000 psi, working stress, 2
: 2.8
= ­2­ = 12,000 psi. "' \
psi, working stress,
= 24,000 8,

J = rd'
­ = 3 708 in.
1. · 4 ..
.!, Zif

s.J _ 14,500 X 13.708 = 115 650 in­lb
In Eq. (2), torque in shaft: T = -;:- - 1.719 · ' 120
Force at sha.ft surface:
F = !_ =
= 67 ,280 lb ..
t /.f

For length of kef: '' t

Based on bearing .on shaft: l =
29,000 '280
X 0.438 = 5.30 in.

'138.l!ed on beanng on key: l = 24,0:·��.438 = 6.41 in.

13��;9; �hear hi.key: l =

= 6.41 in.

8. Stress Cori.cenh:'atiori
Stress . concentration faetors" for a shaft with two diameters joined
by fillets and loaded in torsion are given in Fig. 3­9. When a shaft has a Rotliu• "' 51'IOH Sita//
transverse hole with a bending load, the stress concentration factors' are Fig. 3­9. 'I'oraional­streee concentrations in circular shafts of two diameters.
as shown in Fig. 3­10. The stress concentration factors5 for a transverse
hole and torsional loading are given in Fig. 3­11. ·
All stress concentration factors so far presented in this book. are the '.".\( heat­treated, chrome­nickel steel. Specimens tested were 1 in. in diam­
geometric or full theoretical values. Section 17 of Chapter 2 discussed ,,�ter with two types of keyways: sled runner and profile, which are shown
the fact that under fatigue loading the actual effect of stress concentra­ · ,pl Fig. 3­12. In order to simulate conditions at an oil hole, tests were
tion was usually less severe than indicated by the theoretiGal values. j1Jso made on carbon steel specimens with a -l- in. transverse hole i the
;results are shown in Table 3­3.
3 See reference 13, Bibliography.
• See reference 14, Bibliography. · ', • See reference 7, Bibliography.
6 See reference 15, Bibliography.
( ( (
120 SHAFTING Chap.:; Sec. 9 8ttAFTING
.­­...­­.­ T ..\RLE 3-3

a,;td �)
1\­ ,­­,­
,­ ,,_

... .l.20....-.....---r--.--r-r-....,..---,
Fatigue Stress Concentration Factors in Bending for Shafts with
Keyways Based on Section Modulus of Full Area
. I i

·. !!
ol! 2.10
I Chrome- Medium-
·. Nickel,
t� 2.00f--+-t--t--t--;,t--j----f
I Yield

I Stress

Tensile Strength,

L901­­1­­­­+­­­+­t­­­t­­­1 Stress
,�I'­­ Steel Strength, , (Plastfr For Reversed
� psi Def. Bending Stress En- I
En- Con-
1.8 � 180 L......­!­,,.....;.,,..­­"e­­:­­:t::­­­=­:­­= I cen- du.r- cen-
0 .04 .08 .12 .20 ..... 0 04 08 ./2 16 .20 .24 .28 0.2 per dur- I
.16 .24 .28 .32

dia. shaft
d dia. ho/�
0 . dio.siia1, cent) anee I
. anee tra-
Limit · lion Limit, lion
Fig. 3­10. Stress· coucentrat.iou factors for Fig. 3­11. Stress concentration fac­ . ' Factor psi Factor
shaft with transverse hole loaded in bending. tors for shaft with transverse hole. Tor­ K K

I ­­­ ­­­ ­­­

Based on seet.ion modulus of the net area. sional loading. Based on full cross­
sectional area. No reduction for hole. Chrome­Nickel
(About SAE
No keyway, or­
dinary tapered
3140) 103,500 70,000 specimen 158,000 137 ,000
Sled­runner key­ I

way 36,000,I 1.61 28,000 1.32

Medium­Carbon Profile keyway 28,oool 2.07 23,000 1.61
(About SAE }­in. transverse I
I 80,000 45,000 hole
i 12, 100 3.06

Because of the lack of available data, Table 3­3 may also be used for
the stress concentration factors for torsion in the equations of Sections
5 and 6.
Fig. 3­12. Types of keyways tested for stress coneentrat ion effects.

9. Couplings
For fluctuating loads, the fatigue stress concentration factor K is de­
fined as follows: A wide variety of devices is available for connecting the ends of two
shafts together. The solid coupling shown in Fig. 3­13 is a typical exam­
K = endurance limit for plain specimen ple. It) is inexpensive and will withstand rough usage. Good alignment
endurance limit with keyway or hole between the ends of the shafts is necessary, however, to avoid inducing
bending stresses in the shafts or loads in the bearings.
In these tests a fatigue crack started on the outer surface of the shaft
near the end of the keyway. The results of the tests indicate that the i
sled runner keyway is preferable to the profile. It should also be noted
that the heat­treated specimens had larger stress concentration factors

than the plain carbon. As was mentioned in Section 17, Chapter 2, a heat­
treated steel· exhibits greater sensitivity to notch effects than does plain
carbon steel. This fact unfortunatelv causes a reduction in the advan­
tages which would otherwise be obt;ined by the use of a high­strength
alloy steel. The tests also show that a designer should avoid locating an
oil hole at a highly stre8sed point on a shaft.
Fig. 3­13. Solid coupling.
( (
122 SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 10 SHAFTING
Example 10. For the coupling shown in Fig. 3­13, the k ey is · v1 bY v1 111.
. Th_e (d) Area in shear at edge of hub = 4.2/nr X 0.625 = 8.345 in.2
shaft carries a steady load of 50 hp at 150 rpm. For all parts, Syp = 60,000 psi,
an d s,11p _ · F'1nd the following stresses and the FS based on the yield
- 30 , 000 psi.
Force at edge of hub = = 9,880 lb
point: 2.�25
Shear stress in web: 9 880 .
(a) Shear and bearing in key. s, = = 1,180 psi
(b) Shear in bolts.
(c) Bearing on bolts in flange. FS = 30,000 = 25.4
(d)­Shear in flange at hub. 1,180

Solution. (a) Many types of flexible couplings are available which provide for some
misalignment. Such couplings are often provided with springs or rubber
inserts to cushion the shock of suddenly applied loads. Details, dimen­
T = 63,000 hp _ 63,000 X 50 = 21 000 in­lb
From Eq. (10): n - 150 ' sions, and load ratings based on long experience may be found in the
catalogs of the various manufacturers. 7 Information: is also given in the
- !_
Tangential force at shaft surface: F _ r = 1.094 = 19 ' 200 lb mechanical engineering handbooks.

. . · . ·­·­­­·­·­­·­Area.iii bearing for key = 0.25 x 3.25 = 0.8125 in," IO. Bending Loads in Two Planes
Compressive stress: 8 = = 23,630 psi Shafts are sometimes subjected to loads applied at different angles.
e 0.8125 · To find the resulting bending moment
at any cross section, it is necessary to
FS = 60,000 = 2.54 in bearing
23,630 have the components of the loads in
Area. in shear for key = 0.5 X 3.25 = 1.625 in.! two perpendicular axial planes. The
following example illustrates a typical
Shearing. stress in key: 8 = 19•20_0 = 11 820 psi method for solving such problems.
• 1.625 '
30 000 . Example ll. Figure 3­14 shows a shaft (bl ,t
FS = ­'­ = 2.54 m shear �=..
11,820 with the belts making angles of 45° and 1,396
60° with the horizontal. Find the value M

(b) Area in shear for bolts = 6 X i X 0.6:5! = 1.841 in.2

of the maximum bending moment for the
shaft. ·

Solution. The components of the belt

Force at bolt circle: F = 21,000 = 7,000 lb ­ (di
3 forces in the horizontal plane and the
corresponding bearing reactions are shown
7,000 in Fig. 3­14(b). These loads give the
Shear stress in bolts: s, = -- = 3,8 00 psi.
· l.841 bending moment diagram of sketch (c), frl
The loads and reactions for the vertical
FS = 30,000 = 7.89 plane are given in Fig. 3­14(d), and the Loads and moments in �,rlical plan,
3,800 bending moment diagram is shown in Fig. 3­14. Shaft with bending loads in
(c) Area. in bearing for bolts = 6 X 0.625 X 0.625 = 2.344 in.! sketch (e), two planes. Example 11.

The maximum bending moment occurs at the left pulley and has the following
7,000 value.
Compressive stress on bolts: 8, = -2 = 2,99O psi.
. 344
M, = V25,1302 + 36,070 2 = 43.960 in­lb
60,000 7
FS ­2,990 20.1 See, for example, catalog pages listed under Couplings (Shaft) in reference 8,
Bibliography. See also p. 152, reference 9.
( ( (
124 SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 12 SHAFTING
11. Shaft on Three Supports Solut_ion •. From the given conditions y'2 in Fig. 3­15{c) will be0.05in. smaller
than,71:, in­ Fig. 3­15(b). Hence
Shafts are sometimes supported on three bearings as illustrated in
Fig. 3­15. Such a problem is stati­ 2RJ14 Pa.J,1
IP + 0.05 + 2z12
R-' - ----;f:--1
6 X 2l1El = 6 X 2l1EI (l12 ­ a22)
b2 '12 cally indeterminate with three un­
known reactions R1_, R2, and R3. It The given numerical data should now be substituted in this equation to give
(a) •
-· z, , is possible to write only tw.o inde­

l t r :
It ,,.
Ri � pendent equations from statics, one R2 = 108 lb

.r for the summation of the vertical When all bearings are at the same elevation, Eq. (c) gives a value for R2 of
! 70.4 lb, a larger value than the 108 lb obtained above. Thus a small change
forces and one lo, the �?'mation of
Ic J :: __ the moments. The additional equa­ in the geometry of the system made a relatively large change in the forces.
t.-���:::::j;:__�.::::::::=�J_., tion required for a solution to the This is characteristic of indeterminate structures, and­care must be exercised in
� ,2 •
problem can be obtained by takmg the_ manufacture and assembly of equipment where such a condition is present.
Fig. 3­15. Sha.ft on three supports. into account the deformation of the This feature has been used to good advantage in the example above to effect a
reduction in the force at the center bearing.
body. This can be done in a variety of ways. The following example
illustrates a typical method of solution.
12. Crankshafts
Example 12. Derive the equation for reaction R2 of Fig. 3­15.
In order to determine the stresses in a crankshaft, the loading on the
Solution. Assume that support R2 has been temporarily removed as shown separate parts of the mechanism must be secured. A typical example is
by Fig. 3­15(b). Deflection y2 can be found by the equation for Y1 in No. 7 of shown in Fig. 3­16(a) which illustrates a single­cylinder, belt­driven air
Fig. 1­15. When substitutions from Fig. 3­15(e.) are made in this equation, the compressor. Suppose the dimensions of the machine are known and it is
result is as follows.
desired to find the stresses in the cheek CD of the crankshaft. From the
cylinder bore and the air pressure, the force on the piston can be found.
� _Pa2l.1_ (l.2 + 2lil,, _ a.2) (a)
Y.,- 6(l1+ l2)EI - - • By making a force triangle, the force in the connecting rod can be deter­
mined. This latter force also acts on the crankpin at A. As shown in
Now assume that reaction R2 of sketch (a) is acting, but that load P has been Fig. 3­16(b), it is divided into components tangential and normal to
temporarily removed as shown in sketch (c). Deflection y'2 then is the plane of the crank. The normal component gives the torque which
I 2R2l12ll the belt must exert at the given crank position. The forces in the tight
y • - -------- .--- -- - (b)
- 6(l1 + l2)EI and slack !>ides of the belt are now determined from the torque, and the
sum is divided into components in the coordinate directions as shown
If sketches (b) and (e) are combined, the original shaft of Fig. 3­15(a) is in Fig. 3,­16(c). '
obtained in which the deflection at R,, is zero. In other words, the downward The free­body diagram for the crank should now be made as shown in
deflection Y2 of Eq. (a) must be equal­ to the upward deflection y' 2 of Eq. (b). Fig. 16(d), utilizing the rod and belt forces and with the bearing reae­
When these are equated the following expression for R2 results. . '
tlons determined by statics. It is customary to assume that the entire
bearing load acts at the center of the bearing. The crank can now be
�ut apart, and the forces and moments for each portion can be determined
in the usual way. Thus Fig. 3­16(e) shows the cheek after cutting at the
Reactions R1 and Ra, as well a:s other iuformatiou concerning the shaft, can mid­point between C and D with the various forces and moments that
now be easily obtained by statics. act on the cut surface.

E:rnm,,1� l3. In Fig. a­15 let a, = :.W in., L, = .l, = 50 in., P = 300 lb, and
_l:xaruple 14. Let the bore of the compressor 1Jf Fig. 3­16 be 4.75 in., the stroke
EI = 26,000,000 lb in'. Find the value of R2 if the elevation of the center bearing 6 m., and the length of rod 12 in. For a crank angle of 30°, the air pressure is
is made 0.05 in. lower than the others. 24.7 psi gage. The belt).'."is.. r-.horizontal with tension T, .in the tight.side three times
­>, __ , ..•
126 SHAFTING Chap. 3
Sec. 13
( -
. . in the slack side. The coordinate system is as shown. 127
Find the as
great tension
forces T2
and momen ts for the cross section of the cheek midway between The forces and moments for the desired cross section of the cheek are shown
C and D. in Fig. 3­16(e). The reader should check the values shown thereon. Moment
arms are the distances from the line of action of the forcf': to the center of gravity
Solution. Force on piston ­
­ ! X 4 · 752 X 24.7 = 437.7 lb of the cross section affected.
The arrows in Fig. 3­16(e) represent the resultant values for the forces
and moments. Such loads actually are distributed as stresses in some
fashion over the surface of the cheek where it was cut from the balance of
I the shaft. Because of the irregular shape of the crank, the stress equa­
1. t
tions previously derived may or may not be applicable. If the crank of
Fig. 3­16 is of lightweight construction with relatively small­diameter
pins, the equations might be valid for the cross section at the midpoint of
the cheek. However, the stresses for large, massive crankshafts, such as
those used in internal combustion engines, are usually determined experi­
mentally by direct strain gage measurements. 8

13. Critical Speed of Rotating Shaft

tc ) Componl'nls of belt forcl's
in coo,dinat� dif"t'cfions Rotating shafts become dynamically unstable at certain speeds, and
large vibrations are likely to develop. The speed at which this phenomenon
occurs is called a critical speed. It is shown in books on vibration theory
that the frequency for free lateral vibration when the shaft is not rotating
will be the same as its critical speed.
· Vibration difficulties frequently arise at the lowest or fundamental
critical speed. The equation9 for finding this speed for a shaft on two
supports is as follows.

f = -2r
1 \!g(W1Y1
w 1Y1 2 ++TVW2Y2 + W3y3 + · · ·) . I /
2Y2 + TV3y3 + · · · eye es sec
2 2 (21)
Forces and moments for crankshaft. Example 14.
where W 1, · W 2, etc. represent the weights of the rotating bodies, and
By · ,
. ·.. components
. taking . th e ro d is
. the force in ­ · 2 lb ' &B shown in
· found to be 441 lb Yi, Y2, etc. represent the respective static
Fig.­'3­l6(b). At the era� pin the rod force divides into components 351.5 deflections of the weights. The gra vita­
1 120•
and ·266.7 '
· · lb,. tangential and normal, respectively, toth e Pane o f th e crank · tional constant of 386 in./sec2 is repre­ 2"dio. 80*'
sented by g.
Torque oh crank: T = 266.7 X 3 = 800 in­lb A I 8
30" 40" 20·
T = 4(T1 ­ T2) = 4(3T2 ­ T2) =. 800 in­lb Example 15. Find the value of the funda­
Hence mental critical speed for the shaft shown in
T2 = 100 lb Fig. 3­17. Example 1­t. 1. ��
Fig. 3­17. E = 30,000,000 psi.
Solution. The static deflections at the weights can be found by the equations
The total belt load of 400 lb is now divided into components, as shown in for No. 7 of Fig. 1­15.

The free­body diagram for the crank is shown .in Fig.
3­16(c). . w-hire·h . the
. . d), �n
. 3­lti( I = rd4 = 1r = 0.7854 in.

64 4
apr�eevdieotuesrlmy idneetderimn�·,::.a;iyn�,.!ab·iny}:·t�·ab�_ke�Jit;glr9;al;do;s�·,ae.fl'ne�.t;;asc:.'t:in:g:·.1:'h:e:'�b:ea:r�u:1g�­re:·a:c�_t:·.o:p�s­­........�8�Ste:e�r�ef�e�re:n�c:e�l�O�,!B:ib�l�io�g,ra�p�h�y�,
' .. . Plli • §tw p 92 of referePCe J s, liiklLg1 · apli; .
( (
128 SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 14 SHAFTING
At A, due to 80 lb: 80 x 60 x 30 (902 ­ 602 ­ 30')
y = 6 X 90 X 30,000,000 X 0.7854 lo�d F. The modulus_ of e�asticity of the mat_erial is represented by E;
,,. 0.04074 in. I is the moment of inertia of the cross section. The integration must
extend throughout the entire volume of the shaft.
At A, due to 120 lb: ­ 120 x 20 x 30 (902 ­ 202 ­ 302)
y - 6 X 90 X 30,000,000 X 0.78.54 Equation (22) can be given a geometric interpretation 10 that eliminates
= 0.03848 in. the necessity of performing mathematical integrations. The integrand
can be considered a solid with the three dimensions Mp/I, M1, and dx
Total deflection at A: y = 0.04074 + 0.03848 = 0.07922 in.
as shown in Fig. 3­19(a). If the moment diagrams for MP and M, consist
At B, due to 80 lb: _ 80 X 30 X 20 (902 _ 30' _ 201) of segments of straight lines, it is not necessary to consider a solid of thick­
y - 6 X 90 X 30,000,000 X 0.7854 ness dx, but solids of finite lengths along the shaft can be taken and the
= 0.02565 in.

At B, due to 120 lb: ­ 120 x 20 x 70 (902 ­ 702 ­ 202)

y - 6 X 90 X 30,000,000 X 0.7854
= 0.03697 in.

Total deflection at B: y = 0.02565 + 0.03697 = 0.06262 in. F (aux1/iar1

P(Ot:lualload I
InEq .. (21): .­­­­ .. ­ I� �38:�8�
= 11.80 cycles/sec Fig. 3­18. Deflection of shaft by elastic Fig. 3­19. Deflection of shaft by elastic
energy. energy.
ner = 11.80 X 60 = 708 rpm, critical speed
The. normal operating speed for a shaft should be considerably above or below volumes found by solid geometry. When this is done for the full length
the value of a critical speed.
. of the shaft, the integration of Eq. (22) will have been performed.
Odd shaped solids will, in general, be present, and for these the pris­
It'11l:{li,ild be noted that Eq. (21) ignores the effect of the weight of the moidal equation is useful.
shaft a"Iid also assumes that all weights are concentrated. The equation
. l
does nay take into account any effect of the flexibility of the bearings or Vol. = + 4Am + A
supports. /;i.'his additional flexibility may in some cases lower the value 6 (A1 2) (23)
of the cr�ti!:al speed below that indicated by the equation. As shown in Fig. 3­19(b), A1 and A2 refer to the end surfaces of the solid
A shaff(will have as many critical speeds as there are rotating masses. that are perpendicular to the centerline of the shaft. Length l refers to
The deterl!lination of the higher critical speeds il'l beyond the scope of . the distance between A 1 and A 2• Area A,,. is the area of the cross section
this book. C:
midway between A1 and A2. Note that in general it is not (A1 + A2)/2.
Equations (22) and (23) are especially useful when the shaft is non­
14. Deflection of Shaft of Nonuniform Diameter uniform in diameter as illustrated by the following example.
Another way to determine the deflection y of a shaft is by elastic energy.
The equation is as follows. . Example 16. Find the deflection for point A where the diameter of the shaft
of Fig. 3­20 changes. E = 30,000,000 psi.

EFy = f Mpi�1dx (22) Solution. The bending moment diagram for the P load is shown in Fig.
3­20(b). The values of the moments are divided by the corresponding values
As shown in Fig. 3­18, force F represents an auxiliary load placed on the for I to give the Mp/[ diagra.m of sketch (c).Let loa.dF be taken as l lb acting at
shaft. at point A where the deflection y is desired; MP is the bending point A, as shown in sketch (d). This load has the bending moment diagram of
sketch (e). The various solids formed by the Mp/[ and M, diagrams are given
moment in terms of distance x for any general point Bas caused by the
by sketch (f). The solid on each end is a pyramid with a. volume equal to one­
actual loads P; MI is the bending moment at B caused by the auxiliary
10 See reference 17, Bibliography.
�­­­­­­­­­..........._...... (
130 SHAFTING Chap. 3
Sec. 16
. base by the altitude. The prismoidal equation, how­ 131
third must
ever, the solid in the middle. The calculations are as follows.
of thebeproduct The energy equation thus becomes

! X 24 X 31,280
= 250,250
EM'o = f MP�t dx
Moment M' is usually taken as 1 in­lb. Positive and negative signs must
18 (18 340
6 '
+ 4 X 20,490 + 20,050) = 361,050 be observed as indicated by Fig. 3­21(c).

!3 X 30 X 20,050 = 200,500
16. Torsion of Noncircular Shafts

Ey = 811,800 It is sometimes necessary to make a design for a shaft of noncircular

cross section. For example, the designer might have to know the torsional
y _ = 0.0206 in. stress in the rectangular cheek of a crankshaft.
­ 30,000,000
Also, miscellaneous machine parts, such as· brackets
and supports, although not shafts, are sometimes
In sol�ng problems, it is not necessary to make a sketch likde (f). kThteh.M( pJ!)::: loaded in torsion.
. .. . values can be entere on s e c e
•···.. . . . • . 1,440* used directly. It should be noted that The theory of torsion for shafts of noncircular
· -,s�oaT'T·�- each solid extends between conce�­ cross section is complicated because the assump­
R,.• l,•7.3'66
600� ,
. .. ,. ;,._4 s'4"o•
R trated loads or points where the di­ tions which are valid for circular shafts do not
fa) . 24.� T2" ameter changes. apply. Cross sections are no longer plane and per­
pendicular to the shaft axis after twisting; rather,
15. Slope of Shaft by Elastic Energy they are warped, as shown in Fig. 3­22, and the
equations for the stresses are therefore more
The slope of the shaft can also involved.
be found by elastic energy, but the ·complicated problems may be solved experi­ Fig. 3­22. Rectangular
auxiliary load must be a moment mentally by a method known as the membrane bar in torsion.
applied at the point where the slope analogy.11 A thin homogeneous membrane, such as a soap film, is stretched
is desired. Thus a moment M' is over a hole in a closed box. The hole is geometrically similar to the cross
applied to the shaf� at point in 1, section 'of the shaft being studied. The film is slightly bowed by air
Fig. 3­21. The M1 diagram IS given J:)ressure and the elevations of the resulting surface are measured. The
by Fig. 3­2f(c). Let 8 be the rota­ measurements obtained will permit the contours, or lines of uniform
tion or change of slope at A caused e•evations,,to be plotted. For example, see Fig. 3­24(c). By mathematical
analysis it can be shown that:
Slop, dt>Sttt'd P(oclval /oodl (I) The maximum shearing stress in the shaft has the same direction
P-/ood ""'"Ai VJ �s the contour line at the corresponding point in the film.
(2) The maximum shearing stress at any point is proportional to the
di" 1

F·tood ! t slope of the membrane at right angles to the contour at the corresponding
point in the film.
Mr �
(3) The torque carried by the shaft is proportional to twice the volume
� 8.
Fig. 3­20.
enclosed between the membrane and the plane of its base. .
Deflection of shaft of two diam­ · Fig. 3­21. Slope of shaft by elastic energy· Although complicated problems can be solved by taking measurements
eters. Example 16.
' on the membrane, experimental apparatus, which is rarely available to
by load P. The external work from load M' due to r9ta�io� 8_ is then�/­ the designer, is required. Nevertheless, the idea of the membr�.11� an��,ogy
The expression for internal work is the same as that derived for Eq. ( �). is Very usefulsince it gives a mental picture Of the state of'stress. Tii,e ·'°"''
Il .... ,·.
l llll.l! Seep. 266 of reference a· nd, 889 sf Hfczcaee s, Blbildgfipriy.
- ------
SHAF'fJNG Chap. :1
c 133
designer can visualise the points of greatest slope, hence greatest stress, In accordance with the foregoing, the only stresses which act O
on the bowed film, and often. by making small changes in shape, can �lem�nt at ah interior point A of the bar of Fig. :J­24(a) are those sh::
cause a reduction in stress. m Fig. 3­24(b). The maximum value of the stress occurs on the long
For example, the membrane may have a steep slope, indicating a high
stress at the internal corners of a keyway as shown in Fig. :J­23(a). The r-�--i
membrane analogy indicates that. this stress concentration can be reduced -::=f::;::

dx .
"II I(
(II} £'11/org«I •in
of""""'' ol. A
s-illlJ sfr,s,;,s. .

;Fig. 3­23. Typical cross sections of bars loaded in torsion.
. ... ��
by rounding off the bottom corners. However, as was mentioned in Sec­ (t:J Conlou, liM6
for shall of fol.
·­tion­8;­ulrte­sirth­e!keyway runs the full length of the shaft, a still greater (d)C,,,ss s,elio11 lhro,,g/1
m,m1>ro11, of (c).
stress occurs on the shaft surface at the end of the keyway.
'!'lie JD.embrane for a rectangular shaft has its greatest slope at point
A 1 in Fig. 3­23(b); hence the stress is at a maximum at this point, and not
at the corners, as is sometimes supposed. In the corner, the membrane Fig. 3­24. 'Torsion of thin, wide, rectangular shaft.
has a zero slope along both edges, indicating a zero stress.
As shown by Fig. 3.;;23(c), the volume enclosed by the membrane for a �id� b of the cross section. It can be shown that. t.he value of this stress
thin, narrow, rectangular cross section is practically the same whether is given by the following equation.
the rectangle is straight or formed into a curve. The torques carried by
either}e�tion are the same. However, a slight concentration of stress (25)
will exist on the inner side of the curved section.
The vblume enclosed by the membrane for a composite section, as in �he angular rotation between two cross sections a unit distance apart is
given by the following equation
Fig. 3;.23(d),. is approximately equal to the sum of the volumes for the
separate parts. Hence the membrane analogy permits the torque which T
81=­­­ (26)
such sections will carry to be found easily. However, a stress concentra­ 0.333Gbc3
tion will exist on the fillet in the re­entrant corner," ·
. One of the equations above should now he divided by the other, to
17. Torsion of Wide Rectangular Bar Sanrn.r = (/c8, (27)
. As was previously mentioned, a mathematical solution for the stresses Referen�e t� Eq. (1) shows that the stress in the bar shown in Fig.
in a rectangular shaft is difficult to obtain. If the bar is very wide, however, 3­24(a) is twice as great. as for a round bar of diameter c with equal angu­
the stress situation is much simplified. This is illustrated by Fig. 3­24(a), · lar deformation 81.
where it is assumed that side b of the cross section is much greater than
width c. The membrane for this shaft has the contour lines shown in 18. Torsion of Rectangular Bars, General Case
Fig. 3­24(c). These lines are practically straight and parallel to side b
for almost the entire surface. Hence, except for small regions in the ends, . When side b of the cross section is not relatively great as compared with
the shearing stress is directed parallel to side b, width c, the foregoing equations cannot be used. For the bar in Fig. 3­22,
( (
Chap. 3 Sec. 19
ti f r stress and deformation may be written in the Here fJ', {:J", and {:J"' are the {3 values for parts 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
the genera1 aqua ions o
It should be noted that the right­hand side of Eq. (b) will contain as manv
following forms:
terms as there are rectangles in the cross section under consideration. ·
_ _'!_. for point A 1, Fig. 3­23(b) The maximum value of the shearing stress occurs in the bar of greatest.
8 a1bc2
I -
width. Let this bar he No. l in Fig. 3­25. Hence, from Eq. (28),
= _'!__ for point A2, Fig. 3­23{b) Ti 81GfJ'c1
a2bc2 8,1 = ­­,
= ­­­

81 _=; -fJ�c• angular deformation, radians per in. of length (30)

Elimination of 81G between Eqs. (b) and (c) gives
· t t . and fJ have been computed for various ratios
V a1ues of the cons an s a1, a2, Tf3'c1 .
of b/c and are given in Table 3­4.

TABLE 3­4 The angular deformation per inch of length is found from Eq. (b).
Constants for Torsion of Rectangular Bars
b/c 1.00 1.20 t.50 1.75 2.00 2.50 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 10.00
00 81
= G(f3'b1c13 + {J"b2c2 + fJ"'baca• + · · ·)
L· --------�----�--
0 208 o 219 O 231 o �9 �­.·2�60.2580.267 0.282 0.2910.299 0.307 0.3120.333 As was previously mentioned, a concentration of stress exists at the
:: 0:208 0:235 0:269 0:291 o.309 o.3360.355 o.378 o.392 o.402 0.4140.421 re­entrant corners of a composite section. This factor depends upon the
fJ 0.1406 0, 1660,196 0.2140.22910.2490.263 0.2810.2910.29910.307 0.312 0.333

With the values from th� table, computations can be m.ade for the Stress Concentration Factors for Structural
Angle of Fig. 3­26•
shear stress ·at the midpoint of both the long and the �hort side�, as well
as the angular deformation, for rectangular cross sections st�rtmg from -, r/c 0.125 0.25 0.50 0.75 1
' · the square b / c = 1 to b / c = cc • The maximum shear
stress on the cross section occurs at the center A 1 of K 2.5 2.25 2.00 1.85 1.80 Fig. 3­26.
the long side, and is found by using a1. •P.A. Cushman, DMru.tion, Univel'lli\y of Michigan, 1932. angle.

19. Composite Sections radius of the fillet and the width of the bars. Experimental data are .
very limited. However, stress concentration factors for the angle iron
The membrane analogy indicates that the torsional in Fig. 3­26 are given in Table 3­5.
moment carried by a cross section consisting of a num­
Fig. 3­25. Com­
�te�tion loaded her of areas J. oined together is equal to the sum of the Example 17. Find the torque which the long piece of T­bar shown­in Fig. 3­27
in torsion. 1·
torques of the separate parts. The angle 81 app ies can carry if the maximum shearing stress at the fillet is to be
to each of the parts as well as to the whole section. Therefore, the total 12,000 psi. Approximate the stress concentration factor from
torque T for the cross section of Fig. 3­25 is equal to the sum of the torques Table 3­5.
T1, T2, and Ta for the separate parts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Hence,
Torque carried by part 1: T1 = 81GfJ'b1c13 4

� = 0.25 = 0.4
Torque carried by part 2: T2 = 81GfJ"b2C23 (a) c 0.625 ·
Torque carried by part 3: T3 = 81GfJ'"baca3 From Table 3­5: K = 2.10
Fig. 3­27. T­bar.
Addirg: T = 81G((3'b1c13 + fJ"bie2a + fJ"'baca3) (b) Stress on fillet = 12,000 psi Example 17.
( ( (
Chap. 3 Sec. 20 SHAFTING 137
136 From Table 3­4: a1 = 0.246
· ta.I bar s = = 5,710 psi
Stress on upper edge of honzon · • 2.10 Because of torque: s = __!___ ""' 366.7 = 7 45 psi
• a1bc2 0.246 X 2 X tt
� = 2.5 = 4
For horizontal bar: c 0.625 Because of transverse shear: s

X 266.7
2 X 2
= .
200 psi
a1 = 0.282 (from Table 3-4)
Hence, These shear stresses have opposite signs. The resultant, 545 psi, properly
fJ' = 0.281 (from Table 3­4)
directed, is shown in Fig. 3­16(g).
�= 2.5 = 5
For vertical bar: c 0.50
20. Materials Used for Shafting
fJ" = 0.291 (from Table 3­4)
Hence, When service requirements are not too severe, the least expensive
s,a1({J'b1C13 +
fJ"b2C23) shaft material is hot­rolled, plain­carbon steel. For maximum machin­
In Eq. (31), T = · {J'ci
ability, a normalizing or annealing treatment may be necessary to im­
5 710 x 0.282(0.281 x 2.5 x 0.6253 + 0.291 x 2.5 x 0.53) prove the grain structure and to secure uniformity. Since hot­rolled bars
' 0.281 X 0.625 as received from the mill are usually covered with scale, the shaft must
be machined all over if a smooth surface is desired.
­­­­­�­­­­­­­­­­­­= 2;400 in­lb
Cold drawn bars, in contrast, have a smooth, bright finish and have
.. · . ,.,.. J).. -
Find the stresses at points R and � at the cPntr� of _t.lw sides of
. id b t n pomts C and D m Fig. 3­16.
diameters held to tolerances of a few thousandths of an inch. This
th:e"cheek':for the cross seetion rm way e .wee material is sometimes erroneously called cold rolled "Shafting. It is avail­
, pi'"·. _.. ....
able in both plain carbon and alloy compositions, and is in wide use
SohitiJ.. ; Element at 'R: in the field of general power transmission, since the amount of machining
required is a minimum. Cold drawing improves the physical properties;
Dire.ct str.ess: 8 = 351.5 = 176 psi, compression it raises the values for tensile strength a.nd the yield point. When greater
·· accuracy is required, shafting which has been turned and ground can he
= 6M = 6 X 400 = 600 psi, tension secured from the steel warehouses.
Bending: s bh2 1 x 4
If greater strength is needed than can be secured by the use of a low­
The n:t)�nsion of 424 psi is shown acting on the element in Fig. 3­16(£). carbon steel in the as­rolled condition, a steel of somewhat higher carbon
b content can be used. After the ma.chining has been completed, the tensile
- = 2 and yield strengths and hardness can be increased by a quenching and
tempering heat treatment. To respond to quenching, the carbon con­
From Table 3­4: a�= 0.309 tent must he about 0.30 per cent or more. For forged shafts, such as are
T - 366.7 = 593 psi used in internal combustion engines and railroad cars, the carbon content
Shear stress, Eq. (29): s. = �.}Jc2 ­
x2 x 12 is usually 0.45 per cent or 0.50 per cent. A widely used steel for such ser­
This stress, properly directed, is also shown on the element in Fig. 3­l6(f). vice is plain carbon steel 1045.
Element at S: · When service conditions are more severe, or when certain desirable
physical properties are to be obtained, an alloy steel can be used. � a
As before, direct stress: 8 = 176 psi, compression rule, such steels are not used unless the part is to be heat treated, since
= 6.M = 6 X 483.� = 1 450 psi, tension·
full advantage of the expensive alloying elements can be secured only in
Bending: 8
bh2 2 x l2 • this way. When heat treated to high strength and hardness, alloy steels
are tougher, more ductile, and better adapted to shock and impact loads
The net tension of 1,274 psi is shown on the element in Fig. 3­16(g).
than are plain carbon steels. The effect of the quenching penetrates
- = 2
deeper in alloy steels than in carbon steels, and a greater volume of the
( (
part is strengthened than if the hardening were confine? to a shallow zone 3. Timoshenko, S., Theory of Elasticity. New York: McGraw­Hill Book Com­
over the surface. Alloy steels warp and distort less m heat treatment, pany, Inc., 1934.
have less tendency to crack, and have smaller residual stresses �ha� ha�e 4. Roark, Raymond J., Formulas for Stress and Strain, 2d ed. New York:
carbon steels. Although practically all the alloy steels find apphcati�n m McGraw­Hill Book Company, Inc., 1943.
the field of shafting chromium­molybdenum steel 4140, and chromium­ 5. Soderberg, C. Richard, "Factor of Safety and Working Stress," Trans.
nickel­molybdenum' steels 4340 and A8640 are in wide use as general ASME, 52(1), APM­13 (1930); also 57, A­106 (1935).
purpose alloy steels. . . . . . 6. Solakian, Arshag G., and Karelitz, George B., "Photoelastic Study of Shear­
For equal hardness, alloy steels are superior m machining q?aht1es. ing Stress in Keys and Keyways," Trans. ASME, 54, APl\I­97 (1932).
Where considerable machining is required, shop costs �an som�tu�es. be 7. Peterson, R. E., "Fatigue of Shafts Having Keyways," Proc. ASTM, 32, Part
reduced by use of a free cutting steel, such as _113�. _This n_iatenal is high II, 413 (1932).
in manganese and has a relatively high machinability rating for a heat­
8. ASME Annual Catalog and Directory.
treating alloy steel. . 9. Nordenholt, Kerr, and Sasso, Handbook of Mechanical Design. New York:
If the· service requirements demand resistance to wear rather than
McGraw­Hill Book Company, Ine., 1942.
extreme strength it is customary to harden only the surface of a shaf�.
The case hardening or carburizing process is in wide use. Carbon _is 10. Gadd, C. W., and Van DeGrift, T. C., 11 A Short­Gage­Length Extensometer
and Its Application to the Study of Crankshaft Stresses," Trans. ASME,
absorbed by a relatively thin layer while the part is held at a red heat m
64, A­15 (1942).
· ­ the furnace.LOW· carbon alloy· steels such as 4320, 4820, and A8620 are
frequ�ntly . used for carburizing. The cyaniding and nitriding processes 11. Norman C. A., and Stinson, K. W., "Angular Distortion of Crankshafts,"
are' alsQ used to produce a hard surface. Sometimes it. is necessary �o Bulktin 48, Engineering Experiment Station, Ohio State University, 1928.
focaJ.i.z'e the wear to a relatively small area. The hardening treatment is 12. Timoshenko, S., "Torsion of Crankshafts," Trans. ASME, 44, 653 (1922);
applied. to those surfaces requiring it; the remainder of the shaft is left also 45, 449 (1923).
in it!3 original condition. . . 13. Jacobsen, L. S., "Torsional Stresses in Shafts Having Grooves or Fillets,"
ASME Code B17c­1927 recommends that the working stress s,m,,.,, m Trans. ASME, 47, 619 (1925); 57, A­154 (1935).
shear be taken at 8,000 psi for "Commercial Shafting" but without �ny 14. Peterson, R. E., and Wahl, A. M., "Two­ and Three­Dimensional Cases of
definite specifications for physical and chemical properties of the material. Stress Concentration, and Comparison With Fatigue Tests," Trans. ASME,
The ultimate strength of such steels may range from 45,000 psi to 70,000 58, A­15, A­146 (1936). See also Mech. Eng., 59, 49 (1937).
psi. The corresponding elastic limits would be from 22,500 psi to 55,000 15. Seely, F. B., and Dolan, T. J., "Stress Concentration at Fillets, Holes and
psi. When there is a keyway at the section for which the stress calculations Keyways as Found by the Plaster­Model Method," Bulletin 276, University
are made the working stress is to be reduced to 75 per cent of the value of Illinois Experiment Station, 1935.
for a solid circular shaft. This reduction can be considered as making 16. Timoshenko, S., VibrationProblems in Engineering, 2d ed. New York: D. Van
allowance for both loss of section and stress concentration. Nostrand Company, Inc., 1937.
For Diesel engine crankshafts " ... we consider that 4500 is about the 17. Spotts, M. F., "Critical Speeds of Shafts," Product Engineering, 12, 20(1941).
maximum allowable vibratory stress (for continuous running). ... "12 18. Macduff, J. N., and Felgar, R. P., "Vibration Design Charts," Trans. ASME,
79, 1459 (1957).

Volume number shown in bold face type. The number immediately following is PROBLEMS
.the page on which the article begins. I. A shaft carries a torque of 30,000 in­lb at a shearing stress of 8,000 psi.
1. Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, 2d ed., Vol. 1. New York: D. Van Nos­ What is the diameter of the shaft? Ans. d = 2.673 in.
trand Company, Inc., 1940. 2. The torsional deformation of a steel shaft is to be 1 ° in a length of 2 ft when
2. Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, 2d ed., Vol. 2. New York: D. Van Nos­ the shearing stress is equal to 10,000 psi. Find the diameter of the shaft.
Ans. d = 2.392 in.
trand Company, Inc., 1941.
12 See Spaetgens, T. W., "Holzer Method for Forced­Damped Torsional Vibra­ 3. Suppose it is specified that the deflection at the center of a simply sup­
tions," Trans. ASME, 72, APM 59 (1950). ported shaft under its own weight should not exceed 0.010 in. per foot of span.
( ( (
(a) Find the maximum permissible span for a 3 in. diameter steel shaft.
(b) Find the stress caused by its own weight when the span length is deter­ ,
t b) Repeat (a) for the element at B. Take into account the transverse shear
for this location.
(c) Find the value of the maximum shear stress for the element at A for
mined as in part (a). Am. l = 13 ft; s = 2,300 psi.
steady loads and a. rotating shaft by ASME Code. Ans. (c) 6,630 psi.
4,. The bent bar ABC DE in Fig. 3­28 lies in the horizontal plane and is simply
supported at A and E. Angles at Band Dare 90° each. Draw a view of the ele­ 9. Work Problem 8 using Fig. 3­31 but with the length of the shaft not given.
ment lying on the top surface midway between C and D and show thf' values of Find the value of length l which "';11 make the maximum value of the shear stress
the stresses. Mark the CD direction on your sketch. Dia. = 2 in. at both elements equal. Take into aceount the t.rnniavc•r1<l',1<hPar. Thi, loads are
Ans. s = 1,590 psi; s, = 3,820 psi. steady and the shaft is nonrotating. A.ns. 7.05 in.
IO. The shaft of Fig. 3­32 dOl'ia not. rotate, and is simply supported at A and B.
The element at C is on the top surface; the element at /J is at the elevation of the
· shaft axis.
A (a) Draw a view of the element at C with sides parallel and perpendicular
to the shaft axis; show arrows representing stresses, together with numerical
(b) Draw a view for the element at C, properly oriented with respect to
the shaft axis, which has the maximum shearing stress. Shon· arrows and numeri­
Fie. 3­28. Problem 4. Fig. 3­29. Problem 5. cal values for all stresses acting.
·­­­c­c­­�­­­·­ ­­·· ..... (e) Work (b) for the element at D. Ans. (b) s,mqr = 9,180 psi.
�6i�ak�afr�body diagram for the unit consisting of shaft AB and disk C,
seeljg. ,�,,"and ilhoWc allforces and torques necessary for equilibrium. Coefficient
offri��i911.�:.,{;0·�:;§\.lfli,ci�11t force is exerted between the disks to develop the full
coeffibie11.�;,�f,,!�9�on,. The entire torque is carried by the torque reaction at A.
Fol'Ce l'.�tio#s �iapplied at the bearings as shown.
< ... i·1· ,; .. >·t\·:\i/i,:l\? ;://•;/_;., ,�;'_·
· ·�.�. ­� ���y�1ie of dimension b in Fig. 3­30 that causes the slope of the shaft
to � iero ·i.:i:t�� �lll'ings. Ans. b = 40 in.
1� (a)i�;)y �.�equation for combined stress and find the value of the maxi­
mum shearings,a:,�for.the element at A in Fig. 3­2. Fig. 3­32. Problem 10. Fig. 3­33. Problem 11.
(b) If this shaft rotates, find the value of the maximum shearing stress by
the ASME Code. · Ana. (a.) 6,150 psi; (b} 6,630 psi.
ll. The shaft of Fig. 3­33 is simply supported at A and B and is keyed against
rotation at A.
(a) Draw a view of the element on the top surface of the shaft at B with
sides parallel to the x- and y­axes. Show arrows and numerical values for all
stresses acting.
(b) Draw the element at B properly oriented to give the maximum shearing
A II b stresses. Show arrows and numerical values for all stresses.
60" 60"
Ans. (b) s, = 12,010 psi.
Fia. 3­30. Problem 6 Fie. 3­31. "
Problems 8 and 9.
· 12. Resistance­wire strain gages giving deformations at 45° with the shaft axis
ai:e a�tached at A and Bin Fig. 3­34. Lead wires are carried from the gages through
8. Element at A in Fig. 3­31 is located on the bottom of the shaft· element at slip nngs and brushes to electric instruments, which permit the deformations to be
B is at the elevation of the shaft a.xis. ' , ., . determined. The shaft carries torque only. Find its value if the elongation at A in
'(a) Compute the value of the bending and shear stresses in directions \�g,}�.direction is 0.0006 in.fin. positive, and if elongation at B in the y'­direction is
parallel and perpendicular to the shaft axis for element at A. Draw a view of the ­ i\f�,,:�� same amount but negative. Draw a view of the element with sides parallel to
element showing stress arrows and mark the value of each. Compute the value -,�,:i- and y­axes and show stresses acting. Also draw a view for the element
of the maximum shearing stress for this location on the shaft. Loads are steady "�'sides parallel to x' and y'­axes µ ­e­ } E = 30,000,000 psi. .
,,.,, Ans, T = 21,200 in­lb
and the shaft does not rotate.
( (
142 SHAFI'ING Chap. 3 SHAFTING 143
21. What is the ratio of the weight of the hollow shaft per unit length to the
x weight of the solid for the foregoing values of X? Ans. 0.783, 0.744, and 0.702.
22. Find the required shaft diameter (a) by the maximum shear theory, and
(b) by the Mises­Hencky theory for the following conditions. The torque varies
from zero to 12,000 in­lb. The bending moment varies from 6,000 to 10,000 in­lb.
Fig. 3­34. Problem 12. Fig. 3­35. Problem 13. Stress concentration due to fillet for both bending and torque is equal to 2.5.
The shaft does not rotate. The material tests s.,u = 60,000 psi and 811, =
13. Find the permissible weight of the flywheel in Fig. 3­35 if the value of the 40,000 psi. Assume s, = 0.5su11 and s,1111 = 0.5s,,,. The factor of safety equals 2
maximum shearing the shaft is to be 9,000 psi. The shaft rotates and based on yield point. Ans. (a) 2.48 in., (b) 2.43.
carries a steady torque of 40,000 in­lb. Use ASME Code. Ans. W = 1,600 lb.
23. The belt tensions for the pulleys of Fig. 3­40 fluctuate from the values
14. How much torque will the shaft of Fig. 3­36 carry if the maximum shearing shown in (a) to those given in (b). Details of shaft. and hubs are shown in (c).
stress is not to exceed 8,000 psi? Loads are steady and the shaft rotates. Use Consider the stress concentration as being due to fillets only. Material tests
ASME Code. Ans. T = 5,600 in­lb. s1111 = 69,000 psi and Sutt = 104,000 psi. Let s, = 0.5 s�u, and s,1111 = 0.5 s1111•
Let D/d = 1.33 and r/d = 0.125. The factor of safety is 1.9 based on yield point.

ttf f��i!��W:;1�.�;�q�/;A!:
Fig. 3­37. Problem 15. Fig. 3­38. Problem 16.
(ti} (bl

i f�
J�/'.·��i��;�.�,,· 3­38 carries a torque of 50,000 in­lb. How large a hole
ma;:iitJe qrill�·�. J{lithe shaft so that the maximum shearing stress does not
exceedl(),, · '··' are steady and the shaft rotates. Use ASME Code.
Ans. 1.92 in.
17. A holl ., . .'>f i a hole of diameter Xd, where dis the outside diameter of Fig. 3­40. Problem 23.
the sh�t� �'1.,:.... :.�'.{l,PJ?ropriate constant. Show that the equation for the shear­
ing stress by the �ME Code will be the same as Eq. (14) except that factor Draw and dimension the bending moment diagram. Find the value of d (a)
(1 - X 4) Mil. ap0 in the denominator on the right­hand side. by the maximum shear theory, and (b) by the Mises­Hencky theory. Include
18 •. Wh�t .diatn��r hollow �haft is required to ­carry� bending moment of the deJl,d weight of the pulleys. Ans. (a) 2.14 in., (b) 2.29 in.
16,200 in,lb together with a torque of 40,000 in­lb if the diameter of the hole is 24. Solve Problem 13, Fig. 3­35, by the maximum shear theory. Let the shaft
equal to 0 •.6 of the outside diameter of the shaft? Loads are steady and the shaft be of uniform diameter, but let it have a keyway at the flywheel of the usual pro­
rotates.Maximum s�earing stress equals 10,000 psi. Ans. d = 3.014 in. portions with a stress concentration factor of 1.35. Let s, = 0.6s1111 for the shaft
19. Determine the required diameter f�r the hollow . material, Take working stress equal to 90 per cent of the value for the shaft
r shaft of Fig. 3­39 having a hole diameter 0.6 as great without a keyway. Ans. W = 640 lb.
as the shaft diameter. The maximum shear stress is 25. A 2t in. diameter shaft is made of 4140 steel normalized and tempered at
24• to be 12,000 psi. The shaft rotates and loads are 1� F. The shaft rotates and carries a steady 2,500 lb load at the center of a 40 in.
steady. Use ASME Code. Ans. d = 1.982 in. sunply supported span. Average torque is 20,000 in­lb. Assume T, = O.lT.,•• Let
20. A hollow shaft has a hole of diameter Xd., Ir.= K, = 1.7, and Bo = 0.5s.,11. On the basis of (a) the maximum shear theory
Fig. 3­39. Problem 19. where d, is the outside diameter and X is a constant. and (b) the Mises­Hencky theory, find the FS for this shaft.
Find the value of the ratio of d; to the diameter d of Ans. (a) FS = 2.07, (b) FS = 1.75.
a solid shaft for equal shearing stresses caused by the same torques for values of 26. A 2! in. diameter shaft has a key 0.625 by 0.625 in. The shaft material tests
X of 0.5, 0.55, and 0.6. Ans. d./ d = 1.022, l .033, and 1.047. 60,00o psi at _yield point. Let s,,,j, =• The factor ­of .safety ,equals 2. The
( (
144 SHAFTING Chap. 3 SHAI<'TING 145
shaft fits into a cast­iron hub for which the working stress in compression is 33. The shaft in Fig. 3­44 is simply supported at A and I) but is keyed against
18,000 psi. What length of key in the hub material will be required to carry the rotation at both points.
torque of the solid shaft? The key material is assumed to be amply strong. {a) Find reactions at the ends, and draw a view of the element at Bon the
Ans. 6.55 in. .. top surface of the shaft. Show all stresses acting and their numerical values.
27. A 3 in. diameter shaft of material with a yield point value of 50,000 psi has (b) Compute the value of the maximum shearing stress atB and the angle
a 0.75 X 0.75 X 5 in. key. What must the minimum yield point value be for the at which it acts. Make a view of the element properly oriented showing maximum
material in the key in order to transmit the torque of' the shaft'? The factor of shearing stresses acting as well as the normal stresses on all faces.
safety equals 2. s,,p = 0.5s,P. Ans. 47,100 psi. Ans. (a) Sz = 13,240 psi; Bzu = 3,060 psi.
28.-A- square ­key ­has­a diameter equal to oue­Iourth of the shaft diameter. 34. The shaft in Fig. 3­45 is simply supported at A and C, but is keyed against
The shaft and key are of materials which are equally strong with a yield point rotation. Draw and dimension the bending moment diagram, and find all reac­
value in shear equal to one­half the yield point value in tension. Find the required tions at the ends.
length of the key in terms of shaft diameter necessary to transmit the shaft Find the resultant stress from all causes for the elements on the top surface of
torque. Ans. l = 1.57d. the shaft at D and F. Do the same for the elements at E and G at the elevation
29. A 3 in. diameter shaft is transmitting 400 hp at 600 rpm. A solid coupling of the center line. Draw sketches for the elements with arrows properly directed
similar to that shown in Fig. 3­13 has 6 bolts each f: in. in diameter. Find the for the stresses and show numerical values.
requireddia�eterof the bolt circle based on an average shearing stress of 4,000 '. Ans. At D, e, = 3,060 psi; s = 9,170 psi.
psi in.the bolts." Ans. Pia. = 7.93 in. At E, s, = 3,230 psi; s = 0.
,.­ ·.'­"'."::.:­,··.·.
. ··

Fig. 3­45. Problem 34. Fig. 3­46. Problem 35.

Fig. 3-41. . Problem 30. Fig. 3­42. Problem 31.

30. Make the horizontal and vertical load and moment diagrams for the shaft 35. The shaft of Fig. 3­46 is built in at A and D. Find the value of the torque
shown in Fig. 3­41. Find the location and value of the minimum bending moment reactions at the ends. Ans. · 39,230 in­lb; 60,770 in­lb.
in the shaft for the portion lying between the left pulley and the right bearing. 36. The shaft of Fig. 3­47 is built in at A and D. Find the value of the torque
Ans. Min. M = 17,050 in­lb for x = 7.88 in. reactions at' A and D. Ans. 21,706 in­lb; 78,294 in­lb.
31. Repeat Problem 30 for the shaft in Fig. 3­42. The minimum moment should
be for the portion between the two pulleys. ­
Ans. Min. M = 10,540 in­lb for x = 19.96 in.
32. The shaft shown in Fig. 3­43 is fixed at the ends. Find the reactions at the
ends and the stresses in each portion of the shaft. Draw views of the elements
A (0001: l(:;,,,°:nuous 11:'°lb
for each portion and show the stresses acting. Ans. s, = 17,190 anr1'9,550 psi. R1 c Re IJ
S6• 24• 24• 36'

Fig. 3­47. Problem 36. Fig. 3­48. Problem 37.

37. (a) Find the reactions, and draw and dimension the bending moment dia­
gram for the shaft of Fig. 3­48. All bearings are on immovable supports at the
same elevation. Include the effect of the dead load of the shaft. For the shaft,
.l!'ig. 3­43 Problem 32 Fig. 3­44. Problem 33. E = 30,000,000 psi; 'Y = 0.283 lb/in."
_____.. .. _
( (
(b) Find the valu� of the reactions if the bearing at C is -l in. lower than (b) Suppose an additional bearing is placed in the center of the shaft.
the others. Include the effect of the dead load of the shaft. Find the reactions, and draw and dimension the bending moment diagram. Ignore
(e) Let the center support consist of a 6 in. I­beam, 12.5 lb per ft (I = 21.8 the effect of the dead­load deflection. Note how the presence of the central bearing
in.'), 12 ft long, simply supported with bearing Cat its center. Find the reactions can affect the bearing loads of an engine crankshaft.
for the shaft, and draw and dimension the bending moment diagram. Neglect Ans. (b) Reactions; 427 lb downward, 854 lb upward, 427 lb downward.
effects of the dead loads.
(d) 'What must the moment of inertia be for a beam supporting the bearing
at C if the value of the bending moments, as caused by the 1,000 lb loads, at points·
B, C, and D, are to be equal? What will be the deflection of point C? Neglect
effects ofthedesd lo!Uls; ­­ ­ Ans. (a) R1 = 253 lb; R2 = 1,734 lb. 5• to:
(b) Rt = 460 lb; R2 = 1,320 lb.
(c) Rt = 398 lb; R! = 1,204 lb. Fig. 3­51. Problem 40. fig. 3­52. Problem 41.
(d) I = 123 in.' 41. Find the lowest critical speed for the steel shaft shown in Fig. 3­52.
38. (a) What moment of inertia would be required for the center beam of Fig. Ans. ncr = 1,700 rpm.
3­49 if the bending moments for the shaft, as caused by the 1,000 lb loads, at 42. The static deflection at the center of the steel shaft in Fig. 3­53 is equal to
points BJC; and D, are to be numerically equal? Neglect effects of the dead loads. 0.0125 in. Find the value of the critical speed. Ans. n.,. = 1,900 rpm.
(I)}If.a.II three beams are 8 in. I­beams, 18.4 lb per ft, find the three bearing
120"' 20•
reactions, ani(draw the bending moment diagram for the shaft. Neglect effects
of the dead loads. ­­ · A c B
"\;�_':::.. .. Ans. (a) I = 90.2 in.' ts: 2<1" ,s· 24• ,s•
(b) R1 = 278 lb; R! = 1,443 lb.
Fig. 3­53. Problem 42. Fig. 3­54. Problem 43.

43. Find the value of the critical speed for the shaft of Fig. 3­54.
Ans.· n.,. = 617 rpm.
44. Find the value of the critical speed for the shaft in Fig. 3­55.
a-750 lb Ans. n., = 426 rpm.

A C 8-
= oo« l,600•
. 3" 6•I@l2.5lb 1•d,a. l2"dtQ
fI•2lBln."J , ..... �
't l

24" se: 24• I ,s· ,s· I l

Fig. 3­49. Problem 38. Fig. 3­50. Problem 39.
F:ig. 3­55. Problem 44. Fig. 3­56. Problem 45.
39, Bearings A and Bin Fig. 3­50 rest on unyielding supports. The bearing at 45. Find the deflection at the load and the slope at the end for the shaft shown
C is located at the center of a simply supported 6 in. I­beam 12 ft long. Ignore in Fig. 3'­56. Ans. u: = 0.0593 in.: 0 = 0.132°.
the effects of the dead loads.
46. Find the deflection at the load and the slope at the left end of the shaft in
(a) Find reactions at A, B, and C.

r '
Fig. 3­57. Ans. y = 0.0136 in.; 0 = 0.050°,
(b) If the bearing at C is resting on an unyielding support, find the three

reactions. 600,;
� . I, : 4m.4
(c) What change in elevation of bearing C of part (b) must be made if
bending moments in the shaft at load and at C are to be numerically equal? ,s· ,s·
20· ,2· 30•
Ans. (a) R. = 322 lb; R. = 533 lb; Rb = 105 lb downward.
(b) R. = 281 lb; R, = 656 lb; Rh= 187 lb downward. Fig. 3­57. Problem 46. Fig. 3­58. Problem 47.
(c) 0.039 in. higher. 47, In Fig. 3­58, find the value of load p if the slope at the left bearing is 0.25°.
40. A rotating shaft has the 1,000 lb centrifugal forces acting as shown in Ans. P = 776 lb.
Fig. 3­51. O', 48\'.Find the torque which a long piece of 3 X 3 x t in. angle iron can carrv
(a) Draw the bending moment diagram for the shaft. Note that large �f the maximum shearing stress at the fillet is 12,000 psi. The radius of the fillet
stresses are possible, even though bearing reactions are equal to zero. is 0.5 in. Ans. T = 2,880 .in-Ib,
49. (a) What percentage more torque will a square she.ft carry than a round (b) Find the value of the maximum shearing stress due to torque.
shaft of the same diameter if both have the same unit stress? (c) Find the angular rotation of the bracket in degrees.
(b) If the cost per pound is the same, what will be the percentage increase Ans. e, = 10,450 psi; ,p = 0.416°.
in cost of the square over the round shaft? Am. (a) 5.9%; (b) 27.3%.
50. Two pieces of shafting have the cross sections shown in Fig. 3­59. If the
shear stress in the two shafts are equal, find the ratio between the torques which
the shafts are carrying. Approximate the stress concentration factor for the shaft
of (a) from Table 3­5.
Whatwill­be­the­r­atiobetween the angular displacements if the applied torques
are equal? Ans. 7.23; 8.04.
Fig. 3­63. Problem 54. Fig. 3­64. Problem 55.

55. (a) Make an isometric drawing of the crankshaft shown in Fig. 3­64, and
· place all reactions thereon which are necessary for equilibrium.
' (b) Cheek CD is rectangular in cross section, 2 in. wide in the z­direction,
and 3 in. deep in the z­direction. Cut the cheek midway between C and D, and
ll' show all forces and moments acting on the cut surface.
t,ooo* (e) Draw the element at R lying at the midpoint of the top surface of the
l'ig/3'­59. Problem 50. Fig. 3­60. Problem 51. cheek with sides parallel to the coordinate axes, and show all stresses acting. Mark
\:·':­_­'.. .:' directions of the axes on the sketch.
51. The.rictangular shaft in Fig. 3­60 is fixed at the wall. (d) Repeat (e) for the element at Sat the center of the near side vertical
(a) Cut the shaft at a point 2 in. from the wall, remove the portion to the surface of the cheek.
right, and show all forces and moments on the end surface of the part that remains. (e) Suppose the loading consists of a force of 3,000 lb in the xy­plane acting
(b) Find thestresses from all ea uses 011 au element at A. at the center of the to the left at A parallel to the y­axis. Find the bearing reactions for the shaft. Cut
top surface of the shaft at the cut. Take sides of the element parallel to the coor­ the cheek midway between C and D, and show all forces and moments acting on
dinate axes. the cut surface.
(c) Repeat (b) for an element ut B at the center of the vertical side of the (f) Draw the element at R showing all stresses acting.
cut on the near side. Ans. At A, s. = 1,550 psi; s = 3,330 psi. (g) Draw the element at S showing all stresses acting.
52. Work Problem 51, using Fig. 3­60, with the same data and dimensions Ans. (c) B = 4,667 psi; s, = 3,717 psi.
except that shaft is now oriented as shown in Fig. 3­61. (d) s = O; s, = 5,329 psi.
Ans. At B, s. = 2,020 psi; s = 2.500 psi. of
56. The stroke the air compressor shown in Fig. 3­65 is 3 in., and the length
of the connectini rod is 5 in. Crank cheek CD is circular in cross section and is 1 in.
­in diameter. If the torsional shearing stress in the cheek is equal to 12,000 psi, find
f:be value of the gas force on the piston. Ans. Gas force = 3,320 lb.

Fig. 3­61. Problem 52. Fig. 3­62. Problem 53.

53._ If the torque applied to a long bar having the cross section shown in Fig.
3­62 is equal to 5,000 in­lb, find the value of the maximum shearing stress.
Ans. s, = 5,760 psi.
54. The beam_ shown in Fig. 3­63 is simply supported but is keyed at the ends
to prevent rotation.
(a) Find all rPaetio1u; at. tlu­ l'IHli<. Fi1. 3­65. Problem
( (
57. (a) The bore of the air compreesor of Fig. 3­66 is 4 in., and the stroke is 6 in. in a horizontal plane. Ignore the effect of bending in cranks. The material is steel.
The value of the air pressure is 300 psi gage for a crank angle of 45°. The length Ans. o = 0.146 in.
of the rod is 11 in. Axes x, y, and z are mutually perpendicular. The shaft is turned
by a pure torque applied at the right bearing as shown. Make sketches similar to
Figs. 3­16(b), (d), and (e) for this problem, and place the value of all necessary
forces and moments thereon.
(b) The cheek is -l in. wide in the z­direction and If in. deep in the a­direc­
tion. Make an enlarged sketch for the element with sides parallel to the e- and
y­axes lying at the center of the top surface of the cheek. Show all stresses acting .
. ­{c)­­Repeat_(b}.for.the element lying at the center of the right vertical side
of the cheek. Ans. (b) s = 15,370 psi; s. = 5,060 psi.
(e) s = 6,990 psi; s, = 7,910 psi.
Fig. 3­68. Problem 60. Fig. :l­69. Problem 61.
compressor has the crank mechanism shown in Fig. 3­67.
mutually perpendicular. The bore is 4 in.; stroke is 5 in.;
61. Find the deflection of the weight in Fig. 3­69. The shaft and beam lie in
9 in. For a crank angle of 30° the air pressure is 100 psi gage.
horizontal planes, and are built in at the walls. Bending in crank and shaft is
negligible, as is the extension in link connecting the members together. All joints
'are frictionless. The material is steel. Ans. o = 0.244 in.
62. Work Problem 61 but with the connection between the end of the c�ank
and the beam replaced by a flexible member with a spring rate equal to 16,000
lb/in. Ans. o = 0.309 in.
63. Find the three reactions for the shaft in Fig:. 3­70. Assume the effect of the
dead­load deflection of the beam to be negligible.
· Ans. 13wl/16; 33wl/16; wl/8
. 64. If reactions R1, R2, and R3 of Fig. 3­70 have values of 15wl/16, 27wl/16, and
3�l/8, respectively, find the amount that support R2 is lower than R1 and R3•
}gnore the effect of dead­load deflection of the shaft. Ans. o � wl4/6El.
Fig. 3­67. Problem 58.

The beltsare perpendicular to the axis OB of the cylinder. The tight­side tension
is three, tilnee iliat of the slack side.
Make sketches similar to Figs. 3­16(b), (c), (d), and (e) for this problem, and
place �II necessary forces and moments thereon. . Fig. 3­70. Problems 63 and 64. Fig. 3­71. Problem 65.
Ans. Axial force, F,, = 322 lb;
t:65. The three supports in Fig. 3­71 are all at the same elevation. Ignore the
Transverse shear, F. = 698 lb.
load of the shaft. Find the values of the three reactions.
Moment, M,. = 1,080 in­lb. 5�
.: Ans. R1 = 175 lb, down; R2 = 680 lb, up; Ra = 495 lb, up.
Torque, M,, = 797 in­lb.
Moment, M. = 1,549 in­lb. ·h66. The three supports in Fig. 3­72 are all at the same elevation. Ignore the
load of the shaft. Find the values of the three reactions.
59. An air compressor has a crank arrangement similar to that sh'i)wn in Fig.
Ana. R1 = 422 lb, down; R2 = 1,063 lb, up; Ra= 359 lb, up.
:3'­16. The stroke is 4 in. and length of the rod is 7 in. The crank cheek is circular
m c�oss sectio�, and is 1 in. in diameter. Distance AC is equal to 1} in. If the
torsional shearing stress at the midlength of the cheek is equal to 10,000 psi for 1,000�
a crank angle of 30°, find the value of the gas force on the piston.
Ans. Gas force = 2,792 lb. 30" ,o·
�·_Find.the defl�ction of the weight in Fig. 3­68. The bending moments are 'ft
neghg1ble smce bearings are located close to the crank arms. Shafts and cranks lie ig. 3­72. Problem 66. Fig. 3­73. Problem 67.
( (
-, (
SHAFTING Chap. 3 8HAF'l'ING 153
67. The center bearing in Fig. 3­73 rests on an immovable support. End bear­ 73. A Diesel locomotive weighing 250.000 lb iia carried by four axles like thos«
ings rest on structural beams with _the spring rates s�own. For the shaft, EI = shown in Fig. 3­76. The material has a yield point of 48,000 psi and an endurance
7,200,000 lb in." Find the load earned by on end bearing. .4ns. 391 lb. limit of 34,000 psi. Assume the locomotive is running on a straight level track.
68. Bearings A and B in Fig. 3­74 rest on immovable s�pports. The ?earing Let th_e torque _in the shaft be determined from the tractive effort equal to the
u.t c rests on an I­beam. with .a spring rate of ,j,000 lb per m, The shaft rs steel. coefficient of friction of 0.3 times the weight equally distributed to all wheels.
· Find the values of the bearing reactions. An.�. R3 = 295 lb. Assume the torque fluctuates plus and minus 10 per cent each way from the mean
· value. Wheel diameter is 40 in. If the stress concentration factor for the wheel seat
The following problems are presented without answers. fillet is 1.5, find the factor of safety for this point by the maximum shear theory
of failure.v'

0 c

1-J"rot/. wllHI •rot li/1'1 _

15" R.J
Fig. 3­74. Problem 68.

69.:,:wQf�i;�,blem 19 except with the 10 in. dimension as 12 in. and 18 in. 4'-11" WIIHI 1,,- ,.,,
WhHI .rot

like that in Fig. 3­45 except that the 12 in. length becomes F'ig. 3­76. Problem 73.
length becomes 7 in. Mark numerical values for all the reae­
.praw and dimension the bending moment diagram for the 74. Find the deflection at point A in Fig. 3­77. Consider the bearings as simple

•i#Jl,;37(c) but with only one pulley, on the right, present. Find soo',.
t,'Cring loads.
�x�li,<>ws a jet engine shaft with two overhung turbine wheels
. .. 1

l�· · However, due to vertical acceleration, the shaft loading 2"tlio.sfttl

to: 12· .JO" f so: so:
d be considered as ten times as great. In addition, because I

of turniri , .. . ·. ·,· .. , ...• ,., .•..• opic effect of the wheels is sufficient to apply a moment of Fig. 3­77 Problem i4. Fig. 3­78. Problem 75.
89,000,in�Ib§,th!�.d of the shaft. The engine develops 16,500 hp at 11,000 rpm.
Find the ya:)�f�f:,tli� Inaximum shearing stress in the shaft for the loading de­ 75. In Fig. 3­78 tlu­ end hPal'ings rest on immovable supports. Tlu­ st<�et shaft.
scribed ahQ�e;if · · ·· I = 4 in. 4 The heam is!) ft long, simplv supported, with the bearing at the center,
I = 18 in. 4 Find th!' !waring load :1 t A.
, �-:(i:.·r·' ·;eO>
76. The numerical values for the bending moments at B, C, and D in Fig. 3­7!1
are equal. Find tlw diffen•n,·p in Plf'v11tion between the lwaring at rand those a t
• A and E. ·

5.41 u,.
Fig. 3­7!l. Problem 7fi. Fig. 3­80. Prohlem ii .

. \ 77. _The shaft of Fi:.;. :t-80 has th!' heal'.i111,1; rt­nctions shown. Find the change in
· .e_evation of thl' ,·ent,.r !waring with l'i·sp,·,·t to those at the ends.
Fi11;. 3­75. Problem 7'!..
. (�• See Petersen, L., and Moreau, R. A., General Mot<,rs Engineering Journal, 22
Seo Lewis, R. W., General Motor>< Hnyi.neeriny Journal, May­June, 40 ()!)55). ay­June 1955).
( (
154 SHAFTING Chap. 3

73, Show that the deflection at the center of the shaft of Fig. 3­81 is given by
the following equation.

= _!_ (4aJ + !!_ (Ba' + 4ab + l2)]

y 24E 11 I�

·. J .
Fig. 3­81. Problem 78.


WHEN flexibility or deflection in a mechanical system is specifically

desired, some form of spring can be used. Otherwise, the elastic deforma­
tion of an engineering body is usually a disadvantage. Springs are
employed to exert forces or torques in a mechanism or to absorb the
energy of suddenly applied loads. Springs frequently operate with high

Initially canrtf
• orBrll�ilr Sp,ra/ Ri11_9 Vo/vi,

Ji'ig. 4­1. Various types of springs.

values for the working stresses, and with loads which are continuously
, , , Helical and leaf springs are in widest use. A number of other typ�1
, '. such as Belleville disk spiral ring and volute springs are shown m
Fig. 4­1. ' ' ' '
F<>r design theories of such spring reference 3, Bibliography,
(­. i_:_·c·
:­:: .
SPRINGS Chap. 4 Sec. 1 SPRINGS 157
A, Area N, number of active coils After being coiled into the helix, the cross sections have an additional
c1, spring index P, load stress from the transverse shear. An exact analysis shows that this stress
d, diameter of wire fl, mean radius ol helix at the midhe.ight has the value l.23P / A. Then
FS, factor of safety Su,,, yield point stress in tension
E, modulus of elasticity su11, ultimate tensile stress . P l6PR 0.615
G, modulus of elasticity in shear .1., shearing stress Transverse shearmg stress = 1.23 -A = -d, X -- (b)
7r C1
1, moment of inertia s,11,., yield point stress in shear
J, polar moment of inertia 11.',, endurance limit in shear, zero 2R
to maximum stress where C1 = - (I)
K., stress concentration factor due to d
· ­curvature ­­­­�­­­­­ .. '1', torque
k, spring rate a, (delta) deflection of helical spring The total shearing stress s, on the inside of the coil at the rnidheight.
from static load Pis given by the sum of Eqs. (a) and (b).
1. Helical Springs e, = !6_!}! (1 + 0.6_!5) ­, (2)
7rd3 Ci
The equations for the stress and deformation of a closely coiled helical
spring are derived directly from the corresponding equations for the J3y substitution of Eq. (J ), this equation assumes the forms

s. = �P�1
(i + Q�6_15) Ci

s, = �Pc13 ( I + 0.61_§) (4)

1rR2 Ci

The deflection of the spring can be found by considering the rotation

of the cross sections with respect to each other caused by the torque PR.
Assume temporarily that element ABCD in Fig. 4­'.l(b) is flexible, but
that the remainder of the spring is rigid. Thus, from Eq. (5), Chapter 3,
the rotation d.p of section CD with respect to the adjacent cross section
AB is equal to
d<{) = ­­­
. Fig. ,i­2. Helical spring formed from round h .. r.
This rotation of the differential length of the spring causes point E, lo­
cated 909 away, to be moved an amount equal to
torsion of a round bar, as shown in Fig. 4­2(a). The bar of length land
diameter dis fitted with brackets at each end of length R, and is in equi­ PR2 di
do = R dir = ­­­­­
librium under the action of the loads P. Assume that the :­­trnigtt bar is .!G
bent into the helix of N coils of radius H as shown in Fig. 4­2(b). The The total deflection caused by the torque when the entire spring is elastic
coiled bar is in equilibrium under the action of the two equal and opposite is found hy integration of this equation over the entire length of the
forces P. spring.
The stress in the straight bar is shear caused by a torque equal to Pl»,
The principal stress in the helix is also torsional shearing stress. From PWL ti4PH3N (5)
Eq. (2) of the preceding chapter, the stress in Fig. 4­2 is io »c
· Tr IUPR The last form of Eq. (5) is obtained by substituting the equivalent values
T_ orsional shearing stress = --.1--- = 1rr1=1 (a1 for I and J. .

f' :_ .• "01•­ ­­­­­­­­�­­­­ ­­­ ,.._ ­­­­­­­­­­

( (
SPRINGS Chap. 4 Sec. 3 SPRINGS 159
Substitution of Eq. (1) causes the equation above to assume the addi­ buckling loads can be made, but the theory is beyond the scope of this
tional forms:
2. Effect of End Tums for Compression Springs

An equation for the spring rate k, or the force required for a deflection Several different types of end turns used for helical compression springs
of one inch, can be had by considering Fig. 4­2(c). are shown in Fig. 4­3. The equations are derived for springs assuming
that the loading is axial­a condition difficult to secure in practice. The
P1 P2 P2 - P1 (7)
·········k·= - = - =--- end coils produce an eccentric application of the load, increasing the
ll1 ll2 ll2 ­ s.
stress on one side of the spring. Under certain conditions, especially
Another equation­for k can be had from Eqs. (5) and (6) by replacing where the number of coils is small, this effect must be taken into account. 2
P by k and ll by unity.
d4G dG GR
k = 64R3N = 8c13N = 4c14N (S)

Example ·i.
A, helical compression spring is made from 0.225 in. diameter (olSquor,d and ground (or forpd} ,nds. (bl Squor,d or ctos,d 11nds. Not gfOl/nd.
· cwire,­and­­lta.s­can­ou:tside­coil diameter of 2 in. There are 8.6 active coils. Find
the,sta · cloi(dt\hat will cause a shearing stress of 50,000 psi. Find the deflection
oftl{ ::t;,'?'\f ''' · J.­�
, St>)�i��]i¥,N;f\1 R = ­l(2.0 ­ 0.225) = 0.8875 in.
,··, :�'!:�..:.}'' ;;
;1, (c} Ploln tlnds. (di Plain t1ntls orounrf

-_.- . = 2R = 2 X 0.8875 =

Fig. 4­3. Types of end turns used for compression springs.

<:i . d 0.225 7 . 89

cij?:I(�;cm= 1��:;5 (1 + ��;:) = 428P

The nearest approach to an axial load is secured by the spring shown in

By�: Fig. 4­3(a), where the end turns are s juared and then ground perpen­
dicular to the helix axis.
'.!:�� : _ t,= 116.9 lb
Equation (5) for the deflection requires the use of the proper number
"�·· .
lj = 64 X 116.9 X 0.88753 X 8.6 = 1.526 in. of active coils N. A deduction must be made from the total number of
By Eq. (5): _ i_·_
coils to take care of the turns at the ends which do not affect the deflec­
0.2254 X 11,500,000
ii tion. It is impossible to say definitely just how much this deduction
No allowance is_i;nade in the design for stress conce_ntration because of curva­
ture caused by loads which are static or by loads which may fluctuate only a :'1­
­... g
should be. However, an average value for the number of active coils,
small number of times during the expected life of the spring. based on experimental results, is found by deducting 1.75 turns from the
total number, tip to tip, when both ends are squared and ground as shown
The average value of G for steels used for springs is equal to U,500,000 in Fig. 4­3(a). For plain ends, Fig. 4­3(c), the deduction from the total
psi. turns should be approximately one­half turn; and for plain ends ground,
Torsion bar springs similar to Fig. 4­2(a) are sometimes used. For Fig. 4­3(d), the deduction should he one turn.
example, the springs of motor buses can be arranged to run longitudinally
along the sides of the bus beneath the floor. 3. Properties of Spring Materials
If a helical compression spring is relatively long as compared with
its diameter, danger of column action or lateral buckling may exist at
>: Helical springs are either cold formed or hot formed depending on the
size of the wire. Small sizes are wound cold, but when the bar has a diam­
loads smaller than the desired working load. Sometimes it is practical to
eter larger •han about -i in., the spring is wound from a heated bar.
prevent the buckling of a long compression spring by placing it over a I
loosely fitting bar or in a tube, which serves as a guide. Calculations for See}>. 159 of reference 3, Bibliography.
( (
160 SPRINGS Chap. 4 Sec. 3 SPRINGS 161
Three types of materials, as given in Table 4­1, are in wide use for the yield point stress in torsion. 3 A factor of safety of 1.5, based on the
cold­formed springs wound from prehardened wires. The material is torsional yield point, has been recommended for helical springs with
plain carbon steel with a rather high carbon content. The effect of the static or infrequently repeated loading under normal temperatures. This
drawing or heat treatment is more pronounced on the smaller sizes, as is factor might be made somewhat more or less depending on the conditions
reflected in the values for tensile strength. After winding, the spring is prevailing for each particular design.
Long experience with springs has shown that higher stresses can be
TABLE 4­1 used with smaller size wires because of the relatively deeper penetration
Diameters and Minimum Tensile Strengths of Steel Spring Wire of the hardening due to drawing. Recommended working­stress values for
. .for Cold­Formed Springs helical springs of good­quality spring steel are given in Table 4­2. 4

Min. Tensile Strength, j Min. Tensile

#':! p81: &'. . w.

Strength, psi TABLE 4­2
Diam­1 ____,��UL,:::T'----;-----· 1 M. I Diam- Recommended Working Stresses in Shear, psi, Steel Helical
- i eter
in. Music
Oil H I Gage Oil
Mu;sic Tem-
. I
Hard ­­­­­·
Compression Springs
No.* Tem- ard I! No. in.
Wire pered Drawn i Wire d Drawn Wire Diameter, Severe Average Light
in. Service Service Service

­;;;­­ 0.3625 180,000 168,000 _1_2_1_ 0.1055269,0001225,00011216,000.·

Up to 0.085 60,000 75,000 93,000
­oo­ IV .M.lU 182,000 172,000 is lo .0915 275,000,1230,000 221,000
55,000 69,000 85,000
0 0,3065 18.3,000 175,000 14 j0.0800282,000235,000227,000 0.085 to 0.185
1 o.2sao 184,ooo 118,000 I 15 o.0120281,000!241,000,232,000 0.186 to 0.320 48,000 60,000 74,000
0.321 to 0.530 42,000 52,000 65,000
2 o.i�i5,, 185, ooo 180, ooo I is ;o. 0625 293, 000!247, 000!237, ooo
0.531 to 0. 970 36,000 45,000 56,000
3 0;2437 187,000 183,{KlOI! 17 0.0540301,0001253,000,243,000
0.971 to 1.500 :J2,000 40,000 50,000
4 0.2253 188,000 186,000 t 18 i<L0475,306,0001�59,000:248,000
5 10.2070 l!l0,000 190,{K)O l!l I
0.0410314,000, ....66,000l255,000
0.0348,323,oooi213,oool261,ooo For phosphor bronze use I\O per cent of the foregoing.
195,000 102,000 I 20
6 10.1920
1 lo.1110 1200,000 21 !0.03111:321 ,00012so,0001265,ooo
8 0 • 1620 205, 000 J 200, 000 I 22 :o. 0286 332, ooo,
271, 000
Stress concentration factors must be employed when these stress values
are used. Values from the table do not apply under conditions of corrosion
9 ,0.1483 253,ooo 210,o<KJ/203,0001 2:1 _;o.0258!337,0001
10 10.1350,258,000 215,000 206,(HlOI 24 :0.0230,343,0001 and high temperatures. Severe service covers fatigue conditions of con­
11 10.1205 263,000 220,000 ' 210,000 I 25 ;0.0204
I ' I
tinuously varying load where the maximum stress is at least twice the
----- -1---· -- - I -- - -·, ·-----"-----'----
minimum. However, if the spring carries a steady load, or is subjected
Yield strength 1I 0.60 to I
0.70 to 0.60 to :I These values are in approximate agree­ to but few stress cycles during its normal life, the service would be con­
in tension 0. 75 _of 0.85 _of I tensile 111 ment w!th t�e following specifications.
tensile tensile j strength 11 For music wrre, ASTM Spec. A228­5 l sidered light. The values in Table 4­2 are conservative, and might be
strength strength j j For oil­tempered wire, ASTM Spee. increased somewhat if it is known definitely that overloads cannot be
imposed on the spring, and if no other harmful condition is present.
I '
j A22U­56
For hard drawn wire, ASTM Spec.
i !
i A227­47 &
Example 2. A helical compression spring of oil­tempered wire is to carry a
maximum load of 40 lb. The mean radius of the helix is 0.5 in. The factor of
For torsion, use 0.60 of corresponding valu­ for tensile strength. safety is 1.5. Find a suitable standard size diameter of wire. Assumes.,,, ­ 0.758.. u
* Washburn and l\1oen gage is used for steel spring wirr­.
and s.�,, = 0.6sv,,.
given a stress­relieving heat treatment at about ,525 F for :�o minutes. Solution. Assume tentatively t!. No. 11 wire.
Music wire is usually used when the wire diameter is less than 0.0,�2 in.
Cold­formed springs are generally wound with values for the spring index By Table 4.1. d = 0.1205 in., s,.i, = 220,000 psi
c1 between 5 and 10. ·
s,�v = 0.75 X 0.60 X 220,000 = 99,000 psi
Information on the torsional properties of spring materials is usually
lacking, and the designer is forced to base his calculations 011 the t.ensik­ 3
�ee reference 11, Bibliography.
strength. A reasonable figure is to take 0.6 of the tensile yield point for ' See reference 11, Bibliography

99,000 · free height and pitch of coil than is desired. They are then compressed
!•vJ> = = 66 000 psi
Permissible stress: 8• = FS 1.5 ' solid several times, which permanently sets the final height at the desired
position. This operation is known as presetting or cold setting, and reduces
2R 1
By Eq. (1): Ci =d= 0.1205 = 8•3 the tendency of the spring to take a permanent set in service. The yield
point is exceeded, and residual stresses are retained in the material with
By Eq. (2), actual stress: 8• ­
_ 16 X 40 X 0.5 (1 + 0­615) = 62,530 psi · a sign opposite to those produced by normal operation. Such a residual
'l!'0.12053 8.3 stress permits a spring to carry larger loads than one in which the mate­
rial was originally stress free.
The. assumed wirnsi,.e Js. .1111:�isfactory.
Helical springs made of i in. bar and larger are usually hot wound to
Example 3. A helical compression spring of music wi_re has a maximu� load avoid the high residual stresses which would be induced by cold forming.
that is 4 lb greater than the minimum load. The deflectio� �nder the maximum
load is 0.25 in. greater than the deflection under the mmimum load. Assume TABLE 4­3
tentatively that the number of active coils_ is 10. Let Sup = 0.6s,.u and s.u,. = Tensile Strength of Heat­Treated Steels for Hot­Formed Springs. It in.
0.68117• The. factor of safety is 1.5. R = 0.25 in. . Diameter Specimens Quenched and Drawn at Temperatures Shown
Determine a .suitable standard size wire, and find the exact number of active
' 8660 Chromium-
coils. Find th.e initial deflection of the spring. 1095 Plain 6160 Chromium- 9262 Silica-
Draw Nickel-
Carbon Vanadium Manganese
Temp. Molybdenum
t.'':)?;i�§;ti: ' k. =. -
By Eq:':(7)':
= 16
lb .
per m,
Ultimate Yield Ultimate Yield Ultimate Yield Ultimate Yield
· ,, . ·::,;::> 0.25
850 192,000 128,000 220,000 203,000 206,000 193,000 243,000 212,000
B 'i·f1()�)'.:J{·a, = 64 x 0.25' x 10 X 16 = 0.0000128, d = 0.0598 in. 950 188,000 120,000 198,000 185,000 190,000 170,000 214,000 182,000
Y·­:ci..>, 4}); . C 11,500,000 1050 172,000 107,000 180,000 168,000 171,000 150,000 188,000 156,000
. 1150 151,000 92,000 162,000 152,000 150,000 129,000 167,000 137,000
By Table �1,llSe No. 16 wire, d = 0.0625 in., s .. 11 = 293,000 psi.
For torsion, use 0.60 of corresponding tensile value.
s.�" == 0.6 X 0.6 X 293,000 = 105,500 psi
. = -.
s, 105,500 . k' t
-- = 70,320 psi, wor mg s ress forming, the spring is heat treated by quenching and tempering
1.5 produce the desired physical properties. Both plain carbon and alloy
0.50 are used for hot­formed springs. The materials in widest use5 are
By Eq. (1): Ci= 0.0625"" 8 in Table 4­3. Compositions for these steels are given in Chapter

By Eq. (2): 70 320 = l5Pt0.25 (1

' ,r0.06251
+ 0·615)
= 5 616Ps
'�":, · ... Plain carbon steel 1095 is in wide use because of its availability and low
. <\ · ��st. This material, however, is shallow hardening, and sections larger
P2 = 12.5 lb, P1 = 8.5 lb. ·\\­,}�an i in. will not harden completely through. To obtain depth of
N = d'G = 0.0625' X 11,500,000 = 11.0 active �oils ::;;r:/,�c:Jening and a material with a higher yield point, an alloy steel must be
By Eq. (8):
64R1k 64 X 0.253 X 16 ;S >. �<l;. even though the cost is greater. Silico­manganese steel 9262 has
'(c;,,i,i)fh\!!�n widely used as a low­priced alloy spring material. It has the dis­
• P1 8.5
By Eq. (7): U! = k = 16 =, , .,,·i'.,Xt,��yantages of being subject to decarburization in heat treatment and of
. .. ,';·:/��� inclined to have excessive quantities of nonmetallic inclusions as
Cold­formed springs can also be wound from plain carbon or alloy . . . · w;e�· as a poor surface. Because of its higher cost, chromium­vanadium
steel wire in the annealed condition. Afterwards the spring is heat treated steel' 6150 is being supplanted by other steels. Use of chromium­nicke�­
molyb�enum steel 8660 is increasing because of its many desirable quali­
to develop suitable strength values. .
i &e'
Compression springs are sometimes wound with considerably greater referenci>s f\ and 12, Bibliography.
Chap. 4 SPRINGS 165

istance, freedom from decarburization and in use. Failure under impact loads ath)w temperatures cafrftequently
y low cost. Alloy steels in general undergo be guarded against by providing a stop to limit the deflection., t<
•c:e than plain carbon steels, and are better value .
s; especially for service conditions where the Many special type springs for appliances and other products are
stamped from flat stock. 8 For high stresses and severe service conditions
es scratched and pitted.
used by fatigue, a poor surface is the worst sheared edges of flat springs must be polished to prevent the formati<>�
gs. Figure 4­4 shows a typical fatigue failure of fatigue cracks.
crack usually starts at a surface imperfection Springs are also made from a variety of nonferrous metals. 9 Some of
in a region of stress concentration. The materials have the desirable qualities of good electric conductivity
endurance­limit stress for steel bars in the resistance to corrosion. Mechanical properties for such materials are
as­rolled condition may be from :30,000 to in Chapter 14.
45,000 psi for both plain carbon and low
alloy steels. If the surface is badly pitted,
the endurance limit may be as low as 18,000
psi to 20,000 psi. These values for actual the loading on the spring is continuously fluctuating, due allowance
springs are thus seen to be much lower than be made in the design for fatigue and stress concentration. The
the endurance limit for the same material

when polished specimens are tested in the
laboratory. A layer of decarburized material
on the surface, resulting from the heat
treatment, is also a source of weakness
since the endurance limit for the surface
(a} E'nduranct, limit in pulsating
may then be less than the working stress for shrar wh�n mol�rial ls lrslrd
the spring. Decarburization can be avoided
if the heat treatment is conducted in a
drrosion even in a mild form, greatly reduces
ium plating offers some degree of relief against
(bl Slrl/SS fluctuatian in (c)Working stresses for fluctuoling loading
itves the surface in compression, has proved to act�al spring

$lllg the fatigue life of springs. 6 A good surface Fig. 4­,5. Wor king stress diagram for springs.
�euse of ground stock and controlled atmospheres,
\rely high. Such a surface, however, will be spoiled
gt() rough usage. kme­stress triangle, as explained in Chapter 2, is modified because
: Under conditions of elevated tomperagire, there are usually fatigue tested, not in reversed bending, but
rmanent deformation unless very low stress "'"''""'"'11"' shear s' ,., zero to maximum, as shown in Fig. 4­5(a). Fo.r
ts become noticeable above 350 F, and the test loading, the range stress is equal to the average, which is one­
be used at temperatures above 400 F. value of the maximum stress. Thus the straight line approximat­
type resists high temperature better than line of failure can be drawn from point A in Fig. 4­5(c). The line
of 500 to 800 F, high­speed steel working stresse8 is parallel to this line and can be drawn
the yield point stress in shears,,,,. by the factor of safety FS.
the alloy steels, listed in Table 4­3, are
1­l, Hibliogruphv.
6 See reference 7, Bibliography. I,',. Bihliol­(raphy.
7 See referenci: 8, Bibliography.
( (
Chap. 4 c. 6 SPRINGS 167
B., '12,590
P r = -·-P
8,u, a,
= -- X 180 =
59,730 379lb

P, = 180 + 37.9 = 217.9 lb
Pi = 180 ­ 37.9 = 142.1 lb
The reader should plot a figure similar to Fig. 4­5(c) for this problem and check
the stress values above by measttring lengths on the diagram.

5. Vibration or Surging of Helical Springs

A sudden compression of the end of a helical spring may form a com­

pression wave that travels along the spring and is· reflected at the far
n of corresponding sides of similar triangles in end. The material in the compressed wave is subjected to higher stresses
uation can be written. which may cause early fatigue failure. The natural frequency12 for a
round trip of the wave is given by the following equation.
ts' .. (10)
= Sai,p ­ ts••
1 '
d /Gg
f= 2rR2N '\}32­y cycles/sec (11)

On for the design of springs with continuously g represents the acceleration constant of gravity, 386 in./sec2, and
the weight in lb per cu in. for the material of the spring.
_For a steel spring, G = 11,500,000 psi and 'Y = 0.285 lbs/in. 3 The
··mpression spring, made of No. 4 wire, carries a flue­ ':'.equation above then becomes
11 120,000 psi for torsional yield strength, an� 100,000 3,510d
'shear zero to maximum. The spring index is 6, and f = R 2N cycles/sec (12)
If th� average load on the spring is 180 lb, find the
maximum and minimum loads. ''.}·Example 5. Find the lowest natural frequency for a valve spring of No. 4
iiwel wire with IO active coils and mean diameter of helix of 2 in.
R = 1 in.
R = 6 X 0.2253 = 0_676
2 d = 0.2253 in.

K = 4 X 6 ­__! = 1.15 3,510 X 0.2253

f= 12 X 10 = 79.1 cycles/sec
• 4X6­4

8'°" =
16 X 180 X 0.676 (1 + 0.615) = 4,745 cycles/min
...0.22533 6 . .A spring can exhibit higher modes of vibration whose frequencies are
459,730 psi
3, 4· ··,times the value given by Eqs. (11) and (12).
= 120,000 ­ 50,000 . Commercial Tolerances

s.,. = 12,590 psi

:t Sizes of helical springs are not standardized. They must therefore be
From which: .made to order. Production costs can be kept low if liberal tolerances for
10 See Chapter 2 of reference 3 Bibliography. 12
See Chapter 13 of reference 3, Bibliography.
•t See !eference 5, Bibliograph�.
Chap. 4
168 Sec. 6 SPRINGS
di · d l di g are allowed. Tolerance.'> for commercial grade By Table 4­4: Tr T% = 0.018, T3 = 0.032, T4
rmensions an oa m f It · · 1a -= 0.0037, .,. 0.032
sprmgs are ra er w1ide and can be found by the o owing
· th . . equations; ·
By Eq. (13): Free length to!. = ±0.0037 X 8.3 X 3.75 = ±0.115 in.
th e necessary const an ts are given in Table 4­4. Free height is represented
by Z1. By Eq. (14): Coil diameter tol. = ± 2 X 0.018 X 0.5 = ± 0.018 in.
Free length tolerance = ± T1c1Z1 (13) By Eq. (15): Spring rate tol. = ± (0.032 + 0.032) X 35 = ±2.24 lb/in.
Coil diameter tolerance = ±2T2R (14) F l�­lbl
or t »
ou :
• P 17.5 ­·
" = k = ·31f = O.o m.,
= 0.5 = 7.5 T5 = 0.122
Spring rate tolerance ± (T3 + T4)K (15)
By Eq, (16), Load tol, = ±(0.032 + 0.122) X 17.5 = ±2.70 lb
Load tolerance ± (T4 + T�)P (16)
tiJ l, 3.75 .
For 61 lb load: o = 35 = 1.743 in., = 1.743 = 2:15, T5 = 0.038
Squareness tolerance = t/t, degrees 5
The use of the equations above is illustrated by the following example. By Eq. (16): Load to!.= ±(0.032 + 0.038) X 61 = ±4.27 lb
4Ri 4 X 0.51
TABLE 4­4 i;d - 3.75 X 0.1205 ­
Constants for Computing Tolerances of Commercial Springs Bv Table 4­4: if = 2.1°, squareness tolerance
· r, I T, N Ti � I T; �! ,J,, deg Tole1:ances should be specified as widely as the proper functioning of
d 2

. I
_0 4,,­0­.­.00­"­�2­··.­._.·­0,�'.0_1_0 0.0485­,�;�­ 21 0.0560 1.11 ().0200 0.51 1.62
the sprmg permits, especially for those dimensions that are not critical.
Tolerances must be greater for large hot­wound springs. Loads should
o:02c>' 0.0367 0.0435
0.030 0.0314 . 0.0405
a 0.0480
4 I 0.0430
2 !
0.0269 0.7i
0.0353 1 i
always ?e specifie� at _a fix�d length, not for a given deflection. Testing
mechanisms function in this manner. Testing to a definite load with
1.5 0.0054 0,040 o. ,0218 ,10.0385 5 :1 0.0395 .,1 :J i 0.0512 2 ! 2.09
0.060 0:0238 0.0360
.0,080 0,0210 0.0342
6 ,
8 !
0.0368 j 4
0.0330 1 5
I 0.0675 3 i
0.083 4 j
�olerance on t�e deflection is slow and costly. The modulus of elasticity
, � shear, particularly for nonferrous materials, may vary over a con­
siderable range. The diameters of spring wires are also subject to varia­
4 0.00362 0.100 0.0194 0.0330 10 t 0.0303 6 , 0.098 5 i 2.45
5 0.00332 0.150 ·. 0.0164 0.0307 15 J 0.0260 , 8 j 0.129 6 2.54 tions as shown in Table 4­5. "
6 0.00306 0.20010,0147 0.0293 20 , 0.0233 10 : 0.. 15\J 8 I 2.66
0.00274 I
0.300 0.0125 0.0273
0.400 0.0113 0.0260
0.0214 13 !
0.0200 16 1
0.203 10
0.24, 12
'1· 2.76
10 o.oosso o.soo 0.0103 o.osso 40 o.01s� 20 I o.aos 15 2.96
Spring Wire Diameter Tolerances, Plus or Minus, Inches

Data by Spring Manufanturers' Association. Inc. Diameter, in. Music Hard Drawn
Wire Oil Tempered
Example 6. A spring of No. 11 st.PP! win· is wound with a mean diameter helix 0.026 and under 0.0003
of 1 in. Free height is to be 3.75 in. and the spring rate is 35 lb per in. Find the 0.027 to 0.063 0.0005
tolerances on the dimensions and on the spring rate. Spring must operate at 0.028 to O.o75 0.001
loads of 17.5 and 61 lb. Find the expected tolerances for these loads. 0.064 to 0.250 0.001
0.076 ot 0:375 0.002
Solution. By Table 4­1: d = 0.1205in. 0.376 and up

By Eq. (8): . = __d.4G = 0.1205• -X 11,500,000 = 8 66 coils Example 7, Suppose a helical spring is wound from commercial wire which is
N 64R1k 64 X 0.53 X 35 .
found to be 3 per cent larger than the specified diameter d. Spring index ­ 5.
2R 2 X 0.5 , . .
ByEq. (1): c, =d =
= 8 .3 , spring mdex (a) To what radius helix must the spring be wound in order to maintain the
ori�inal value of the deflection? \Vhat will the shearing stress be in the resulting
u See reference 16, Bibliography. sprmg?
Chap. 4 Sec. 7 SPRINGS 171
s · · this 3 per cent oversize wire it had been desired to retain 7. Helical Extension Springs
(b) . �palposhe, l°: usmtg s Find the radius of helix'to which the spring should be
the origin s eanng s res . In helical tension springs, the shape of the hooks or end t f
wound, and the resulting deflection.
applying the load must be designed so that the stress concentraj]ion e ectsor
Solution. (a) Let the new radius of helix be called Ri, and the new diameter
of wire be called d1, where d1 = l.03d.

From Eq. (5): d4G
R a ­ d1 t Ra = SL03d)4 Ra or, R1 = 1.04R 8
1­d4 d4

c' - 2R1
1 ­ d1
= 2 X 1.04R = l.Olc1 = 5.05
New spring index: 1.03d

� = 16!R (1 + 0.6­1_!>) = 5.7194 PR

Original stress: "• 7f'd3 . . 5 d}

New stress:
8 • =
l6PR1 (
-;J;i- 1 +
0.615) = ��
c' 1 r(l.03d)3
(1 + 0.615)
Fig. 4­6. End of tension spring made by
turning up half loop.
Fig. 4­7. Types of end turns which reduce
stress concentration.

cau�d by the presence of sharp bends are decreased as much as possible.

PR In Fig. 4­6 the end of the tension spring has been formed by merely
= 5.4386ya
bend!n� up a half­loop '. H the radius of the bend is small, the stress con­
· ·ofiJ11al8, = 5.4386 � 0.95 centration at cross section A will be large.
· New'a, · · · 5.7194 . The. most obvious method for avoiding these severe stress eoncentra­
tions is to make the radius r1 of the bend
The radius of helix must thus be made 4 per cent larger than the original radius. larger. Figure 4­7(a) shows one method of TABLE 4­6
which gives a stress{}5per cent as great as the original. doing this. Here the end has been formed Shear Strese Induced by
Initial Tension in Hel­
by turning up a complete loop in a gradual
ical Extension Spring*
(b) sweeping curve; stress concentration has been
, .· 2R1 2R1 R c1R1 _ 8544 �� greatly reduced. Another expedient is to re­ Shear stress,
New spring index: c 1 =-·- = -- X - = -- - 4 · R duce the radius of the end turns. gradually
Ct = 2R/d
8, (pri)
d1 1.03d R 1.03R

Stresses are equal: 1·6.·PR1

(l + 0.615) = 16P�
c' 1 1rd3
(l ­+ �6�5)
. from the maximum value R, as shown in Fig .
., . 4­7 (b). Although the curvature of the end 4
· / t�rns has been increased, the moment arm for
(l + 0.615R ­) _ R (l
4.8544R1 ­ da
+ 0 123)
. 7th:e force has been correspondingly reduced.
,:);,. Special hooks or loops on the ends of ten­
R1 + 0.1267R = 1.2271R / !!}OD springs, as well as the grinding of the 9 14,000

R1 = 1.lOR
't ends of compression springs, add to the cost 10
of·:manufacture and should be avoided when­ 12 12,000
64P(l.10R)3N 64PR3N ever possible. 1�
In Eq. (5): 5 = (1.03d)4G = 1.18 --;fij;' ­ ·For computing the '1eflection of a tension • Data by Spring Mfrs'. A"8n.,
ring, the end shown in Fig. 4­6 should be Inc.
In order to maintain the original stress, \he helix radius must be made 10 per . unted as about 0.1 turn for each of the hooks, and the full loop of Fig.
cent greater, which gives 18 per cent larger deflection than the original design.
­7(a) should count as 0.5 turn for each end so formed.
This example illustrates how a small revision of design dimensions can easily
make allowance for variation in the diameter of commercially available wire. See reference 4, Bibliography.
:',I. e

172 SPRINGS Chap. 4 Sec. 9 SPRINGS 173
Another feature of helical tension springs is the initial tension which ii: by substituting 61 = 6/Rl, and l = 2,rRN. Hence,
induced at the time the spring is coiled. Such springs are wound solid
and will not deflect. until this initial tension is overcome. Table 4­6 gives s = 2rPR3N
average values of shear stress as_ ca.11ia:Pd h:v initial tension for springs pro­ fJGbc1 (19)
duced on standard coiling machines.
Since a rectangular bar tends to become trapezoidal in cross se�tion
Example 8. A helical extension spring ii; wound fro�1 0.080 in. diameter wire after it is wound into a spring, equations for the stresses and deflections
with mean diameter of helix of 0.50 in. Find the approximate value of the load P for the_ true shape are more complicated. The equations above are only
that the spring can sustain before noticeable deflection occurs. approximate since it is assumed that the cross section remains rectangular.

Example 9. Find the stresses at points A1 and A2 of the spring of Fig. 4­8(b)
f�r b = l in., c = l in., and R = 1.2 in. The static load on the spring is 2,500 Jb.
2R 0.50 Fmd the deflection if the number of active coils is 6.
By Eq. (1): Ci = - - = - = 6.25
d 0.08
By Table 4­6: s, = 17,000 psi Solution. c1 = 2R = 2 X 1.2 = 3.2 in.
b t
16P0.25 ( 0.615)
By Eq. (2): 17•000 = ,r(0.08)3 1 + "if25 From Table 3­4: b/c = 1.50; a1 = 0.231; a2 = 0.269; fJ = 0.196
P = 6.22 lb
By Eq. (17): PR 2,500 X 1.2
s. = a1bc2 = 0.231 X 0.75 X 0.52 = 69,270 psi for point Ai
Working �t.tesses for helical extension springs are .usually about 75
per cent as great. as for corresponding compression springs. PR 2,500 X 1.2 .
ByEq. (18): 8• = a.)Jc' = 0.269 X 0_75 X 0_52 = 59,480 psi for point A2

8. Helical Springs of Rectangular Wire Total stress at A2: s. = 59,480 + 1.5 0_7 !� 000_5
= 69,480 ps!
When rectang�r 'wire is used for helical springs, the value of the r, = 2r X 2,500 X 1.23 X 6 _ .
shearing stress
found by use of the equations for rectangular shafts.
In Eq. (19}:
0.196 X 11,500,000 X 0.75 X 0.5a ­ o.711 m.
For the springs of Figs. 4­8(a) and (b) the
stresses at points A 1 and A 2 are found by For fluctuating loads, the design can be made as in Section 4, with the stress
Eqs. (28) and (29) of Chapter 3, which are concentration factor K. estimated by Eq. (9).
&:!! follows :
PR 9. Helical Springs with Torsional Loading
s, = b%
a1 c
for point A1 (17)
A helical spring can be loaded by a torque about the axis of the helix.
R Wh,n wound s. = ­­2 for point A2 (18) Such loading, as shown in Fig. 4­9(a), is similar to the torsional loading
(a) p
thus c;= 2; of a shaft. The torque .about the axis of the helix sots as a bending
Spring lnd11t, c; • �R Values of a1 and a2 for various b/c ratios are moment on .each section of the wire as shown in Fig. 4­9(b). The material
Fia:. 4­8. Helical spring of rec­ found in Table 3­4. , is thus stressed in flexure, and the