SPOTTS
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
f The Technological Institute
Northwestern University
.j.
Design of
Machine Elements
THIRD EDITION
· PRENTIC°E'ittALL, INC,
Englewood ous« N. J.
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lntrocluction
f
r
1. Machine design. Machine design is the art of planning or devis
e
ing new or improved machines to accomplish specific purposes. In
general, a machine will consist of a combination of several different
g
mechanical elements properly designed and arranged to work together, as
e
a whole. During the initial planning of a machine, fundamental deci
c
sions IXlUSt be made concerning loading, type Of kinematic elements to be
,r used, and correct utilization of the properties of engineering materials.
le Economic considerations are usually of prime importance when the design
of new machinery is undertaken. In general, the lowest overall cost is
desired. Consideration should be given not only to the cost of design,
manufacture, sale, and installation, but also to the cost of servicing.
The machine should of course incorporate the necessary safety features
and be of pleasing external appearance. The objective is to produce a
machine which is not only sufficiently rugged to function properly for a
reasonable life, but is at the same time cheap enough to be economically
feasible.
The engineer in charge of the design of a machine should not only
have adequate technical training, but must be a man of sound judgment
and wide experience, qualities which are usually acquired only after
considerable time has been spent in actual professional work. A .start
in this direction can be made with a good teacher while the student is
yet at theuniversity, However, the wouldbe designer must expect to
get a substantial portion of his training after leaving school through
further reading and study, and especially by being associated in his work
with competent engineers.
2. Design of machine elements. This book, as the title indicates,
will not deal with the broader aspects of the design of complete machines,
but will attempt to explain the fundamental principles required for the
correct design of the separate elements which compose the machine.
The principles of design are of course universal. The same theory
or equations may be applied to a very small part, as in an instrument,
or to a larger but similar part used in a piece of heavy equipment. In
no case, however, should mathematical calculations be looked upon as
absolute and final. They are all subject to the accuracy of the various
xi
xii INTRODUCTION
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assumptions which must necessarily be made in engineering work. Some
times only a portion of the total number of parts in a machine are designed
on the basis of analytic calculations. The form and size of the remaining
parts are then usually determined by practical considerations. On the
other hand, if the machine is very expensive, or if weight is a factor, as
in airplanes, design computations may then be made for almost all the
parts. Contents
The purpose of the design calculations is of course to attempt to
predict the stress or deformation in the part in order that it may safely
carry the loads which will be imposed upon it, and that it may last for
the expected life of the machine. All calculations are, of course, depend I. Fundamental Principles.
ent on the physical properties of the construction materials as determined 1
by laboratory tests. A rational method of design attempts to take the 1. Static�! equilibrium. 2. Engineering materials. 3. Tension and
results of relatively simple and fundamental tests such as tension, com :�:press1on s_tress. 4. Statically indeterminate problems in tension
pression, torsion, and fatigue and apply them to all the complicated and compre�10n. 5. Center of gravity. 6. Bending of beams. 7
Moment of inertia 8 Pr. · 1
involved situations encountered in presentday machinery. . . . ·
mc1p e o f superposition. ··
9. Additional·
bea1;11 equations. 10. Deflection of beams. 11. Effect of ribs on
In addition, it has been amply proved that such details as surface
:Stings. 12. Shearing stress. 13. Transverse shearing stress in
condition, fillets, notches, manufacturing tolerances, and heat treatment ams. _14. Shear and bending moment diagrams. 15. Slender
have a marked effect on the strength and useful life of, a machine part.
;;m;�ss:n ;:1e�bers or columns. 16. Stresses in any given direction.
The design and drafting departments must specify completely all such tio�s e o r c1r�le. 18. Stresses and deformations in two diree
particulars, and thus exercise the necessary close control over the finished . 19. Deflection of beam from shearing stress 20 p . . 1 f
product. St. Venant. · · nncip e o
Training in rapid and accurate numerical work is invaluable to the
designer. The designer should keep an accurate notebook, as it is fre
2. Working Stresses .
quently necessary for him to refer to work which he has done in the past. 67
A sketch, carefully drawn to scale, is also a necessity, and provides a
convenient place for putting down a portion of the data used in connection
with the problem. It goes without saying that all data, assumptions, ·
equations, and calculations should be written down in full in order to be
h .
z:
1 Stressst · d"
cf ange�n
ram ragrams. 2. Stress concentration cau� by sudden
a ec mg atigue st
3. Stress concentration facto�. 4. Endurance limit
off mt.a nfa . 5. Interpretation of service fractures 6 Factors
th 7 T . . .
and b ittl . . reng . . ypes of failure. Ductile materials
intelligible when referred to at a later date. The student should start M' . n e ;:iatenals. 8. Ductile materials with steady stres� 9
forming such habits, and it is recommended that the problems in this book tio:;m�7 s��r theory of failure. 10. Normal stresses in two direc�
be worked out and preserved as reference materiat. ! t . . I . . h1sesHencky or distortion energy theory 12 Ductile
ma ena s wit alte ti · ·
bined ste d d l rna m� stress. 13. Ductile materials with com
gram. l�. YB:�tl a terna�mg s�ress. 14. The modified Goodman dia
with flu t ti le matenals with steady stress. 16. Brittle materials
c ua mg oads 17 S iti .
Factor of safety. . . ensi IVIty to stress concentration. 18.
3. Shafting.
106
1. Torsion of circular 8h ft 2
she · t a · · Horsepower. 3 Maximum static
5 • :n� s ress.h 4· ASME Code for design of tra�mission shafting.
shaft"sxnnum sKear theory forshaft"mg. 6 · MisesHencky theory for
mg. 7 · eys. 8. Stress concentration. 9. Couplings. 10.
xiii
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xiv CONTENTS
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CONTENTS
c xv
Bending loads in two planes. 11. Shaft on three supports. 12.
Crankshafts. 13. Critical speed of rotating shaft. 14. Deflection of 8. Lubrication. 294
shaft of nonuniform diameter. 15. Slope of shaft by elastic energy.
16. Torsion of noncircular shaft. 17. Torsion of wide rectangular 1. Viscosity and Newton's law. 2. Measurement of viscosity. 3.
bar. 18. Torsion of rectangular bars, general case. 19. Composite Viscosity index. 4. Types of plain sleeve bearings. 5. The Zn/p
curve. 6. Petroff's bearing equation. 7. Load carrying journal.
sections. 20. Materials used for shafting.
bearing. 8. Load and friction curves for Journal bearings. 9. Heat
balance of bearings. 10. Designing for film temperature and mini
4. Springs . 155 mum film thickness. 11. Pressure lubricated bearing. 12. Thin
film or boundary lubrication. Oiliness. 13. Bearing materials. 14.
1. Helical springs. 2. Effect of end turns for compression springs. Bea�ing loads. 15. Construction of bearings. 16. Elastic matching.
3. Properties of spring materials. 4. Design for fluctuating loads.
5. Vibration or surging of helical springs. 6. Commercial tolerances. 9. Ball and Roller Bearings. 330
i. Helical extension springs. 8. Helical springs of rectangular wire.
9. Helical springs with torsional loading. 10. Leaf springs. 11. 1. Construction and types of ball bearings. 2. Selection of ball bear
Energy storage by springs. 12. Rubber springs. ings. 3. Design for variable loading. 4. Friction and lubrication of
ball bearings. 5. Mounting of ball bearings. 6. Permissible mis
alignment. 7. Other types of ball bearings. 8. Relative advantages
5. Screws 191
of ball and plain bearings. 9. Roller bearings. 10. Contact stress
between cylinders.
1. Kinds of threads. 2. Standardized threads. 3. Unified threads.
4. American National threads. 5. Identification symbols. 6. Effect
of initial stress. 7. Effect of spring washers and gaskets. 8. Power 10. Spur Gears . 351
screws. 9, Stress due to impact load. 10. Friction of screws. 11.
Stress concentration. 12. Locknuts. 13. Materials and methods of 1. Introduction. 2. Fundamental law of toothed gearing. 3. Kine
manufacture. matics of involute gear teeth. 4. Cycloidal gear teeth. 5. Pitches of
gear teeth. 6. Standard system of gearing. 7. Methods of manu
facture. 8. Transmitted or horsepower load. 9. Bending capacity
6. Belts, Clutches, Brakes 219 in spur gear teeth. 10. Form or Lewis factors for spur teeth. 11.
Dynamic load. 12. Limit load for wear. 13. Direct calculation for
1. Forces in flat belts. 2. Action of belt on pulley. 3. Coefficient of diametral pitch. 14. Number of pairs of teeth in contact. 15.
friction and working stresses. 4. Design of belts by tables. 5. Materials for gears. 16. Determination of tooth loads. 17. Lubri
Pivoted motor drive. 6. Length of belt. 7. Ybelts. 8. Designing cation and mounting of gears. 18. Backlash. 19. Dimensioning of
when pulleys are of unequal diameters. 9. Disk clutch. 10. Cone gears. 20. Undercutting in gear teeth. 21. Long and short adden
clutch. 11. Band brakes. 12. Block brake with short shoe. 13. dum gearing. 22. Internal or annular gears. 23. Speed ratios of
Pivoted block brake with long shoe. 14. Brake with pivoted sym gear trains. 24. Planetary gear trains.
metrical shoe. 15. Lining pressures. 16. Heating of brakes.
11. Bevel, Worm and Helical Gears 399
7. Welded and Riveted Connections . 263 · 1. Straight tooth bevel gears. 2. Beam strength of bevel gears. 3.
Formative or virtual number of teeth. 4. Dynamic l�ad and limit
1. Fabrication by welding. 2. Fusion welding. 3. Strength of load for wear of bevel gears. 5. Tooth loads of bevel gears. 6. Spiral
fusion welds. 4. Design equations for fillet weld. 5. Stress concen bevel gears. 7. Worm gears. 8. Geometric relationships of worm
tration in welds. 6. Eccentrically loaded welds. 7. Resistance gears. 9. Beam strength, dynamic load, and wear of worm gears.
welding. 8. Soldering and brazing. 9. Furnace brazing. 10. 10. Tooth loads and efficiency of worm gears. 11. Thermal capacity
Riveted joint with central load. 11. Stresses in rivets. 12. Stresses of worm gear reductions. 12. Helical gears. 13. Pitch diameter of
in cylindrical shell. 13. Riveted joint with eccentric load. helical gear. 14. Formative number of teeth. 15. Center distance
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c CONTENTS
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xvi
of mating gears. 16. Solution when shafts are at right angles. 17.
Tooth loads of helical gears. 18. Beam strength, dynamic load, and
wear of helical gears.
Index. 575
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!
Fundamental
Principles
DESIGN methods for the various machine elements are founded on the
theories of mechanics and strength of materials. The scope of such theo
ries is very extensive, and the purpose of this chapter is to present, for
review and ready reference, those topics which are generally used by de
signers, and which will be referred to throughout the book. These theories
are more or less simplified approximations, and attention should be di
rected to the limitations imposed by the assumptions which had to be
made in arriving at working formulas.
A thorough grounding in these fundamentals will prove of great value
in attacking new and unfamiliar problems. In fact, only after such theories
have become working tools is it possible to. achieve the broad perspective
and balanced judgment which must be expressed by the really competent
machine designer.
A, area G, modulus of elasticity in shear
b, width of cross section parallel to h, height of cross section perpendicu
neutral axis lar to neutral axis
c, maximum distance, neutral axis to i, radius of gyration
edge of cross section I, moment of inertia
d, distance, diameter of circle t, length
E, modulus of elasticity M, bending moment,
FS, factor of safety P, load
1
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;t
· · · :st�treal equilibrium means that both forces and moments are in bal tension, or to have an internal force of
ance:'_When a body.is in equilibrium, the sum of the components of the tension. Such a force causes an increase
forc�s hi any given direction must be equal to zero. Likewise the moments in the length of the bar. A solution for
· ab�ut 'ahy given line as an axis must be equal to zero. If the body is under the stress can be effected by means of
�omg 1tcbel�ratio11, the effects of inertia must be included in the equilib cutting planes as described in Section 1. sic,Tona,
Cross
num equations. If the bar, shown in Fig. 1l(a), is cut area, A Total forc11 P
normal to its axis, as shown in Fig.
(b)
2 .: Engmeerirlg 1.faterials 1l(b), equal and opposite tension forces, fa)
uniformly distributed, must be applied
. The mathematical equations used in designing are derived for an ideal to the cut surfaces. In magnitude, each
ized material ';hie� �s assumed to have the following properties. must be equivalent to the load P. The Fig. 11. Eyebar loaded in tension.
. �a) Perfect Ela�ticity: Loads or forces acting on a body cause changes average stress s, or force per unit of
m its shape and dimensions, A perfectly elastic material is one that returns crosssectional area A, is then equal to P divided by A. Hence
to its.origin.al �orm immediately upon removal of the loads. The equation; p (1)
used_1� designing are n�arl! always derived on the assumption of perfect s =A
elasticity. If the material is such that this assumption cannot be made
t�e mathematical complications, in many cases, become too great for prae Thus the magnitude of the external forces on the cross sections in Fig.
ucal calculations. It should never be forgotten, however, that in some 1l(b) constitutes the measure of the internal force in the bar shown in
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4 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1
5
Fig. 1l(a). Forces are usually expressed in pounds and areas in square
ion stress and increase of positive, Whereas com
inches. pressive stress and decrease in length are considered negative.
It is of course obvious that this solution is correct only if the assump
' , f .
tion regarding the distribution of stress on the cut sur aces is correct. Example I. In Fig. 11, let load P be equal to 5,000 lb, and let the bar be 3 in.
Had the bar been cut near one end where the shape is no longer a prism, wide and 0.5 in. thick. The uniform portion of the bar is 60 in. long. The material
it is apparent that the situation would be more complicated, and the stress is steel.
system would no longer be simple tension uniformly distributed over the
cross section. (a) Find the stress in the uniform portion of the bar.
Since the.assumptiorr.relative to homogeneity of the material is never (b) Find the deformation of the uniform portion of the bar.
exactly fulfilled, th�·s.tr.ess.es on the cross section will not be entirely uni
form but \Villbt$1Jpj�ctt.O small local variations. Equation (1) does, how Solution.
ever, giJ!,]�r.,t����/'\71;1,lue of the tensile stress. Crosssectional area: A = 3 X 0.5 = 1.5 in. 2
:A.qo11.tprf§�ti�#r�1fispne which causes a decrease in the length of the
ho on
. <>f the force. Stress, by Eq. (1): 5,000 = 3, 333 psi.
s = 
f·le11gth in a uniform body caused by an axial load 1.5
i@, o. If the deformation is divided by the original 5,000 X 60
Deformation, by Eq. (4): 0 = = 0.00667 in.
the result is the deformation per unit length, and 1.5 X 30,000,000
. or strain, E. It �an be represented mathematically by
For statical equilibrium, the summation of the forces in any direction must
0 equal zero, and the summation of the moments about any axis also must equal
E=y (2)
zero. The following equations must therefore be fulfilled.
Numerical values should be substituted into the equation above. By deformation, see Fig. l3(b): 0 = Ob 0 + 0.002
F136 Fi36 (b)
Pa12 A12 + 0_002 (c)
 = or 3F 1 = 4F 2. 4'1!"10,000,000 51!'15,000,000
0.2 X 30,000,000 0.3 X 15, 000 , 000
. ·· ·'· Combine Eqs. (a) and (c): P 0 = 24,137 lb load in aluminum
Equations (a) and (b) should now be solved simultaneously to give Pb = 5,863 lb load in brass
== 1,818 lb and F2 = 1,364 lb (c) o = al AT
I
Brass =
� Al
Al. Net difference in length = 0.00983 0.00783 = 0.002 in.
Bross Bross
Hence, the change in temperature has produced the same change in length and
4•
(b} the same change in the forces as was produced by the error in machining of part
loJ 6#
(b).
Fig. 13. Example 3.
As was illustrated by part (b) in the example above, the distribution of
the forces in an indeterminate structure is sensitive to small variations in
''iii: J'.:3 � circular cylinder of aluminum is surrounded by a the dimensions of the parts. A small undetected error in machining a
,'J:Ylin.<!er:,of brass. Assume that the foundation beneath and the dimension can cause a large change in the distribution of the loads. Any
,,;}����;',fh,�.Jit between the parts is sufficiently loose to permit calculations made by the designer will not be valid unless the fit of the
'ansion;,: ' : ' parts can be rigidly maintained as originally planned.
A variation in temperature may change the values of the forces in an
'pi�d�ad{hafo�d by the aluminum and by the brass. indeterminate system. If temperature causes a relative change between
"se the aluminum is mistakenly machined 0.002 in. too long and that ·,{
.,1i. the lengths of the various parts of the assembly, the effect can be similar
the.#; . . , ,, '.".' .· asselllblea;,Find the force in each member. to that of the misfit of part (b) in the foregoing example. The designer
(c}i§� pqire,tlie pa.rt,s are machined to the same length at the same tempera
ture.'·!iTu9 tlj.e,forp� c�ed by each should the temperature rise by 64 deg. F.
must consider temperature variations as well as dimensional errors in
his calculations for an indeterminate structure.
Sol�ti��,:· (a)
' { 5. Center of Gravity
r42
Area, aluminum: Aa =4 = 41r in. 2 An equation for finding the center of gravity of an area can be derived
r(62 42}
Fig. 14. The distance from the xaxis to
Area, brass: Ab = = 5r in. 2 the center of gravity is called fi, and the distance 1
4
(a)
•. to an element dA parallel to the xaxis is called y.
By statics: Pa+ Pb= 30,000 '. The moment arm for dA about a horizontal axis
through the center of gravity C is equal to (y  fi). """1.v
By deformation: or f.�athematica.lly, center of gravity means that •
,rthe sum of the moments of the areas about the Fig. 1•4. Center of
( (
i: .\
<
W=,
by the following equation: H are applied. Laboratory experiments
f (y  y)dA = 0 have in general verified this assump JI
A similar equation can be written for the moments about the yaxis tion, called the neutral surface, no
change in length has taken place.
which permits x to be found.
Acompositefigure:c�n::usuallybe divided into simple areas, and Eq. (5) The loading of Fig. 16 is called
e 0�Pih�e sep:.�t�'p�rj;s. The denominator is the total �rea. If t�e stress will exist on the end surfaces
of AB, and the only stress will be o:...+..+"
location of the center·<>{ gravity for each of the separate areas 18 kn.own'. it
: \ .);, is not necessary to perform .mathematical m e, acting normally to the surfaces as
··';L· ·.f . ;.·:c}Jegrations. Each f y dA term can be r�placed shown. An equation can be derived
for giving the value of this bending
· · t·i�1ctW:fJ>:;·:£Jit'fit)i\by the product of the area time� the ?1stance
from the axis to its center of gravity as is shown stress at any desired distance v from
�;.:..,..,.::,.w......,_ig. rs. Thus the neutral surface. Let 01 be the ,
(bl
center of curvature for slice AB of
_ A11i1 + A21i2 + (6) the deflected beam. Let d'{) be the Fig. 16. Bending stress for beam
y = A1 + A2 + · · · small angle included between the cut loaded by moments at ends.
ting planes, and let r be the radius
.Example 4. Find the location of the center of
of curvature. Consider a horizontal element located a distance v below
;;gravity of the Tshaped cross section in Fig. l2l(b).
the neutral surface. Draw line BC parallel to 01A. Angle A01B is equal
< ' Solution. Divide the area into two parts of 6 in. 2
to angle CBD and the following proportion can be written.
. ·..· 'and 4 in. 2 by extending the vertical sides of the stem
e>cro!IS·seetion. Let the axis of moments be taken along the v v d'()
==E (a)
r dx
Since the total deformation of the element v d'() divided by the original
length dx is the unit deformation or strain E, Eq. (a) indicates that the
elongation of the element varies directly with the distance v from the
s. oeated.2 in. up from the bottom. neutral surface. Let it be assumed that the material of the.beam follows
}�;1�,_L��, + ·: �
Hooke's law. Substitution of E = sf E into Eq.. (a) gives
s:·.::'':i�r,_;.;•,(il.t'.';:"i�··.·.·
)
or 8 =E
v
r
(7)
Suppo�tIong, thin, straight beam is bent into a curve by moments M
applied it the ends, as s_hown in Fig. 16(a). The beam and moments lie
Thus the stress also varies directly with the distance from the neutr�l
in the"ityiplane :with the origin at the left end and the yaxis positive
surface, becoming larger as v increases. Equation (7) is of course vahd
downward, At. distance x from the left end, the deflection of the beam is only for stresses in the elastic range of the material. Above the neutral
given by distance y, as shown. Figure l6(b) shows, enlarged, a slice surface, for negative values of v, the stress is compressive and i?creases
AB of differential length dx cut from the beam at location x. uniformly with the distance from the neutral surface. Equation �7),
The planes cutting the right and left end surfaces of AB are taken
obtained from the geometry of the deformed beam, gives �nl! a po�i:n
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the originally straight beam. It is of the solution. It is now necessary to consider the equilibrium O t e
customary to assume that these cross sections will remain plane and per
pendicular to the longitudinal elements of the beam after moments M � h b
Figure 17(a) shows the beam after the lefthand portion as een
) )
10 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES II
remove'dhy pa.ssipg a.., single· cutting pl�ne at A. _It �ill be ?bserved that equal to the moment M. Hence
the strf�'. qn''.lJie.l�ft:b�n�_ cross section are distributed m a?chordhancde
witl,l. E9. ..{7), a'ddtlil�tlie·given moment !f is acting at. the ng t an
end. A�erspective of the.EJtress system is shown m Fig. 17(b}. The
 M = f sv dA = I� v2 dA =� f v2 dA = �I (9)
intersectiot(pf the neutrkl sµrface with the cross section upon which the
The integral J v2 dA is customarily called the moment of inertia of the
stresses are a�ting iEJ .called the neutral axis. . . . . .  area and is represented by the letter I. This substitution has been m d
The portion of the �m in Fig. 17(a) must be m eqmh?rmm ':1th
in the last form of Eq. (9). If the radius of curvature r is eliminated
respectbothtoforcesa.n!imoments. Since the given loading M IS a
, .. _.,. .>, , Eqs. (7) and (9), it results in the important equation
Mv
s=r (10)
Nsulral equation gives the value of the bending stress at any distance v from
surfa cs neutral axis. The greatest stress is found at the location on the cross
where v is the largest. This maximum value of v is usually denoted
c, and the equation for the maximum bending stress then becomes
Mc
s=r (11)
(b)
BtreBB caused by bending moment. �hould be noted that the magnitude of the stress s given by Eq. (11)
_ mdependent of the kind of material composing the beam. The ratio
'< :ViCrieJe� that the forces acting on the left end surface is called the section modulus of the cross section.
'�thern�lves. The force on an element of area dA, shown Alt�ough Fig. 17 illustrates a rectangular beam, the foregoing theory
�iuie9.11a.lt?,a dA. When this force is added up for the entire valid for any shape of cross section. The maximum stress is located on
'iful'finuat be equal to zero. The value of s from Eq. (7) boundary at the point farthest removed from the neutral axis
itutJa as follows: . _ ): · According to the original assumption, this theory should be �pplied
Jr.� 1f',� Ii if
' . :"fI'�llly .t? long, thin beams loaded in pure bending. However, under most
,';.}_conditions, the equations give satisfactory results for bending stress
v dA = v dA = o (b)
;,�)f'.'\Vhen the bending moment is caused by transverse forces applied to the
stresses of the lefthand end surface must be equal to the applied moment
load M. The force on an element of area, s dA, when multiplied by the . , p, 146 of reference 9, Bibliography. Complete bibliographical information is
distance v to the neutral axis, and integrated over the entire area, is at end of each chapter.
?if.
Solution. When Eq. (14) is substituted into Eq. (11), the following expression for
the bending stress of a beam of circular cross section is obtained.
By Eq. (7): 8
= Ev = 30,000,000 X 0.014 = 461670 psi 32M
r 9
s = 1rd3 (15)
7. Moment of Inertia Suppose that the moment of inertia for the shaded rectangle in Fig.
19 is desired about axis 1. Axis O should be drawn
The integral f v2 dA appeared in connection with the bending theory of through the center of gravity parallel to axis 1 about c.� dA
beams. For convenience in writing, this integral, as was mentioned in the which the moment of inertia is desired. The inte
foregoing section, is usually replaced by the symbol I and is called the gral of distance squared times differential area then Ar o
becomes I I' 1
I I
Ii= J(v + sv dA = J(v2 + 2y v + y )dA 2 (a) I :
'
I
I
'
I
I
The integration can be made term by term and is LJ
to extend over the shaded area. The first integral, Fig. 19. Moment
I v2 dA, is equal to the moment of inertia about ofaxis.inertia a bout parallel
axis O and may be written I 0• The second term,
2y f v dA, is equal to zero since it represents merely the moment of the
area about an axis through the center of gravity. The third term is seen
Fig. 18. Moment of inertia and polar moment of inertia. \ to be equal ·to Ay2, where A is the area. The moment of inertia for area
A about axis I is then equal to
moment of inertia. Expressions for I for the commonly used geometric l1=lo+Ay2 (16)
shapes of cross sections can be found in the mechanical engineering hand This equation is known as the parallel axis theorem. The moment of inertia
books. See also Fig. 18.
for a composite cross section can be found by dividing it into elementary
If the integral is computed for a rectangle of width band depth h about parts, finding the moment of inertia about the desired axis for each by
an axis parallel to side b through the center of gravity, as shown in Eq. (16), and then adding the results together. Axis 0, however, must be
Fig. 18, it is found to be equal to
taken through the center of gravity of the area under consideration and
I = bh3 (12) must be parallel to the axis about which the total value of I is desired.
12 The equation for moment of inertia is sometimes written
Width b is parallel to the axis about which the moment tries to rotate (b)
the cross section.
where i is called the radius of gyration for the area. It is the hypothetical
( ( (
14 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1 Sec. 8 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
15
distance at which the entire area A would have to be concentrated in The mome�t arm is the distance from the line of action of the force to the
order to give the same value for I as determined by the integral. center of gravity of the crosssectional area.
Mc 3,600 X 1.125 X 1 .
Example 7. Find the value of the moment of inertia of the Tshaped cross In Eq. (11): s = T =
0.5
= 8,100 psi bending stress
section of Fig. 121(b).
Solution. By Exampie 4, the center of gravity is located 2 in. up from the Superposition applies and the resultant stress is given by
bottom. P Mc
s=+
A I
1 61
By Eq. (16), for the stem: I = X +6 X l2 = 24 in.4
12 On the inside edge: s = 2,400 + 8,100 = 10,500 psi tension
By Eq. (16), for the T: I = 4 X l3 + 4 X 1.52 = 9.33 in. 4 On the outside edge: s = 2,400 8,100 = 5,700 psi compression
12
Total: I = 24 + 9.33 = 33.33 in. 4 Views (c) and (d) show the effect of moment and direct stress separately; the
resultant stress on a cross section through the main body of the link is given by
8. Principle of Superposition
M
3,600 lb
Eff11t:I of
Example. 8.• Calculate and plot the distribution of stress over a cross section dir11t:l lood
of the offset link shown in Fig. 1lO(a). The main body of the link is straight and
is i in. thick. 3,600/b 3,600lb 3,600 lb
It Ia obvious. that the loading of Fig. 1lO(a) produces both direct tension and Offs,/ link Equfrolrnl loading /luu/lant stress
bending stress on the cross section. The principle of superposition applies, and,
each stress can be computed separately. The two stresses can then be added\ Fig. 110. Offset link with tension load.
algebraically to obtain the resultant. _
At this point, good use may be made of a principle from statics whereby a �e). Note that views (b) and (e) are in static equilibrium. AJso note that the
given force may be resolved into a parallel force and� couple. By doing so, the hne. of zero stress no longer passes through the center of gravity of the cross
section.
equivalent loading on the cross section shown by Fig. 1lO(b) is secured. The
moment arm is equal to the distance from the line of action of the force to the
center of gravity of the cross section. · . Superposition cannot be applied if the loads produce deflections which
are so great that the basic configuration of the system is thereby changed.
Solution. The computations are as follows.
T�ke, for example, the leaf spring with the load on the end shown in
3 . . Fig. 1ll(a). Suppose, upon doubling the load that the deflection, shown
A = 4x 2 = 1.5 ID, 3 ?Y the dashed outline, becomes so large that the moment arm of the loads
� reduced. The stress and deflection will not be twice as great as for a
bh1 3 1 . l!Ulgle load. ..
12 4 12 =05m
l==X8X . .4
. Another example where the fundamental configuration of the system
3,600 = 2,400 psi. diirect stress
p = � chan�ed by the application of a load is given in Fig. 1ll(b). A change
In Eq. (1): s = A
1.5 in loading causes a change in deflection, which in turn causes a change
16
( FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1 Sec. 9 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ( 17
in the length of the span. The load and deflection therefore are not z, the loading for slice AB is more complicated than in the case of pure
proportional to each other.2 •
bending previously considered. Shearing forces, as well as moments
In general, superposition is not valid for slender members loaded m exist on the end surfaces of the slice. In general the top surface of th;
compression as shown in Fig. 1ll(c). After the load reaches a value beam is acted upon by transverse loads.
A slice from such a beam is shown in Fig. 112. The rate at which the
bending moment is changing in value is equal to dM /dx, and the distance
over which this change takes place in

passing from A to Bis dz, The change in . )(
1 4�p
..........
'Ji2p
value for the moment then is (dM /dx)dx.
The moment on the right end is equal to
0
The slope 'P is reduced in Fig. 16 in passing from A to B, and the or dV
dx = w (19)
increment dq, of the angle is thus a negative quantity. From the figure
dx = rd». Then The derivative with respect to x of the expression for the shear is therefore
d'(J = _! = d2y (17) the negative of the value of the load.
dx r dx2
. The moments also must be in equilibrium. The equation for moments
The negative sign is inserted because both dx and rare positive quantitie\ ' , about point A, for example, is
Substitution of Eq. (9) gives
d2y M (18)
'M + dd� dx  [V + !� dx] dx  w dx X d;  M = 0 (b)
dx2 = EI
When differentials of higher order are neglected, this equation reduces to
Equation (18) is the fundamental equation of beam theory. For
dM = V (20)
the general case of loading, moment 111 is a function of x and not a con dx
stant as in Fig. 16. If the beam has a large deflection, as, for example,
a leaf spring in some types of service, the approximation 'P = dy/dx The derivative of the moment, as a function of x, gives the expression for
cannot be used, and the mathematics of the solution becomes very the shearing force. Differentiate Eq. (20) and substitute in Eq. (19)
complicated. d2M = w
(21)
When the bending moment of the beam is not constant, but varies with dx2
1'. 2
See also Section 13.
2 See pp. 4, 162, of reference 4, Bibliography.
( (
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1 Sec. 10 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 19
18
Differentiate Eq . .(ts) and substitute Eq. (20) I. 2.
day
dx' =  EI
V (22) ;Er=:;:::=:4,£�
The third derivative of the equation for the deflection y gives an expres
sion which is proportional to the shear. Finally, differentiate Eq. (22) v
')( o V=o
and substitute Eq. (19) to obtain x
d 4y . W
dx• = Elj
(23)
o:::: ::::::::::::i�;:;:: :::::J
M�
M,1
:
M 1x 1 M./1
')(
The fourth derivative of y with respect to x is thus proportional to the 9z= EI; Y= 2EI ,· Y,,,ax=m
load w.
The location of the point of maximum bending moment is found by
differentiating M with respect to x and setting the result equal to zero.
However, dM/dx is equal to V by Eq. (20). Therefore, a maximum (or a
minimum) value of the bending moment occurs at those points for which y l
. the ..shear V j_��_g1,1a.l to zero. The load w on the top surface of the beam
may be uniform, may vary with x, or may be equal to zero except at the
v�
0 ::::::::::::::;;;;t�c:;,:;:3
I x
points .where concentrated forces or moments are acting.
� 1·,�llxJ
10. Deflection of Beams Af� x
�11
The foregoing equations can be used for deriving equations for the de e,=m; e1=m; �= �
M. 9,3£1
flections of beams. If the expression for. the bending moment, as a function Y= 6IE7(2l1x3lx1+xs)
of x, is substituted in Eq. (18), and if two integrations are performed and
the constants of integration are evaluated, the equation for the deflection
y at location z is obtained. The process is illustrated by the following
example.
g lz J .
Example 9. Derive the equation for the de
,. lb�;;mazzn zzzzzzzz, y
flection for values of x located between the .'.
_7, J supports. for the bea� shown in Fig. 113. ,: ; .
· . Solution. By. taking moments, the values ): :
Fig. 113. Example 9. of the reactions are fQ!!Dd to be R1 = 3wl/8 ·i
and R2 = 9wl/8. '.
x
3 w:i;I
At location x: M=wlx
8 2
d'ly
In Eq. (18): El= M
dx2
= 38 wlx + wx
2
1 For O<x(J;
El dy = _ 3wlx2 + wx'
Integrate: dx 16 6 + Ci Fig. l14. Shear, moment, and deflection in beams of uniform cross section.
Since the slope dy/dx is not known for any point on the beam, constant C1 �t the left end, x = 0 a�d y = 0. When these are substituted, C2 = 0. At the
must be retained and evaluated later. Integrate: nght end, x = l and Y = 0. When these are substituted
'
3wlx3 wx4 wl3
Ely =  + 48 + C1x + C2
24 C,=
48
(
Chap. 1 Sec. 10
c
20 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPDF..S FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 21
8. 13.
,Yv I
�c�2x)
0 • �]!!l x v...,.��.,..
L::Jt]
M�!(lxx2/
wl1
2 0
M · E:te.:::] x
L�::J?,�::::�
8 ;r
O X
e w[:1. .sa:
�,·m·
_Pab(lib). Pbx I I I x
, 6l£I ' Y, =6/£1 (I b x J 8,=82=24ll' Ymax=� 0
Pao .., . Pab Pb
81 =e2 = Pa{laJ 9,= 6£I; 8., • 6£I (2 l+ b)
:i
8 _Pab(/+aJ. Paz (I Ia I z 'J
Ye=6lfl £I l 2 x +x :J)
WX ( :J / I
Y=24 2EI
'I 61£1 '
I 'RJ,____.,___.'i i«
Ymax= 24Pa (.
£I 3 4a
2)
11.1,,.,,..,�,,i;.,.;,,..,..,.,..,
16. p
Maximum moment·
Mmo.c= P(e +yma.cl
Ymo.c
I ff
: Pe St'C °j '{ fl
(c) °"l't
Maximum stress:
I I
Smo.c x
P/, ec I
(I+ ;,secziViiE
ff)
,r1EI p = 4,r1EI
�' = 4/2 Cl [2
P e Where A= area al crosssection
II.
Critical or buckling loads for centrally loaded
2 ..
eccenfr,c1ty
1 = li7A, radius al gyrolian
r P,.lT'
axis lo ed(J"P of section
11
s ,. s ,Pl""_r_Y
Far o<!x,e (1c) p 1= � For o<x,e{/c) p2= £�
M Psin= EI
y===
Sp sm pl
sin px  £§ x
SI
y =  P sinh pc sinh px + Pc x
Sp smh pl Sl
Equations far slope and moment con be found Equations far slope and moment con be found
by differentiation. by differenfio lion.
�
1rd4 1r34
vl
•
By Eq. (14): I =  =  = 3.976 m. 4
64 64
j ;;;;;;i;::::::a
x
�" .!£
y.....,= 6£I (2a+3
bJ
w =
32 .
yA = 0.283 r4 = 2.00 lb/in.
�;;;;;;;;;;;;:LE
I(
I(
x
M1a ..!!!J!!... • �(a+ 3b}
Substitution of these values gives
e,= 6£1 • 92=�£'I • 6s : 3£1
l3 = 3,817,000 or t = 156.3 in. = 13.02 ft
Far 0:1!._x�a, }',=6:}� (a21r2J
Far O� 1r1:!!. b, y ir
2• 6 (2ax, + 3x,2J (b) M = wl2 = 2 X 156.3'
8 8
= 6,106 inlb
8
= Mc = 6,106 X 1.5 = 2 300 psi
I 3.976 '
(a) Find the maximum permissible length for a 3 in. diameter shaft. (a) Find the value of the bending stress
(b) Find the stress caused by the weight of the shaft. For steel, 'Y = 0.283 and the deflection at the center if the ribs Fig. llS. Cross section for ribbed
lb/in. 3, E = 30,000,000 psi. were omitted. beam, Example 11.
( (
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1 Sec. 12 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 25
24
(b) Find the value of the bending stress and the deflection at the center when 12. Shearing Stress
the ribs are present.
Suppose an element is loaded by shearing stresses acting tangentially
Solution, (a) to its sides as shown in perspective in Fig. l19(a) or in plan in Figs.
119(b) and (c). Such loading causes no change in the length of the sides
. I = bh3 = 4.2 X l3 = 0.35 in." of the element, but merely produces a distortion or change in the value of
12 12 . the 90° angles in the corners.
M == Pl == 200 X 60 = 3,000 inlb
4 4
_ Mc = 3,000 X 0.5 = 4 290 psi
8
 I 0.35 ' y
_ Pl3 _ 200 X 603 = 0.1714 in.
y  48El  48 X 15,000,000 X 0.35
(b) Area, A = 4.2 X 1 +2 X 0.2 X 0.6 = 4.44 in.2
fa) £!11ment loaded ,n sh1101 fb) Pos) h v11 shear
To findy,takethe axis along top of the cross section.
F'ig. 119. Element loaded by shearing or tangential stress.
4.44jj = 4.2 X 0.5 + 0.24 X 1.1 = 2.364
y = 0.5324 in. Shearing stresses are usually denoted by double subscripts. The first
subscript indicates the direction of the normal to the plane under con
For the main area: I = bh
12
3 + Ayz = 0.35 + 4.2 X· 0.0324 2 = 0.3544 in. 4 sideration, and the second subscript indicates the direction of the stress.
Hence stress s"II lies in a plane whose normal is in the zdirection, while
For the ribs: I = 1.2 X O.V + 0.24 X 0.5676 = 0.0813 in.
2 4 the stress acts in the ydirection. For similar reasons 811:r: indicates that the
12 stress is in a plane perpendicular to the yaxis, and is parallel to the xaxis.
Total: I = 0.3544 + 0.0813 = 0.4357 in. 4 the element is in equilibrium, the moments of the forces about a
say A, must add up to zero. The stress should be multiplied by
= Mc = 3,000 X 0.6676 = 4 600 si
8
I 0.4357 ' p area and then by the moment arm to give
As shown above, shallow ribs cause an increase in the bending stress. Equation (24) shows that the shearing stresses in two perpendicular
The deflection, however, has been decreased. If the ribs are made some directions at a point are equal. Usually no distinction in notation is made,
what larger, the stress would be decreased, and the beam would be and both would be represented by the same symbol.
stronger.4 It should be noted, however, that four arrows are necessary to specify
Ribbed structures are frequently made of a brittle material such as a state of shear for an element, and for equilibrium these arrows must be
cast iron which is weak in tension. If possible, the ribs should be in com arranged either as in Fig. l19(b) for positive shear, or as in Fig. l19(c)
pression. When a cast iron body with parallel ribs is bent and the ribs for negative shear. Thus if the direction of one arrow is reversed, all four
are in tension, care must be exercised to make certain that all ribs are of · must be reversed. In other words if shearing stress exists on one side of
the same height, or they may fail progressively beginning with the highest. an e1 ement, then, m '
· general, shearing · must exist on all four srid es,
stress
Therefore, the full strength of the body cannot be realized. as shown in Fig. 119. .
The shearing strain or angular deformation 'Y is proportional to the
\. 4 See references 10 and 11, Bibliography.
( ( (
26 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1 Sec. 13 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
27
shearing stress for values within the elastic range, and Hooke's law for cated at a distance V1 below the neutral surface. Moment Mis acting on
shear becomes the cross section of the left end of the slice, while moment M + dM is
8zy = y(} (25) acting on the right.
The constant of proportionality, G, is c�lled �he modulus of elasticity To maintain equilibrium in the horizontal direction, shearing stress e,
in shear. It has dimensions of psi. In magmtu�e it would be equal to the must act towards the left on surface AB. This shear is necessary because
stress which would cause the angular deformat10� to b�come equ�l to one the normal stresses from the bending moment are assumed to be larger
radian provided Hooke's law is valid for such imagmary loadmg. The on surface BC on the right than on surface AD on the left.
mathematical relationship between the three elastic constants E, G, and An element of area dA on surface AD has the normal force s dA or
µ is given by
Mv dA/1 acting as shown in Fig. 120(b). The total force on the left end
extending from A to D is then
E
G = 2(1 + µ) [c, Mv dA
}., I (a)
whereµ is Poisson's ratio."
Similarly, the total force on the right end BC is
13. Trajisv.erse Shearing Stress in Beams [c, (M + dM)v dA (b)
}., I
. . In addition to the bending stresaes, the loads on a b�a� may also. cause ,
shearing stresses between the elements. The designer is mter.ested m �he The shearing force on the horizontal surface AB is s.b dx, where bis the
magnit11:de,�fthe�st;resses, since machine parts made of ductile materials width of the beam at the location where the shear stress s, is acting.
le,
a:r� 'ii�6·�tly designed 6ri the basis of shearing stress. The equilibrium equation for horizontal forces for ABCD is then
le,  + dM)v
:. :; � :'. � ·=_; ,
Mv dA  (M dA
s,bdx + 1  I (c)
1··
1 .,
or _ 1 (c, dM v dA _ V
(oJ SJ/ding of lommot,d
s,  b }., di r  lb •• v dA (26)
•trip• with tronsr1,rs, foods.
In the last form of Eq. (26), shear V has been substituted for dM/dx. In
Eq. (26), v dA represents the moment of the area of the element about the
Neutral OXIS
neutral axis. This is integrated over the entire surface from v1, the location
where the shearing stress s, is desired, to the outer edge. This integral
\ can also be written iiA where Aa is the shaded area of view AA, and
0,
ii is the distance from its center of gravity to the neutral axis. Equation
(26) can 'then be written
(c) View AA
(bJ Side . .,,.,, ol beam
Cross sut,on V_A (27)
S, = Jb V a
Fig. 120. Transverse shearing stress in beam.
As was proved in the preceding section, the shearing stress on the
If a vertical load is supported by a stack of laminated strips, the shear vertical end surfaces at distance v1 from the neutral axis is also equal to
ing effect is as shown in Fig. 120(a). In a solid beam the elements do not the horizontal shear stress s, as determined by Eqs. (26) or (27).
slide on each other, but the shearing stress tending to make them do so For composite cross sections it is convenient to divide area Aa into
is present. . several parts, find iiAa for each of them, and then add together for the
Figure 120(b) shows a portion ABCD cut from a beam of umform final result. For such beams, Eq. (27) is written
cross section by two adjacent vertical planes and a horizontal plane, lo
(28)
5 See p. 57 of reference 1, Bibliography.
(
Chap. 1
( c
28 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Sec. 13 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 29
The total shear force on the cross section is represented by V. The seconddegree parabola in v1• Its value is proportional to the length of
distance from the neutral axis to the point where the shearing stress is the arrows in Fig. l22(a). The maximum value occurs at the neutral
desired is given by v. axis, where Vi = 0, and is equal to
3V
Example 12. Find the transverse shear in the material 3 in. from the top 8'
= 2A (30)
surface for the beam of Fig. 121(a). Also find the value of the transverse shearing
stress at the neutral axis. The shear decreases both above and below the axis in accordance with
Eq, (29) until at the upper and lower edges it becomes zero.' The end
S�Iiition. "As.is shown In Example 4, the center of gravity of the cross section
surface of the beam in Fig. 122(a) is also acted upon by the system of
in Fig. 121(b) is found to be 2 in. up from the bottom. As shown in Example 7,
the moment of inertia about the horizontal axis through the center of gravity is normal stresses caused by the bending moment, as shown by Fig. 17(b).
found to be 33.33 in.! In Fig. l22(a) these have been omitted for greater clarity.
Aa=Jin.2 Aa=41itz
r;*'k : 1��!
 _ _ _ I , [{ [ A;=.Jin.2
. • ... "1 'le.. ......
s = £
• 21
(h24 v 2)1
= 3V
2A
(1 
4v_12)
h2 (29) ; Seep. 116 of reference 1, Bibliography. . .
For deflection of beams caused by shear, see p. 170 of reference 1, Bibhograph!.
8 A more exact analysis gives values or l.38P/;l and l.23P/A for the shearing
The transverse shearing stress in a rectangular beam thus varies as a stress at the center and ends, respectively, or the neutral axis. See P· 290 of reference 3,
Bibliography.
( ( (
Sec. 14 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 31
30 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1
pressure of the fluid. The equivalent loading is shown in F" 1 24(b)
For a circular tube with very thin walls, the maximum transverse shear In Fig. l24(c} the vertical bar is loaded at the base by the �!m;nt w�
stress at the neutral axis is given by as well as_ by the force P. The equivalent loading is shown in Fig. 124(d).
v (32) In solvmg . most stress
. problems it is first necessary to find the reac tiions
s,,..a:i: == 2 A w h.ich . the given. loading produces. It is customary to make use of th e
foII owmg equations from statics.
The distribution of transverse shear stress for an Ibeam is shown in
�F,, = 0, �Fil= 0, �F. = 0
Fig. 122(d). The stress is practically uniform except in the regions �ear
�M,, = 0, �Mil =0, �M. = 0
the top arid bottom:..A. good approximate value for the stress is o�tamed
by dividing the total shearing force V by the area of the web td with the According �o these equations, the components of the forces, as well as the
web considered as extending the entire depth of the beam. moments, m each of the three coordinate directions must add to zero.
M�a tn2=y (I
Equ1val•nt
loading for
r I ar
for floor b1om
fbJ Equ1val1111I loading for zxp/111111 for fa}.
Fig. 124. Examples of beams with moment loads.
z: i
For static equilibrium, each of these equations must be satisfied. It
(t:J This is 1101 11quivolt111I should be noted that each is satisfied independently of the others. So
(a) Actu'11 laildlng 011 snafl. loading b1c11ust1 forc11s P
ar11 not in confocf with shall far as the reactions are concerned, a force can be considered to be acting
anywhere along its line of action, and a moment load can be considered
Fig.l23.• Actual and equivalent load diagram for shaft.
to be acting anywhere in its plane. The state of stress in the material
however, is determined by the location, on the line of action at which the
Forces arisefrom a variety of causes. A force may be due to weight or to force is considered to be applied. '
inertia if a body is being accelerated. A force may be transmitted to the T�e shearing force and bending moment, acting internally on the cross
body by another member of the machine at the point where the two parts \ section of a _b_ea� at any point, are equal to the force and moment required
are in contact. It is common practice to represent forces by means of for the equilibrium of each portion of the beam after it has been cut in
arrows on sketches in solving force problems. It is very important, except two at !he �iven point. For example, consider the simply supported beam,
for gravity and inertia, to keep in mind that the body must have contact shown in Fig. 125(a), with load P and reactions R1 and R2• In (b) and
with the rest of the structure at the point where a force, represented by an (c), after cutting at distance x from the left end shear V and moment
arrow, is considered as acting. As an example, consider the shaft of Fig. M1 are _required to maintain equilibrium of each portion.1 Reactions R,
123(a). The entire loading occurs at point A, where the bracket is a_nd R2 m (b) and (c) are the same as in (a). Shear V1 is found by summa
attached to the shaft. The equivalent loading diagram is shown in Fig. tion of vertical forces. Moment M1 is found by making a summation of
123(b). The diagram of Fig. 123(c) is incorrect because forces P are moments, with the location of the cut taken as the moment center. The
not in contact with the shaft. shear and moment diagrams shown in (d) and (e) are constructed by
Moment loads such as those described in Fig. 123(b) frequently occur taking different values of x and finding v and M for each until a sufficient
in machine parts. Thus in the tank shown in Fig. 124(a) the floor beam number of values has been found to plot the diagrams. It is generally
not only resists the vertical pressure of the fluid, but has moments applied assumed that a reaction does not change in elevation. Other transverse
to it at the ends by the uprights which are acted upon by the horizontal
( ( (
Chap. I Sec. 15 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
32 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 33
loads deflect the beam, and the elevations of the loads are thereby Solution. Reaction R1 can be found by writing a moment equation for the
entire beam with center of moments taken at R2. The resulting equation is
changed. . . · ti ,
Moments and shears can, of course, be either positive or nega .rv e,
depending on the direction in which they act. The shear and �ome_nt 64R1 = 25,000; R1 = 390.6 lb
at point A for the beam shown m Fig. Reaction R2 can be found by a moment equation with R1 taken as the center.
125 are both positive. Positive direc
tions for the arrows representing these 64R2 = 25,000; R2 = 390.6 lb
quantities are accordingly shown in the The moment diagram consists of segments of straight lines. Let it be assumed
figures. Even though both shear and that the beam is cut just to the left of the point of application of the moment
moment are positive at A, note that a load. The bending moment is positive and is equal to
reversal in direction for both the V 1 and M = 36R1 = 36 X 390.6 = 14,062.5 inlb
M 1 arrows occurs in (b) and ( c). The
I
direction of the arrow thus depends on Again let it be assumed that the beam is cut just to the right of the point of
whether the portion of the beam to the application of the load. The moment is negative.
right of the cut, as in (b), is considere?, M = 28R2 = 28 X 390.6 = 10,937.5 inlb
I
or whether the portion to the left, as in
(c), is considered. Note that both (b) and
15. Slender Compression Members or Columns
(c) are in agreement with Fig. 11_9�b)
I with respect to direction of positive When a short block is loaded in compression as in Fig. 128(a), the
shear. Although the yaxis is taken posi average compressive stress in the material is found by dividing the load
Fig. 125. Snt:.:.nd moment in tive downward, both the V and Maxes
are taken positive upward.
Depending on the loading and method of supporting the beam, the
shear .at a cross section may have one sign, and the moment may have (oJ Shorl block (bJ Long slt1ndt1r m11mbt1r
\ straight and a load, smaller than the critical value, is centrally applied.
Such a column is stable; the bar, if given a lateral deflection, returns to
its originally straight condition upon removal of the lateral force.
Force Pin Fig. 128(b) can be increased until the straight form of the
bar becomes unstable, and the axial loads will then maintain the bar in a
curved form. The smallest load capable of maintaining the bar in a slightly
(�(;)
Pos1livt1 N1golivt1 bent form is called the critical or buckling load Pc,· A load only slightly
mom,nl moment greater than Pc, causes a relatively large lateral deflection. After buckling
Fig. 127. Example 13. the stress increases rapidly· in addition to the direct compression, a bend
Fig. 126. Sign convention for moments.
. '
mg stress from moment Py is present.
Example 13. A simply supported beam is loaded by a concentrated moment Hence the phenomenon of stability or buckling is quite different from
of 25,000 inlb as shown in Fig. 127. Find values of reactions R1 and R2, and draw the phenomenon of bending. A beam with lateral load starts to d�flect
and dimension the bending moment diagram. :
.as soon as any load is present , and the deflection is directly proportional
( ( (
34 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1 Sec. 15 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 35
to the magnitude of the load. A slend�r memb�� in compres�ion, in con load on the column that causes the maximum stress to be equal to the
trast, exhibits no lateral deflection until the critical or �uckhng load has yield point value s11,,. Let the working load P be equal to P11,, divided by
been reached. Any increase of load then causes a large mcrease of �e�ec the factor of safety.
tion with accompanying danger of failure. It is obvious that the principle
of superposition does not apply to columns. . p _ PIIP
 FS (33)
Sometimes only a portion of a stressed body is in compress10�, as, for
example, the compression flange of a beam ', The �anger of bucklmg may
be presenthere if sufficient_lateral support is lackmg. The secant equation for stress can then be written
l {P;,,]
P11,,
+ i2ec sec�\}AE
,
[
vV
1 much more easily by using curves that have been plotted from it. Figure
�
v i
L !.. L::: L L i
L

i
1... ' '
.'. L. /.
0·1 L,.......i...
1" i i.. ._ 129 shows such a family of curves for steel columns (E = 30,000,000 psi)
r ::::::
2.0
o.z::..,,/
Jh for various values of ec/i2• It should be noted that it was necessary to
I' I/ L
v � L
/ O· 4 
v multiply both sides of the equation by l2/i2 to obtain coordinates suitable

vv_oa56

 O··· /
ll,
i
.
/ l.,....," i.."""
1.5
' •,::,; f·t I/) � �Vi..o
)_ . c ._,,.. ..... 8 ......
1.0
for plotting.
,..
� ,_,,..,
;; 1;17{ !it/ � V/", rz·; (;..... t>
17/
I.'4l7iT Example 14. A steel column has an l/i value of 100 and an ec/i2 value of 0.1.
•
/I /IPyp(, ec [I Pyp)
:,•rP="'iT 1+7sec
� rY
I. I I
Find the value of the permissible working stress P/A if the factor of safety is
· ..... [{' k'o' to be 2.5. The yield point value for the material is 40,000 psi.
0.5 •: .,,.
'
<
.  Solution •
i,i>cc
2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
; 871p
i
= 1002 x 40,000 = 4 x 108
4A 88.m. 2 The stresses in a body, as found by the equations of this chapter, have
d2 =  = 6.
11' definite directions. It is sometimes necessary to have the stresses at direc
tions other than those given by the equations.
ii = d2 = 6.88 = 0.430 in. z
16 16 Figure l30(a) shows an element. of a plate with the vertical surfaces
subjected to the general twodimensional state of stress. The element has
� = 36 x 36 x 50 000 = 1.51 x 108
i2 s,,. 0.430 '
i�,
II)
fs,, s..s, l
8, = 8zu (cos2 ,p  sin2 ,p)  (8,,  81) sin <P cos <P
+
=a1acas 2t/>2osin 2,1
The shear stress 8, at any desired angle ,p can thus be found by Eq. 0
.;:
Normal s/r,ss, s•
(36).A positive teJmlt for 8, means that the stress is directed as in Fig. S,,•
130(c), and a negative result means that the stress is directed opposite�y. :: (b}
Cii
Angle ,p is positive when taken clockwise as in Fig. 130(c) and vice
versa.
s �(s"2
 811)2 +
l32(a) and (b), respectively.
82
8,, + 11
= 2 8 "ll 2 (39)
Sr •8,000 psi
Ss ,,..,, •13,000 psi
It should be noted that the sides of the element for principal stresses are s,
. f;ee from shearing stress. If shear stress s,,11 should be equal to zero, stresses 5,,,.20,000 psi
8,, and 811 would become the principal stresses.
J(
The maximum shearing stress to which the material is subjected has s,,,,, 5,000 psi
a value equal to the radius of the circle. On the circle, point H is located
90° from points F and G for principal stresses. In the body, the surfaces fa} Gi•t111 slat, al slrt1ss
for maximum shear stress are thus inclined 45° to the surfaces for the
�·5,000ps_i>fr'Lt��'=*�4J..:..:.�,�::::r:,,i._.=S,,
principal stresses. The element of maximum shearing stress, as shown in
Fig. l3l(e), is inclined at 81 to the xaxis. As shown by the circle, the
value of 01 can be found by the following equation.
8,,  811
tan 2 01 = , for max. shear stress (40)
28'""
The value of the maximum shearing stress is

8,maz  �[ 8:,;  811
2 ]2 + 2
8:ti, _ (41)
Ss .,.,, = 13,000 psi
Let the axes for maximum shear stress be called 1' and 2'. In Fig. 131, S,::8.000
I  1
. \S,=8,000psi
p$1 2'
the element for maximum shear stress has normal stresses on the sides of r;j Maximum sh�a,ing stres«
value Fig. 132. Solution of Example 17 by Mohr circle.
81' = 82'
+ 811
8.,
= 2 (42)
(c) Diameter ECD should be drawn at 60° clockwise to the xaxis of the circle,
an? stresses s,. and s,., scaled and placed on the element of Fig. l32(c). Sin?e
Another useful equation for maximum shear stress is obtained by sub point D lies below the s,.axis shear stress s crosses the naxis of Fig. 132(c) m
tracting 82 from s1. the direction that causes a counterclockwise moment on the element. Likewise,
si_nce E lies above the s,.axis, stress e, crosses the n'axis in sketch (c) in the
8,ma:i, = 21 (s1 82) (43) direction that causes a clockwise moment on the element.
(d) Principal stresses s1. and s2, together with their angle of inclination, are
J :;if
( (' (
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1 Sec. 19 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
42 43
scaled directly from the circle, and are shown acting on an element properly effect is given by
oriented in Fig. 132(d).
(e) The maximum shear stress s,,...,. and the corresponding nor�al stress E., = ]: (s.,  µs11) in.fin.
are shown on the element of Fig. 132(e). The arrows are directed m accord (46) .
81,
ance with the previously explained rules.
In the ydirection a similar equation applies.
The advantages of the graphical method for solving combined str�ss 1
pr<:>J:>l�.D!S should now be apparent. Not only is the method more rapid, E11 = E ( 811  µs.,) (47)
but the state of �t�e� for any direction can be scaled directly from the
circle. When the equations are used for solving a. problem, a. sep�ra.te Equations (46) and (47) represent Hooke's law for twodimensional
computation must be made for each desired direction. The Mohr circle
also aids in forming a mental picture of the state of stress in the body.
In working problems, care must be exercised that all necessar! informa
tion is placed on the drawing for the circle as well as on the views of the
various elements.
The reader should check all values shown in Figs. 132(c), (d), and (e) �
I,
.. by using the appropriate equations. Note that for 'P = 30°, Eq. (36) gives
Fig. 133. Deflections due to Fig. 134. Defiectiona due F"ig, 135. Tension in two
a negative result for s,. This result checks with the circle and indicates stress Br, to stress By, directions.
that the shear stress for this direction is acting oppositely to that shown
in Fig. 130(c). s�ress. These equations can be solved simultaneously for the stresses to
give
18. Stresses and Deformations in Two Directions E
The elongation Es in the zdirection caused by the tensile stress s,. is
Sz = 12
µ
(Ez + l,IE11) (48)
accompanied by a decrease in the width of the body at right angles to the E
stress, as shown in Fig. 133. This decrease of width is a definite propor 811 = l _ µ2 (E11 + P,Ez) (49)
tion of the increase of length and is expressed by the equation
19. Deflection of Beam from Shearing Stress
(44)
. In addition to the bending, warping of the cross sections, shown in
where the factor µ. is known as Poisson's ratio. In a similar manner, a Fig. l2�(c), from the shearing stress causes additional deflection of a
tensile stress in the ydirection causes a decrease of the length in the beam: The t�tal deflection at the center for a simply supported beam
zdirection equal to carrying a uniform load w per unit length is given by
Conversely, a compressive stress causes an increase in the width at right ?; if.he shear increment is represented by the second term of the parentheses.
angles to the stress. This result is confirmed by Eqs. (44) and (45), since here .a represents the ratio of the maximum shearing stress to the average
compressive or negative stress values are substituted in the equations. For ; eanng stress, VIA, on the cross section. It therefore has the value 3/2
rectangular cross sections and 4/3 for circular cross sections. For other
most metals in engineering service, µ has a value between 0.25. and 0.30.
Superposition of the stresses shown in Figs. 133 and 134 gives those
8 :r
\ . · aJ>es the �alue must be computed. In Eq. (50) it is assumed that there
shown in Fig. 135. Stress s., causes an increase in length in the zdirection, , {rd1I::;? restramt to the free warping of the cross sections.
whereas in this same direction a shortening occurs because of Sy, The net " .· or a simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load P at the
(
Chap. 1 Sec. 20 I FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
c
44 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 45
center, the equation is beam in a number of ways as shown in Fig. 136. It is obvious that the
_ Pl'
Y  48E/
(i + 31.2a/)
ZA 2
(51)
state.of s!ress near the .end of the beam in Fig. l36(a) is not the same as
that 1? Fig. l7(b�, which represents the distribution for s = Mc/I. The
same is true for Fig. l36(b). Equation (11) might be applied all the wa
to the end of the beam for sketch (o) because the basic assumption that
Example 18, Find the per cent of increase in deflection for a sim�ly supported
gin. Ibeam with load pat the center. Area A is 7.09 in.2 The th1ck�ess of the
t?e cross sections are planes is substantially fulfilled. At locations suffi
web is 0.24 in. The moment of inertia I is 83.4 in. 4 Length of the span is equal to men:ly far from :he ends in Fig. 136(a) and (b), the use of Eq. (11) for
findmg the bendmg stress is satisfactory.
10 times the depth of the beam.
The remarks made above can be applied to the stress situation in the
Solution. In accord with Section 13, the maximum shearing stress will be neighborhood of a concentrated force (either
taken as the shear force V divided by the area of the web. load or reaction). In Fig. 137 the stress situa fP
tion for cross section 00' at the load is com
£
0'
,,1
N'
=
v
=
v plicated by the vertical compressive stresses i f
°
Max; 8' 0.24 X 8 1.92
between the elements from the load. For cross N
. Fig. 137. Beam with con
v v section NN' located a distance equal to or centrated load.
The average shearing stress: Av. e, =A= 7.09 greater than the depth of the beam from 00',
7·09 the stress situation is approximately the same as that represented by
Then: a= 1.92
= 3.69 Fig. l7(b) for bending stress and Fig. l22(b) for shear stress.
The phenomenon that the stress system tends to become regular at
_ Pl3 ( 31.2 X 3.69 X 83.4) = Pl3 (l + 0.212) distances removed from the disturbance is known as the principle of St.
By Eq. (51): y  48EI 1 + 802 X 7.09 48E/
Venant. This principle states that if the forces acting on a small region of
The deflection due to shear is thus 21.2 per cent as great as that due to bending." the body are replaced by a different, but statically equivalent system, no
change in the stress or deformation will be experienced at points suffi
ciently far removed from the loads.P It is valid for both normal and shear
20. Principle of St. Venant stress.
It was pointed out in Section 3 that equation s = P / A was not appli A sudden change in shape or form, arising from notches, holes, or fillets,
cable in the region close to the eye of the eyebar. At some distance away, causes the stresses to be increased beyond the values indicated by the
equations of this chapter. This increase in stress is usually local in nature,
and occurs in the immediate neighborhood of the discontinuity. It is taken
care of in the computations by multiplying the stress, as given in the
usual equation, by a stress concentration factor which will be explained
in the following chapter.
3. Timoshenko, S., Theory of Elasticity. New York: McGrawHill Book Com 3. The ho!�m me�ber in Fig. 140 is of uniform cross section and can be
assumed to be rigid. Its hinge is frictionless. Find the number of degrees of rotation
pany, lnc., 1934. of the lower member. A ns. 'fJ = 0.137°.
4. Southwell, R. V., Theory of Elasticity, 2d ed. New York: Oxford University
.i
Press, 1941.
5. Timoshenko, S., Theory of Elastic Stability. New York: McGrawHill Book 'round
ff dia. Aluminum
S'
7dia.
Company, Inc., 1936. round
Bross
6. Roark, Raymond J., Formulas for Stress and Strain, 2d ed. New York: Mc f,1,0
7.
GrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1943.
Marin, Joseph, Mechanical Properties of Materials and Design. New York:
rou
...,
() {dia.
round
McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1942. Bross
A ·fdio.
8. Murphy, Glenn, Advanced Strength of .Materials. New York: McGrawHill round
1,000*
9.
Book Company, Inc., 1946.
Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, 1st ed., Vol. 1. New York: D. Van 15• 27'
1. 15" .,. ZI' .,
Nostrand Company, Inc., 1930. Fig. 140. Problem 3. Fig. 141. Problem 4. Fig. 142. Problem 5.
10. Marini Joseph, "Stiffness of Ribbed Plates," Ma.chine Design, 19, May, 145
. _4. The bottom member in Fig. 141 is of uniform cross section. Its hinge is
'( 194'7);·· ·,·· . Irictionless. The rods are of steel. Find the distance point A drops upon attach
11. Radich, E. A., "Strength and Stiffness of Ribbed Plates," .Machine Design, ment of the weight. Ans. a = 0.00475 in.
21, Sept., 149 (1949). 5. In Fig. 142, find the drop of the 500 lb weight. Ans. a = 0.0126 in ..
6. In Fig. 143 the lower member is of uniform cross section and can be as
PROBLEMS sumed to be rigid. Find the angular rotation of the lower member in degrees.
See Table 21 of next chapter for mechanical properties of engineering materials. · Ans. 'fJ = 0.0286°.
1. The lower ends of the two hangers in Fig. 138 were at the same elevation
before the loads were applied. The horizontal member is of uniform cross section.
Find.the value of length l if the horizontal member (assumed to be rigid) is hori
.
�
Aluminum
f'dio round
Brass
zontal after all loads are acting. Ans. l = 38.3 in. fd,a
round
A
1,200• e.ooo+
42' 21• u: 49•
.•
SIHi
Iround"'
dia. Aluminum A/11minum
..L'
s,s:��,
,. dio.
Fig. 143. Problem 6. Fig. 144. Problem 7.
/"d,a. round I dia.
round
round 7. In Fig. 144 the lower member is of uniform cross section and can be as
/( '�""T'"n to be rigid. Find the change in elevation of the left end because of the
of the rods. Ans. Drop = 0.0352 in.
w 8. The memb�rs in Fig. 145 have a neat fit at the time of assembly. Find the
caused by an mcrease in temperature of 100 degrees F. Supports are immov
1. 36"
Ans. F = 25,050 lb.
Fig. 139. Problem 2.
Fig. 138. Problem 1.
2. The bottom member in Fig. 139 is of uniform cross section and can be as
sumed to be rigid. Find the value of the distance x if the lower member is to be
horizontal. · Ans. x = 22.2 in. Fig. 145. Problem 8.
( (
48 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 49
9. After being drawn up snug, the nut in Fig. 146 is given onequarter addi 3• 300,000 lb
tional turn. Find the force in the pipe and bolt. Ans. F = 13,750 lb.
400,000lb.
s,,,,
{.�I
2
J'!../2NF
Brass tub,
Ar,a,2in.2 8" 8"
300,000lb
Fig. 146. Problem 9. Fig. 147. Problem 10. 14. In Fig. 151, the struts are of the same material and have equal cross
sectional areas. Members on top and bottom can be considered rigid. Find the
force in each bar. Ans. 43,750 lb, 100,000 lb, 156,25o lb.
IO. The bars in Fig. 147 are fitted top and bottom to immovable supports.
The bars are of same material and have the same cross section. Find the force in l�. Find the distance x in Fig. 152 that causes the 1,000 lb weight to remain
each bar. Ans. Top, 11,430 lb; bottom, 8,570 lb. level. if the lower ends of the hanger are at the same elevation before the weight is
Ans. x = 21.2 in.
n.In Fig. 148 th� outer bars are symmetrically placed with respect to the
applied.
center bar. The top member is rigid and located symmetrically on the supports.
Find the load carried by each of the supports.
Ans. Center, 8,312 lb; outer, 5,844 lb. 20"
2,000lb 5,000lb
(Rigid/
Fig. 152. Problem 15. Fig. 153. Problem 16.
20,000#(Ripidl
Brass
Aluminum 16. Find the force in each bar in Fig. 153. E1 = 2E2. The 5,000 lb weight can
I
2· 6" be considered rigid. Ans. F1 = 1,600 lb; F2 = 1,440 lb.
17. The rigid beam in Fig. 154 was level before the load was applied. Find the
(Rigid/ force in each hanger. Ans. Steel, 10,210 lb; aluminum, 7,660 lb.
200,000•
12. In Fig. 149, the hollow cylinder has a small amount of clearance with the
inner cylinder. Both bodies have the same length at the time of assembly.
(a) Find the load carried by each member.
(b) What change in temperature must occur if each body is to carry one
half the load. Ans. (a) Inner, 54,540 lb; outer, 145,460 lb; I0,000 lb 20,000 lb
(b) 85 deg F rise.
Fig. 154. Problem 17. Fig. 155. Problem 18.
13. Because of an error in machining, the center strut in Fig. 150 was made
0.010 in. shorter than the other two. The members on top and bottom can be con 18. The bars in Fig. 155 are of the same material and have equal crosssec
sidered rigid. Bars are made of the same material and have equal cross sections. tional areas. There is no stress in the bars before the load is applied. Find the load
Find the load carried by each bar. Ans. Outer, 173,330 lb; inner, 53,330 lb. carried by each bar. Ans. Outer, 4,390 lb; inner, 7,470 lb.
( (
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
Chap. 1 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 51
50
27. Figure 163 illustrates
. . the front side rod of a steam locomot'rve. Find the
19. The bars in Fig. 156 have the same crosssectional area. There is no stress
be n din g stress from inertia and dead weight for a train speed of 90 h w · h
in the bars before the load is applied. Esch bar is 0.5 in. square. of _steel equals 0.�3 lb/in. i Assume the rod to be a simply suppo:d ·be::n.g t
�:
(a) Find the force in each bar. uniform cross section AA. Ans. 8 = 12,430 ;:/
(b) Find the force in each bar if the temperature drops 100 deg F .
•4ns. (a) Steel, 8,340 lb; brass, 5,560 lb;
(b) Steel, 8,100 lb; brass, 5,9i0 lb.
6" 4•wid�
2,000"' . :Fig. 164. Problem 28.
30" 20· Rz
R,
#
75* 60
l'dia
R1t
I
Fig. 158. Problem 21. Fig. 163. Problem 27. Fig. 165. Problem 29 .
Fig._166. Problem 19.
. Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams for the beams shown in the 28. The deflection of the beam shown in Fig. 164 is given by the equation
following figures and find the values of the maximum bending stress.
20. Figure 157. Ans. s = 1,000 psi.
W1
y = 360Ell2 (x6 5zaxa + 4l6x)
21. Figure1�58. Ans. s = 19,500 psi. d_the expression for the load at any location z. Find the two reactions and the
Ans. s = 12,220 psi. , ocstion of the maximum bending moment and its value.
22. Figure 159,
Ans. Max. M = 0.039w1l2•
1,00011 ,ootr
2J" d/4 shall 29. Compute the change of elevation of the end of the light pointer attached to
tii,e beam of Fig. 165 upon the application of the load. The beam is 4 in. wide.
R, 20· 400• 30• so: R1t
eo: = 1,500,000 psi.
Fi&.159. Problem 22, Fig. l60. Problem 23. 30 ", Mo.men ts M 1 and M 2 are applied to the ends of the simply supported beam
. own in Fig, 166. Light pointers of lengths 2l/3 and l/3 are attached to the ends
23. Figure 160. .4.ns. s = 9,450 psi. :o� and are _directed along the axis of the beam before applying the moments.
e distance a is measured, and if E, I, and l are known show that moment M 1
24. A steel saw blade 0.05 in. thick is bent into an arc of a circle of 2 ft radius. equal to 6Ela/lt. '
Find the bending stress. Ans. s = 31,250 psi. :
25. Find the reactions and also the value of the bending stress at a point 5 ft
from the left end for the beam of Fig. 161. Ans. s = 18,090 psi.
26. Find the reactions and also the value of the bending stress at a point 6.5 ft
:n. Find the deflection at the end C of the beam in Fig. 167. E = 1,600,000 psi.
Ans. Ye= 0.17 in. up.
from the left end for the beam in Fig. 162. Ans. s = 10,880 psi.
( (
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLF.S 53
52 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1
38. The steel beams in Fig. 174 are J.!.11 in. wide and 2 in deep F' d th d fl
32. Find the deflection of the end A of the beam in Fig. 168. E = l ,5�,000 psi. ti f • • m e e ec
Ans. Yo = 0.126 m. down. 10n o each beam. Ans. Top • 0.160 in ·,. bo ttom, O . 8 13 m.
·
."'
A
"r
3•wid11
:.,
320•
k•400"/in.
34. Find the deflection at A in Fig. 170. Steel. Ans. y = 0.518 in.
39 ", Fin? the value of the stress in the steel band when it is passing around a
pulley m Fig. 175. Pulley bearings are frictionless. Ans. s = 140,000 psi .
. 40. Compute the values of the transverse shear at points 1 in., 2 in., 3 in., and
4 m. below the·top surface of the beam in Fig. 176 for cross sections to left of the
load. The beam is 6 in. wide and 8 in. deep.
. Ans. s, = 328 psi, 563 psi, 703 psi, and 750 psi.
Ano, l5in.Z Fmd the value of the maximum transverse shear for the beams of the following
figures:
A
f '2,000 lb
·ll , "'"�
R1� 9' 6' tR
40,000 lb '\... � 2
Fig. 170. Problem 34. Fig. 171. Problem 35.
� ::: • Cross
R, .._.,2c,:4c...•..i.__,3�·�
35 •. The supports top and bottom in Fig. 171 can be considered immovable. 60• Rz
The upper strut was found to be ..J,; in. too long to be assembled without stress. If
this member is driven into place, what force will be induced therein? All parts are Fig. 176. Problem 40. Fig. 177. Problem 41.
of steel.' Ans. F = 27,040 lb.
36. The steel bar in Fig. 172 was welded into place with a neat fit at time of 41. Figure 177. Ans. s, = 1,170 psi.
assembly. Find the force in the bar if the temperature drops 120 deg F. Supports 42. Figure 178. Ans. s, = 2,400 psi.
can be considered rigid. Ans. F = 9,510 lb.
!"000 lb
10,000 lb
8'
Aluminum, 2•wid,
2f 111,et
«: r:
Fig. 184. Problem 51.
Fig. 185. Problem 62.
. Cut the tension member shown in Fig.185 along line AA, plot the distri
tion of stress on the cut surface, and mark the four significant values.
Fig. 181. Problem 48. · Ans. Max. s = 7,480 psi.
· 53. Make a sketch showing the equivalent loading of axial force and moments
'k!Eq. (31). ut the x and yaxes for the bar shown in Fig. 186. Compute and show on
� orthtHtansverse shear for a hollow circular shaft metric sketches the distribution of stress on cross section ABCD caused by
. ·. . V(r13  r23) · h of the separate loads. Also make a sketch showing resultant distribution of
Ans. e, =
31(T1 )· and mark the value at each corner. Dimension the location of the neutral
 Tz
for the cross section. Ans. Max. s = 600 psi.
''.�lie distribution of stress over the cross section of
}he point of zero stress. Ans. s. = 1,400 psi.
'the distribution of stress over the cross section of
point of zero stress. Ans. s, = 6,860 psi.
6,000111
,·
ITthid
.c
(
,,
fig. 186. Problem 53.
Fig. 187. Problem 54.
54. Make a sketch for the equivalent loading for the bar of Fig. 187. What
'''\ rnust be the dimension b in order that the maximum stress on a typical cross sec
.· tion, such as ABCD, will be equal to 1,000 psi? Make sketches and mark values
6,000 Ill
for the stresses due to the separate loads. Also make the sketch for the resultant
Fig. 1821 · �blem i9. Fig. 183. Problem 50.
streBSes and mark values at corners. Dimension the location of the neutral axis.
Ans. b = 4.29 in.
50. Determine the width d of the offset link of Fig. 183 if the permissible value 55. The inclined load shown in view .ilfilf, Fig. 188, is applied to the pin at
of the working stress is 8,000 psi. Carry out the work in a manner similar to the end of the beam. Resolve load into horizontal and vertical components and
Example 8. Ans. d = 2.73 in. find the bending stress due to each. Add algebraically to get the stress at points
A, B, C, and D. Ans. at A, s = 1,562.5 psi.
( ( (
56 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
57
61. Draw and dimension the bending moment diagram for the member shown
Ans. Max. ill = 28,800 inlb.
,�, in Fig. 194.
50•
Vl�rt MM 2�·· 2
· 56. The moment of inertia about axis 11 in Fig. 189 is equal to 120 in. 4 The
area is equal to 20 in.2 Find the moment of inertia about axis 22. .
Ans. 12 = 220 in.:' Fig. 194. Problem 61. Fig. 195. Problem 62.
4
57. The moment of inertia about axis 11 in Fig. 190 is equal to 540 in. Area 62. Repeat Problem 61 for Fig. 195.
is equal to 60 in. 2 Fi�d the moment of inertia about axis 22. .
Ans. I 2 = 1,440 m. 4 63. Cut the AB portion of the beam of Fig. 196 free from the balance of the
beam and place the shears and moments on the end surfaces which were acting
before cutting. Is this portion of the beam now in equilibrium?
e.g., 100.000/b
250,000/b
1!..t..
� I�
.
5'
I I �
300/b
50 �
'/rlf
,.
,,, 3' 2'
R2 84
J" 5!J:,c.c r,octions J"
84
77"c.c. journal•
60. Repeat Problem 59 using the beam of Fig. 193. Does the curve for shear
have a horizontal tangent at a point 6 ft from the left end? Why? Also find the
p·
", l40.�Ll,L...8..J"
Fig. 198. Problem 65, Fig. 199. Problem 66.
value of the maximum bending moment and its location.
Ans, Max. M = 2,770 ftlb at 2.54 ft from left end. 66. Figure 199.
( (
r·�,�
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
Chap. 1 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
59
58
77. Draw and dimension the load and shear diagrams for th b
67. Figure 1100. moment diagram is represented by Fig. 1108. e earn whose
Rz
12"1 R, 40"
R1 20"
68. Figure 1101. Fig. 1108. Problem 77. Fig. 1109. Problem 78.
69. Figure 1102.
78, Repeat Problem 77 for the moment diagram shown in Fig. 1109.
5• 79, Make an exploded isometric view of the three portions of the beam of Fi .
1110 and show all forces and moments necessary for equilibrium. g
50" Rz
RI 24"
70. Draw: �cl:dime11sion the shear and load diagram for the beam whose
/(
/(
moment dia�111is mven in Fig. 1103.
1i. If the�11,luesip Fig.1104 represent pounds of shear, draw and dimension
the corresponding load 'and moment diagrams for this beam.
72, U, how�ver, .the values in Fig. 1104 represent footpounds of moment, Fig. 1110. Problem 79. Fig. 1111. Problem 80.
draw and dimension thecorresponding load and shear diagrams.
80. Repeat Problem 79 using Fig. 1111.
. 81. Draw and dimension the bending moment diagram for the beam shown in
Fig. 1112. Find the location where the moment is maximum and find its value.
Ans. Max. M = 4,900 inlb.
, Fig. 1104. Problem 71. Fig. 1105. Problem 73.
"'
A
II·
89, A uniformly distributed normal stress, either ten
. 84. A simply supported cast iron beam is 36 in. long and carries a 300 lb load at
the center. Note that the three cross sections in Fig. 1114 have areas equal to each sion or compression, is applied to the edges of the plate of is• I
other. Find the stress and deflection at the center for each beam. E "'.' 15,000,0?0· Fig. 1116 in the zdirection, and a uniform tension or
Ans. (b) s = 4,460 psi; y = 0.0472 m. c?mpression is also applied in the ydirection. The dim�n� :_ Plat, I" !hick 1t
sions of the deformed plate are 15.010 in. and 9.996 m. '+'
Find the stresses Sz and Su. E = 30,000,000 psi. Poisson's
Jtlf\_rl
y
�11�.I �
ratio µ. = 0.3.
I
...1.a.L!I.····
.. ·4.__._. bi. ,• \ ,· I, ,· \a�
90, Draw the Mohr circle for a prismatic bar loaded in
tension and prove the rule: "The maximum shearing stress
Fig. 1116. Problem
89 .
fbJ a os 12 o.s 06
is equal to onehalf the axial stress and is located at 45° to the direction of the
Fig. 1114. Problem 84.
axial stress."
91. Draw the Mohr ci:rcle for an element loaded on pure shear, and determine
the value of the maximum normal stress and its direction.
85, Three beams have the equal crosssectional areas shown in Fig. 1115. Find
92. An element is acted upon by the following stresses: s,. = 7,000 psi, s11 =
the stress in each beam for a bending moment of 30,000 inlb. 2,000 psi, and s,11 = 2,000 psi.
Ans. (b) s = 8,820 psi.
(a) By means of the equations compute the stresses on the sides of an ele
ment oriented 30° clockwise with the xaxis.
(b) Find the value of ,p for maximum and minimum normal stress and
3•
i compute the values of these stresses.
· (c) Repeat (b) for maximum shear.
(d) Make a view showing the given state of stress, and draw the corre
sponding Mohr circle. Scale the stresses for the element oriented 30° from the xaxis,
as and compare.them with the results secured by use of the equations. Draw a view
,· ( of this element with the stresses placed thereon.
(ej.Bcale the values of the maximum and minimum normal stress and
represent them by arrows on an element oriented at the proper angle.
Fig. 1115. Problem 85. (f) Repeat for the element which is subjected to the maximum shearing
Ans. Max. s = 7,420 psi; max. s, = 4,920 psi.
86. A 2 by 2 in. steel column 60 in. long with hinged ends has a yield point 93. Repeat Problem 92 using given stresses of s. = 1,500 psi, Su = 22,500 psi,
value of 40,000 psi. The load to be carried is 35,000 lb. Find the value of the maxi and Bz11 = 10,000 psi. Ans. Max. s = 26,500 psi; max. s, = 14,500 psi.
mum permissible eccentricity if the column is to have a factor of safety of 2.5. 94. The total normal force uniformly distributed over edge AB of the plate of
Ans. e = 0.046 in. Fig. 1117 is 15,000 lb, and the total shear force is 12 000 lb. For edge BC the
87, A 12 ft column is made of 4 in. standard steel pipe (OD = 4.5 in., ID = normal and shear forces are 135,000 and 30,000 lb, r�spectively. Draw a �ew
showing an element with the given state of stress and also draw the corresponding
4.03 in.), yield point = 36,000 psi, FS = 10.
(a) Find the permissible load if the column has hinged ends and the load Mohr circle. Draw an element with sides parallel to the z and yaxes and show
the stresses acting on it. Ans. s, = 2,710 psi.
centrally applied.
( (
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. 1 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 63
62
100. Draw a view of the element at A in Fig. 1123 with horizontal and vertical
sides and show all stresses acting on it. Ans. s = 62.5 psi.
y
y ..... " �
IA
l
I
Fig:T'fl 7. Problem 94. Fig. 1118. Problem 95. :1's"
5'0'
3'8"
s:o: 6,ooo•f
I
95, The uniformly distributed normal and shear forces for edge AB of the Fig. 1124. Problem 101.
Fig. 1123. Problem 100.
plate of Fig. 1118 are 15,000 lb and 24,000 lb, respectively. For edge BC the
normal and shear forces are 100,000 lb and 32,000 lb, respectively. Draw an ele 101. Draw a view of the clement at A in Fig. 1124 with horizontal and vertical
ment for the given state of stress; also draw the Mohr circle. Draw the element sides and show all stresses acting on it. Ans. s = 750 psi, s, = 140.6 psi.
with sides parallel to the z and yaxes and show the stresses which are acting on i�. 102. Draw a view of the element at A in Fig. 1125 with horizontal and vertical
Ans. s, = 5,050 psi. sides and show all stresses acting on it. Draw the Mohr circle for this element and
. 96, For the loading shown in Fig. 1119, draw the element located at 45° from . determine the value of the maximum normal stress and the maximum shear stress.
thex=axis ancfp}a.ce the stresses thereon which are acting
OD it. Ans. s.,u = 707 psi, s,., •• = 382 psi.
Ans. s, = 4,000 psi.
x•
Tolol 1orc•,12po()III
/x'
• Sl.,.14,000pll
"' JI
45• ,,
Tolol fore•
,7,000111
x
S6•',000ps1
S,•21,000psi
Sr•4,000ps,
".y•
..... ,s,ooo• 6y"
y aoou r'
Fig. 1119. Fig. 1120. Problem 97. y
Problem 96.
Fig. 1125. Problem 102. Fig. 1126. Problem 103.
97, .In Fig. 1120 the elements show the normal stresses which are acting at the
103. Strain gage measurements at a certain point on a body give the elongations
, same point in a body. Determine the values of the shearing stresses for both ele
shown by Fig. 1126. Draw a view of the element with horizontal and vertical sides
ments andmark them with arrows properly directed.
show all normal and shear stresses acting on it. Do the same for the element
98. Make a drawing for the element at A of the beam in Fig. 1121 with/hori whose sides are inclined 45° with the xaxis. Check all results with the Mohr circle.
zontal and vertical sides, and show the stresses acting O!!, it. Construct the( corre E = 30,000,000 psi;µ = 0.3.
sponding Mohr circle. Draw the element for the principal stresses correctly Ans. s, = 20,770 psi; Su = 39,230 psi; s,,v = 18,460 psi.
oriented and show the stresses acting on it. Do the same for the element of maxi
104. Repeat Problem 103 for the strain gage readings shown by Fig. 1127.
mum shear stress. Ans. Min. s = 2,940 psi; max. s, = 1,570 psi.
Ans. s,, = 10,880 psi; Sv• = 6,260 psi; s_.•u• = 11,540 psi.
I ·· ; .f�, i , . �
long in theydirection. After the loads are applied the 12 in. length becomes 12.006
in. Find the value of 811 if 8., = 20,000 psi. Ans. Su = 21,000 psi. u 75'
107. After loads in the x and ydirections are applied to the steel plate of Fig.
1l29J;_he J�mgth in_the ydirection is increased by 0.01 in. Find the change of
length in the xdirection. Ans. o., = 0.0184 in.
t
Fig. 1133. Problem 111. Fig. 1134. Problem 112.
ll2 ..In Fig. 1134 let the bearings be considered simple supports. The shaft is
steel. Fmd the deflection at point A.
DJ
ll3. The pins in Fig. 1135 are all at the same elevation. The bar is of spring
s, steel. If the bar was originally straight, find the value of the maximum bending
stress.
� 20· .,
,.
ts
' , Tofolloiu 120, OOO•
i
}),r,)'J29. Problem 107. Fig. 1130. Problem 108.
/8" 10•
Body of
Symm. rrffolulion
1,,�����\�.f I
6�""1'��++8
•
6" 2•
2 Ll,L 2
Fig. 1131. Problem 109. Fig. 1132. Problem 110. � 2,000"'
I
60.
g•
4 is· 3"
IIO. The moment of inertia about axis A in Fig. 1132 is equal to 880 in.
Find moment of inertia about axis B. Fig. 1137. Problem 116. Fig. 113S. Problem 118.
66
(
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Chap. I
( c
nr. A 12 in. standard Ibeam of 31.8 lb per ft has J,. = �15.8 in.4_ and I,.=
9.5 in.! The width of the flange is 5 in. Find th� pe�centage �ncrease m �ndmg
stress caused by ch angmg mna 8 vertical load to one mclined at 1 to the vertical.
us. The casting shown in section in Fig. 1138 has its center of gravity located
as shown. Assume that all loads can be considered as acting at the center of the
3 in. bearing. Find the value of the bending stress for this pomt.
2
U9. An element in twodiniensional stress has s, = 1�,000 psi, s, = .4,000
psi, and 8,., = 3,900 psi. Draw and dimension the Mo_hr circle. D�aw and dimen
.... ·ror
·· · · •cc
· ··· tn·e e··1 emen
sion · ·   ·•  · ·1 stress and for the maximum shearing stress.
·   prmcipa
120. Strain gage readings for a point in a stressed show E"' .= :0.0006
1body
in./in., E, = .0026 in.fin., E',. = 0.0022 in./in., and. E 11 = ;0.0002 m./m. Axes
x and x' are at 45° to each other. E = 30,000,000 psi, I' = "9"·
(a} Draw the view of an element with horizontal and vertical sides and
show values of the stresses acting on it.
(b) Do the same for an element which is inclined 45°.
Check all results by making a Mohr circle.
121.Thevalve�push.rodJor an overhead valve engine is tin. in diameter a�d
14 in. long. Find the critical load when the rod is considered as a colum� with
Working Stresses
round ends;
TABLE 21
Strain, e ill/in Strain, £ in./in Average Values for Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials
L,otfl,r, rullll1r
Co•t Iron
Fig. 21. Stressstrain diagrams for various kinds of materials. Modulus of Elasticity
a, Coefficient of
Material r, Wt Linear Expansion
The proportional limit marks the maximum value of the �tress for which Tension, psi Shear, psi lb/in.3
in./in./deg F
Hooke's law holds. The modulus of elasticity of the material can be found E G
from the slope, s/ "• of the straightline portion of the curve, or from Eq. (3) iron
of Chapter 1, E = s/t. , . . Ji See Table
1413
0.256 0.000 0056
After the ultimate stress is reached, soft steerspecimens unJ,ergo a ... Steel 30,000,000 11,500,000 0.283 0.000 0065
marked reduction in diameter, called necking, at some point in the s ressed t'.itfr)Stainless steel, 188 28,000,000 10,000,000 0.295 0.000 0096
material. It is customary, however, to construct the diagram on the Z,.)3rass, bronze 15,000,000 5,300,000 0.300.32 0.000 0102
1(.Jluminum 10,000,000 3,850,000 0.100 0.000 0128
basis of stresses computed by using the original crosssectional area. j Magnesium 6,500,000 2,400,000 0.065 0.000 0145
The ratio of the loss of crosssectional area at failure to the original area
of the specimen is called the reduction of area. This quantity, t?gether to�o?'• ratio, µ = 0.3.
,..._ anat1ons in values shown in Table 21 are possible, depending on composition and method of
with the elongation at failure, gives useful informatio� conc�rnmg th: ..... nufacture.
ductility of the material. The speed at which the load is applied affect
the shape of the diagram. The yield point and ultimate stresses become . . . . ·. . •. . Elementary elastic theories as discussed in Chapter 1 apply, in general,
higher as the speed of loading increases. . . .·. to bodies of uniform cross section and are unable to take account of the
Many steels do not have a welldefined elastic limit, but yield gradually · effect of a change in shape on the resulting stresses.
( (
WoRKING STRESSES Chap. 2 Sec. 3
70 WORKING STRESSF,S
Th' . 71
�s irregularity in the stress distribution caused by abr
2. Stress Concentration Caused by Sudden Change in Form form_ is called stress concentration. It occurs for all kinds o�ps� changes of
Only rarely does the failure of a machine part occur because of the bending, or shear, in the presence of fillets holes t h ress, axial,
sudden application of a. single heavy load. Breakage, in the great majority
·
sPl.mes,. t oo 1 marks ' or accidental t h I' l . ' no c es ' keyways,
· scra c es. nc us1ons and fl .
of cases, is caused by repeated or fatigue loading, and takes place at a material or on the surface also serve as stress raisers. The maxi;ws m the
point of stress concentration where an abrupt change in the form of the o! the stress at such points is found by multiplying the . lum value
part occurs. Such failures can occur without warning or plastic deforma given by the elementar . nomma stress as
hi h . d fi Y equation by a stress concentration fa t K
tion. The 'average stress for the cross section may be below the elastic w re is e ned as follows. c or
limit for the material. K .. . highest value of actual stress on fillet, notch hole tc
Consider, for example, the state of stress in the tension member of two ·
nominal stress as given ' , e ·
by elementary equation for minimum cross section (1)
widths illustrated in Fig. 22. Near each end of the bar the internal force
hv;i�es �f stress �oncen�ration factors can be found experimentally b
p o oe astie analysis or direct strain gage measurement For a Y
cases, solutions have been obtained �Y mathematical analysis, number of
I!. ,, I I I
I i �d0.05
I. 21!�
�
I!. 0' ... 1.;
� �
__,_
0./ 0.2
Fig. 23. Stress concentration for bar with hole loaded in tension.
..... �
.....
� i
r% ...
... I.S / a2T wlhl�BHUwlt#6
, n.»
is uniformly distributed over the cross sections. The nominal stress in the
,.,, h v 
1.6
right portion can be found by dividing the total load by the smaller cross qs
sectional area; the stress in the left portion can be found by dividing by the
larger area.. However, in the region where the width is changing, a redis
u ,,. JP ii
tribution of the force within the bar must take place. In this portiqn the lO
0 lO so
I I
4.0,
load is no longer uniform at a.11 points on a cross section, but the m�terial
near the edges in Fig. 22 is stressed considerably higher than the average Factors of stress concentration f fill t O f
'* .
sion to be applied to th t ?r e s _varymg depths in tension or compres
value. The stress situation is thus more complicated, and the elementary e s ress in the section of the plate of width d,
equation PI A is no longer valid. The maximum stress occurs at some
.When such a bar is loaded ·
can be obtai d f p· in pure ben dimg, the stress concentration factors
point on the fillet, as at B, and is directed parallel to the boundary at that
fo__• Uowi'n me rom Ig · 25 · The use of sue h curves rs .
. illustrated by the
point.
.·· g examp1e.
Another example is a bar in tension with a circular hole as shown in
Fig. 23(a). If the bar is cut on the cross section of the hole, the tension
Example I. Let the min id h · . . .
stresses will be as shown in Fig. 23(b). The stress distribution along the 2.25 in and th ad' f he wi t Ill Fig. 22 be 1.25 in., the major width be
•. ·, e r ms O t e fillet be 0.25 in. ·
cut surface is practically uniform until �h,, nP.il?hborhood of the hole is
reached, where it suddenly increases. Highstresses such as these cause a
fatigue crack to start under fluctuating loading.
t
· 111 (a)
ten Find
.
sion,
the value of the st ress concentration
· · loaded
factor when the bar rs
(
Sec. 3
c

WoRKING STRESSES Chap. 2 WORKING STRESSES
73
72
3.0
I sc ·;.
(b) Find the value of the stress concentration factor if the loading is a pure !. I o9f,
·a? .,
2.8 I�.!.�
moment instead of tension. � ��.,... , 0�
2.6 ,__i._..,
i / ,......v
Solution. (a) d = 1.25 in., r = 0.25 in., h = 0.5 in. 2.4 t
•V/ __ ....  CZ;� 
2.2
r/d = 0.2, h/r = 2 Iv/· 0.225 �
2r
... 2.0
From Fig. 24: K = 1.80 1.8 'b /"""" ,9L
16
�
'/
 � .9�
0.52
1.4
'/
· a72_
!fj'iil+l1::::::::1::::::ttr,
;..,
l2
/.9 1�
,.7 iJ�""�:::t===r+1
,.a�_ ...., I
"ii :II  tt1,i1
"r�==!!.·+1
'.,,, /.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
o/r
__:::wo=hjl�;;:8:,,,ur.,k.'s
/.611.,..t.lll+____+,;0.;..;;;·2_;t____i__t
� l5lJ.J/.__ .,,.i.....�.t�====r::::.:::r=ttt='"r"'==i�1 Fig. 26. Factors of stress concentration for grooves of varying depths in tension or
compression to be applied to the stress in the section of the plate of width d.
����!·�i�b·�,��+�"'ti';;;:t1�::�::::::i
l/lJit./�ti;;.
··· ·· :.:IJjf'A.."/"l+t+ta�2:7t1 f�r 0 2.6 .
..� �! _______.. 2.4 i?�
i
��..£...·e
'lcac 'f
!!
'id,;0.05
tlZ+��, '\.It
2r
2.2
l �
LO 2.0 3.0
1.0
l8
� I 
O.I
h1,
16
/J .... a2
Fig. 25. Factors of stress concentration for fillets of varying depths in pure bending to be ff/ g�.�.
applied to the bending stress in the plate of depth d. 1.4
1.2
� a.z5
The maximum tension stress in the bar is found by taking 1.80 times the PI A
value for the narrower width. lO 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
�r
(b)
Fi�. 27. Fa�tori: of stress concentration for grooves of varying depths in pure bending to
be applied to the bending stress in the section of the plate of depth d.
From Fig. 25: _ K = 1.52 _
The maximu� bending stress in the bar is found by takTng 1.52 times the(.Mc/1 found for'Figs, 26 and 27, respectively. The stress concentration factors
value for the narrower width. �or a bar containing a circular hole1 are shown in Fig. 28. If a circular hole
The stress concentration factor for this bar would be increased if the width in a plate _contains a pin through which the load is applied, the stress
of the left portion were increased. A decrease in fillet radius also causes an concentration factors2 will be as shown in Fig. 29 .
increase in the factor. . The stress concentration factors for a Thead supported on the flange3 are
given in Fig. 210. Stress concentration factors for bodies of other shapes
It is customary to represent the stress concentration factor by K. How and loadings are given in references 6 8 20 and 31 of the Bibliography.
ever Figs. 2,4 to 210 inc. are reproduced from technical literature in which The curves for Figs. 24 to 210 inclusive were determined for flat
the stress concentration factor was designated by k. Plates or twodimensional bodies. It should be noted that symbols d and
In general, a stress concentration factor is applied to the stress com ; See reference 2, Bibliography, for Figs. 24 to 28 inclusive.
puted for the net or smallest cross section. . See reference 3, Bibliography.
The effect of notches on the stresses for tension and bendmg can be 'See reference 4, Bibliography.
( (
W ORKlNG STRESSES
Chap. 2 Sec. 3 WORKING STRF..SSES
75
I I I I would have stress concentration factors for the given loading approxi
T I I I
.J.4
,jd mately equal to the values shown by the curves for flat plates.
EIUtE
.J.2 ,__
J.O
\ ·11mf I J·
. 2r
�
Filltll 
Inspection of the curves in Figs. 24 to 210 inclusive indicates that
stress concentration factors are reduced by the use of larger fillets or by
.
Stmielrt:11/11r ,,_.,
2.11 ,,,, holt
Clrt:11/11r (el
�
Rf
...
(bl I I I
2.6
�,... r..._ rWoh/8#11/wkH
ts � J,.50
2.4
\I
or.2� r 
\
l
<,
.....!.. i..
R
I I I
Cireulor ho!, .  �
�
r
'
f'ANll"zJ#IHIM
"z�l/v
1/"'
I/
/
.55
u
2. 0 ..... ; II h  .60
r,..._ • s....,,.
Lii ......... � ..... '"'Clrc".: IO
D.11 , y / I/
.65
,_., I/ 1/17 , /.....
.......... � �.;,.;:
.!'f!!,;� ......,___
.
/
L6
�
vv 1/1/ ,I/ v I/ I/� V' v· 75=!
__
!J 70
I. 4
:I/ .,,._,,.
8 I/.
I. 2 _,, "°'i..,.80
Vt,, t I.., [..,/ I/ ' y"
[/
,,1,
L I/
ii .......
Fig. 28. Invariant cases in tension or compression. L.. t...:: i..1::: t,., t !.., l IO
5 '
,_i.. L i ._i l 20
l .JO
II \
I 4 '
._i
 Exprrynrntal dola
\ _2
1J .. o..J�
\
1 l50 2.00
II 2.50
I\. Fie. 210. Stress concentration factor for Theads with a constant fillet ratio of R/d =
" '\' 1, 0.075.
�
I b
.......
H
o•O.
<,
r,
I'.._ i"J
.......i.._ 't1
I
[_ __?{:_ _] __
I
lf•t.O orgr.ot•r·
( "�·=;;;;;_;;;::
B
8
�(·�==========�
'r1
 
�
�
�
W W ffl
0./0 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.10..tL o.ea Fig. 211. Reduction of stress concentration by removal of material.
0
Fig. 29. Stress concentration factors around a central circular hole in a plate loaded
through a pin in the hok. more gradual transitions from cross sections of one size to those of
another. Sometimes the designer can specify the removal of material in
D have the meaning of width and not of diameter. It has been proved. such a. way as to secure a more gradual· transition in size. Thus in Fig.
however that the curves for twodimensional bodies can be used for 2ll(b) it is easy to visualize that the stress concentration would be less
threedimensional members with but small errors which will be on the safe when the notches B are present than when the main notch stands alone.
side.' For example, a shaft with an axial section similar to these figures For the same reason, a bolt with a continuous thread shows less concentra
• See reference 7, Bibliography.
tion effects than a bar with a single circumferential groove. The narrow
( (
Chap.·2 Sec. 4 WORKING STRESSES 77
76
WORKING STRESSES
I ::
projection of Fig. 2ll(d), into which the force cannot spread, has less
increase in stress than the wide projection of Fig. 2ll(c). It may be
!.
beneficial to use a stressrelieving groove, as shown in Fig. 2ll(f), on a
shaft with a sudden change in diameter if it is not
possible to use a fillet of suitable size at the junction.0
Ii
A reduction of stress concentration can be had by
{ using fillets of elliptical shape as shown in Fig. 212. (bl Endurance limit stren Is highHI
110/ue of completely rhersed bending
Fig. 212 .. Fillet of Fillets are needed only in regions of high stress. At (o) Mochint1 for applying uniform stress for continuous operation.
elliptical form. points of low stress, undercuts may simplify machin bt1nding momt1nt lo spf!cim,n.
Fig. 213. Rotating beam type of fatigue testing machine (schematic drawing).
ing and grinding operations. The designer can frequent�y reduce t?e
harmful effects of a stress concentration by carefully studymg the details
100000
and by making minor changes in the outline of the parts. �� ....
'
I I .I I
9000 0
\ o
i.... 120.i iercenf Carbon steel.,
Oil Quencheil and i 1oawn
·
4. Endurance Limit of Materials
l'I�
· ·W..mking.stresses..which have been determined from the ultimate or 8000 0 l'I�.
,..c:.,
yield point values of the material by a factor of safety give safe and reliable '.?�.
results onlyfor static loading. Many machine parts, however, are sub ;:_4�/.
7000 0 i,,IL,S'!ee!, 01? Quenched�
jected to a loadingcycle in which the stress is not steady but continu
iii ond,l�a�
ously varying. Failures in machine parts are generally caused by such .0..
60000 �imen 0.5"3 I
repeated loadings and at stresses which are considerably below the yield
point. For many materials, long experience has proved that when the
a,
�
iiidnof I
�Frocrure
.�
'I'/ � I :,.,• 'Steel
cem Cai;/J
��ncned. on'd ;,, �;..,_ '
�
stress is below a certain value called the fatigue or endurance limit, the th·soooo
part will last indefinitely so far as ill effects from the stress are concerned. E::,
However, for slightly greater values of the stress, failure can be expected
...... jq �
E 40000
after a certain number of repetitions of the stress cycle. Fracture occurs x ��":'<;;>/
tO
� ...........
without perceptible stretching and .::esembles the failure of a brittle mate ""�/�""'. !As 'Rolled.
rial. Although such.breaks are called fatigue failures, no change has taken 30000
a..i.....J I I
placein the material except in the immediate neighborhood of the fracture ,f�,,.,1.1'�
I �?Jc;

itself. Failure has been brought about by a tiny crack which started at a 20000 Co,.o�
�� � h ��iP>?i :,�1,neoled
1.111 ��t,,
stress conc�ntration or at a flaw in the material at a.highly stresse��oint.
The crack itself serves as a stress concentration, and grows eonti ually
�"" b I
 ,_.l'J!:
r,,
10000 Grqy CG :i( lln:v,
larger until the failure of the part occurs. I I
Thus 1
8. Ductile Materials with Steady Stress S,11p = 2 S,,p (5)
. Under steady or static loading, a machine part made of a ductile m�te This can be substituted into Eq. (3) to give
rial fails by yielding. The working stress is therefore based on the yield
pomt. stress:·· s, ..u = FS
0.5S11p
It is possible for the yield point to be exceeded by the stress concen {6)
tration as a result of a sudden change of form even though the elementary Failur� in shear is assumed to occur along the 45° d4'ections of Fig. 218(a)
equation indicates that the average stress at the cross section has a safe Equations (5) and (6) are valid only when it is understood that the maxi�
value. In genera.I·. no. damage occurs provided that the load is steady mum shear theory of failure is being employed.
and the material' is ductile. The material merely yields locally in the
small overstressed regions, and the stress is thereby relieved. Hence'. it
is customary for .4e�igners to neglect the effects of stress concentration
· ·wheirth�esteady and the material is ductile. s
(a) ,Simple /Pertsloft or Compression. When the material is subjected to
simple tensioirhfcoinpression the working stress 8 is given by the equation
'"'
n
2'
Working stress: 8 = 811p (2) (aJ
FS
:..S.,,.=is
where FS 4'i ;the,factor of· safety. (bJ
's
fs
(b) Pure Shear. For pure shear loading, the equation for working stress
Fig. 217. Element in simple tension and
in shearis corresponding Mohr circle. Fig. 218. Planes of maximum shear stresa
for bar with tensile load.
Working stress: (3)
. In �ddition to the shear stresses, an element oriented at 45° to the
The expressions maximum stress or working stress are usually used direction of s in Fig. 217(�) has normal stresses on all sides of 0.5s.
interchangeably. · ' The complete loading for this element is then given by Fig. 218(b).
9. Maximum Shear Theory of Failure Example �· Suppose the part of Example 1 is 0.5 in. thick and is loaded by
a steady tensile force of 18,750 lb. The material is soft steel with a yi· Id · t
Because ductile materials fail by shearing, the maximum shear 1 daory of
value 45, 000 psi.. Fin d th e va I ue of the factor of safety based on the yieldepoint.
pom
failure is in wide use by designers. The theory is applied by firs;�ding Solution.
the maximum shearing stress for the given loading and then dividing it
into the yield point stress in shear to find the factor of safety. It is thus an By maximum shear theory:
application of Eq. (3). s,,,:,, = 0.5 X 45,000 = 22,500 psi
The Mohr circle in Fig. 217 indicates that a body with simple tension A = 1.25 X 0.5 = 0.625 in.2
stress s has shear stresses equal to onehalf this value at directions 45° to In right portion: P 18,750 .
the direction of s, s = A = o.625 = ao,ooo psi
1 (4) 8,mu = 0.5 X 30,000 = 15,000 psi
S,mao: =
28
FS = s,,,,, = 22,500 = 1 5
If stress sin this figure would be increased to the yield point value, the s, .. u 15,000 .
r
l
( ( (
WoRKING STRESSES Chap. 2 Sec. 11 WORKING STRESSES
84 85
As found m · E l 1 the stress concentration factor for the fillets is equal to (2) Both stresses are compression as in Fig. 222. The weakest plane is
xsmp e , d l · ldi
1.8. The stress thus reaches the yield point value on �he fillets, an 1oca yie ng BCDF because stress s1 has no effect on this plane Since 8 is nu · 11y
·
· these regions. The stress for the cross section as a whole, however, .re h l · . · 2 merica
occurs m t e arger, failure is determined solely by stress s2. Equations (2) to (6)
mams· at a safe VMUe.
• It is thus l. ustified to neglect the effect of stress concentration apply.
for ductile materials and steady loads.
�
(a}
Fig. 219. Elements and Mohr circle for pure shear stress.
Fig. 220. Principal stresses in two dimen Fig. 221. Plane of failure for two dimen
Consider the element of Fig. 219(a) loaded in pure shear. The corre sions. sional stress. All stresses tension.
sponding Mohr circle is shown in sketch (b). For such loading, an element
oriented at 45° to the pure shearing stresses is loaded only by the normal
stresses of Fig. 219(c). The stresses of sketches (a) and (c) can be con
sidered as being equivalent.
The weakest shearing plane is the one to which both 81 and 82 contribute to the 10,000 v'a = 17,320 psi
in
shearing stresfl as, Fig. 223. Hence
By Table 145:
s =
s11,. = 63,000 psi
�� 1 .
By Eq. (7): . ,.,��" = (21,000 (5,000)] = 13,000 psi
2 By Eq. (2): FS = s11,. = 63,000 =
3_64
8 17,320
By Eq. _{5): II_!,� = 0.5 X 40,000 = 20,000 psi
By Eq. (3): Ji'S == 20,000 = 1.54 12. Ductile Materials with Completely Reversing Stress
13,000
(b),
, As mentioned at the beginning of Section 8, local yielding under steady
By Eq. (8): 8 = v121,0002 + < 5,000)2 21,oooc 5,ooo) load takes place if the yield point is exceeded at certain points of stress
= 23,900 psi concentration. However, when the load is fluctuating, such local relief
cannot be obtained, and a suitable stress concentration factor K must be
Hence FS = ::: = 1.67 applied. Failure from such loading will be by fracture.
When the. load is alternating or completely reversing, the endurance
Example 4. The same body as that used in Example 3 has stresses 8., = 20,000 limit stress s., as determined by testing, is the criterion used for deter
psi, 811 = 4,000 psi, and Ssw = 6,000 psi. .mining the factor of safety. For such loading, the working stress can be
called the range stress s,. Hence
(a) Find the factor of safety by the maximum shear theory of\faiiure.
(b) Find the factor of safety by the MisesHencky theory. \ FS=� (10)
Ks,
Solution. (a) The principal stresses are found to be
psi;
A. similar equation could be written for completely reversed shearing
81 = 22,000 82 = 2,000 psi stress.
The weakest shearing plane is the one affected by s1 alone as in Fig. 221. For
this plane
13. Ductile Materials with Combined Steady and Alternating Stress
By Eq. (4): s, ..u = 0.5 X 22,000 = 11,000 psi
In the great majority of strength problems, the major components
By Eq. {3): _ FS = 20,000 = 1.82 of stress are static, with less accurately known alternating stresses super
11,000
posed. Most failures originate with stresses of this type. 'The problem
[
(
WoRKING STRESSES
Chap. 2
c
i
(
88 Sec. 13 WORKING STRESSF,8
89
presents great difficulties because of the fundamentally different mecha rather than to point B for the ultimate stress Th I'
nisms of failure in the two sources of stress. actual .working stresses in them a t ena . d rawn a f. t er beothmes arepresenting
. I is
Suppose the tensile load P on the bar of Fig. 224(a) is continuously . d
been divided by the factor of safety FS as shown in Fig 2;4(n) Sup have
varying in magnitude as shown by the graph of Fig. 224(b). This load Hastr�ss concen t ration· exists, as illustrated by Fig.· 2_c 24(d)
can be considered as being made up of two parts, the steady or average cross section for which the stresses are computed it · ' at the
load P,,., and the variable or range load P,. As illustrated by the figure, l t d f ' IS commonly n
ec e so ar as the average stress s,,� is concerned. Howevei· · eg
the maximum load is equal to the average load plus the range load; the
concentration must be taken into account for alternating �:;:�e str:s
minimum. load.rs equal to the average minus the range load. Normal
:�ge stress_ e must b� multiplied by the stress concentration ra::�r ;
stresses s0• and e are found by dividing loads P "' and P, by the cross
ore plottmg. If a point determined by s,.. and Ks, as coordinate f II
sectional area A. When the average stress is high, the material will safely
on '" below the workingstress line, the part is assumed to be sa: � s
contmuous operation. , e or
s,
The_ situation �n b� handled conveniently by equations as follows.
�
(aJ
...,_,1.__
tr, <, Al! pomts along !me DE can be assumed to be equally safe This · l d
pomt E St OE · me u es
Approxlmat/011 to curv, · . ress , or s = Syp/FS, can then be considered as the static
of failtln stress
it · eqmvalent to the fluctuating stress 8"' + Ksr By 81· m1·1 ar t nang
· 1 es
'' I is easy to show that GE is equal to s1/P K'"T/sS• '
' , 0
'' Then _ + 
Ks Sr
s
S= � , £qt1iralt>nl
£ c 8 s.,, S Sa,
11p
e, (11)
�
�
slalic '«Jf'lri slrt'ss
(cJ S.11 !his is someti�es called Soderberg's equation. When stress s is obtained
It can be used m Eq. (2) to determine the factor of safety. '
Fjg, 224. Working stress diagram for nonsteady loading. Example 6.
carcy only a small additional range component. However, if the average
(3:) F�nd the area required for the safe continuous operation of a uniform b ·
stress is small; a larger range component can be permitted. tension if p = 50 000 lb d . ar m
In.order to take care of the unlimited number of combinations of range psi and s ::_""' ' . an p"''" = 20,000 lb. Material tests s.. 11 = 90,000
. Id . 11p  60,000 psi. Take the factor of safetv FS equal to 1 5 based on th
and average stress, the line of failure of the material must be used. yie pomt. Let s. = 0.5s.. u. • . e
Specimens are tested with fluctuating loads which are low enough to (b) Repeat (a) using the bar of two widths shown in Fig 22�(b) Let h
permit continuous operation but high enough so that any increase in and d = 2h'. · a · r = ,
either the average or range load will eventually cause failure. The s,,.
Soluti$)n. (a) s = o 5 X 90 000 _ 45 000
str� for the test is plotted as the abscissa, and the s; stress as the fact f f • · ' ' . .
psi.. Divide 811,. and s each bv
ordinate, Thus, a typical point F is located, as in Fig. 224(c). After �;Asa e�y 1.5 and plot as shown. P•• = 35,000 lb and P, = 15 000 lb. Sa .,,:
35 ' an 8' = 15,000/A, where A is the required area. ' •
other combinations of s,,. and s, have been determined, the points are
plotted to form a curve of failure. Point A, where the average stress is
z�ro, represents the endur3:nce limit for completely revJrsed stress 3.s
By Eq. (11): 8
= 60,000 = 35,00� + 60,000 15,000
1.5 A 45,000 X �
given by the s, value of Fig. 213. Point B, where the r\nge stress is
From which: A = 1.375 in.2
zero, represents the static ultimate stress for the material.
Since experimental data for the line of failure are usually not at hand, (b) h/r
since  o · 5 , th e va 1 ue of K from Fig.
and r/d
For=h/rI) =is I1.42_ . 28,
. 24 (also from Fig.
it is customary to make the conservative approximation that it is a
straight line. u To be still further on the safe side, the line is drawn from 60,000 35,000 + 60,000 1.42 X 15,000
the endurance limit value at A to point C, representing the yield point, Then: 8
= =
1.5 A 45,000 X A
13 See reference 16, and Chapter 10 of reference 1, Bibliography. From which: A = L585in,2
( (
Chap.2 Sec. 15 WORKING STRESSES
WORKING STRESSES 91
90
The stress concentration caused by widening the left part has increased the  FS
s,,,, 1
possibility of failure so that the right portion must be increased also.
Although Eq. (11) refers to normal stress, the development could ha":e been
made equally well for shear stress. The equation for static shear stress s, equivalent
to the variable shear loading s.,.. ± Sor is
Ks,,,,
S, = S,ay +  S,r
(12)
S,
s,
C'
Stress s, can be used in Eq. (3) for determination of the factor of safety. In the
�FS_ s,,11
FS
(oJ 7f•40,000psi·..i Failure. in brittle materials takes place by fracture. The ultimate
. strength is used as the basis for determining the working stress. It is
Fig. 225. Working stress diagram for Example 6.
necessary to have separate equations for the factor of safety in tension
and _for the factor of safety in compression. Brittle materials are unable
equation above ratio s,.,/s, is taken as approximately equal to s,11,,/s,. data for to yield locally a� points of high stress caused by changes of form, and
.vhich is usually not available. stre5.s c?ncentrat1on factors are customarily applied even when the
loadmg is steady.
The case of fluctuating loading for combined normal and shear stress
�a) Simple Tension or Compression. The following equations can be
ls discussed in Section 4 of the following chapter on shafting. written. .
Solution. ·
In Eq. (38), Chapter 1: Ks, = 2( 2,000 + V4,0002 + 3 ' 0002) 6 ' 000 PSI·
A
In Eq. (39), Chapter 1: Ks2 = 2(2,000 y·4:,=oo,o,2+3,0002) = 14,000 psi
:1r •
6,000 14,000 1
In Eq. (15):
J 20,000 + 80,000 = FS
80
FS = = 2.1
2 38
= [1 (82 S1)FS 1 1
+ s.,,] (sue  8,,1) 17. Sensitivity to Stress Concentration
,. fl
94
(,
WoRKING STRESSES Chap. 2 Sec. 18 WoRKING STRESSES
c 95
the same material. The size effect in steel is attributed mainly to �h� grain Som�times the shape of the parts, or the method of support, can be modi
size of.the material. When the crystal size is taken into account, 1t is seen fied in such a way that the design equations may fit the conditions more
that there is not complete geometric similarity between large and s�all accurately. Perhaps a more uniform and reliable construction material
· f th same ma.terial Although a heattreated part of expensive can be used.
specimens o e · d f of The strength of materials is usually obtained by laboratory tests.
alloy steel may have a higher endurance limit than one ma � o as ter
nonheattreated material, the advantage may be largely lost in the pres It must be kept in mind, however, that conventional laboratory tests
rarely reproduce the conditions that the material must meet in service.
ence of a stress concentration. .
A wide variation exists in the notch sensitivity of different materials. Surface conditions in particular may be different for the test specimen
For some quenched and"tempered steels the effect of a sharp �otch �ay tha.� for an actual part. A much greater amount of knowledge of engi
be so great that a high strength material may be no better �n fatigue neermg materials, than is now available, must be gained before the de
than one of lower strength. Materials which work harden rapidly, �uch signer will be able to apply test data to conditions that differ appreciably
as the 188 stainless steels, may show great resistance to loss of fat�gue from the conditions of the test. The best method, whenever it is possible
. to make final adjustment in the proportioning of the components by'
is
strength due to notches. Notches have but little effect on the fatigue
strength of cast iron, but may have a. large effect as far as i�pact l�ads tests on the completed product.
are concerned. However the impact strength of some steels is but little In general it is not economical to use safety factors large enough to
eliminate all possibility of failure resulting from the worst possible com
a.ffected .l)y notches. . . .
A limited a.mmin.tof data are available for making a quant1tat1ve bination of circumstances. The designer attempts to reduce the proba
15
estiniate/�(\t� sensitivity of a steel to stress concentration, but the bility of failure to a suitable level which necessarily depends on each
metl>.ods.��·.beyond the scope of this book. However, when. the full particular application. A failure that involves only a little inconvenience
theoretical"stress concentration factor is applied to the fluctuating com or loss of time might be allowed more frequently than one involving
ponent, .the.·result will be on the safe side. large financial loss or human life. Provision should be made for easy
and rapid replacement of failed parts. If the product operates under
. conditions of frequent service inspection, smaller values for the factor of
18. \r�ctor �'Safety
,:_,._...>.,;: ' . . safety can sometimes be used. A more thorough and detailed analysis of
It;iEl>irometimes hard to evaluate accurately all the different factors ; the problem may show that smaller factors of safety can be used, and
that:X,re>dnvolved in an engineering design problem. It is particularly • may justify the additional engineering expense involved.
diffi.ehlt{,in.some cases, to determine the magnitude of the various forces ,) . When building one general product, the engineer usually does not think
to''whicl'l:.''!l'lllachine part is subjected. Sometimes the shape of the p�rt m terms of the factor of safety. He has learned from experience that cer
is such thll.t no design equations are available for accurate computation rtain materials under certain conditions, with working stresses of given
, values, will 'lead to satisfactory results. Although the determination 16 of
of the stresses.Variations and nonuniformity in the strength of the mate
rial must be kept in mind, as well as the consequences that might result r suitable values for the factor of safety is a matter of great importance,
from failure of the part. Jhe subject has been much neglected and is in an unsatisfactory state.
Engineers employ a. socalled "factor of safety" to insure against Experience, which can only be accumulated as a result of a long period
uncertain or unknown conditions as mentioned above. The working stress 'of trial and error, is the ultimate basis for the prediction of failure in
is determined from the yield or ultimate strength of the material by ,·engineering designs. Many failures are due to circumstances that the
means of a factor of safety, as demonstrated by the equations of this 'designer failed to consider.
chapter. For columns and other elements where load and stress are not
proportional, the factor of safety should be applied to the load on the BIBLIOGRAPHY
member rather than to the stress.
Static loads can sometimes be det�rmined accuratel�, �ut the values Volume number shown in bold face type. The number immediately following is
the page on which the article begins.
of fluctuating loads are more uncertain. The effects of 1mp�ct loads and
residual stress are particularly difficult to evaluate. Consideration must 1. Hetenyi, M., editor, Handbook of Experimental Stress Analysis. New York:
also be given to the longterm effects of corrosion and high temperatures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950.
' � II
See reference 18, Bibliography,
u See references 10 and 17, also Chapter 4 of reference 30, Bibliography.
'.t,Jii\�,
( ( (
WORKING STRESSES Chap. 2 '\VORKING STRESSES 97
96
22. Marin, Joseph, Engineering Materials: Their Mechanical p t"
2. Frocht, M. M., "Factors of Stress Concentration Photoelastically Deter
Applications. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: PrenticeHall, Inc. 19r50oper ies and
mined," Trans. ASME, 57, A67 (1935). 23 S . h , .
3. Frocht, M. M., and Hill, H. N ., "StressConcentration Factors Around a · mit , Ja:ries 0.,. "Effect of Range of Stress on the Fatigue Stren th Of
Central Circular Hole in a Plate Loaded Through Pin in the Hole," Trans. Metals,' Bulletin 334, University of Illinois Engineering E · g
tion, 1942. xpenmsnt Sta
ASME, 62, A5 (1940).
4. Hetenyi, M., "Some Applications of Photoelasticity in TurbineGenerator 1 ts."
24· Jacobsen, L. S., "Torsional Stresses in Shafts Having Grooves or Fill
Trans. ASME, 47, 619 (1925); 57, A154 (1935). e '
Design," Trans. ASME, 61, A151 (1939).
5. Lipson, Charles, Noll, G. C., and Clock, L. S., Stress and Strength of ill anufac 25. Poole, S. W., and Johnson, R. J., "A Review of Some Mechanical Fail f
Steel Plant Machine Equipment," Proc. Soc. Exptl. Stress Anal 7 uNres 2°
tured Parts. New York: McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1950. 17 (1949). ., , o, ,
6. Neugebauer, G. H., "Stress Concentration Factors and Their Effect on De
26. McFarland, F. R., "Experiences with HighlyStressed Aircraft Engine Parts ,,
sign," Product Eng., 14, 82, 168 (1943). Proc. Soc. Exptl. Stress Anal., 3, No. I, 112 (1945). '
7. Peterson, R. E., and Wahl, A. M., "Two and ThreeDimensional Cases of
27 · N oil, G. C., and Lipson, C., "Allowable Working Stresses," Proc. Soc. Ex tl
Stress Concentration and Comparison with Fatigue Tests," Trans. ASME,
Stress Anal., 3, No. 2, 89 (1946). p ·
58, A15 (1936).
8. Battelle Memorial Institute, Prevention of Fatigue of Metals. New York: John
28. Nol�, ?·c_., ��d Erickson, M. A., "Allowable Stresses for Steel Members of
Fm1te Life, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Stress Anal., 5, No. 2, 132 (1948).
Wiley&Sons;Inc.,·.1941. 29. Karpov, A. V., "Modern Stress Theories," Proc. ASCE, 62, 1128 (1936). See
9. Moore, H .. F., "Stress, Strain, and Structural Damage," Proc. ASTM, 39, also, Metals & Alloys, IO, 346, 381 (1939).
549 (1939). 30. Mur�ay, Wm. M., editor, Fati,gue and Fracture of Metals. New York: John
10. Peterson, R. E., "Stress Concentration Phenomena in Fatigue of Metals," Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952.
Trans. ASME, 55, APM5519, 157 (1933). 31. Peterson, R. E., Stress Concentration Desi,gn·Factors. New York: John w·1
1
11. Almen, J. 0., "Shot Blasting to Increase Fatigue Resistance," SAE Journal and Sons, Inc., 1953. · ey
(Trans.) 51, 249 (1943). 32. Stark�y, W. L., a�d Marco, S. M., "Effects of StressTime Cycles on the
12. Peterson, R. E., and Wahl, A. M., "Fatigue of Shafts at Fitted Members, . Fatigue Properties of Metals," Trans. ASME, 79, 1329 (1957).
With a Related Photoelastic Analysis," Trans. ASME, 57, A1 (1935). 33. Findley, W. N., "Fatigue of Metals under Combinations of Stresses" Trans
13. Almen, J. 0., and Boegehold, A. L., "Rear Axle Gears," Proc. ASTM, 35, ASME, 79, 1337 (1957). ' .
Part 2, 99 (1935). 34. Frisch, J., and Thomsen, E.G., "Residual Grinding Stresses in Mild Steel"
14. deForest, A. V., "The Rate of Growth of Fatigue Cracks," Trans. ASME, 58, Trans. ASME, 73, 337 (1951). '
A23, A114 (1936).
15. Wilson, W. M., and Burke, J. L., "Rate of Propegation of Fatigue Cracks PROBLEMS
... ," Bulletin 371, University of Illinois Experiment Station, 1947.
16. Soderberg, C. R., "Factors of Safety and Working Stress," Trans. ASME, I. Find the value of the stress at each hole in Fig. 228.
52(1), APM13 (1930); 55, APM131 (1933); 57, A106 (1935). Ans. A, Ks= 29,710 psi; B, Ks = 31,330 psi; C, Ks = 35,680 psi.
17. Peterson, R. E., "Relation Between Life Testing and Conventional Tests of
Materials," ASTM Bull. 133, March, 9 (1945).
18. Freudenthal, A. M., "The Safety of Structures," Trans. ASCE, 71, 1157
(1945); 72, 111 (1946); 73, 208 (1947).
19. Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, 2d ed., Vol. 2. New York: D. Van Nos 11"Yie
16,000psi
trand Company, Inc., 1941, Chap. 9. Fig. 228. Problem I. Fig. 229. Problem 2.
20. Roark, Raymond J., Formulas for Stress and Strain, 2d ed. New York: Mc
GrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1943. . :· The loading on an element of 1045 steel in the asrolled condition is shown
21. Moore, H. F., Material,s of Engineering, 6th ed. New York: McGrawHill in �g. 229. Loads are steady and no stress concentrations are present. Assume
maXIInum shear theory to be valid.
Book Company, Inc., 1941.
(
���
1�i·'ft_,_·.·f·: ...
(r
:t
('
98 WoRKING STRESSES Chap. 2
WORKING STRESSES
(a) Find the value of the FS for the CDEF plane. 99
(b) Find the value of the FS for the ACGE plane. IO. The plate .shown in Fig. 231 is } in. thick. Load P varies from 20 ()()() lb to
10,0?0 lb. �a�r1al �ts Bw:,, = 42,000 psi; e, = 24,000 psi. Factor of saf�ty based
(o) Find the value of t!�S �:; �; �:.�r�:)�S = 5.45; (c) FS = 12. on yield point is 2. Find the maximum permissible value of width D.
3 • A pa l te of 1045 steel in the asrolled. condition is subjected to the following Ans. D = 3.86 in.
II. The plate of Fig. 232 is 1 in. thick. The load varies from 50,000 lb to 30 000
stresses: s"' = 3,300 psi; s. = 29,000 psi; s,.11 "." 0 •
(a) Find the value of the FS by the maximum shear theory. . lb. Fa�tor of safety = 2; s11,, = 40,300 psi; s, = 28,000 psi. (a) Find the value of d
(b) Find the value of the FS by the MisesHenck_y theory. (b) Fmd d if the minimum load is 20,000 lb, other data remaining unchanged. •
. . (cy Find Ji'S if the plate is made of Class 25 cast iron. S 2 37 Ans. d = 3.13 in. and 3.45 in .
Ans. (a) Ji'S = 1.86; (b) FS = 1.95; (c) F = . · . · 12. Fi?d the diameter of the hole and the total width of the plate of Fig. 233 if
4. A machine part has a FS of 3 by the MisesHencky th.eory. The material is the part is to be safe for continuous operation. The load varies from 36,000 lb to
4140 steel hot rolled and annealed. Ifs"' is equal to 24,000 psi, find t?e va9lu00e0of 8�· 20,000 lb. Use stress values of s11,,/FS = 30,000 psi and s,/FS = 18 000 psi. The
1D
8s• ' Ans. 811 = 15,000 psi or , psi. plate is 1 in. thick. Ans. = 2.55 in.
· lh ield oint
s. A shaft is loaded by a torque of 40,000 in.lb. The materia as a Y1 P
= 0.
Jt.;,
� �,500 psi. Determine the value of the bending stress at the fillet. (a) ls the shaft
Fig. 230. Problem 9.
safe for continuous operation? What is the value of the factor of safety? (b) Sup
Fig. 232. Problem 11.
PQse in the turning operation the radius of the fillet is made k in. and that the
(
100 WoRKING STRESSES Chap. 2 WORKING STRESSES
IOI
inspectors do not discover the mistake. Is the part now safe for continuous op 2J;. The plates in_Fig. 242 a�e made of a brittle. material and are identical. The
erat.ion ? Ans. (a) FS = 1.32.
loadi�g for �a) consists �fa uniform tension _applied at. each end. In (b) the hole
contains a pm tha� cames the �oad and a uniform tension is applied to the other
end of the plate. Find the maximum tensile stress for each type of load" N t
th at l oadimg through a pm· mg. o e
as for (b) gives a higher stress. .H > Din F"ig. 29 .
Ans. (a) Ks = 4,890 psi; (b) Ks = 6,110 psi.
600•
l{lhick
Fig. 236. Problem 15. Fig. 238. Problem 17. ,o,ooo':,.::.I.....J,o,ooo•
17, The shaft in Fig. 238 rotates. Find the length l if the bending stress at the Fig. 242. Problem 21.
fillet is equal to the stress at the center. Ans. l = 96.1 in. 22. The plates shown in Fig. 243 are made of a brittle material. Assume each
18, The part in Fig. 239 is made of 1045 steel, quenched and drawn at 1,000 F. rivet transfers onehalf the load. Find the value of the maximum tensile stress in
Bending moment varies from 10,000 in.lb to 50,000 in.lb. Assume s, = 0.5s.,u. the thicker plate. Ans. 8 = 8, 7 40 psi.
Find the factor of safety. Ans. FS = 1.91.
19, The tensile load on the bolt of Fig. 240 varies from 12,000 lb to 20,000 lb.
The stress concentration factor for the threads is equal to 3 and for the fillet 1.2.
Material is 8742 steel, oil quenched and drawn at 1,200 F. If threads are safe for
continuous operation, find the value of area A1 necessary to make the fillet safe
for continuous operation. Ans. Ai = 0.402 in.2
20. The beam shown in Fig. 241 is made of a brittle material. Find the value of
the maximum bending stress at cross section A. Ans. · s = 5,625 psi.
."'
A 10,000*1
Fig. 243. Problem 22 .
23. Find the value of the maximum stress on the fillet in Fig. 244 if the stress
. •... r
\002$" concentration factor is equal to 1.6. What is the FS if the part is made of Class 25
I
3"widt! dia.hol�s
cast iron? Ans. FS = 3.12.
•
"' ,
20· 12·
I ."l
!"thick 1• lltick
i
Fig. 239. Problem 18.
Symm
24. Find the value of the maximum stress on the fillet in Fig. 245 if the stress
conc�ntration factor is equal to 1.75. What is the FS if the part is made of Class 30
cast iron? Ans. FS = 3.57.
(
WoRKING STRESSES Chap. 2
c
102 WORKING STRESSES
103
25. (a) Find the, value of the FS if the part in Fig. 246 is made of 1045 steel in
the asrolled condition.
(b) Find the value o
f th FS 1'f the same part in Fig. 246 is made of Class
e
, 150,000•
20 cast iron.
50,000•
(SfHdy)
30. The hollow cylinder in Fig. 251 is fixed at the wall and has an OD of 6 in.
and an ID of 4.5 in. Stress concentration factor at wall is equal to 3.
�:::
(a) Find value of FS if material is Class 25 cast iron.
(b) Find value of FS if material is 0.33 carbon cast steel normalized.
Ans. (a) FS = 4; (b) FS = 20.8.
�p�
26. The element in Fig. 247 is located at the inner ed�e of a hub tha� has been
press fitted on a shaft. Stress a, or pis equal to 6,000 psi, and stress 81 is equal to
10,000 psi. · d f t l 'th
(a) Find the FS by maximum shear theory if the hub is ma e o s ee WI
a yield point value of 60,000 psi. .
(b) Find the FS if the hub is made of Class 25 cast iron.
Ans. (a) FS = 3.75; (b) FS =2.17.
27. The state of stress for a material is shown in Fig. 248. . .
(a) Find the FS by the maximum shear theory if the material is 1045 steel Fig. 251. Problem 30.
in the asrolled condition. Fig. 252. Problem 31.
(b) Find the FS by the MisesHeneky theory.
(e) Find the FS if the material is Class 30 cast iron.
Ana. (a) FS = 4.62; (b) FS = 5.09; (c) FS = 2.77. 31. The shaft in Fig. 252 is made of Class 20 cast iron. The ends are simply
28. The hollow cylinder in Fig. 249 is made of Class 25 cast iron and is filled supported, but are keyed against rotation. The stress concentration factor at
with a fluid at a pressure of 250 psi. Find the FS for the material in the wall. bracket is equal to 2. Find the FS for the shaft on either side of the bracket.
Ana. FS = 5.5. Ans. Left, FS = 6.07; right, FS = 2.82.
29. The shaft in Fig. 250 is rigidly attached to th� wall and is _ma�e of Class ;5 The following problems are presented without answers.
cast iron. Stress concentration at the wall for bendmg and torsion is equal to ·
Find the value of the FS. Ans. FS = 3.08.
J�. 32. Find the diameter of the hole in Fig. 253 if the stress concentration factor
the.. is to be the same a, at the fillet.
( (
104 WORKING STRESSES Chap. 2 WORKING STRESSES 105
p
r•0.2
43. A 2 in. diameter shaft carries a torque that fluctuates 25 per cent each
way from the average value of 20,000 inlb. The stress concentration factor is
Fig. 254. Problem 33. 2.5. The FS based on the yield point is 2. If the endurancelimit in shear is equal
Fig. 253. Problem 32.
to 0.6 of the yield point in shear, determine the minimum value of the yield
point in shear which the material must have if the shaft is to be safe for continuous
33. Find values of lengths x and x1 in Fig. 254 if the bending stress at the operation.
groove and at the fillet are to be equal. Stress concentration should be taken into 44. A body loaded by normal stresses 81 and 82 has a FS by the MisesHencky
aecount.s··� theory that is 10 per' cent greater than the FS when· computed by the maximum
34. In Fig. 2.50, let the 15 in. dimension become 12 in., and the 20 in. dimen shear theory. If 81 is 10,000 psi, find the value of 82.
sion become 10 in. The shaft is of 1045 hotrolled steel. Find the permissible load 45. In Fig. 256, the leaf spring is straight and.unstressed when the cam and
at end of arm if FS by the MisesHenclcy theory is to be 2.5. shaft are removed. The material is cold drawn chromemoly steel 4140. The stress
35. A steel plate 20 by 10 in. has normal stresses only on the four edges. After concentration is zero. Asstime 8• is equal to 0.5 of s ..11. If the cam rotates con
the loads are applied, the dimensions become 20.0066 in. and 9.9981 in. Material tinuously, find FS for the spring.
is 1035 coldrolled steel. Find the FS by the maximum shear theory.
36. A 2 in. diameter nonrotating shaft of 1045 hotrolled steel has a steady
bending moment of 10,000 in.lb. Find the permissible steady torque that can
be superposed on the bending moment if the FS is to be 3 by the MisesHencky
theory.
37. An element of 1045 hotrolled steel has a steady axial stress of 10,000 psi.
Find the permissible shearing stress that can be superposed if the FS is to be
2.5 by the MisesHencky theory. Fig. ·256. Problem 45. Fig. 257. Problem 47.
38. Work Problem 7 by the MisesHencky theory.
39. Work Problem 7, but with 0.006 in. as 0.0048 in. and 8,. as 9,600 psi. 46. Work Problem 27(c) with 8,. = 17,000 psi.
40. A 15 by 20 by 0.5 in. plate of 1045 hotrolled steel carries a uniformly 47. For a FS of 4, find the total force Pin Fig. 257 if the material is Class 30
distributed tension of 90,000 lb on the 15 in. edge. Find the compressive stress ?cast iron.
on the 20 in. edge if the FS is 2 by the maximum shear theory. Find the dimen �. Work Problem 29, but find the FS for an element at the wall at midheight
sions of the plate after the loads are acting. · . on the surface of the shaft on the side towards the observer.
41. In Fig. 252, the 16 in. dimension becomes 8 in. with the load at the end 49. A 10 by 20 in. plate of Class 50 cast iron has normal stresses only acting
of the bracket equal to 2,500 lb. The shaft material tests 54,000 psi yield and on the edges.
90,000 psi ultimate. Find the FS by the maximum shear theory for an element on (a) Find the FS if the dimensions become 9.9981 by 20.0066 in. after the
the top surface 4 in. to the left of the bracket. Do the same by the MisesHencky loads are applied.
theory. (b) Do the same, but with dimensions of 10.0011 by 20.0048 in.
42. The part shown in Fig. 255 is made from 87 42 steel quenched and tem Find the relationship between 8,11p and 811p by the MisesHencky theory.
pered at 1,200 F. The load varies continuously from 30,000 lb to 50,000 lb. If
the endurance limit is equal to onehalf the ultimate strength, find the FS.
.;,.fTUJ'.
(
c. 1 SHAFTING 107
. Torsion of Circular Shaft
Figure 31 shows a circular shaft of uniform cross section loaded · at
3 the ends by the torques T which twist it about the longitudinal axis.
The shaft is assumed to be much longer
with respect to the diameter than is in � I
dicated by the figure. It can be shown "t1
'experimentally that cross sections per
; pendicular to the axis before loading
remain plane and perpendicular to the
axis after the loads T have been applied.
The diameter of the bar is unchanged
and radial lines remain straight and
radial after twisting. _
· The only deformation in · the bar is
the rotation of the cross sections with
respect to each other. As shown in Fig.
31, the bottom cross section has been
;, rotated with respect to the top through
the angle q,.
,,kinds of machinery and mechanical equipment. The sides of an element on the cylin
, theory for a circular shaft with static torsi?nal drical surface of radius r1 are unchanged
·a'.ns are subjected to fluctuating loads of combmed in length, but the angles in the corners
'iith· various degrees of stress concentration. For
hiem is fundamentally one of fatigue loading. In
are changed by angle 'Y from their orig Fig. 31. Circular shaft twisted by
. inal 90° values. The element is thus torques at ends.
:;;}�elf, the design usually must include th� calculs stressed in pure shear. As shown by Fig.
c'keys and couplings. The normal ope:atm� speed 31, r1q, = lv, Substitution of Hooke's law, 'Y = s./G, where G is the
'be close to a critical speed, or large vibrations are modulus of elasticity in shear, gives
i{h:q�tions are given for finding the deflections of
s r: < p •·· i1n'
'diameters. Machine parts with non circular cross q,Grl
s, = l (1)
se�ti� . •. }e6����es loaded in torsion; the designer must therefore_ be
al>le t()'det�9Piile the stresses and deformations sustgined by such bodies.
Since "'' G; and l are constants in Fig. 31, the value of the shearing stress s.
d, 4i�,e�:· ,· . . . . . . n, revolutions per minute varies directly with the radius r1.
If the portion of the bar above the element dA in Fig. 31 were removed,
fp!f�1�f�ttti�i�y rp�: �:��:tions per minute reversed
FB, faci;t):r'of i,a.!ety 8,, endurance limit stress,
the torque of the shearing stress s., if integrated over the whole cross sec
G, m<)duhis of elasticity in shear bending tion, would be equal to the applied torque T. Hence,
hp, horsepower B, shearing stress
I, moment of inertia 8,P: yield point stress, t�nsioEnn . · (a)
J, polar moment of inertia SAE, Society of Automotive gineers
K, stress concentration factor, nor T, torque .
mal stress V, velocity, feet per minute
The right side is multiplied and divided by r1; by Eq. (1), ratio s./r1 is a
K1, stress concentration factor, shear y, deflection . constant and can be removed from the integral. Thus
stress <P, (phi) angular deforma�ion .
l, length "'• (omega) angular velocity, radians (b)
M, bending moment per second ·
106
108
(
SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 1 SHAFTING c 109
In the last form of Eq. (b), the symbol J, called polar moment of inertia, l6T 16 X 9,000 .
By Eq. (2):
has been substituted for the integral r12 dA. J s. = rd' = ir8 ·"" 5, 730 psi
The maximum value of the shearing stress occurs at the outer surface,
If it is assumed that the shaft is cut, at the right edge of t.he element, the given
where r1 = r, Hence, from Eq. (b),
Tr 16T I'', torque causes the shear stress s, to have
the direction shown in Fig. 32(b). The
=
s. J = 1rd3 (2) t'<
, .•'.:i.·
It should be noted that the value of J for a circle is twice as great as the If it is assumed that the shaft is cut at the right edge of the element, the trans
corresponding.value of I. For a hollow shaft with outside diameter do and verse shear stress acting upon the element is directed upward. The total shear
inside__cliariieteuli,.. the. net value for the polar moment of inertia is equal stress has the value shown in Fig. 32(c). The bending stress is zero for the
to the value of J for the outer circle minus the J for the inner circle. element at B.
Hence, ;for a hollow shaft,
Example 2. A hollow shaft must carry a torque of 30,000 inlb at a shearing
J = ;2 (do4 d,4) = ; (ro4 r;') (4) stress of 8,000 psi. The inside diameter is to be 0.65 of the outside diameter.
Find the value of the outside diameter.
Eliminatio11 i:lfs. between Eqs. (b) and (1) gives
Tl Solution. d, = 0.65d.
'P = JG
(5)
This equation can be easily committed to memory when its analogy to In Eq. (4): J = :!_ (d.4 0.654d.') = 0.08065d.4
32
Eq. (4), Chapter 1, o = Pl/ AE, for axial deformation is noticed.
· An�l��'P is in radian measure. It should be recalled that 1 ° is equal to In Eq. (2)� J = 30,00� �0.5d. = 0.08065d.'
r/180. rililian, or 1 radian = 57.296°. '
In order that the foregoing equations may be valid in the neighborhood d03 = 23.2486
of the ends, moments T must be applied by means of stresses which vary d. = 2.854 in.
in intensity with the distance from the axis. Since this condition rarely
occurs in. practice, Eq. (2) gives correct results only atcross sections some Example 3. Suppose it is specified that the angular deformation _in a shaft
what removed from the points where loads T are applied. should not exceed 1 ° in a length of 6 ft. The permissible shearing stress is 12,000
psi. Find the diameter of the shaft. The material is steel.
Example I. The shaft in Fig. 32 does not rotate; the loads are steady.
(a) Make a sketch for the element at A on the bottom surface of the shaft 1r .
I
Solution. (a) Element at A. By Eqs. (2) and (5): T = s.,J • ({)JG
T l
By Eq. 05), Chapter 1:
or T  8,l = 12,000 X 72 X 180 = 4.305 in.
s
32M
=�=
32 X 3 500
1rS'
.
= 4 460 psi, tension
ea 11,500,000,r
t d = 8.609 in.
110
(
SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 4 SHAFTING
c 111
Example 4. The shaft in Fig. 33 carries the torque of 10,000 inlb at the Velocity V in Fig. 34 is equal to
location shown. If the ends of the shaft are fixed
against rotation, find the values of the torque re V = rdn
12 (9)
actions T 1 and T 2,
Solution. where n is rpm or revolutions per minute. When this substitution is
made in Eq. (6) the following equation results.
15T, 'l'n
By Eq. (5), Ang. def. for AB: <P1 = JG hp= 63,025 (10)
24T2
Fig. 33. Example 4. By Eq. (5), Ang. def. for BC: <P2 = JG Torque T in this equation has dimensions in inlb.
The angular deformation in AB is equal to the angular deformation in BC. 3. Maximum Static Shearing Stress
The values for q,1 and q,2 should be equated.
rJ(
Many shafts carry combined loads of bending and torque. The bending
15T1 24T2 = 0 (c) moment kJ causes a normal stress in the axial direction of the shaft as
shown by s in Fig. 35(a), and the torque T
By stat16s: T1 + T2 = 10,000
produces the shearing stress .�•. The normal
The equations above should now be solved simultaneously to give stress in the ydirection, or at right angles to
the shaft axis, is in general equal to zero. y s,
s
Ti = 6,154 inlb; T2 = 3,846 inlb (o}
From the Mohr circle for this element, shown
in Fig. 35(b), the value of the maximum
2. Horsepower shearing stress for static loading is given by
the equation
Power is defined as the rate at which work is performed. The unit is
the horsepower, which is equal to 33,000 ftlb per minute. If a force of
F pounds acts at a velocity of V feet per minute, the work done per
S,ma,: = 0.5811p
FS = \J'[. 2s]2 +·
e.: {11) s.,
minute is FV, and the equation for horsepower is The equations for the stresses for a solid cir
FV cular shaft,
hp= (6) Fig. 35. Stresses on element
33,000 32M 16'1' of shaft surface.
8 =
' rd'
and s. = 1rd3 {12)
In machinery where power is transmitted by shafting, it is necessary to
transform Eq. (6) into angular dimensions. If fo�ce F is acting at radius should now be substituted into Eq. (11) to give the following equation for
r in. as shown in Fig. 34, the angular velocity, w rad./sec, the maximum shearing stress for static loads.
is equal to
Sama:,; 
 0.5Syp  16 IM2
FS  1rd3 V 1
+ T2 (13)
(7)
Substitution of s•mu, = 0.5s11p/FS implies that the maximum shear
The value of V from Eq. (7) should now be substituted Fig. 34. Re
theory of failure has been assumed to be applicable. This is in accord
in Eq. (6) to give · Ia tionships for with Eq. (6) of Chapter 2.
deriving horse
h _ Tw (8)
power equations.
p  12 X 550 4. ASME Code for Design of Transmission Shafting
In Eq. (8) the product Fr has been replaced by torque T, which has di Since the loads on most shafts in machinery are not constant, it is
mensions in inlb. necessary to make proper allowance for the harmful effects of the fluctua
II
( ( (
112 SHAF'l'ING Chap. 3 I! Sec. 5 SHAFTING Ill
t" Th ASME Code for the Design of Transmission Shafting, �17e 16
In Eq. (15): 6.ooo;;: 01.s x 21,oom2 +
11;;7, do:s this by insertitli constants C,,. and C, into the equation for d3 = rn.2002 ee a7.026
8,ma:r  
_ O_:_�sy1,
FS
= /(��)2
'\j 2
+ (C,s.)� (14) Example 6. A 2 in. diameter rotating shaft carries a torque of 12,000 inlb
which may be applied suddenly and a bending moment of 8,000 inlb which also
may be applied suddenly. Material tests Bwp = 70,000 psi. Find the value of the
= }!i v(£};.MJ2+(c,7')2 (15) FS by the ASME Code.
or  �p
s.,,. • ., _ FS 1rda 
Solution. Assume C,.. = 2 and C, = 1.5.
where Cm = numerical combined shock and fatigue factor to be applied
in every case to the computed bending moment
and C, = the corresponding factor to be applied to the computed By Eq. (15): 0.5 �}�!JOO = ::3 y (2 X 8,000)2 + (1.5 X 12,000)2
torque. . . .
The recommended values for the shock and fatigue f�ctors are given
. 35;.�00 = � x 24.083
in Table 31. For rotating shafts, the bending stress s is not constant;
or FS = 2.28
TABLE 31
Constants for ASME Code S. Maximum Shear Theory when Loads Are Fluctuating
Values/or It will now be shown1 that the maximum shear theory of failure can
Nature of Loading be applied when the normal and shear stresses in a
c; c, shaft are fluctuating. The loading for an element on
the shaft surface is shown in Fig. :36. Stresses nor
Stationary shafts:
1.0 1.0 mal to the shaft axis are zero. It is assumed that the
Gradually applied load
Suddenly applied load 1.52.0 1.52.0 normal and shear stresses reach their maximum and Fig. 36. Element
minimum values simultaneously. loaded by fluctuating
stresses.
Rotating shafts: Soderberg's Eq. (11), presented in Chapter 2,
Gradually applied or steady load 1.5 1.0
1.01.5
applied to the fluctuating normal stress of Fig. 36 gives the equivalent
Suddenly applied loads, minor shocks only 1. 52 .0
2.03.0 1.53.0 static normal stress s as
Suddenly applied loads, heavy shocks
(a)
it varies continuously from maximum tension to maximum compr�ssion
as the shaft rotates. For steady loads, the table indicates that smta?le The equivalent static shear stress s, for Fig. 36 has the value
compensation can be made for the alternating nature of the bending
stress by using a value of 1.5 for C,,.. If the shaft is hollow, factor l6/ird3
8, = s�av + tc«;
·��
s,
88, (b)
ean be replaced by r/J, where r is the outside radius, and J is computed
Equations (a) and (b) are now substituted into Eq. (11) to give the
for the net area.
resultant static shear stress s,ma"'·
Example 5. Find the diameter by the ASME Code for a rotating sh.aft
subjected to a maximum steady torque of 16,200 inlb, and a steady bending 8,maz 
_ 0.5s11P
FS  "4
_ /i (Sav + S.
Ks11
Sr
P )2
+ (
8,av + K1s11P
Se 8,r
) 2 (16)
moment of 27,000 inlb. The shaft has akeywav.
Solution. s, ... , = 0.75 X 8,000 �, 6,000 psi. Hee Section 20. or
S,ma;,:
= 0.581/P = �
FS 1rd3
'(M
'\J a• + Ks11p M )2 + (r + K1811p r.)2
Se r nv Se
{17)
c
1'.; ... �......... .....
(
114 SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 7 SHAFTING 115
Stress concentration factors for the appropriate change of form and 6. MisesHencky Theory for Shafting
type of loading can be determined from the curves of Chapter 2 and from
Section 8 of this chapter. For a shaft element loaded as in Fig. 36, Eq. (9) of Chapter 2 for
The equations above apply to solid circular shafts. When a keyway average and range stress becomes
is present at the section for which the calculations are made, the strength
is reduced not only because of stress concentration but because of loss of
cross section as well. A theoretical determination of this latter quantity 8
I
r 
__ r.:T+3
V Sr 8,r
2
would be very involved, but its magnitude may be estimated by the prin
ciples exptainea'iii Section 16. Perhaps the best way of taking care of the These are now substituted into Eq. (11) of Chapter 2 to obtain the equiva
situation in a design is to use a lower value for the working stress in shear. lent static working stress in tension.
Fortunately, the form of the equation is such that this correction could be
considerably in error without causing very much difference in the resulting 8 
 Suv   /
FS  ·y Sav
2 + 3• Buv 2 + Ks11v 
Be
/�+
V Sr.
32
S., (18)
diameter of the shaft.
Equations (12) are now substituted to give
Exaiii�ie 7. Suppose the loads are the same as those given in Example 5 except
T. = O}T...,. Stress concentration is caused by a keyway and is equal to 1.35 for 8 = i's = ::. [ v'4Ma. + 3T<J.2 + 2 �IIP v'4M,2 + 37',2] (19)
bothJ>imchng anatorque. Material tests Bull = 120,000 psi; Sn,= 100,000 psi.
TheJ,c re of safety equals 2. Let s. = 0.58uU· Because of the keyway, let the Example 8. Determine the required shaft diameter by the MisesHencky
W'<>i:kiµ �,be reduced. to 90 per cent of the value for a solid shaft. For an theory using the data in Example 7.
· :,rotating shaft, the average moment is zero.
Solution. Substitutionof the values for moments and torques should be made
Ma. = 0, M. = 27,000 inlb into Eq. (19).
Ta. = 16,200 inlb, T, = 1,620 inlb
Equivalent working stress in tension:
s, = 0.5 X 120,000 = 60,000 psi
= O 9 871p = 0.9 X 100,000 = 45 000 .
.. 0.5 X 100,000 s . FS 2 ' psi
,\1'hk�s·"l"� = 0.9. . = 22,500 psi working stress
2
�.;yr: :><u··
Then,
In Eq. (i})j;{ ...
�:}>:q,
d3 = 45,��llir [ v'a x 16,2002 + 1.35 � 100 v4 x 21,000 + a x 1,620 2 2]
�©{J}@
itself to small amounts of misalignment and variation in hole diameters,
and will not come loose under vibrating loads.
For highgrade construction, and for cases where axial movement
between shaft, and hub is required, relative rotation is prevented by means
Sttuar11 Flat Round K•11n11dy of splines machined on the shaft and into the bore. One type of spline
uses the involute curve as the outline. The spline on the shaft can be
cut by a hobbing process similar to that used for cutting gears.
�
Cross Section of Roll Pin
$��+
. __ '[ap�ed p{n Gibh11ad key
J = rd'
= 3 708 in.
1. · 4 ..
.!, Zif
\
32
s.J _ 14,500 X 13.708 = 115 650 inlb
i
I
In Eq. (2), torque in shaft: T = ;:  1.719 · ' 120
i
Force at sha.ft surface:
F = !_ =
r
115,650
1.719
= 67 ,280 lb ..
'
\
t /.f
!!!
8. Stress Cori.cenh:'atiori
Stress . concentration faetors" for a shaft with two diameters joined
by fillets and loaded in torsion are given in Fig. 39. When a shaft has a Rotliu• "' 51'IOH Sita//
transverse hole with a bending load, the stress concentration factors' are Fig. 39. 'I'oraionalstreee concentrations in circular shafts of two diameters.
as shown in Fig. 310. The stress concentration factors5 for a transverse
hole and torsional loading are given in Fig. 311. ·
All stress concentration factors so far presented in this book. are the '.".\( heattreated, chromenickel steel. Specimens tested were 1 in. in diam
geometric or full theoretical values. Section 17 of Chapter 2 discussed ,,�ter with two types of keyways: sled runner and profile, which are shown
the fact that under fatigue loading the actual effect of stress concentra · ,pl Fig. 312. In order to simulate conditions at an oil hole, tests were
tion was usually less severe than indicated by the theoretiGal values. j1Jso made on carbon steel specimens with a l in. transverse hole i the
;results are shown in Table 33.
3 See reference 13, Bibliography.
• See reference 14, Bibliography. · ', • See reference 7, Bibliography.
6 See reference 15, Bibliography.
( ( (
120 SHAFTING Chap.:; Sec. 9 8ttAFTING
121
..... T ..\RLE 33
a,;td �)
1\ ,,
H
, ,,_
.r
... .l.20.........r.rr....,..,
Fatigue Stress Concentration Factors in Bending for Shafts with
Keyways Based on Section Modulus of Full Area
�··�···
. I i
·. !!
ol! 2.10
I Chrome Medium
·. Nickel,
I'.
s
t� 2.00f+ttt;,tjf
I Yield
Heattreated
Carbon
Normalized
I Stress
i,..._
Tensile Strength,
I
.
r,
L9011++tt1 Stress
,�I' Steel Strength, , (Plastfr For Reversed
� psi Def. Bending Stress En I
Con
En Con
1.8 � 180 L......!,,.....;.,,.."e::t::=:= I cen du.r cen
0 .04 .08 .12 .20 ..... 0 04 08 ./2 16 .20 .24 .28 0.2 per dur I
.16 .24 .28 .32
o'
d�
dia. shaft
d dia. ho/�
0 . dio.siia1, cent) anee I
tra
. anee tra
Limit · lion Limit, lion
Fig. 310. Stress· coucentrat.iou factors for Fig. 311. Stress concentration fac . ' Factor psi Factor
psi
shaft with transverse hole loaded in bending. tors for shaft with transverse hole. Tor K K
Because of the lack of available data, Table 33 may also be used for
the stress concentration factors for torsion in the equations of Sections
5 and 6.
Fig. 312. Types of keyways tested for stress coneentrat ion effects.
9. Couplings
For fluctuating loads, the fatigue stress concentration factor K is de
fined as follows: A wide variety of devices is available for connecting the ends of two
shafts together. The solid coupling shown in Fig. 313 is a typical exam
K = endurance limit for plain specimen ple. It) is inexpensive and will withstand rough usage. Good alignment
endurance limit with keyway or hole between the ends of the shafts is necessary, however, to avoid inducing
bending stresses in the shafts or loads in the bearings.
In these tests a fatigue crack started on the outer surface of the shaft
near the end of the keyway. The results of the tests indicate that the i
i
sled runner keyway is preferable to the profile. It should also be noted
that the heattreated specimens had larger stress concentration factors
1
I
than the plain carbon. As was mentioned in Section 17, Chapter 2, a heat
treated steel· exhibits greater sensitivity to notch effects than does plain
carbon steel. This fact unfortunatelv causes a reduction in the advan
tages which would otherwise be obt;ined by the use of a highstrength
alloy steel. The tests also show that a designer should avoid locating an
oil hole at a highly stre8sed point on a shaft.
Fig. 313. Solid coupling.
( (
122 SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 10 SHAFTING
123
Example 10. For the coupling shown in Fig. 313, the k ey is · v1 bY v1 111.
. Th_e (d) Area in shear at edge of hub = 4.2/nr X 0.625 = 8.345 in.2
shaft carries a steady load of 50 hp at 150 rpm. For all parts, Syp = 60,000 psi,
an d s,11p _ · F'1nd the following stresses and the FS based on the yield
 30 , 000 psi.
21000
Force at edge of hub = = 9,880 lb
point: 2.�25
Shear stress in web: 9 880 .
(a) Shear and bearing in key. s, = = 1,180 psi
8'.345
(b) Shear in bolts.
(c) Bearing on bolts in flange. FS = 30,000 = 25.4
(d)Shear in flange at hub. 1,180
Solution. (a) Many types of flexible couplings are available which provide for some
misalignment. Such couplings are often provided with springs or rubber
inserts to cushion the shock of suddenly applied loads. Details, dimen
T = 63,000 hp _ 63,000 X 50 = 21 000 inlb
From Eq. (10): n  150 ' sions, and load ratings based on long experience may be found in the
catalogs of the various manufacturers. 7 Information: is also given in the
21,000
 !_
Tangential force at shaft surface: F _ r = 1.094 = 19 ' 200 lb mechanical engineering handbooks.
. . · . ·····Area.iii bearing for key = 0.25 x 3.25 = 0.8125 in," IO. Bending Loads in Two Planes
19,200
Compressive stress: 8 = = 23,630 psi Shafts are sometimes subjected to loads applied at different angles.
e 0.8125 · To find the resulting bending moment
at any cross section, it is necessary to
FS = 60,000 = 2.54 in bearing
23,630 have the components of the loads in
Area. in shear for key = 0.5 X 3.25 = 1.625 in.! two perpendicular axial planes. The
following example illustrates a typical
Shearing. stress in key: 8 = 19•20_0 = 11 820 psi method for solving such problems.
• 1.625 '
30 000 . Example ll. Figure 314 shows a shaft (bl ,t
FS = ' = 2.54 m shear �=..
11,820 with the belts making angles of 45° and 1,396
60° with the horizontal. Find the value M
The maximum bending moment occurs at the left pulley and has the following
7,000 value.
Compressive stress on bolts: 8, = 2 = 2,99O psi.
. 344
M,..az = V25,1302 + 36,070 2 = 43.960 inlb
60,000 7
FS 2,990 20.1 See, for example, catalog pages listed under Couplings (Shaft) in reference 8,
Bibliography. See also p. 152, reference 9.
( ( (
124 SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 12 SHAFTING
125
11. Shaft on Three Supports Solut_ion •. From the given conditions y'2 in Fig. 315{c) will be0.05in. smaller
than,71:, in Fig. 315(b). Hence
Shafts are sometimes supported on three bearings as illustrated in
Fig. 315. Such a problem is stati 2RJ14 Pa.J,1
IP + 0.05 + 2z12
R'  ;f:1
6 X 2l1El = 6 X 2l1EI (l12 a22)
b2 '12 cally indeterminate with three un
:T
known reactions R1_, R2, and R3. It The given numerical data should now be substituted in this equation to give
f
(a) •
· z, , is possible to write only tw.o inde
l t r :
It ,,.
Ri � pendent equations from statics, one R2 = 108 lb
.r for the summation of the vertical When all bearings are at the same elevation, Eq. (c) gives a value for R2 of
! 70.4 lb, a larger value than the 108 lb obtained above. Thus a small change
(b)
forces and one lo, the �?'mation of
Ic J :: __ the moments. The additional equa in the geometry of the system made a relatively large change in the forces.
;;,,
t.���:::::j;:__�.::::::::=�J_., tion required for a solution to the This is characteristic of indeterminate structures, andcare must be exercised in
� ,2 •
problem can be obtained by takmg the_ manufacture and assembly of equipment where such a condition is present.
Fig. 315. Sha.ft on three supports. into account the deformation of the This feature has been used to good advantage in the example above to effect a
reduction in the force at the center bearing.
body. This can be done in a variety of ways. The following example
illustrates a typical method of solution.
12. Crankshafts
Example 12. Derive the equation for reaction R2 of Fig. 315.
In order to determine the stresses in a crankshaft, the loading on the
Solution. Assume that support R2 has been temporarily removed as shown separate parts of the mechanism must be secured. A typical example is
by Fig. 315(b). Deflection y2 can be found by the equation for Y1 in No. 7 of shown in Fig. 316(a) which illustrates a singlecylinder, beltdriven air
Fig. 115. When substitutions from Fig. 315(e.) are made in this equation, the compressor. Suppose the dimensions of the machine are known and it is
result is as follows.
desired to find the stresses in the cheek CD of the crankshaft. From the
cylinder bore and the air pressure, the force on the piston can be found.
� _Pa2l.1_ (l.2 + 2lil,, _ a.2) (a)
Y., 6(l1+ l2)EI   • By making a force triangle, the force in the connecting rod can be deter
mined. This latter force also acts on the crankpin at A. As shown in
Now assume that reaction R2 of sketch (a) is acting, but that load P has been Fig. 316(b), it is divided into components tangential and normal to
temporarily removed as shown in sketch (c). Deflection y'2 then is the plane of the crank. The normal component gives the torque which
I 2R2l12ll the belt must exert at the given crank position. The forces in the tight
y •   .   (b)
 6(l1 + l2)EI and slack !>ides of the belt are now determined from the torque, and the
sum is divided into components in the coordinate directions as shown
If sketches (b) and (e) are combined, the original shaft of Fig. 315(a) is in Fig. 3,16(c). '
obtained in which the deflection at R,, is zero. In other words, the downward The freebody diagram for the crank should now be made as shown in
deflection Y2 of Eq. (a) must be equal to the upward deflection y' 2 of Eq. (b). Fig. 16(d), utilizing the rod and belt forces and with the bearing reae
When these are equated the following expression for R2 results. . '
tlons determined by statics. It is customary to assume that the entire
bearing load acts at the center of the bearing. The crank can now be
(c)
�ut apart, and the forces and moments for each portion can be determined
in the usual way. Thus Fig. 316(e) shows the cheek after cutting at the
Reactions R1 and Ra, as well a:s other iuformatiou concerning the shaft, can midpoint between C and D with the various forces and moments that
now be easily obtained by statics. act on the cut surface.
E:rnm,,1� l3. In Fig. a15 let a, = :.W in., L, = .l, = 50 in., P = 300 lb, and
_l:xaruple 14. Let the bore of the compressor 1Jf Fig. 316 be 4.75 in., the stroke
EI = 26,000,000 lb in'. Find the value of R2 if the elevation of the center bearing 6 m., and the length of rod 12 in. For a crank angle of 30°, the air pressure is
is made 0.05 in. lower than the others. 24.7 psi gage. The belt).'."is.. r.horizontal with tension T, .in the tight.side three times
>, __ , ..•
126 SHAFTING Chap. 3
(
Sec. 13
SHAFTING
( 
. . in the slack side. The coordinate system is as shown. 127
as
Find the as
great tension
forces T2
and momen ts for the cross section of the cheek midway between The forces and moments for the desired cross section of the cheek are shown
C and D. in Fig. 316(e). The reader should check the values shown thereon. Moment
arms are the distances from the line of action of the forcf': to the center of gravity
·
Solution. Force on piston
! X 4 · 752 X 24.7 = 437.7 lb of the cross section affected.
4
The arrows in Fig. 316(e) represent the resultant values for the forces
and moments. Such loads actually are distributed as stresses in some
fashion over the surface of the cheek where it was cut from the balance of
I the shaft. Because of the irregular shape of the crank, the stress equa
1. t
tions previously derived may or may not be applicable. If the crank of
Fig. 316 is of lightweight construction with relatively smalldiameter
pins, the equations might be valid for the cross section at the midpoint of
the cheek. However, the stresses for large, massive crankshafts, such as
those used in internal combustion engines, are usually determined experi
mentally by direct strain gage measurements. 8
f = 2r
1 \!g(W1Y1
w 1Y1 2 ++TVW2Y2 + W3y3 + · · ·) . I /
2Y2 + TV3y3 + · · · eye es sec
2 2 (21)
Forces and moments for crankshaft. Example 14.
where W 1, · W 2, etc. represent the weights of the rotating bodies, and
By · ,
. ·.. components
. taking . th e ro d is
. the force in · 2 lb ' &B shown in
· found to be 441 lb Yi, Y2, etc. represent the respective static
Fig.'3l6(b). At the era� pin the rod force divides into components 351.5 deflections of the weights. The gra vita
1 120•
and ·266.7 '
· · lb,. tangential and normal, respectively, toth e Pane o f th e crank · tional constant of 386 in./sec2 is repre 2"dio. 80*'
sented by g.
Torque oh crank: T = 266.7 X 3 = 800 inlb A I 8
30" 40" 20·
T = 4(T1 T2) = 4(3T2 T2) =. 800 inlb Example 15. Find the value of the funda
Hence mental critical speed for the shaft shown in
T2 = 100 lb Fig. 317. Example 1t. 1. ��
Fig. 317. E = 30,000,000 psi.
T1=300Ib
Solution. The static deflections at the weights can be found by the equations
The total belt load of 400 lb is now divided into components, as shown in for No. 7 of Fig. 115.
Fig.
The freebody diagram for the crank is shown .in Fig.
316(c). . whire·h . the
. . d), �n
. 3lti( I = rd4 = 1r = 0.7854 in.
,g,,11!'1,r.
4
64 4
apr�eevdieotuesrlmy idneetderimn itnheeducsruaan_.lk�·,::.a;iyn�,.!ab·iny}:·t�·ab�_ke�Jit;glr9;al;do;s�·,ae.fl'ne�.t;;asc:.'t:in:g:·.1:'h:e:'�b:ea:r�u:1g�re:·a:c�_t:·.o:p�s........�8�Ste:e�r�ef�e�re:n�c:e�l�O�,!B:ib�l�io�g,ra�p�h�y�,
' .. . Plli • §tw p 92 of referePCe J s, liiklLg1 · apli; .
( (
128 SHAFTING Chap. 3 Sec. 14 SHAFTING
129
At A, due to 80 lb: 80 x 60 x 30 (902 602 30')
y = 6 X 90 X 30,000,000 X 0.7854 lo�d F. The modulus_ of e�asticity of the mat_erial is represented by E;
,,. 0.04074 in. I is the moment of inertia of the cross section. The integration must
extend throughout the entire volume of the shaft.
At A, due to 120 lb: 120 x 20 x 30 (902 202 302)
y  6 X 90 X 30,000,000 X 0.78.54 Equation (22) can be given a geometric interpretation 10 that eliminates
= 0.03848 in. the necessity of performing mathematical integrations. The integrand
can be considered a solid with the three dimensions Mp/I, M1, and dx
Total deflection at A: y = 0.04074 + 0.03848 = 0.07922 in.
as shown in Fig. 319(a). If the moment diagrams for MP and M, consist
At B, due to 80 lb: _ 80 X 30 X 20 (902 _ 30' _ 201) of segments of straight lines, it is not necessary to consider a solid of thick
y  6 X 90 X 30,000,000 X 0.7854 ness dx, but solids of finite lengths along the shaft can be taken and the
= 0.02565 in.
�o���::��;:����26:;2)
Total deflection at B: y = 0.02565 + 0.03697 = 0.06262 in. F (aux1/iar1
;r
P(Ot:lualload I
load}
.�A+8�f1t��A
InEq .. (21): . .. I� �38:�8�
fol
= 11.80 cycles/sec Fig. 318. Deflection of shaft by elastic Fig. 319. Deflection of shaft by elastic
energy. energy.
ner = 11.80 X 60 = 708 rpm, critical speed
The. normal operating speed for a shaft should be considerably above or below volumes found by solid geometry. When this is done for the full length
the value of a critical speed.
. of the shaft, the integration of Eq. (22) will have been performed.
Odd shaped solids will, in general, be present, and for these the pris
It'11l:{li,ild be noted that Eq. (21) ignores the effect of the weight of the moidal equation is useful.
shaft a"Iid also assumes that all weights are concentrated. The equation
. l
does nay take into account any effect of the flexibility of the bearings or Vol. = + 4Am + A
supports. /;i.'his additional flexibility may in some cases lower the value 6 (A1 2) (23)
of the cr�ti!:al speed below that indicated by the equation. As shown in Fig. 319(b), A1 and A2 refer to the end surfaces of the solid
A shaff(will have as many critical speeds as there are rotating masses. that are perpendicular to the centerline of the shaft. Length l refers to
The deterl!lination of the higher critical speeds il'l beyond the scope of . the distance between A 1 and A 2• Area A,,. is the area of the cross section
this book. C:
midway between A1 and A2. Note that in general it is not (A1 + A2)/2.
Equations (22) and (23) are especially useful when the shaft is non
14. Deflection of Shaft of Nonuniform Diameter uniform in diameter as illustrated by the following example.
Another way to determine the deflection y of a shaft is by elastic energy.
The equation is as follows. . Example 16. Find the deflection for point A where the diameter of the shaft
of Fig. 320 changes. E = 30,000,000 psi.
EFy = f Mpi�1dx (22) Solution. The bending moment diagram for the P load is shown in Fig.
320(b). The values of the moments are divided by the corresponding values
As shown in Fig. 318, force F represents an auxiliary load placed on the for I to give the Mp/[ diagra.m of sketch (c).Let loa.dF be taken as l lb acting at
shaft. at point A where the deflection y is desired; MP is the bending point A, as shown in sketch (d). This load has the bending moment diagram of
sketch (e). The various solids formed by the Mp/[ and M, diagrams are given
moment in terms of distance x for any general point Bas caused by the
by sketch (f). The solid on each end is a pyramid with a. volume equal to one
actual loads P; MI is the bending moment at B caused by the auxiliary
10 See reference 17, Bibliography.
(
�..........._...... (
130 SHAFTING Chap. 3
Sec. 16
SHAFTING
. base by the altitude. The prismoidal equation, how 131
third must
ever, the solid in the middle. The calculations are as follows.
appliedoftothe
of thebeproduct The energy equation thus becomes
! X 24 X 31,280
3
= 250,250
EM'o = f MP�t dx
(24)
Moment M' is usually taken as 1 inlb. Positive and negative signs must
18 (18 340
6 '
+ 4 X 20,490 + 20,050) = 361,050 be observed as indicated by Fig. 321(c).
!3 X 30 X 20,050 = 200,500
16. Torsion of Noncircular Shafts
F·tood ! t slope of the membrane at right angles to the contour at the corresponding
point in the film.
I
I I
Mr �
Jr
(3) The torque carried by the shaft is proportional to twice the volume
� 8.
Fig. 320.
enclosed between the membrane and the plane of its base. .
Deflection of shaft of two diam · Fig. 321. Slope of shaft by elastic energy· Although complicated problems can be solved by taking measurements
eters. Example 16.
' on the membrane, experimental apparatus, which is rarely available to
by load P. The external work from load M' due to r9ta�io� 8_ is then�/ the designer, is required. Nevertheless, the idea of the membr�.11� an��,ogy
The expression for internal work is the same as that derived for Eq. ( �). is Very usefulsince it gives a mental picture Of the state of'stress. Tii,e ·'°"''
11
Il .... ,·.
···
l llll.l! Seep. 266 of reference a· nd, 889 sf Hfczcaee s, Blbildgfipriy.
 
132
(
SHAF'fJNG Chap. :1
(
Sec. 18 SHAFTING
c 133
designer can visualise the points of greatest slope, hence greatest stress, In accordance with the foregoing, the only stresses which act O
on the bowed film, and often. by making small changes in shape, can �lem�nt at ah interior point A of the bar of Fig. :J24(a) are those sh::
cause a reduction in stress. m Fig. 324(b). The maximum value of the stress occurs on the long
For example, the membrane may have a steep slope, indicating a high
stress at the internal corners of a keyway as shown in Fig. :J23(a). The r�i
membrane analogy indicates that. this stress concentration can be reduced ::=f::;::
r,
�(IJ2
dx .
"II I(
(II} £'11/org«I •in
of""""'' ol. A
silllJ sfr,s,;,s. .
A
;Fig. 323. Typical cross sections of bars loaded in torsion.
. ... ��
r
by rounding off the bottom corners. However, as was mentioned in Sec (t:J Conlou, liM6
for shall of fol.
·tion8;ulrtesirthe!keyway runs the full length of the shaft, a still greater (d)C,,,ss s,elio11 lhro,,g/1
m,m1>ro11, of (c).
stress occurs on the shaft surface at the end of the keyway.
'!'lie JD.embrane for a rectangular shaft has its greatest slope at point
A 1 in Fig. 323(b); hence the stress is at a maximum at this point, and not
at the corners, as is sometimes supposed. In the corner, the membrane Fig. 324. 'Torsion of thin, wide, rectangular shaft.
has a zero slope along both edges, indicating a zero stress.
As shown by Fig. 3.;;23(c), the volume enclosed by the membrane for a �id� b of the cross section. It can be shown that. t.he value of this stress
thin, narrow, rectangular cross section is practically the same whether is given by the following equation.
the rectangle is straight or formed into a curve. The torques carried by
either}e�tion are the same. However, a slight concentration of stress (25)
will exist on the inner side of the curved section.
The vblume enclosed by the membrane for a composite section, as in �he angular rotation between two cross sections a unit distance apart is
given by the following equation
Fig. 3;.23(d),. is approximately equal to the sum of the volumes for the
separate parts. Hence the membrane analogy permits the torque which T
81= (26)
such sections will carry to be found easily. However, a stress concentra 0.333Gbc3
tion will exist on the fillet in the reentrant corner," ·
. One of the equations above should now he divided by the other, to
give
17. Torsion of Wide Rectangular Bar Sanrn.r = (/c8, (27)
. As was previously mentioned, a mathematical solution for the stresses Referen�e t� Eq. (1) shows that the stress in the bar shown in Fig.
in a rectangular shaft is difficult to obtain. If the bar is very wide, however, 324(a) is twice as great. as for a round bar of diameter c with equal angu
the stress situation is much simplified. This is illustrated by Fig. 324(a), · lar deformation 81.
where it is assumed that side b of the cross section is much greater than
width c. The membrane for this shaft has the contour lines shown in 18. Torsion of Rectangular Bars, General Case
Fig. 324(c). These lines are practically straight and parallel to side b
for almost the entire surface. Hence, except for small regions in the ends, . When side b of the cross section is not relatively great as compared with
the shearing stress is directed parallel to side b, width c, the foregoing equations cannot be used. For the bar in Fig. 322,
( (
Chap. 3 Sec. 19
134
SHAFTING SHAFTING 135
ti f r stress and deformation may be written in the Here fJ', {:J", and {:J"' are the {3 values for parts 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
the genera1 aqua ions o
It should be noted that the righthand side of Eq. (b) will contain as manv
following forms:
terms as there are rectangles in the cross section under consideration. ·
(28)
_ _'!_. for point A 1, Fig. 323(b) The maximum value of the shearing stress occurs in the bar of greatest.
8 a1bc2
I 
width. Let this bar he No. l in Fig. 325. Hence, from Eq. (28),
(29)
81
= _'!__ for point A2, Fig. 323{b) Ti 81GfJ'c1
a2bc2 8,1 = ,
a1b1C1
=
a1
(c)
TABLE 34 The angular deformation per inch of length is found from Eq. (b).
Constants for Torsion of Rectangular Bars
T
(32)
b/c 1.00 1.20 t.50 1.75 2.00 2.50 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 10.00
00 81
= G(f3'b1c13 + {J"b2c2 + fJ"'baca• + · · ·)
3
L· ��
0 208 o 219 O 231 o �9 �.·2�60.2580.267 0.282 0.2910.299 0.307 0.3120.333 As was previously mentioned, a concentration of stress exists at the
:: 0:208 0:235 0:269 0:291 o.309 o.3360.355 o.378 o.392 o.402 0.4140.421 reentrant corners of a composite section. This factor depends upon the
fJ 0.1406 0, 1660,196 0.2140.22910.2490.263 0.2810.2910.29910.307 0.312 0.333
TABLE 35
With the values from th� table, computations can be m.ade for the Stress Concentration Factors for Structural
Angle of Fig. 326•
shear stress ·at the midpoint of both the long and the �hort side�, as well
as the angular deformation, for rectangular cross sections st�rtmg from , r/c 0.125 0.25 0.50 0.75 1
' · the square b / c = 1 to b / c = cc • The maximum shear
stress on the cross section occurs at the center A 1 of K 2.5 2.25 2.00 1.85 1.80 Fig. 326.
Structural
the long side, and is found by using a1. •P.A. Cushman, DMru.tion, Univel'lli\y of Michigan, 1932. angle.
19. Composite Sections radius of the fillet and the width of the bars. Experimental data are .
very limited. However, stress concentration factors for the angle iron
The membrane analogy indicates that the torsional in Fig. 326 are given in Table 35.
moment carried by a cross section consisting of a num
)
Fig. 325. Com
�te�tion loaded her of areas J. oined together is equal to the sum of the Example 17. Find the torque which the long piece of Tbar shownin Fig. 327
in torsion. 1·
torques of the separate parts. The angle 81 app ies can carry if the maximum shearing stress at the fillet is to be
to each of the parts as well as to the whole section. Therefore, the total 12,000 psi. Approximate the stress concentration factor from
torque T for the cross section of Fig. 325 is equal to the sum of the torques Table 35.
T1, T2, and Ta for the separate parts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Hence,
Solution,
r•..c
Torque carried by part 1: T1 = 81GfJ'b1c13 4
� = 0.25 = 0.4
Torque carried by part 2: T2 = 81GfJ"b2C23 (a) c 0.625 ·
Torque carried by part 3: T3 = 81GfJ'"baca3 From Table 35: K = 2.10
Fig. 327. Tbar.
Addirg: T = 81G((3'b1c13 + fJ"bie2a + fJ"'baca3) (b) Stress on fillet = 12,000 psi Example 17.
( ( (
Chap. 3 Sec. 20 SHAFTING 137
SHAFTING
136 From Table 34: a1 = 0.246
12•000
· ta.I bar s = = 5,710 psi
Stress on upper edge of honzon · • 2.10 Because of torque: s = __!___ ""' 366.7 = 7 45 psi
• a1bc2 0.246 X 2 X tt
� = 2.5 = 4
3V
For horizontal bar: c 0.625 Because of transverse shear: s
•
=
2A
....3
X 266.7
2 X 2
= .
200 psi
a1 = 0.282 (from Table 34)
Hence, These shear stresses have opposite signs. The resultant, 545 psi, properly
fJ' = 0.281 (from Table 34)
directed, is shown in Fig. 316(g).
�= 2.5 = 5
For vertical bar: c 0.50
20. Materials Used for Shafting
fJ" = 0.291 (from Table 34)
Hence, When service requirements are not too severe, the least expensive
s,a1({J'b1C13 +
fJ"b2C23) shaft material is hotrolled, plaincarbon steel. For maximum machin
In Eq. (31), T = · {J'ci
ability, a normalizing or annealing treatment may be necessary to im
5 710 x 0.282(0.281 x 2.5 x 0.6253 + 0.291 x 2.5 x 0.53) prove the grain structure and to secure uniformity. Since hotrolled bars
' 0.281 X 0.625 as received from the mill are usually covered with scale, the shaft must
be machined all over if a smooth surface is desired.
�= 2;400 inlb
Cold drawn bars, in contrast, have a smooth, bright finish and have
:Eili';'ri:is.
.. · . ,.,.. J).. 
Find the stresses at points R and � at the cPntr� of _t.lw sides of
. id b t n pomts C and D m Fig. 316.
diameters held to tolerances of a few thousandths of an inch. This
th:e"cheek':for the cross seetion rm way e .wee material is sometimes erroneously called cold rolled "Shafting. It is avail
, pi'"·. _.. ....
able in both plain carbon and alloy compositions, and is in wide use
SohitiJ.. ; Element at 'R: in the field of general power transmission, since the amount of machining
required is a minimum. Cold drawing improves the physical properties;
Dire.ct str.ess: 8 = 351.5 = 176 psi, compression it raises the values for tensile strength a.nd the yield point. When greater
2
·· accuracy is required, shafting which has been turned and ground can he
= 6M = 6 X 400 = 600 psi, tension secured from the steel warehouses.
Bending: s bh2 1 x 4
If greater strength is needed than can be secured by the use of a low
The n:t)�nsion of 424 psi is shown acting on the element in Fig. 316(£). carbon steel in the asrolled condition, a steel of somewhat higher carbon
b content can be used. After the ma.chining has been completed, the tensile
 = 2 and yield strengths and hardness can be increased by a quenching and
c
tempering heat treatment. To respond to quenching, the carbon con
From Table 34: a�= 0.309 tent must he about 0.30 per cent or more. For forged shafts, such as are
T  366.7 = 593 psi used in internal combustion engines and railroad cars, the carbon content
Shear stress, Eq. (29): s. = �.}Jc2
0_309
x2 x 12 is usually 0.45 per cent or 0.50 per cent. A widely used steel for such ser
This stress, properly directed, is also shown on the element in Fig. 3l6(f). vice is plain carbon steel 1045.
Element at S: · When service conditions are more severe, or when certain desirable
physical properties are to be obtained, an alloy steel can be used. � a
As before, direct stress: 8 = 176 psi, compression rule, such steels are not used unless the part is to be heat treated, since
= 6.M = 6 X 483.� = 1 450 psi, tension·
full advantage of the expensive alloying elements can be secured only in
Bending: 8
bh2 2 x l2 • this way. When heat treated to high strength and hardness, alloy steels
are tougher, more ductile, and better adapted to shock and impact loads
The net tension of 1,274 psi is shown on the element in Fig. 316(g).
than are plain carbon steels. The effect of the quenching penetrates
b
 = 2
deeper in alloy steels than in carbon steels, and a greater volume of the
c
( (
138 SHAFTING Chap. 3 SHAFTING 139
part is strengthened than if the hardening were confine? to a shallow zone 3. Timoshenko, S., Theory of Elasticity. New York: McGrawHill Book Com
over the surface. Alloy steels warp and distort less m heat treatment, pany, Inc., 1934.
have less tendency to crack, and have smaller residual stresses �ha� ha�e 4. Roark, Raymond J., Formulas for Stress and Strain, 2d ed. New York:
carbon steels. Although practically all the alloy steels find apphcati�n m McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1943.
the field of shafting chromiummolybdenum steel 4140, and chromium 5. Soderberg, C. Richard, "Factor of Safety and Working Stress," Trans.
nickelmolybdenum' steels 4340 and A8640 are in wide use as general ASME, 52(1), APM13 (1930); also 57, A106 (1935).
purpose alloy steels. . . . . . 6. Solakian, Arshag G., and Karelitz, George B., "Photoelastic Study of Shear
For equal hardness, alloy steels are superior m machining q?aht1es. ing Stress in Keys and Keyways," Trans. ASME, 54, APl\I97 (1932).
Where considerable machining is required, shop costs �an som�tu�es. be 7. Peterson, R. E., "Fatigue of Shafts Having Keyways," Proc. ASTM, 32, Part
reduced by use of a free cutting steel, such as _113�. _This n_iatenal is high II, 413 (1932).
in manganese and has a relatively high machinability rating for a heat
8. ASME Annual Catalog and Directory.
treating alloy steel. . 9. Nordenholt, Kerr, and Sasso, Handbook of Mechanical Design. New York:
If the· service requirements demand resistance to wear rather than
McGrawHill Book Company, Ine., 1942.
extreme strength it is customary to harden only the surface of a shaf�.
The case hardening or carburizing process is in wide use. Carbon _is 10. Gadd, C. W., and Van DeGrift, T. C., 11 A ShortGageLength Extensometer
and Its Application to the Study of Crankshaft Stresses," Trans. ASME,
absorbed by a relatively thin layer while the part is held at a red heat m
64, A15 (1942).
· the furnace.LOW· carbon alloy· steels such as 4320, 4820, and A8620 are
frequ�ntly . used for carburizing. The cyaniding and nitriding processes 11. Norman C. A., and Stinson, K. W., "Angular Distortion of Crankshafts,"
are' alsQ used to produce a hard surface. Sometimes it. is necessary �o Bulktin 48, Engineering Experiment Station, Ohio State University, 1928.
focaJ.i.z'e the wear to a relatively small area. The hardening treatment is 12. Timoshenko, S., "Torsion of Crankshafts," Trans. ASME, 44, 653 (1922);
applied. to those surfaces requiring it; the remainder of the shaft is left also 45, 449 (1923).
in it!3 original condition. . . 13. Jacobsen, L. S., "Torsional Stresses in Shafts Having Grooves or Fillets,"
ASME Code B17c1927 recommends that the working stress s,m,,.,, m Trans. ASME, 47, 619 (1925); 57, A154 (1935).
shear be taken at 8,000 psi for "Commercial Shafting" but without �ny 14. Peterson, R. E., and Wahl, A. M., "Two and ThreeDimensional Cases of
definite specifications for physical and chemical properties of the material. Stress Concentration, and Comparison With Fatigue Tests," Trans. ASME,
The ultimate strength of such steels may range from 45,000 psi to 70,000 58, A15, A146 (1936). See also Mech. Eng., 59, 49 (1937).
psi. The corresponding elastic limits would be from 22,500 psi to 55,000 15. Seely, F. B., and Dolan, T. J., "Stress Concentration at Fillets, Holes and
psi. When there is a keyway at the section for which the stress calculations Keyways as Found by the PlasterModel Method," Bulletin 276, University
are made the working stress is to be reduced to 75 per cent of the value of Illinois Experiment Station, 1935.
for a solid circular shaft. This reduction can be considered as making 16. Timoshenko, S., VibrationProblems in Engineering, 2d ed. New York: D. Van
allowance for both loss of section and stress concentration. Nostrand Company, Inc., 1937.
For Diesel engine crankshafts " ... we consider that 4500 is about the 17. Spotts, M. F., "Critical Speeds of Shafts," Product Engineering, 12, 20(1941).
maximum allowable vibratory stress (for continuous running). ... "12 18. Macduff, J. N., and Felgar, R. P., "Vibration Design Charts," Trans. ASME,
79, 1459 (1957).
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Volume number shown in bold face type. The number immediately following is PROBLEMS
.the page on which the article begins. I. A shaft carries a torque of 30,000 inlb at a shearing stress of 8,000 psi.
1. Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, 2d ed., Vol. 1. New York: D. Van Nos What is the diameter of the shaft? Ans. d = 2.673 in.
trand Company, Inc., 1940. 2. The torsional deformation of a steel shaft is to be 1 ° in a length of 2 ft when
2. Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, 2d ed., Vol. 2. New York: D. Van Nos the shearing stress is equal to 10,000 psi. Find the diameter of the shaft.
Ans. d = 2.392 in.
trand Company, Inc., 1941.
12 See Spaetgens, T. W., "Holzer Method for ForcedDamped Torsional Vibra 3. Suppose it is specified that the deflection at the center of a simply sup
tions," Trans. ASME, 72, APM 59 (1950). ported shaft under its own weight should not exceed 0.010 in. per foot of span.
( ( (
140 SHAFTING Chap. 3 I SHAFTING 141
(a) Find the maximum permissible span for a 3 in. diameter steel shaft.
(b) Find the stress caused by its own weight when the span length is deter ,
I
t b) Repeat (a) for the element at B. Take into account the transverse shear
for this location.
(c) Find the value of the maximum shear stress for the element at A for
mined as in part (a). Am. l = 13 ft; s = 2,300 psi.
steady loads and a. rotating shaft by ASME Code. Ans. (c) 6,630 psi.
4,. The bent bar ABC DE in Fig. 328 lies in the horizontal plane and is simply
supported at A and E. Angles at Band Dare 90° each. Draw a view of the ele 9. Work Problem 8 using Fig. 331 but with the length of the shaft not given.
ment lying on the top surface midway between C and D and show thf' values of Find the value of length l which "';11 make the maximum value of the shear stress
the stresses. Mark the CD direction on your sketch. Dia. = 2 in. at both elements equal. Take into aceount the t.rnniavc•r1<l',1<hPar. Thi, loads are
Ans. s = 1,590 psi; s, = 3,820 psi. steady and the shaft is nonrotating. A.ns. 7.05 in.
IO. The shaft of Fig. 332 dOl'ia not. rotate, and is simply supported at A and B.
The element at C is on the top surface; the element at /J is at the elevation of the
· shaft axis.
A (a) Draw a view of the element at C with sides parallel and perpendicular
to the shaft axis; show arrows representing stresses, together with numerical
values.
(b) Draw a view for the element at C, properly oriented with respect to
the shaft axis, which has the maximum shearing stress. Shon· arrows and numeri
Fie. 328. Problem 4. Fig. 329. Problem 5. cal values for all stresses acting.
·cc�· ·· ..... (e) Work (b) for the element at D. Ans. (b) s,mqr = 9,180 psi.
�6i�ak�afr�body diagram for the unit consisting of shaft AB and disk C,
seeljg. ,�,,"and ilhoWc allforces and torques necessary for equilibrium. Coefficient
offri��i911.�:.,{;0·�:;§\.lfli,ci�11t force is exerted between the disks to develop the full
coeffibie11.�;,�f,,!�9�on,. The entire torque is carried by the torque reaction at A.
Fol'Ce l'.�tio#s �iapplied at the bearings as shown.
< ... i·1· ,; .. >·t\·:\i/i,:l\? ;://•;/_;., ,�;'_·
· ·�.�. � ���y�1ie of dimension b in Fig. 330 that causes the slope of the shaft
to � iero ·i.:i:t�� �lll'ings. Ans. b = 40 in.
1� (a)i�;)y �.�equation for combined stress and find the value of the maxi
mum shearings,a:,�for.the element at A in Fig. 32. Fig. 332. Problem 10. Fig. 333. Problem 11.
(b) If this shaft rotates, find the value of the maximum shearing stress by
the ASME Code. · Ana. (a.) 6,150 psi; (b} 6,630 psi.
ll. The shaft of Fig. 333 is simply supported at A and B and is keyed against
rotation at A.
(a) Draw a view of the element on the top surface of the shaft at B with
sides parallel to the x and yaxes. Show arrows and numerical values for all
stresses acting.
(b) Draw the element at B properly oriented to give the maximum shearing
A II b stresses. Show arrows and numerical values for all stresses.
60" 60"
Ans. (b) s, ..az = 12,010 psi.
Fia. 330. Problem 6 Fie. 331. "
Problems 8 and 9.
· 12. Resistancewire strain gages giving deformations at 45° with the shaft axis
ai:e a�tached at A and Bin Fig. 334. Lead wires are carried from the gages through
8. Element at A in Fig. 331 is located on the bottom of the shaft· element at slip nngs and brushes to electric instruments, which permit the deformations to be
B is at the elevation of the shaft a.xis. ' , ., . determined. The shaft carries torque only. Find its value if the elongation at A in
'(a) Compute the value of the bending and shear stresses in directions \�g,}�.direction is 0.0006 in.fin. positive, and if elongation at B in the y'direction is
parallel and perpendicular to the shaft axis for element at A. Draw a view of the i\f�,,:�� same amount but negative. Draw a view of the element with sides parallel to
element showing stress arrows and mark the value of each. Compute the value ,�,:i and yaxes and show stresses acting. Also draw a view for the element
of the maximum shearing stress for this location on the shaft. Loads are steady "�'sides parallel to x' and y'axes µ e } E = 30,000,000 psi. .
,,.,, Ans, T = 21,200 inlb
and the shaft does not rotate.
( (
142 SHAFI'ING Chap. 3 SHAFTING 143
21. What is the ratio of the weight of the hollow shaft per unit length to the
x weight of the solid for the foregoing values of X? Ans. 0.783, 0.744, and 0.702.
22. Find the required shaft diameter (a) by the maximum shear theory, and
(b) by the MisesHencky theory for the following conditions. The torque varies
from zero to 12,000 inlb. The bending moment varies from 6,000 to 10,000 inlb.
Fig. 334. Problem 12. Fig. 335. Problem 13. Stress concentration due to fillet for both bending and torque is equal to 2.5.
The shaft does not rotate. The material tests s.,u = 60,000 psi and 811, =
13. Find the permissible weight of the flywheel in Fig. 335 if the value of the 40,000 psi. Assume s, = 0.5su11 and s,1111 = 0.5s,,,. The factor of safety equals 2
maximum shearing stress.in the shaft is to be 9,000 psi. The shaft rotates and based on yield point. Ans. (a) 2.48 in., (b) 2.43.
carries a steady torque of 40,000 inlb. Use ASME Code. Ans. W = 1,600 lb.
23. The belt tensions for the pulleys of Fig. 340 fluctuate from the values
14. How much torque will the shaft of Fig. 336 carry if the maximum shearing shown in (a) to those given in (b). Details of shaft. and hubs are shown in (c).
stress is not to exceed 8,000 psi? Loads are steady and the shaft rotates. Use Consider the stress concentration as being due to fillets only. Material tests
ASME Code. Ans. T = 5,600 inlb. s1111 = 69,000 psi and Sutt = 104,000 psi. Let s, = 0.5 s�u, and s,1111 = 0.5 s1111•
Let D/d = 1.33 and r/d = 0.125. The factor of safety is 1.9 based on yield point.
ttf f��i!��W:;1�.�;�q�/;A!:
Fig. 337. Problem 15. Fig. 338. Problem 16.
(ti} (bl
i f�
J�/'.·��i��;�.�,,· 338 carries a torque of 50,000 inlb. How large a hole
ma;:iitJe qrill�·�. J{lithe shaft so that the maximum shearing stress does not
exceedl(),, · '··' are steady and the shaft rotates. Use ASME Code.
Ans. 1.92 in.
17. A holl ., . .'>f i a hole of diameter Xd, where dis the outside diameter of Fig. 340. Problem 23.
the sh�t� �'1.,:.... :.�'.{l,PJ?ropriate constant. Show that the equation for the shear
ing stress by the �ME Code will be the same as Eq. (14) except that factor Draw and dimension the bending moment diagram. Find the value of d (a)
(1  X 4) Mil. ap0 in the denominator on the righthand side. by the maximum shear theory, and (b) by the MisesHencky theory. Include
18 •. Wh�t .diatn��r hollow �haft is required to carry� bending moment of the deJl,d weight of the pulleys. Ans. (a) 2.14 in., (b) 2.29 in.
16,200 in,lb together with a torque of 40,000 inlb if the diameter of the hole is 24. Solve Problem 13, Fig. 335, by the maximum shear theory. Let the shaft
equal to 0 •.6 of the outside diameter of the shaft? Loads are steady and the shaft be of uniform diameter, but let it have a keyway at the flywheel of the usual pro
rotates.Maximum s�earing stress equals 10,000 psi. Ans. d = 3.014 in. portions with a stress concentration factor of 1.35. Let s, = 0.6s1111 for the shaft
19. Determine the required diameter f�r the hollow . material, Take working stress equal to 90 per cent of the value for the shaft
r shaft of Fig. 339 having a hole diameter 0.6 as great without a keyway. Ans. W = 640 lb.
as the shaft diameter. The maximum shear stress is 25. A 2t in. diameter shaft is made of 4140 steel normalized and tempered at
24• to be 12,000 psi. The shaft rotates and loads are 1� F. The shaft rotates and carries a steady 2,500 lb load at the center of a 40 in.
steady. Use ASME Code. Ans. d = 1.982 in. sunply supported span. Average torque is 20,000 inlb. Assume T, = O.lT.,•• Let
600#
20. A hollow shaft has a hole of diameter Xd., Ir.= K, = 1.7, and Bo = 0.5s.,11. On the basis of (a) the maximum shear theory
Fig. 339. Problem 19. where d, is the outside diameter and X is a constant. and (b) the MisesHencky theory, find the FS for this shaft.
Find the value of the ratio of d; to the diameter d of Ans. (a) FS = 2.07, (b) FS = 1.75.
a solid shaft for equal shearing stresses caused by the same torques for values of 26. A 2! in. diameter shaft has a key 0.625 by 0.625 in. The shaft material tests
X of 0.5, 0.55, and 0.6. Ans. d./ d = 1.022, l .033, and 1.047. 60,00o psi at _yield point. Let s,,,j, = O.as.11• The factor of .safety ,equals 2. The
( (
144 SHAFTING Chap. 3 SHAI<'TING 145
shaft fits into a castiron hub for which the working stress in compression is 33. The shaft in Fig. 344 is simply supported at A and I) but is keyed against
18,000 psi. What length of key in the hub material will be required to carry the rotation at both points.
torque of the solid shaft? The key material is assumed to be amply strong. {a) Find reactions at the ends, and draw a view of the element at Bon the
Ans. 6.55 in. .. top surface of the shaft. Show all stresses acting and their numerical values.
27. A 3 in. diameter shaft of material with a yield point value of 50,000 psi has (b) Compute the value of the maximum shearing stress atB and the angle
a 0.75 X 0.75 X 5 in. key. What must the minimum yield point value be for the at which it acts. Make a view of the element properly oriented showing maximum
material in the key in order to transmit the torque of' the shaft'? The factor of shearing stresses acting as well as the normal stresses on all faces.
safety equals 2. s,,p = 0.5s,P. Ans. 47,100 psi. Ans. (a) Sz = 13,240 psi; Bzu = 3,060 psi.
28.A square key hasa diameter equal to oueIourth of the shaft diameter. 34. The shaft in Fig. 345 is simply supported at A and C, but is keyed against
The shaft and key are of materials which are equally strong with a yield point rotation. Draw and dimension the bending moment diagram, and find all reac
value in shear equal to onehalf the yield point value in tension. Find the required tions at the ends.
length of the key in terms of shaft diameter necessary to transmit the shaft Find the resultant stress from all causes for the elements on the top surface of
torque. Ans. l = 1.57d. the shaft at D and F. Do the same for the elements at E and G at the elevation
29. A 3 in. diameter shaft is transmitting 400 hp at 600 rpm. A solid coupling of the center line. Draw sketches for the elements with arrows properly directed
similar to that shown in Fig. 313 has 6 bolts each f: in. in diameter. Find the for the stresses and show numerical values.
requireddia�eterof the bolt circle based on an average shearing stress of 4,000 '. Ans. At D, e, = 3,060 psi; s = 9,170 psi.
\
psi in.the bolts." Ans. Pia. = 7.93 in. At E, s, = 3,230 psi; s = 0.
,. ·.'"'."::.:,··.·.
,,=,===···
__·,,·:"';·.
..
. ··
30. Make the horizontal and vertical load and moment diagrams for the shaft 35. The shaft of Fig. 346 is built in at A and D. Find the value of the torque
shown in Fig. 341. Find the location and value of the minimum bending moment reactions at the ends. Ans. · 39,230 inlb; 60,770 inlb.
in the shaft for the portion lying between the left pulley and the right bearing. 36. The shaft of Fig. 347 is built in at A and D. Find the value of the torque
Ans. Min. M = 17,050 inlb for x = 7.88 in. reactions at' A and D. Ans. 21,706 inlb; 78,294 inlb.
31. Repeat Problem 30 for the shaft in Fig. 342. The minimum moment should
be for the portion between the two pulleys.
Ans. Min. M = 10,540 inlb for x = 19.96 in.
32. The shaft shown in Fig. 343 is fixed at the ends. Find the reactions at the
ends and the stresses in each portion of the shaft. Draw views of the elements
A (0001: l(:;,,,°:nuous 11:'°lb
for each portion and show the stresses acting. Ans. s, = 17,190 anr1'9,550 psi. R1 c Re IJ
S6• 24• 24• 36'
37. (a) Find the reactions, and draw and dimension the bending moment dia
gram for the shaft of Fig. 348. All bearings are on immovable supports at the
same elevation. Include the effect of the dead load of the shaft. For the shaft,
.l!'ig. 343 Problem 32 Fig. 344. Problem 33. E = 30,000,000 psi; 'Y = 0.283 lb/in."
_____.. .. _
( (
146 SHAFTING Chap. 3 SHAFTING 147
(b) Find the valu� of the reactions if the bearing at C is l in. lower than (b) Suppose an additional bearing is placed in the center of the shaft.
the others. Include the effect of the dead load of the shaft. Find the reactions, and draw and dimension the bending moment diagram. Ignore
(e) Let the center support consist of a 6 in. Ibeam, 12.5 lb per ft (I = 21.8 the effect of the deadload deflection. Note how the presence of the central bearing
in.'), 12 ft long, simply supported with bearing Cat its center. Find the reactions can affect the bearing loads of an engine crankshaft.
for the shaft, and draw and dimension the bending moment diagram. Neglect Ans. (b) Reactions; 427 lb downward, 854 lb upward, 427 lb downward.
effects of the dead loads.
(d) 'What must the moment of inertia be for a beam supporting the bearing
at C if the value of the bending moments, as caused by the 1,000 lb loads, at points·
B, C, and D, are to be equal? What will be the deflection of point C? Neglect
effects ofthedesd lo!Uls; Ans. (a) R1 = 253 lb; R2 = 1,734 lb. 5• to:
(b) Rt = 460 lb; R2 = 1,320 lb.
(c) Rt = 398 lb; R! = 1,204 lb. Fig. 351. Problem 40. fig. 352. Problem 41.
(d) I = 123 in.' 41. Find the lowest critical speed for the steel shaft shown in Fig. 352.
38. (a) What moment of inertia would be required for the center beam of Fig. Ans. ncr = 1,700 rpm.
349 if the bending moments for the shaft, as caused by the 1,000 lb loads, at 42. The static deflection at the center of the steel shaft in Fig. 353 is equal to
points BJC; and D, are to be numerically equal? Neglect effects of the dead loads. 0.0125 in. Find the value of the critical speed. Ans. n.,. = 1,900 rpm.
(I)}If.a.II three beams are 8 in. Ibeams, 18.4 lb per ft, find the three bearing
120"' 20•
reactions, ani(draw the bending moment diagram for the shaft. Neglect effects
1"d1a.
of the dead loads. · A c B
"\;�_':::.. .. Ans. (a) I = 90.2 in.' ts: 2<1" ,s· 24• ,s•
(b) R1 = 278 lb; R! = 1,443 lb.
Fig. 353. Problem 42. Fig. 354. Problem 43.
43. Find the value of the critical speed for the shaft of Fig. 354.
Ans.· n.,. = 617 rpm.
44. Find the value of the critical speed for the shaft in Fig. 355.
a750 lb Ans. n., = 426 rpm.
...
A C 8
= oo« l,600•
. 3" 6•I@l2.5lb 1•d,a. l2"dtQ
fI•2lBln."J , ..... �
4'o•
l
't l
r '
Fig. 357. Ans. y = 0.0136 in.; 0 = 0.050°,
(b) If the bearing at C is resting on an unyielding support, find the three
1=�1
reactions. 600,;
� . I, : 4m.4
s
f1z2,n4
(c) What change in elevation of bearing C of part (b) must be made if
bending moments in the shaft at load and at C are to be numerically equal? ,s· ,s·
.i.
20· ,2· 30•
24"
Ans. (a) R. = 322 lb; R. = 533 lb; Rb = 105 lb downward.
(b) R. = 281 lb; R, = 656 lb; Rh= 187 lb downward. Fig. 357. Problem 46. Fig. 358. Problem 47.
(c) 0.039 in. higher. 47, In Fig. 358, find the value of load p if the slope at the left bearing is 0.25°.
40. A rotating shaft has the 1,000 lb centrifugal forces acting as shown in Ans. P = 776 lb.
Fig. 351. O', 48\'.Find the torque which a long piece of 3 X 3 x t in. angle iron can carrv
(a) Draw the bending moment diagram for the shaft. Note that large �f the maximum shearing stress at the fillet is 12,000 psi. The radius of the fillet
stresses are possible, even though bearing reactions are equal to zero. is 0.5 in. Ans. T = 2,880 .inIb,
(
(
148 SHAFTING Chap. 3 SHAFTING 149
49. (a) What percentage more torque will a square she.ft carry than a round (b) Find the value of the maximum shearing stress due to torque.
shaft of the same diameter if both have the same unit stress? (c) Find the angular rotation of the bracket in degrees.
(b) If the cost per pound is the same, what will be the percentage increase Ans. e, = 10,450 psi; ,p = 0.416°.
in cost of the square over the round shaft? Am. (a) 5.9%; (b) 27.3%.
50. Two pieces of shafting have the cross sections shown in Fig. 359. If the
shear stress in the two shafts are equal, find the ratio between the torques which
the shafts are carrying. Approximate the stress concentration factor for the shaft
of (a) from Table 35.
Whatwillbetheratiobetween the angular displacements if the applied torques
are equal? Ans. 7.23; 8.04.
800#
Fig. 363. Problem 54. Fig. 364. Problem 55.
55. (a) Make an isometric drawing of the crankshaft shown in Fig. 364, and
· place all reactions thereon which are necessary for equilibrium.
' (b) Cheek CD is rectangular in cross section, 2 in. wide in the zdirection,
)(
and 3 in. deep in the zdirection. Cut the cheek midway between C and D, and
ll' show all forces and moments acting on the cut surface.
t,ooo* (e) Draw the element at R lying at the midpoint of the top surface of the
l'ig/3'59. Problem 50. Fig. 360. Problem 51. cheek with sides parallel to the coordinate axes, and show all stresses acting. Mark
\:·':_'.. .:' directions of the axes on the sketch.
51. The.rictangular shaft in Fig. 360 is fixed at the wall. (d) Repeat (e) for the element at Sat the center of the near side vertical
(a) Cut the shaft at a point 2 in. from the wall, remove the portion to the surface of the cheek.
right, and show all forces and moments on the end surface of the part that remains. (e) Suppose the loading consists of a force of 3,000 lb in the xyplane acting
(b) Find thestresses from all ea uses 011 au element at A. at the center of the to the left at A parallel to the yaxis. Find the bearing reactions for the shaft. Cut
top surface of the shaft at the cut. Take sides of the element parallel to the coor the cheek midway between C and D, and show all forces and moments acting on
dinate axes. the cut surface.
(c) Repeat (b) for an element ut B at the center of the vertical side of the (f) Draw the element at R showing all stresses acting.
cut on the near side. Ans. At A, s. = 1,550 psi; s = 3,330 psi. (g) Draw the element at S showing all stresses acting.
52. Work Problem 51, using Fig. 360, with the same data and dimensions Ans. (c) B = 4,667 psi; s, = 3,717 psi.
except that shaft is now oriented as shown in Fig. 361. (d) s = O; s, = 5,329 psi.
Ans. At B, s. = 2,020 psi; s = 2.500 psi. of
56. The stroke the air compressor shown in Fig. 365 is 3 in., and the length
of the connectini rod is 5 in. Crank cheek CD is circular in cross section and is 1 in.
in diameter. If the torsional shearing stress in the cheek is equal to 12,000 psi, find
f:be value of the gas force on the piston. Ans. Gas force = 3,320 lb.
53._ If the torque applied to a long bar having the cross section shown in Fig.
362 is equal to 5,000 inlb, find the value of the maximum shearing stress.
Ans. s, = 5,760 psi.
54. The beam_ shown in Fig. 363 is simply supported but is keyed at the ends
to prevent rotation.
(a) Find all rPaetio1u; at. tlu l'IHli<. Fi1. 365. Problem
( (
150 SHAFTING Chap. 3 SHAFTING 151
57. (a) The bore of the air compreesor of Fig. 366 is 4 in., and the stroke is 6 in. in a horizontal plane. Ignore the effect of bending in cranks. The material is steel.
The value of the air pressure is 300 psi gage for a crank angle of 45°. The length Ans. o = 0.146 in.
of the rod is 11 in. Axes x, y, and z are mutually perpendicular. The shaft is turned
by a pure torque applied at the right bearing as shown. Make sketches similar to
Figs. 316(b), (d), and (e) for this problem, and place the value of all necessary
forces and moments thereon.
(b) The cheek is l in. wide in the zdirection and If in. deep in the adirec
tion. Make an enlarged sketch for the element with sides parallel to the e and
yaxes lying at the center of the top surface of the cheek. Show all stresses acting .
. {c)Repeat_(b}.for.the element lying at the center of the right vertical side
of the cheek. Ans. (b) s = 15,370 psi; s. = 5,060 psi.
(e) s = 6,990 psi; s, = 7,910 psi.
Fig. 368. Problem 60. Fig. :l69. Problem 61.
compressor has the crank mechanism shown in Fig. 367.
mutually perpendicular. The bore is 4 in.; stroke is 5 in.;
61. Find the deflection of the weight in Fig. 369. The shaft and beam lie in
9 in. For a crank angle of 30° the air pressure is 100 psi gage.
horizontal planes, and are built in at the walls. Bending in crank and shaft is
negligible, as is the extension in link connecting the members together. All joints
'are frictionless. The material is steel. Ans. o = 0.244 in.
62. Work Problem 61 but with the connection between the end of the c�ank
and the beam replaced by a flexible member with a spring rate equal to 16,000
lb/in. Ans. o = 0.309 in.
63. Find the three reactions for the shaft in Fig:. 370. Assume the effect of the
deadload deflection of the beam to be negligible.
· Ans. 13wl/16; 33wl/16; wl/8
. 64. If reactions R1, R2, and R3 of Fig. 370 have values of 15wl/16, 27wl/16, and
3�l/8, respectively, find the amount that support R2 is lower than R1 and R3•
}gnore the effect of deadload deflection of the shaft. Ans. o � wl4/6El.
Fig. 367. Problem 58.
The beltsare perpendicular to the axis OB of the cylinder. The tightside tension
is three, tilnee iliat of the slack side.
Make sketches similar to Figs. 316(b), (c), (d), and (e) for this problem, and
place �II necessary forces and moments thereon. . Fig. 370. Problems 63 and 64. Fig. 371. Problem 65.
Ans. Axial force, F,, = 322 lb;
t:65. The three supports in Fig. 371 are all at the same elevation. Ignore the
Transverse shear, F. = 698 lb.
load of the shaft. Find the values of the three reactions.
Moment, M,. = 1,080 inlb. 5�
.: Ans. R1 = 175 lb, down; R2 = 680 lb, up; Ra = 495 lb, up.
Torque, M,, = 797 inlb.
Moment, M. = 1,549 inlb. ·h66. The three supports in Fig. 372 are all at the same elevation. Ignore the
load of the shaft. Find the values of the three reactions.
59. An air compressor has a crank arrangement similar to that sh'i)wn in Fig.
Ana. R1 = 422 lb, down; R2 = 1,063 lb, up; Ra= 359 lb, up.
:3'16. The stroke is 4 in. and length of the rod is 7 in. The crank cheek is circular
m c�oss sectio�, and is 1 in. in diameter. Distance AC is equal to 1} in. If the
torsional shearing stress at the midlength of the cheek is equal to 10,000 psi for 1,000�
a crank angle of 30°, find the value of the gas force on the piston.
Ans. Gas force = 2,792 lb. 30" ,o·
�·_Find.the defl�ction of the weight in Fig. 368. The bending moments are 'ft
neghg1ble smce bearings are located close to the crank arms. Shafts and cranks lie ig. 372. Problem 66. Fig. 373. Problem 67.
( (
, (
SHAFTING Chap. 3 8HAF'l'ING 153
152
67. The center bearing in Fig. 373 rests on an immovable support. End bear 73. A Diesel locomotive weighing 250.000 lb iia carried by four axles like thos«
ings rest on structural beams with _the spring rates s�own. For the shaft, EI = shown in Fig. 376. The material has a yield point of 48,000 psi and an endurance
7,200,000 lb in." Find the load earned by on end bearing. .4ns. 391 lb. limit of 34,000 psi. Assume the locomotive is running on a straight level track.
68. Bearings A and B in Fig. 374 rest on immovable s�pports. The ?earing Let th_e torque _in the shaft be determined from the tractive effort equal to the
u.t c rests on an Ibeam. with .a spring rate of ,j,000 lb per m, The shaft rs steel. coefficient of friction of 0.3 times the weight equally distributed to all wheels.
· Find the values of the bearing reactions. An.�. R3 = 295 lb. Assume the torque fluctuates plus and minus 10 per cent each way from the mean
· value. Wheel diameter is 40 in. If the stress concentration factor for the wheel seat
The following problems are presented without answers. fillet is 1.5, find the factor of safety for this point by the maximum shear theory
of failure.v'
0 c
69.:,:wQf�i;�,blem 19 except with the 10 in. dimension as 12 in. and 18 in. 4'11" WIIHI 1,, ,.,,
WhHI .rot
like that in Fig. 345 except that the 12 in. length becomes F'ig. 376. Problem 73.
length becomes 7 in. Mark numerical values for all the reae
.praw and dimension the bending moment diagram for the 74. Find the deflection at point A in Fig. 377. Consider the bearings as simple
supports.
•i#Jl,;37(c) but with only one pulley, on the right, present. Find soo',.
t,'Cring loads.
�x�li,<>ws a jet engine shaft with two overhung turbine wheels
ea:
. .. 1
#
2,000
of turniri , .. . ·. ·,· .. , ...• ,., .•..• opic effect of the wheels is sufficient to apply a moment of Fig. 377 Problem i4. Fig. 378. Problem 75.
89,000,in�Ib§,th!�.d of the shaft. The engine develops 16,500 hp at 11,000 rpm.
Find the ya:)�f�f:,tli� Inaximum shearing stress in the shaft for the loading de 75. In Fig. 378 tlu end hPal'ings rest on immovable supports. Tlu st<�et shaft.
scribed ahQ�e;if · · ·· I = 4 in. 4 The heam is!) ft long, simplv supported, with the bearing at the center,
I = 18 in. 4 Find th!' !waring load :1 t A.
, �:(i:.·r·' ·;eO>
76. The numerical values for the bending moments at B, C, and D in Fig. 37!1
are equal. Find tlw diffen•n,·p in Plf'v11tion between the lwaring at rand those a t
26.95
Z2.SS
• A and E. ·
5.41 u,.
5.6TQD.
Fig. 37!l. Problem 7fi. Fig. 380. Prohlem ii .
. \ 77. _The shaft of Fi:.;. :t80 has th!' heal'.i111,1; rtnctions shown. Find the change in
· .e_evation of thl' ,·ent,.r !waring with l'i·sp,·,·t to those at the ends.
Fi11;. 375. Problem 7'!..
. (�• See Petersen, L., and Moreau, R. A., General Mot<,rs Engineering Journal, 22
13
Seo Lewis, R. W., General Motor>< Hnyi.neeriny Journal, MayJune, 40 ()!)55). ayJune 1955).
( (
154 SHAFTING Chap. 3
73, Show that the deflection at the center of the shaft of Fig. 381 is given by
the following equation.
4
y 24E 11 I�
·. J .
Fig. 381. Problem 78.
Springs
Initially canrtf
• orBrll�ilr Sp,ra/ Ri11_9 Vo/vi,
values for the working stresses, and with loads which are continuously
varying.
, , , Helical and leaf springs are in widest use. A number of other typ�1
, '. such as Belleville disk spiral ring and volute springs are shown m
Fig. 41. ' ' ' '
1
F<>r design theories of such spring reference 3, Bibliography,
155
L
l
(. i_:_·c·
(
::: .
SPRINGS Chap. 4 Sec. 1 SPRINGS 157
156
A, Area N, number of active coils After being coiled into the helix, the cross sections have an additional
c1, spring index P, load stress from the transverse shear. An exact analysis shows that this stress
d, diameter of wire fl, mean radius ol helix at the midhe.ight has the value l.23P / A. Then
FS, factor of safety Su,,, yield point stress in tension
E, modulus of elasticity su11, ultimate tensile stress . P l6PR 0.615
G, modulus of elasticity in shear .1., shearing stress Transverse shearmg stress = 1.23 A = d, X  (b)
7r C1
1, moment of inertia s,11,., yield point stress in shear
J, polar moment of inertia 11.',, endurance limit in shear, zero 2R
to maximum stress where C1 =  (I)
K., stress concentration factor due to d
· curvature � .. '1', torque
k, spring rate a, (delta) deflection of helical spring The total shearing stress s, on the inside of the coil at the rnidheight.
from static load Pis given by the sum of Eqs. (a) and (b).
1. Helical Springs e, = !6_!}! (1 + 0.6_!5) , (2)
7rd3 Ci
The equations for the stress and deformation of a closely coiled helical
spring are derived directly from the corresponding equations for the J3y substitution of Eq. (J ), this equation assumes the forms
s. = �P�1
1rd·
(i + Q�6_15) Ci
(3)
An equation for the spring rate k, or the force required for a deflection Several different types of end turns used for helical compression springs
of one inch, can be had by considering Fig. 42(c). are shown in Fig. 43. The equations are derived for springs assuming
that the loading is axiala condition difficult to secure in practice. The
P1 P2 P2  P1 (7)
·········k·=  =  = end coils produce an eccentric application of the load, increasing the
ll1 ll2 ll2 s.
stress on one side of the spring. Under certain conditions, especially
Another equationfor k can be had from Eqs. (5) and (6) by replacing where the number of coils is small, this effect must be taken into account. 2
P by k and ll by unity.
d4G dG GR
k = 64R3N = 8c13N = 4c14N (S)
Example ·i.
A, helical compression spring is made from 0.225 in. diameter (olSquor,d and ground (or forpd} ,nds. (bl Squor,d or ctos,d 11nds. Not gfOl/nd.
· cwire,andlta.scanou:tsidecoil diameter of 2 in. There are 8.6 active coils. Find
the,sta · cloi(dt\hat will cause a shearing stress of 50,000 psi. Find the deflection
oftl{ ::t;,'?'\f ''' · J.�
j
, St>)�i��]i¥,N;f\1 R = l(2.0 0.225) = 0.8875 in.
,l
·':,•{::,.;,:./;)_\
,··, :�'!:�..:.}'' ;;
;1, (c} Ploln tlnds. (di Plain t1ntls orounrf
_. . = 2R = 2 X 0.8875 =
o_·
:I�,
By�: Fig. 43(a), where the end turns are s juared and then ground perpen
'
dicular to the helix axis.
'.!:�� : _ t,= 116.9 lb
'
Equation (5) for the deflection requires the use of the proper number
"�·· .
lj = 64 X 116.9 X 0.88753 X 8.6 = 1.526 in. of active coils N. A deduction must be made from the total number of
By Eq. (5): _ i_·_
,7
coils to take care of the turns at the ends which do not affect the deflec
0.2254 X 11,500,000
ii tion. It is impossible to say definitely just how much this deduction
No allowance is_i;nade in the design for stress conce_ntration because of curva
ture caused by loads which are static or by loads which may fluctuate only a :'1
... g
should be. However, an average value for the number of active coils,
small number of times during the expected life of the spring. based on experimental results, is found by deducting 1.75 turns from the
total number, tip to tip, when both ends are squared and ground as shown
The average value of G for steels used for springs is equal to U,500,000 in Fig. 43(a). For plain ends, Fig. 43(c), the deduction from the total
psi. turns should be approximately onehalf turn; and for plain ends ground,
Torsion bar springs similar to Fig. 42(a) are sometimes used. For Fig. 43(d), the deduction should he one turn.
example, the springs of motor buses can be arranged to run longitudinally
along the sides of the bus beneath the floor. 3. Properties of Spring Materials
If a helical compression spring is relatively long as compared with
its diameter, danger of column action or lateral buckling may exist at
>: Helical springs are either cold formed or hot formed depending on the
size of the wire. Small sizes are wound cold, but when the bar has a diam
loads smaller than the desired working load. Sometimes it is practical to
eter larger •han about i in., the spring is wound from a heated bar.
prevent the buckling of a long compression spring by placing it over a I
loosely fitting bar or in a tube, which serves as a guide. Calculations for See}>. 159 of reference 3, Bibliography.
( (
160 SPRINGS Chap. 4 Sec. 3 SPRINGS 161
Three types of materials, as given in Table 41, are in wide use for the yield point stress in torsion. 3 A factor of safety of 1.5, based on the
coldformed springs wound from prehardened wires. The material is torsional yield point, has been recommended for helical springs with
plain carbon steel with a rather high carbon content. The effect of the static or infrequently repeated loading under normal temperatures. This
drawing or heat treatment is more pronounced on the smaller sizes, as is factor might be made somewhat more or less depending on the conditions
reflected in the values for tensile strength. After winding, the spring is prevailing for each particular design.
Long experience with springs has shown that higher stresses can be
TABLE 41 used with smaller size wires because of the relatively deeper penetration
Diameters and Minimum Tensile Strengths of Steel Spring Wire of the hardening due to drawing. Recommended workingstress values for
. .for ColdFormed Springs helical springs of goodquality spring steel are given in Table 42. 4
I I
I
Min. Tensile Strength, j Min. Tensile
J
i
c
SPRINGS Chap. 4 SPRINGS 163
162
99,000 · free height and pitch of coil than is desired. They are then compressed
!•vJ> = = 66 000 psi
Permissible stress: 8• = FS 1.5 ' solid several times, which permanently sets the final height at the desired
position. This operation is known as presetting or cold setting, and reduces
2R 1
By Eq. (1): Ci =d= 0.1205 = 8•3 the tendency of the spring to take a permanent set in service. The yield
point is exceeded, and residual stresses are retained in the material with
By Eq. (2), actual stress: 8•
_ 16 X 40 X 0.5 (1 + 0615) = 62,530 psi · a sign opposite to those produced by normal operation. Such a residual
'l!'0.12053 8.3 stress permits a spring to carry larger loads than one in which the mate
rial was originally stress free.
The. assumed wirnsi,.e Js. .1111:�isfactory.
Helical springs made of i in. bar and larger are usually hot wound to
Example 3. A helical compression spring of music wi_re has a maximu� load avoid the high residual stresses which would be induced by cold forming.
that is 4 lb greater than the minimum load. The deflectio� �nder the maximum
load is 0.25 in. greater than the deflection under the mmimum load. Assume TABLE 43
tentatively that the number of active coils_ is 10. Let Sup = 0.6s,.u and s.u,. = Tensile Strength of HeatTreated Steels for HotFormed Springs. It in.
0.68117• The. factor of safety is 1.5. R = 0.25 in. . Diameter Specimens Quenched and Drawn at Temperatures Shown
Determine a .suitable standard size wire, and find the exact number of active
' 8660 Chromium
coils. Find th.e initial deflection of the spring. 1095 Plain 6160 Chromium 9262 Silica
Draw Nickel
Carbon Vanadium Manganese
Temp. Molybdenum
Sohitiii��
F
t.'':)?;i�§;ti: ' k. =. 
By Eq:':(7)':
4
= 16
lb .
per m,
Ultimate Yield Ultimate Yield Ultimate Yield Ultimate Yield
· ,, . ·::,;::> 0.25
850 192,000 128,000 220,000 203,000 206,000 193,000 243,000 212,000
B 'i·f1()�)'.:J{·a, = 64 x 0.25' x 10 X 16 = 0.0000128, d = 0.0598 in. 950 188,000 120,000 198,000 185,000 190,000 170,000 214,000 182,000
Y·:ci..>, 4}); . C 11,500,000 1050 172,000 107,000 180,000 168,000 171,000 150,000 188,000 156,000
. 1150 151,000 92,000 162,000 152,000 150,000 129,000 167,000 137,000
By Table �1,llSe No. 16 wire, d = 0.0625 in., s .. 11 = 293,000 psi.
For torsion, use 0.60 of corresponding tensile value.
s.�" == 0.6 X 0.6 X 293,000 = 105,500 psi
. = .
s, 105,500 . k' t
 = 70,320 psi, wor mg s ress forming, the spring is heat treated by quenching and tempering
Working:
1.5 produce the desired physical properties. Both plain carbon and alloy
0.50 are used for hotformed springs. The materials in widest use5 are
By Eq. (1): Ci= 0.0625"" 8 in Table 43. Compositions for these steels are given in Chapter
istance, freedom from decarburization and in use. Failure under impact loads ath)w temperatures cafrftequently
y low cost. Alloy steels in general undergo be guarded against by providing a stop to limit the deflection., t<ht.safe
•c:e than plain carbon steels, and are better value .
s; especially for service conditions where the Many special type springs for appliances and other products are
stamped from flat stock. 8 For high stresses and severe service conditions
es scratched and pitted.
used by fatigue, a poor surface is the worst sheared edges of flat springs must be polished to prevent the formati<>�
gs. Figure 44 shows a typical fatigue failure of fatigue cracks.
crack usually starts at a surface imperfection Springs are also made from a variety of nonferrous metals. 9 Some of
in a region of stress concentration. The materials have the desirable qualities of good electric conductivity
endurancelimit stress for steel bars in the resistance to corrosion. Mechanical properties for such materials are
asrolled condition may be from :30,000 to in Chapter 14.
45,000 psi for both plain carbon and low
alloy steels. If the surface is badly pitted,
the endurance limit may be as low as 18,000
psi to 20,000 psi. These values for actual the loading on the spring is continuously fluctuating, due allowance
springs are thus seen to be much lower than be made in the design for fatigue and stress concentration. The
the endurance limit for the same material
·:1w.
when polished specimens are tested in the
laboratory. A layer of decarburized material
on the surface, resulting from the heat
treatment, is also a source of weakness
since the endurance limit for the surface
(a} E'nduranct, limit in pulsating
may then be less than the working stress for shrar wh�n mol�rial ls lrslrd
the spring. Decarburization can be avoided
if the heat treatment is conducted in a
drrosion even in a mild form, greatly reduces
ium plating offers some degree of relief against
(bl Slrl/SS fluctuatian in (c)Working stresses for fluctuoling loading
itves the surface in compression, has proved to act�al spring
$lllg the fatigue life of springs. 6 A good surface Fig. 4,5. Wor king stress diagram for springs.
�euse of ground stock and controlled atmospheres,
\rely high. Such a surface, however, will be spoiled
gt() rough usage. kmestress triangle, as explained in Chapter 2, is modified because
: Under conditions of elevated tomperagire, there are usually fatigue tested, not in reversed bending, but
rmanent deformation unless very low stress "'"''""'"'11"' shear s' ,., zero to maximum, as shown in Fig. 45(a). Fo.r
ts become noticeable above 350 F, and the test loading, the range stress is equal to the average, which is one
be used at temperatures above 400 F. value of the maximum stress. Thus the straight line approximat
type resists high temperature better than line of failure can be drawn from point A in Fig. 45(c). The line
of 500 to 800 F, highspeed steel working stresse8 is parallel to this line and can be drawn
the yield point stress in shears,,,,. by the factor of safety FS.
the alloy steels, listed in Table 43, are
1l, Hibliogruphv.
6 See reference 7, Bibliography. I,',. Bihliol(raphy.
7 See referenci: 8, Bibliography.
( (
Chap. 4 c. 6 SPRINGS 167
B., '12,590
P r = ·P
8,u, a,
=  X 180 =
59,730 379lb
•
P, = 180 + 37.9 = 217.9 lb
Pi = 180 37.9 = 142.1 lb
The reader should plot a figure similar to Fig. 45(c) for this problem and check
the stress values above by measttring lengths on the diagram.
On for the design of springs with continuously g represents the acceleration constant of gravity, 386 in./sec2, and
the weight in lb per cu in. for the material of the spring.
_For a steel spring, G = 11,500,000 psi and 'Y = 0.285 lbs/in. 3 The
··mpression spring, made of No. 4 wire, carries a flue ':'.equation above then becomes
11 120,000 psi for torsional yield strength, an� 100,000 3,510d
'shear zero to maximum. The spring index is 6, and f = R 2N cycles/sec (12)
If th� average load on the spring is 180 lb, find the
maximum and minimum loads. ''.}·Example 5. Find the lowest natural frequency for a valve spring of No. 4
iiwel wire with IO active coils and mean diameter of helix of 2 in.
R = 1 in.
R = 6 X 0.2253 = 0_676
2 d = 0.2253 in.
8'°" =
16 X 180 X 0.676 (1 + 0.615) = 4,745 cycles/min
...0.22533 6 . .A spring can exhibit higher modes of vibration whose frequencies are
459,730 psi
3, 4· ··,times the value given by Eqs. (11) and (12).
50,000
= 120,000 50,000 . Commercial Tolerances
. I
_0 4,,0..00"�2··.._.·0,�'.0_1_0 0.0485,�;� 21 0.0560 1.11 ().0200 0.51 1.62
the sprmg permits, especially for those dimensions that are not critical.
Tolerances must be greater for large hotwound springs. Loads should
0.7
1.0
0.0073
0.0063
o:02c>' 0.0367 0.0435
0.030 0.0314 . 0.0405
a 0.0480
4 I 0.0430
1.5!
2 !
0.0269 0.7i
0.0353 1 i
1.72
1.84
always ?e specifie� at _a fix�d length, not for a given deflection. Testing
mechanisms function in this manner. Testing to a definite load with
1.5 0.0054 0,040 o. ,0218 ,10.0385 5 :1 0.0395 .,1 :J i 0.0512 2 ! 2.09
2
3
0.00477
0.00405
0.060 0:0238 0.0360
.0,080 0,0210 0.0342
6 ,
8 !
0.0368 j 4
0.0330 1 5
I 0.0675 3 i
0.083 4 j
2.24
2.36
�olerance on t�e deflection is slow and costly. The modulus of elasticity
, � shear, particularly for nonferrous materials, may vary over a con
siderable range. The diameters of spring wires are also subject to varia
I
4 0.00362 0.100 0.0194 0.0330 10 t 0.0303 6 , 0.098 5 i 2.45
5 0.00332 0.150 ·. 0.0164 0.0307 15 J 0.0260 , 8 j 0.129 6 2.54 tions as shown in Table 45. "
6 0.00306 0.20010,0147 0.0293 20 , 0.0233 10 : 0.. 15\J 8 I 2.66
7
8
0.00288
0.00274 I
0.300 0.0125 0.0273
0.400 0.0113 0.0260
25
301.
0.0214 13 !
0.0200 16 1
0.203 10
0.24, 12
'1· 2.76
2.85
TABLE 45
10 o.oosso o.soo 0.0103 o.osso 40 o.01s� 20 I o.aos 15 2.96
Spring Wire Diameter Tolerances, Plus or Minus, Inches
Data by Spring Manufanturers' Association. Inc. Diameter, in. Music Hard Drawn
Wire Oil Tempered
Example 6. A spring of No. 11 st.PP! win· is wound with a mean diameter helix 0.026 and under 0.0003
of 1 in. Free height is to be 3.75 in. and the spring rate is 35 lb per in. Find the 0.027 to 0.063 0.0005
tolerances on the dimensions and on the spring rate. Spring must operate at 0.028 to O.o75 0.001
loads of 17.5 and 61 lb. Find the expected tolerances for these loads. 0.064 to 0.250 0.001
0.076 ot 0:375 0.002
Solution. By Table 41: d = 0.1205in. 0.376 and up
0.003
By Eq. (8): . = __d.4G = 0.1205• X 11,500,000 = 8 66 coils Example 7, Suppose a helical spring is wound from commercial wire which is
N 64R1k 64 X 0.53 X 35 .
found to be 3 per cent larger than the specified diameter d. Spring index 5.
2R 2 X 0.5 , . .
ByEq. (1): c, =d =
0_1205
= 8 .3 , spring mdex (a) To what radius helix must the spring be wound in order to maintain the
ori�inal value of the deflection? \Vhat will the shearing stress be in the resulting
u See reference 16, Bibliography. sprmg?
(.
SPRINGS
Chap. 4 Sec. 7 SPRINGS 171
170
s · · this 3 per cent oversize wire it had been desired to retain 7. Helical Extension Springs
(b) . �palposhe, l°: usmtg s Find the radius of helix'to which the spring should be
the origin s eanng s res . In helical tension springs, the shape of the hooks or end t f
wound, and the resulting deflection.
urnffs
applying the load must be designed so that the stress concentraj]ion e ectsor
Solution. (a) Let the new radius of helix be called Ri, and the new diameter
of wire be called d1, where d1 = l.03d.
p
64PRaN
From Eq. (5): d4G
R a d1 t Ra = SL03d)4 Ra or, R1 = 1.04R 8
1d4 d4
c'  2R1
1 d1
= 2 X 1.04R = l.Olc1 = 5.05
New spring index: 1.03d
New stress:
,
8 • =
l6PR1 (
;J;i 1 +
0.615) = ��
c' 1 r(l.03d)3
(1 + 0.615)
5.05
Fig. 46. End of tension spring made by
turning up half loop.
Fig. 47. Types of end turns which reduce
stress concentration.
R1 = 1.lOR
't ends of compression springs, add to the cost 10
11
13,100
12,450
of·:manufacture and should be avoided when 12 12,000
64P(l.10R)3N 64PR3N ever possible. 1�
In Eq. (5): 5 = (1.03d)4G = 1.18 ;fij;' ·For computing the '1eflection of a tension • Data by Spring Mfrs'. A"8n.,
ring, the end shown in Fig. 46 should be Inc.
In order to maintain the original stress, \he helix radius must be made 10 per . unted as about 0.1 turn for each of the hooks, and the full loop of Fig.
cent greater, which gives 18 per cent larger deflection than the original design.
7(a) should count as 0.5 turn for each end so formed.
This example illustrates how a small revision of design dimensions can easily
14
make allowance for variation in the diameter of commercially available wire. See reference 4, Bibliography.
'"A';1··':_·.·.·
('·'.'
:',I. e
(
(
172 SPRINGS Chap. 4 Sec. 9 SPRINGS 173
Another feature of helical tension springs is the initial tension which ii: by substituting 61 = 6/Rl, and l = 2,rRN. Hence,
induced at the time the spring is coiled. Such springs are wound solid
and will not deflect. until this initial tension is overcome. Table 46 gives s = 2rPR3N
average values of shear stress as_ ca.11ia:Pd h:v initial tension for springs pro fJGbc1 (19)
duced on standard coiling machines.
Since a rectangular bar tends to become trapezoidal in cross se�tion
Example 8. A helical extension spring ii; wound fro�1 0.080 in. diameter wire after it is wound into a spring, equations for the stresses and deflections
with mean diameter of helix of 0.50 in. Find the approximate value of the load P for the_ true shape are more complicated. The equations above are only
that the spring can sustain before noticeable deflection occurs. approximate since it is assumed that the cross section remains rectangular.
Solution.
Example 9. Find the stresses at points A1 and A2 of the spring of Fig. 48(b)
f�r b = l in., c = l in., and R = 1.2 in. The static load on the spring is 2,500 Jb.
2R 0.50 Fmd the deflection if the number of active coils is 6.
By Eq. (1): Ci =   =  = 6.25
d 0.08
By Table 46: s, = 17,000 psi Solution. c1 = 2R = 2 X 1.2 = 3.2 in.
b t
16P0.25 ( 0.615)
By Eq. (2): 17•000 = ,r(0.08)3 1 + "if25 From Table 34: b/c = 1.50; a1 = 0.231; a2 = 0.269; fJ = 0.196
P = 6.22 lb
By Eq. (17): PR 2,500 X 1.2
s. = a1bc2 = 0.231 X 0.75 X 0.52 = 69,270 psi for point Ai
Working �t.tesses for helical extension springs are .usually about 75
per cent as great. as for corresponding compression springs. PR 2,500 X 1.2 .
ByEq. (18): 8• = a.)Jc' = 0.269 X 0_75 X 0_52 = 59,480 psi for point A2
8. Helical Springs of Rectangular Wire Total stress at A2: s. = 59,480 + 1.5 0_7 !� 000_5
= 69,480 ps!
When rectang�r 'wire is used for helical springs, the value of the r, = 2r X 2,500 X 1.23 X 6 _ .
shearing stress can.be
found by use of the equations for rectangular shafts.
In Eq. (19}:
0.196 X 11,500,000 X 0.75 X 0.5a o.711 m.
For the springs of Figs. 48(a) and (b) the
stresses at points A 1 and A 2 are found by For fluctuating loads, the design can be made as in Section 4, with the stress
Eqs. (28) and (29) of Chapter 3, which are concentration factor K. estimated by Eq. (9).
&:!! follows :
PR 9. Helical Springs with Torsional Loading
s, = b%
a1 c
for point A1 (17)
A helical spring can be loaded by a torque about the axis of the helix.
PR
R Wh,n wound s. = 2 for point A2 (18) Such loading, as shown in Fig. 49(a), is similar to the torsional loading
a.)Jc
(a) p
thus c;= 2; of a shaft. The torque .about the axis of the helix sots as a bending
Spring lnd11t, c; • �R Values of a1 and a2 for various b/c ratios are moment on .each section of the wire as shown in Fig. 49(b). The material
Fia:. 48. Helical spring of rec found in Table 34. , is thus stressed in flexure, and the
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