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Content Standard
Demonstrates an understanding of knowledge and skills in enhancing/decorating products as an alternative source of

Performance Standard
Performs necessary skill in enhancing/decorating finished products

Learning Competencies

1.1 Discusses the importance and methods of enhancing/decorating bamboo, wood, and metal products
Code: TLE6IA-0a-1
1.2 Demonstrates creativity and innovativeness in enhancing/decorating bamboo, wood, and metal products
Code: TLE6IA-0a-2

LESSON 1 Importance and Methods of Enhancing/Decorating Bamboo, Wood and Metal Products

Lesson Objectives:
1. Discuss the importance and methods of enhancing/decorating bamboo, wood, and metal products
2. Demonstrate creativity and innovativeness in enhancing /decorating bamboo, wood, and metal products
3. Discuss the effects of enhancements on the marketability of the products.


Industrial Arts play an important role in our economy. Many occupations and businesses belong to this area.
Thousands are employed in different industrial works, both in rural and urban areas
This lesson will acquaint you with different products made of bamboo, wood, and metal that are designed,
manufactured, and are sold both here and abroad. It will also discuss ways by which one can enhance finished products
made of these materials.

1.1 Importance of enhancing/decorating bamboo, wood, and metal products

1. Finished products tend to be more saleable to customers when enhanced and decorated.
2. Enhanced and decorated finished products help maintain their durability to harsh elements.
3. Finished products that are enhanced or decorated beautify the product itself.

1.1.1 Methods of enhancing/decorating bamboo, wood, and metal products

Woodcraft and bamboo craft can be enhanced using a variety of methods and techniques. These include:

 Woodturning is a process of using a lathe to make various forms and shapes of wood.

 Hand carving is considered a woodcraft in which a sharp object is used to create designs on the wood. Various
textures and surfaces can be created using this technique. Tools such as chip carving knife, gouges, and chisels are

 Pyrography is considered an art using a fire or heat to decorate wood or leather.

 Flocking technique lines the interior of drawers and boxers with a soft velvety finish.

 Inlaying combines several techniques that involve inserting decorative pieces in to a base object to incorporate new
designs on the original product.

 Gilding is considered as a decorative technique in which powder is applied on wood or other materials to give a thin
coating of gold. Methods of this technique include glueing, chemical gilding, and electroplating.

 Staining is used to color wood to give an illusion of texture. This may come in two varieties. First, pigment-based
stain will color large pores of the wood, while dye-based stain color small pores of the wood.

 Painting is considered the simplest way of decorating wood since there is a variety of colors that you can choose
from. One may also add a lacquer finish to make it more shiny and glossy.

Metalcraft Enhancing Techniques
The following are some techniques used to enhance or add design elements on metal products.
 Engraving is a method of transferring a design on metal using a hardened steel tool called burin or graver to cut into
the surface of the metal.

 Etching is a process used to make designs or pictures on a metal plate by using acid that produces corrosive action.
In modern manufacturing, strong chemicals are used on other types of material.

 Adding metal enhancing media such as metal paints, copic markers and antiquing kits give color to the metal
product. Metal paints may be applied using a brush or spray.

 Texturing and embossing – In this technique you will need hammers, metal stamps, stencils, and other materials to
create imprints on the metal. Though there are new technologies used to emboss a metal with different textures, a
hammer and nail can still be used to create your own design.

1.2 Creativity and innovativeness in enhancing/decorating bamboo, wood, and metal products

Products made of bamboo, wood, and metal are much in demand both in the local and international market. With the
evolving needs of today’s consumers, many entrepreneurs are continuously creating and innovating products in order to
cater to the demands of the market.

Some examples of such products include:

Desktop organizer

Candle holder

Bottle holder



Wall hooks

Wood lamp

Bamboo products

Bamboo craft lamp

Bamboo lights

Bamboo bottle holders

Bamboo woven bag and basket

Wall decorations

Bamboo utensils (spoons, fork, and beverage ware)

Bamboo furnitures

Bamboo plant box

Bamboo holder (candle, pen)

Metal craft

Pen holder

Wind chime

Wall hooks

Wall decorations

1. What is the importance of enhancing and decorating finished products?
2. What innovative methods and techniques can be used to enhance bamboo, wood, and metal products?
3. With the challenge of globalization all over the world, how can local products be more competitive in the market?

Bamboo, wood, and metal products can be enhanced and decorated to increase their marketability and saleability.


Identification. Identify the methods in enhancing wood, bamboo and metal products. Choose the letter of the correct
answers .

______ 1. It is a process of using a lathe to make various forms and shapes of wood.
a. A. woodturning b. hand carving c. pyrography
______2. It is a method of creating designs on the wood using sharp object.
a. Pyrography b. hand carving c. flocking
______3. Which is considered an art using fire or heat to decorate wood?
a. Gilding b. Inlaying c. pyrography
______4. It is used to color wood and give an illusion of texture.
a. Staining b. texturing c. etching
______5. This is considered a decorative technique in which powder is applied on wood or other materials.
a. Embossing b. painting c. gilding

Bring any product made of wood, bamboo or metal enhanced using the different methods in enhancing products or finishing


The Basics of Better Living 6 by Gloria A. Peralta. al.

Learning and Living in the 21st Century, by Leonora D. Basbas, Ph. D.


Learning Competencies : Code TLEGIA-0b-3

1.3 Conducts simple survey using technology and other data-gathering method to determine:
1.3.1 market trends on products made of bamboo, wood, and metal
1.3.2 customer’s preference of products
1.3.3 types/sources of innovative finishing materials, accessories, and designs
1.3.4 processes in enhancing/decorating finished products

Lesson Objectives:
Discuss the market trends on products made of bamboo, wood, and metal.
Identify the customer’s preference of products.
Identify the types/sources of innovative finishing materials, accessories, and design.
Apply the processes in enhancing/decorating finished products.


1.3 Conducts simple survey using technology and other data-gathering method to determine the following:

1.3.1 Market trends on products made of bamboo, wood, and metal

Philippine products are in demand not only within the local market but also in the international market. Locally
manufactured products intended for the global market have unique designs and high quality craftmanship that demand
higher value and earn profits for the entrepreneurs.

1.3.2 Customer’s preference of products

Products are in the form of home furnishings, table tops, jewellery, decorative accessories, home accents, kitchen
and garden decors. Customers buying craft vary generally from tourists, collectors, business people, artists or artisans,
people attending conferences and many others.
To have marketable and saleable products, artisans/artists and manufacturers must know their consumers and their
preferences in terms of color, style, size, and quantity. It is also helpful to know their interests and needs. They must be
creative, and adopt new design trends for their products to be competitive in the market.
Craft artisans and entrepreneurs must adopt new marketing strategies to reach their consumers. Specific selling
strategies to reach their consumers. Specific selling strategies include focusing on customer service such as offering free
delivery, repair and retouch services, and special promotions.
It is important first to make a study of the business and the industry. Analysis of the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and threats, or the SWOT analysis maybe considered when thinking of a business.

1.3.3 Types/sources of innovative finishing materials, accessories, and designs

Aside from conducting a survey for the latest trends and customers’ preferences of finished products, you must also
know the types or sources of innovative finishing materials, accessories, and designs that you can apply to your products.

These materials are used to beautify, decorate, and improve the quality of finished products.
1. Finishing materials that are used to smoothen the products before decorating. Example varnish
2. Colored paper twines and ribbon cloth are used in decorating and wrapping products.
3. Beads and charms are small accessories of different colors used to make products attractive.
4. Abaca and sinamay fibers are paper-thin locally made materials used for wrapping or packaging purposes.

1.3.4 Processes in enhancing/decorating finished products

Though it is said that Filipinos are best known for their creative minds and hands, new trends in the market, and
emerging strategies and techniques must be explored to allow local products to compete in the global market.

Answer the following questions:
1. What are the products made of wood, metal, preferred by craft buyers ?
2. Why do artisans and entrepreneurs need to be aware and updated on new and innovative methods of enhancing
and decorating wood, bamboo, and metal craft?
3. What are some of the finishing materials that can enhance finished products made of wood, bamboo and metal?

 Enhancing wood, metal, and bamboo products into becoming unique and attractive is another job that you can do
especially if these products are to be marketed to become an alternative source of income.
 Conducting a simple survey is important to determine the market trends, customer’s preference of products and
types of innovative finishing materials accessories and designs.

A. Form a group of five members. Visit different handicraft or furniture shops. Research and survey the following
1. Customer preference in terms of:
a. Type of product
b. Material
c. Finishing
2. Market Trends (Saleable products)
a. Bamboo
b. Wood
c. Metal

3. Types/Sources of innovative finishing, materials, accessories, and designs used.

4. Processes of enhancing and decorating finished products.
B. Make a written report of the survey.
C. Present outputs in class for evaluation and revision.

Home Economics and livelihood Education by Josephine C. Bernardino
The Basics of Better Living 6 by Ruth A. Arsenue et. al


Learning Competencies: Code : TLE6IA-0c-3

1.4 Discusses the effects of innovative finishing materials and creative accessories on the marketability of products
1.5 Enhances bamboo, wood, metal, and other finished products through sketching, shading, and outlining

1.4 Effects of innovative finishing materials and creative accessories on the marketability of finished products
You must have a deep knowledge of your product and the products of your competitor entrepreneurs so that you
will always strive to be different and unique. People tend to get bored or not interested in buying the same products without
innovations. You must know the strengths and weaknesses of your products.
A product is only expected to be saleable at a certain period of time but this could be prevented if some strategies
and methods will be applied in enhancing and decorating products. You must never stop inventing new and better ways to
enhance our products for the business to keep going. You have to deliver quality and marketable products for the
satisfaction of your customers.

1.5 Enhancing bamboo, wood, metal, and other finished products through sketching, shading and outlining

A good design must be enhanced more to be attractive to customers. As you have learned the techniques in
sketching, outlining, and shading in grade 4, you will now be able to apply these in enhancing your finished products.
1. Sketch first your product and follow it with an outline. Example, draw a bamboo vase.
2. Apply the decorations by drawing the details and start shading the product. For the bamboo vase, add flowers or
leaves on each container and add beads.
3. Finish shading the rest of the product to see the results.

1. What is the effect of enhancing and decorating wood, bamboo, and metal finished products?
2. When do we innovate products?
3. What materials can we use to innovate our products?

4. Why do we need to do sketching, outlining, and shading before decorating finished products?

In a piece of bond paper, enhance a finished product using sketching, outlining and shading.

Finished products should be enhanced first through sketching, outlining and shading before application to have an idea how
such look s like when finished.

In groups, visit a handicraft or furniture shop. Observe their style in enhancing their products to make them more attractive
and unique. Make a written report of your observation and report it to class.

Home Economics and livelihood Education by Josephine C. Bernardino
The Basics of Better Living 6 by Ruth A. Arsenue et. al


Learning Competencies : Code TLE6IA-0d-6

1.6 Constructs project plan

1.6.1 Considers deliberate policies on sustainable development in constructing a project plan
1.6.2 Demonstrates resourcefulness and management skills in the use of time, materials, money, and effort
1.6.3 Assess the quality of enhanced product using rubrics
1.6.4 Refines product based on assessment made

Lesson objectives:
Consider deliberate policies on sustainable development in constructing a project plan
Demonstrate resourcefulness and management skills in the use of time, materials, money and effort
Construct a project plan for enhancing finished product
Assess the quality of enhanced product using rubrics
Refines product based on assessment made
Construct a project plan for enhancing finished product

Being able to use materials wisely will save time , money and effort. Moreover, if you know how to reuse and
convert old materials into new and innovative products, you can also earn additional income. Do you know that some people
became millionaires by selling surplus materials or buying and selling thrift shop items? What is considered as one man’s
waste, may still be useful to another person. All you need is diligence, perseverance, and a lot of creativity and
resourcefulness, to help you come up with a project.
Working on a project with careful planning combined with diligent research and development efforts not only
prevents wastage but also ensure the product’s marketability and saleability.
This lesson will guide the student through the process of constructing a project.

1.6 Constructs project plan

1.6.1 Sustainable development and your project

Sustainable development means improving the people’s welfare not only the present but also future generations. When
valuable natural resources are used for a project, there is always the underlying issue of sustainable development.
A responsible member of the community must always ensure that his or her actions does not undermine humanity and
the environment. As such he or she must ensure that:
 Environmental integrity is maintained and that the health and security of others in the community and the life-
sustaining ecosystems are ensured.
 Social equity is not compromised and that the development of communities and respect for diversity are ensured.
 Economic efficiency is pursued hand in hand with ecological and social responsibility.

Health and safety measures

It is important to know the necessary precautions in order to have successful project making.
 Focus on the task.
 Use working clothes or wear an apron. Make sure you wear something comfortable to make it easier to move
around and perform the task.
 Prepare all materials, tools, and equipment required before starting the project.
 Place the equipment beyond the reach of younger children and keep your things orderly.
 Read and follow carefully instructions on the use of chemicals.
 Use safe goggles to protect the eyes from harsh chemicals.
 Use appropriate tools for the task.
 Avoid leaving the containers of glue, varnish, rugby, and other liquids uncovered.
 Be careful in handling sharp objects in order to avoid injury.
 Clean and keep the tools and equipment in their proper storage after using them.
 Clean wash your hands after working.
 If ever you get hurt or injured, immediately inform the teacher so that you can be given first aid treatment.

1.6.2 Resourcefulness and management skills in the use of time, materials, money, and effort

In planning your project for finished products you must know how to be resourceful in using time, materials, money and
A. Time
Manage time effectively to achieve goals.
There are some tips in managing time:
1. Group similar tasks so that it can be accomplished at the same time. Learn to organize your tasks. Prioritize your
tasks to be done and be faithful to deadlines set.
2. Keep a journal and make a list of what needs to be accomplished for a day, a week, or a month.
3. Delegate some tasks to others, a good manger delegates. Share responsibilities so others may learn. You may
make a work schedule for all persons involved.
B. Money
One of the most important things in running a business is managing money or finances well. You have to make sure
that money is managed effectively.
1. Buy cheap but durable materials for the products.
2. Do not overspend for materials, resources, etc. Budget and allocate your funds efficiently.
3. Set your budgets early. This will prevent spending more than what you have to.
4. Keep accurate records of all transactions. Keep all receipts.
5. Be prepared for unexpected expenses. Reserve funds for such, or save.

Preparing a project plan for finished products

In preparing a project plan for enhancing the finished product, consider the drawing of the product to be enhanced
as a guide. You must make sure that the policies of sustainable development are followed in making the project. Wise
management of resources and skills should be implemented. The following is an example of a project plan in enhancing a
finished product.


I. Name of the Project: Decoupage Wooden Jewelry Box
II. Objectives
1. Use appropriate materials and tools.
2. Follow the correct procedure in enhancing a jewelry box.
3. Produce an enhanced jewelry box with good quality.
III. Materials and Tools
A. Materials
Quantity Materials Unit Cost Total Cost
1 piece Wooden jewelry box 80.00 80.00
1 bottle Glue 45.00 45.00
1 can paint 66.00 66.00
1 pack Assorted scrapbook 90.00 90.00
1 set Stickers 50.00 50.00
TOTAL 331.00

B. Tools
1. Paintbrush
2. Cutter or scissors
3. Ruler
4. Sandpaper
IV. Design or Sketch
Before After
V. Procedure
1. Smoothen the jewelry box using a sandpaper.
2. Paint the edges, drawer knobs, and inside drawers of the jewelry box using brush and paint.
3. Place scrapbook papers as decoupage decorations on the boxes of the jewelry box. Cut the papers within the
same size of the drawers leaving a 2 to 3 mm gap of allowance to make the painted edges visible. Use a
cutter to create to create a hole in the knobs of the drawers.
4. Glue the scrapbook papers on the drawers.
5. Add stickers as decorations on the drawers.
6. Polish the jewelry box by applying combination of glue and water. A finishing top coat can also be used.
7. Let it dry.

VI. Evaluation
Criteria Excellent Good Fair Score
10 8 6
Procedure in The procedures in The procedure in The procedure in
product enhancing the enhancing the enhancing the
enhancement product are product are product are not
followed followed but has followed
excellently unpolished parts
Creative design The product The product The product
enhanced is very enhanced id well enhanced is
attractive and made simple
Resourcefulness Wise management Wise management Wise management
and management of resources is of resources is of resources is not
skills excellently used in used well in used in this
making the project making the project project
Product The product is The product is The product is not
enhancement excellently created well enhanced to be
enhanced creative or

1. What are the health and safety measures to be observed in enhancing finished products?
2. What are the pointers on how to manage money resources in enhancing a finished product.
3. How do manage time?
4. Identify the parts of a project plan.

A. Construct a project plan using the format about a finished product that you want to enhance or decorate. Present
your work to the class.

C. Write True on the line if the statement is correct. Write False if it is incorrect.

_____ 1. Sustainable development means improving the people’s welfare not only on the present but for future
_____ 2. Spend excessively on materials and accessories for your project. There is no need to budget funds.
_____ 3. In making a project plan, for enhancing a finished product, a sketch or drawing of a product is not

In constructing a project plan for your finished products, the following must be considered: sustainable
development, wise management of resources, assessment of the quality, and product refinement.

Finished project enrichment
Bring the following:
Sample finished product
Other materials

1.6.3 Assess the quality of enhanced products using rubrics (use rubric in the project plan)
1.6.4 Refine product based on assessment made
Give suggestions/comments based on assessment made.

Home Economics and livelihood Education by Josephine C. Bernardino
The Basics of Better Living 6 by Ruth A. Arsenue et. al


Learning Competencies: Code TLE6IA-0e-7

1.7 Markets products

1.7.1 Applies creative packaging and labelling techniques
1.7.2 Applies technology-assisted and other means of product marketing
1.7.3 Computes income from sales
1.7.4 Prepares plans for mass production or creating new product

Lesson Objectives:
Apply creative packaging and labelling techniques
Apply technology-assisted and other means of product marketing
Computes income from sales
Prepares plans for mass production or creating new product


1.7.1 Creative packaging and labelling techniques

Every product that is available in the market has its own distinct packaging and labelling. Packaging and labelling are
important because they add to the marketability of the product.
In order to succeed in the market, your product must be competitive. Most companies invest time, effort, and
resources on their product’s packaging and labelling, to ensure that they are designed appropriately and that they are
attractive and distinct.
Packaging and labelling are usually considered a part of the overall “marketing strategy” to further promote the
The three most important functions of packaging are:
 Contain and protect the product
 Promote the product
 Facilitate the storage, use, and convenience of product.

Labelling, on the other hand, serve the dual purpose:
 Providing the necessary information about the product such as its contents, features, instructions as to its usage, and
manufacturing information
 Promoting the product with the use of branding, and attractive, colourful marks.

1.7.2 Technology –assisted and other means of product marketing

The following are the appropriate marketing strategies that can be applied in selling enhanced or decorated finished
1. Print Media. Finished products can be marketed in print advertisements such as newsmakers, magazines, brochures,
and flyers.
2. Product display. Finished products can be displayed and sold in exhibits, markets and bazaars.
3. Internet marketing. This is promoting the finished products through the internet, e-mail, and social networking sites.
Consumers nowadays spend most of their time surfing the Internet. Given the situation, entrepreneurs specifically
use various social networking sites such as Facebook and Instagram and other websites (e.g. OLXPhilippines, Ayos
ditto, Sulit) or applications (e,g. Viber, Facebook Messenger) to reach their consumers. With the help of these
websites and applications, entrepreneurs are able to post pictures of their products for free by making a personal
account. Transactions between the buyer and seller may be done using chat, call, or text.

1.7.3 Computes income from sales

Computing for earnings

A person or group who ventures into business has one ultimate goal: to earn profit. The continued existence of the business
is highly dependent on the following factors:
 Ability to sell products and/or services and
 Ability to keep operating costs and expenses down while maintaining the quality of merchandize.

The formula for computing business profit is as follows:

Profit = Sales-Expenses
Profit is the amount earned from the sales of products and/or services after operating costs and expenses have been
deducted. Sales is the amount of money received from the customer in exchange for the product and/or service provided
and sold. Expenses include the amount spent to produce the product or undertake the service including the cost of:
 Materials and equipment
 Labor
 Packaging and labelling
 Marketing and promotions
 Damage to goods and spoilage
 Utilities( electricity, water, transportation, telephone, internet, etc)
 Other expenses

Sample computation
For example, you want to make a basic medicine cabinet and you decided to sell it with a 40% mark-up in addition to
your capital or cost of expenses.

Materials Cost
Wood (Palo China 1x5x10 ft) 160.00
Sand paper (5 pcs/10 each) 50.00
Nails (2” size-100.00/k) 50.00
Varnish (1 bottle) 40.00
Paint brush 20.00
Labor 25.00
Utilities 100.00
Total 445.00

Cost of Items: 445.00

Mark-up: 40%
445.00 x 0.4 = 178.00 ( Mark –up)
Selling Price = 445.00 + 178.00 = 623.00
No. of Cabinets sold = 10
Sales 6,230.00
Cost - 4,450.00
Profit 1,780.00

1.7.4 Planning for Mass Production or Creating a New Product

A plan in starting to create new products or increasing volume of production must be done to guide you in achieving
your goals. The plan will help in monitoring and evaluating the progress of your business and see if it is possible for
expansion or to create another product. Below are planning ideas that you can do for your products.
1. Product planning- enhancement, packaging, and distribution or selling. It includes adapting to current trends.
2. Budget or financial planning- developing effective strategies in managing capital or funds.
3. Marketing planning- a review on the current market situations the capacity of the target market to buy the products.
The promotion of the product should be considered.


1. Why is labelling and packaging of products important?
2. What are the appropriate marketing strategies that can be applied in selling enhanced or decorated finished
3. How do we compute for the profit?


Given the sales and cost of expenses , compute for the profit.
1. Sales 520.00
Cost of Expenses 350.00
2. Sales 750.00
Cost of Expenses 520.00

You must know how to package, label, and market your finished products to earn good income and have better performance
in your business.

Compute for the amount of profit the given mark-up.

Amount Mark-up
1. 120.00 20%
2. 430.00 5%
3. 650.00 15%
4. 480.00 10%
5. 250.00 50%


CODE TLE6IA - 0f – 8

Demonstrates an understanding and skills in making simple electrical gadgets

Constructs simple gadgets with ease and dexterity

2.6 Construct simple electrical gadgets
2.6.1 Identifies the materials and tools needed in making simple electrical gadgets.
2.6.2 Identifies simple electrical gadgets and their uses (extension cord, door bell, plugs, lampshades, etc)
2.6.3 Observes safety and health practices in making gadgets


Lesson Objectives
Identify the tools and materials needed in making simple electrical gadgets.
Identify simple electrical gadgets and their uses.
Observe safety and health practices in making gadgets


This lesson will discuss the different tools and materials used in constructing simple electrical gadgets and their uses
are also identified. Proper safety and health practices in making these gadgets will be observed.

Tools and Materials Needed in Making Simple Electrical Gadgets

Tools and other materials are very important for making and troubleshooting electrical gadgets.
The following are some of the basic tools and materials used in making simple electrical gadgets:
1. Pliers, such as long nosed and side- cutting pliers, are used to hold, bend, cut, and twist objects and wires.

Long nosed pliers

Side cutting pliers

2. Screwdrivers, such as flat-head and philips-head screwdrivers, are used to drive and remove screws.

Flat head screw driver

Phillips screw driver
3. Wire stripper is used to remove insulation of wires from gauge.

4. Hammer is used to pull and drive out nails.

Claw Hammer

Ball peen Hammer

5. Electric drill is used to drift holes on hand materials.

6. Soldering tools, such as soldering gun and soldering iron, are used to make splices and tap connections of wires.

Soldering gun

Soldering iron

7. Cables and wires are the common materials needed in making electrical

8. Electrical Tape is used to protect electric wiring for insulation.

9. Male plug is a device inserted in a socket to make an electrical connection.

Simple Electrical Gadgets and their Uses

Anyone who is interested to construct simple electrical devices may find it challenging and worth the effort and experience.
Reading about electricity and electrical gadgets on magazines, books, and the internet may help you to construct these cool
gadgets. Learning the skills is beneficial as it prepares you to explore, discover, make things, and be globally competitive.

Below are some examples of electrical gadgets you may find interesting and easy to construct with their uses.

1. An extension cord is an electrical gadget
that is longer than an ordinary cord. It has
a male plug at one end and a receptacle at
the other. It is used to accommodate extra
electrical devices needing electric supply.

2. A lampshade is a type of fixture that

covers a light bulb to diffuse emitted light.
This is usually placed in the living room or

3. A doorbell is a device usually placed at the

door that gives off a reverberating sound
when turned on.

Safety and Health Practices in Making Gadgets

Many accidents happen at work involving electric shocks and burns. Faulty electrical wirings can also lead to fires, injuries
and must worst, loss of life, equipment, and property.

This lesson will give you information on how to reduce the risk and some reminders on basic electrical safety and more
secured working practices.
Here are some safety rules to follow:
 Never run in the shop to avoid slipping, falling, or bumping into others who are working with sharp tools.
 Wear face shield, goggles, or safety glasses while working.
 Never hold a project in your fingers. Use clamp, drill press vise, or pliers to hold it.
 Do not attempt to operate a machine or gadget if you do not know how to use it properly. Ask help or assistance
from your parents or teacher.
 Report untoward incidents like accident or injury to the proper authority.
 All electrical equipment and installations must be checked and maintained always to prevent accident.
 Provide enough sockets-outlets for equipment in use and avoid overloading them to prevent fire.
 Provide an accessible switch with emergency OFF button near a fixed equipment to cut off power in an emergency.
 Keep all cords away from areas where water is present.
 Make it a habit to turn off electric gadgets and equipment when not in use.
 Never allow electric wires to run under carpets where they cannot be seen because of tripping hazards.
 Pull the plug and not the cord from an outlet.
 Make sure to work in a well-lighted area.
 Use gloves and appropriate safety footwear when using electric tools.
 Keep cords away from heat, oil, and sharp edges.

1. What are the hand tools and materials that can be used when working on an electrical gadget?
2. When do we use extension cords?
3. Why do we use lampshades?
4. Why do we install doorbells in our houses?
5. Give and explain the safety practices in doing electrical gadgets.

A. Identify the tools and materials used in making electrical gadgets.
Post or flash the pictures or raise actual tools and materials.
1. Long nose pliers
2. Side cutting pliers
3. Flat head screwdriver
4. Philips screw driver
5. Claw hammer
6. Ball peen Hammer
7. Electric drill
8. Soldering gun
9. Soldering iron
10. Electric Drill
11. Cable wire
12. Electrical tape
13. Male plug

B. Demonstration and re-demonstration on the safety and health practices.

Tools and materials in making simple gadgets must be identified to understand their functions better.
Always observe strictly safety and health practices while at work.
Use appropriate tools, materials, and PPE (Pesonal Protective Equipment) while working.
Make sure that tools and equipment are kept clean, properly maintained, and stored in a safe place.

Think of electrical gadgets that are useful and easy to construct. Submit your list to the teacher.

The Basics of Better Family Living 6 by Gloria A. Peralta, Ed.D., et. al
Home Economics and Livelihood Education by Josephine C.Bernardino,



2.7 Explains the protocols ( processes) in making electrical gadgets.

Learning Objectives:
Explain the processes in making extension cord, lampshade, doorbell and plug.
Construct simple electrical gadget.

Process in Making Electrical Gadgets

Before making simple electrical gadgets, you should know the following protocols in making a plan. The tips below will give
you an idea on what to do.
1. First get an idea. Find out what you would like to create and plan on it.
2. Buy parts. When you have the idea, buy all the materials needed for the electrical gadget you want to assemble.
3. Seek help and advice from those who already have the skills. Ask your family members or your electrician. This can
be a good project for you to work on.

How to Make Simple Gadgets

Read the instructions carefully.

Extension cords are very useful at home since they give additional power outlets where they are needed. They also allow
you to move more freely with the gadget instead of being confined near the main power source. Here’s how to make one:

Extension Cord
 Electrical wire ( depending on your desired length)
 Outlet
 Plug
 Hand tools ( screwdriver, pliers, and utility knife or cutter)
1. Take one end of your electrical wire and slice through the outer covering to reveal thinner wires. Be careful when
peeling off the covering so you do not damage the individual wires inside( separate the wire to create two different
wires that will be connected to the plug). Do the same on the other end of the wire.
2. Get the main plug. Using the screw driver , take off the screw to loosen each of the terminals.
3. Put the wire into the two terminals and tighten it with the screw. Do not forget to cover the plug.
4. Get the outlet. Loosen the screw to open it. Get the wire separated in two and connected to the terminals.
5. Close the outlet and screw it tightly.

Doorbells are essential at home since it is a tool that communicates to the owner that there is someone at the door.

 Electrical tape
 Scissors
 Wire strippers
 9-volt battery snap
 Push button switch
 Buzzer
 Electric wire spool
 Ruler

1. Twist the ends of the black and red wines of the 9-volt battery snap between your fingers. Insert the exposed end of
the red wire through one of the two contact holes at the bottom of the push button switch. Wrap a piece of
electrical tape around the contact.
2. Insert the exposed end of the black wire through one of the two contact holes on the bottom of the buzzer. Wrap a
piece of electrical tape around the contact.
3. Cut a 10-inch strip of electric wire from the electric wire spool with the scissors. Strip an inch of insulation off each
end of the electric wire with the wire stippers.
4. Twist the exposed ends of the electric wire between your fingers. Insert one of the two exposed ends of the electric
wire through the remaining contact hole on the bottom of the push button switch. Wrap a piece of electrical tape
around the contact hole on the bottom of the push button switch. Wrap a piece of electrical tape around the
5. Insert the other exposed end of the electric wire through the remaining contact hole on the bottom of the buzzer.
Wrap a piece of electrical tape around the contact.
6. Insert the 9-volt battery snap. Press the push button to sound the buzzer of the simple doorbell you have made.

Plugs are devices that connect to the primary power supply. Every gadget or electrical equipment has a plug to connect to
the power source. However, there are different types of plugs. Follow these steps to make a three-point plug.

 New 3 point plug
 Philips Head Screwdriver
 Wire strippers
 Pliers or wire cutters
1. Remove the screw of the plug to open the cap and loosen (but do not remove) the other screws.
2. Using the pliers, remove the outer sheet of the wire and carefully release the inner wire. Make sure not to cut the
inner wires.
3. Read the label in the plug to know what colors to connect on the terminal.
4. Cut again the outer sheets of the wire to release the copper wires inside. Once released, twist them lightly together
until compressed. Make sure that there are no loose copper wires as it may cause problems.
5. Insert the individual wires into its proper position in the terminals. Put the first wire in the first terminal and screw it.
Do the same in the other wires, making sure that there are no loose or exposed copper wires.
6. Double check if the wires were fully assembled. Put the clamp at the end of the plug and screw it to ensure that
wires stay in place.
7. Finally, put the cover of the plug and screw it firmly.

Lampshades provide illumination to small pots in the house. It is usually found inside the bedroom and living room. Though
there are various designs and strategies to make one, following is a simple procedure you can follow.

 Electrical wire (depending on your desired length)
 Plug
 Hand tools (screw driver, pliers, and utility knife or cutter)
 Bulb with socket.
1. Use the materials for an extension cord .
2. Instead of using an outlet, use a bulb with socket.
3. Attach this to a wooden lamp shade.

How can learning to construct electrical gadgets and devices help generate additional income for the family?
Which of the given gadgets do you like to make?
What are the materials needed?
How are you going to do it?

Prepare a project plan for a gadget of your choice.

Learning to construct simple gadgets allows you the opportunity to generate additional income for the family.
It also helps the family save on unnecessary expenses.


Construction of an Extension Cord

Bring the following:
5 meters electrical wire
Hand tools ( screw driver, pliers, and utility knife or cutter)

The Basics of Better Family Living 6 by Gloria A. Peralta, Ed.D., et. al
Home Economics and Livelihood Education by Josephine C.Bernardino,


Content Standard
Demonstrates an understanding of and skills in repairing simple gadgets/furnitures/furnishings at home and school.

Performance Standard
Makes simple repairs with ease and dexterity.

Learning Competencies CODE TLE 6IA-0h-10

3.1 Repairs simple gadgets/furniture/furnishings at home and school

3.1.1 Gathers data on how to do simple repairs using technology or other methods
3.1.2 Repairs broken furniture (chairs, cabinets, and tables), door knobs, extension cords, lamp shades and other
3.1.3 Assesses repaired gadgets/furniture/furnishing as to its reusability and functionality using rubrics
3.1.4 Improves repair undertaken


Lesson Objectives:
Gather data on how to do simple repairs using technology or other methods
Repair broken furniture, chairs, cabinets, and tables), door knobs, extension cords, lamp shades and other products
Assess repaired gadgets/furniture/furnishings as to its reusability and functionality using rubrics.

This lesson will discuss the step by step process in repairing simple gadgets and furniture. In addition, it will also provide
safety and precautionary measures to prevent accidents and injury while doing repair work.
Knowing how to make simple repairs will not only save you the added cost of paying a repairman, it will also provide an
opportunity fr caring additional income.

Repairing Simple Gadgets
 Worn out wires
1. Remove the plug of the appliance out of the electrical outlet or socket.
2. Cut out the worn out part and scrape the outer covering of both ends by about half an inch.
3. Connect the two lines by twisting them together.
4. Cover the twisted wires with electrical tape.

 Worn out plug

1. Take off the plug out of the cord or cut the wire. Separate the cord and scrape the insulation or covering by
about an inch.
2. Open the new plug.
3. Twist the wire in a clockwise direction and secure it with a screw. Replace the insulating disk.
Repairing Lamp Shade
Now that you know the basics in replacing defective wires and plugs, you can learn how to repair a lamp shade. You might
have an old lamp shade that you do not want to throw away. You can give it a new life.
There are two options that we can choose from. One is to replace the defective parts or purchase the universal lamp
kit from a local home improvement store.

Safety Tips
1. Make sure there is no power in the light fixture that you are working on.
2. Use wooden or fiber glass ladders. Aluminum and metal ladders might conduct electricity.
3. Use tools with insulated handles.
4. Use the proper wattage for your lamp or light fixture. A bulb with very high wattage may overheat.
5. Don’t touch metal pipes while you are doing electrical repairs.
6. Wear rubber-soled shoes or stand on a dry rubber mat or wooden boards if the floor is wet.

Repairing furniture and furnishings

Here are other basic furniture repair that can be undertaken at home and in school:

How to loosen sticking drawers or cabinets

1. Loosen with light cleaning and lubrication.
2. Use ordinary soap on the sides, slides, and bottom side rails for wood.
3. For the kitchen and bathroom, where there is moisture, a soap solution can be used but for a short period of time
4. Rubbing a candle on the railing can also loosen the drawer or cabinet.
5. For metals, applying WD-40 usually works. Put some newspapers first on the floor before spraying the solution.

Removing stains from wood furniture

The most common type of stain is a white ring on resulting from a wet glass bottom placed on top of the table.
Rubbing it with a soft rag moistened lightly with mineral spirits often does the trick. Do this in a well-ventilated area. If the
rubbed area turns dull, apply a new coat of furniture wax.

Repairing wooden legs of chairs

1. Check the chair for loose nails or screws.
2. Replace the damaged nail or screw using a hammer or screw driver.
3. Check if the legs are of equal length.

Changing the fabric of a seat cushion

1. Check the seat cushion if the fabric was stapled.
2. Remove the staples using a hammer or screw driver to loosen them.
3. Then use the old seat fabric as your pattern for the new fabric.
4. Cut the fabric
5. Then staple the new fabric to the seat cushion.
6. Fold the fabric along the corners to have a smooth finish.

Assessing Repaired Furniture and Furnishing

Any furniture must be checked and assessed always.

Criteria Excellent Good Fair Score
10 8 6
Materials Used appropriate Used appropriate Used
and complete materials but inappropriate
materials lacked one item materials
Procedure Followed One step was not Did not apply two
procedure applied correctly steps correctly
Workmanship Repaired item was Repaired item was Repaired item was
attractive and attractive but not not attractive and
neatly done neatly done not neatly done

Improvement on Repairs Undertaken

Repairs undertaken can still be improved by applying additional design or finishes.

Furniture Finishes
The word finish in woodworking usually describes a final surface treatment that necessarily protects the wood and enhances
its appearance. The following are the functions of finishing.
1. Protection. The surface of the furniture is protected against destructions such as warping, cracking, shrinkage, and
2. Decoration. The transparent finish brings out the natural beauty of the product, emphasizing the grain texture and
its brilliant color.
3. Sanitation. A well-finished product can easily be cleaned.
4. Saleability. Product’s saleability depends on the pleasing functional design and attractive appearance.

Types of Finishes
1. Oil finishes . This type of finishes is easy to apply. Examples of oil finishes are linseed oil and tung oil. They do not
build up to a thick coat like varnish. Thus, it provides less protection to the finished product.
2. Varnish. It is the most commonly available finishing material in the market.
3. Shellac. It is not as durable as varnish.
4. Lacquer. Lacquer is used most often in furniture industries because of its fast-drying properties.
5. Water-based finishes. These are basically latex paint without a pigment.

Application of Finishes
1. Brush method. Applied with brush rather than with rags.
2. Spray method. Uses spray gun in painting.
3. Dip coating. Good for dipping wooden chair’s legs.
4. Roller coating. This is suited for applying undercoats.


1. How do we repair worn out wires and plug?

2. What safety precautions should be observed when repairing electrical gadgets?
3. What are the tools needed in doing electrical repairs?
4. How do we repair wooden legs of chairs?
5. How do we repair wooden legs of chairs?

6. How do we change the fabric of a seat cover?


Repair an old extension cord with plug .

Re-demonstration by some pupils after the demonstration of the teacher.

Knowing how to make simple repairs can help you save money.
It is important to follow all safety precautions when undertaking repairs to avoid accidents and injury.
Finishing materials are used to protect, preserve, and beautify furniture and prevent them from being soiled or damaged.

Bring an item that needs repair and appropriate tools.

The Basics of Better Family Living 6 by Gloria A. Peralta, Ed.D., et. al
Home Economics and Livelihood Education by Josephine C.Bernardino,


Content Standard
Demonstrates an understanding of and skills in recycling waste materials.

Performance Standard
Recycles waste materials following the principles of “five S”

Learning Competencies

4.1 Discusses the principles of “five S” CODE TLE6IA-0i-11

4.1.1 Sorting (Seiri)
4.1.2 Straining (Seiton)
4.1.3 Systematic Cleaning (Shine) (Seiso)
4.1.4 Standardizing (Seiketsu)
4.1.5 Service (Sustaining) Shitsuke)

4.2 Identifies recyclable products/waste materials made of wood, metal, paper, plastic and others


Lesson Objective:
Discuss the principles of “five S”.

Waste management needs every person’s serious attention and active participation. Government and non-
government agencies around the world have been joining hands to institute programs to address the global problem on
waste, and its worsening effect to the environment. Individuals living within the community should contribute their share in
waste management efforts. What can you do as an individual?
A method or system of organizing things in the workplace, known as 5S among the Japanese, can also be applied to
waste management. 5S means Seiri, Seiton, Seisou, Seiketsou, and Shitsuke. When translated to English it also means sort,
straighten, shine, standardize, and sustain. The objective of 5S is to organize a space, sort, and store items efficiently and
effectively so that things are easy to find when they are needed.
The Principles of 5S can be applied at home, the classroom, as well as in the workplace. The following are the ways
by which the principles of 5S are applied.
 Sorting (Seiri) – This involves distinguishing things or items in the work area and eliminating the unnecessary items.
 Straightening or set in order (Seiton)– This concerns the use of efficient and effective storage methods to arrange
items in the work area. This may be done once the sorting is achieved.
 Shine or systematic cleaning (Seiso) - Once the clutter has been arranged and organized, clean the area. Clean every
now and then to maintain order in the work area.
 Standardizing ( Seiketsu)- Once the first three steps are completed, you may now standardize the method or
procedure used. You may create visual cues such as signs, checklists that you need for making sure to successfully
implement the cleaning of the work area.
 Sustaining (Shitsuke) -Make sure that you maintain regular sorting, straightening, and cleaning.
Recyclable Products or Waste Materials
Recycling is an excellent way of saving energy and conserving the environment. Many things thrown away can be recycled
and turned into new products. Here are some materials that can be recycled.

1. Wood
There are many products that can be produced from recycled wood like plant box, chair, garden accessories,
wooden flooring, and garden decks.
2. Metal
Aside from wood , metals are highly saleable in junk shops. Companies buy used cans to be recycled into metal
packaging like containers for canned goods, drinks, and other materials. Metals are also used as cooking utensils and
home accessories or furniture.
3. Paper
Examples of projects that are made from recycled paper are papier-mache, paper flowers, gift wrapper, paper bag or
purse, journals or memo pad, jewelry box, paper beads, photo frame and paper basket.
4. Plastic
There are many ways of reusing or recycling plastics. It can be made into water and plant containers, desk
organizers, garden lamps, etc. This is the easiest waste material to recycle.
5. Glass
There are many projects that can be produced out of used glass containers and bottles. Examples of these are glass
bottle sand art, vases, organizers, container for condiments for the interior and exterior part of the house.

1. How can we contribute to proper waste management?
2. What are the principles of “five S” that can be applied in waste management?
3. Where can we apply these 5S?
4. How are these applied in waste management?
5. Do you think this Japanese methodology in waste management can be applied in the Philippines?

6. What is recycling?
7. Why do we recycle waste materials?
8. Give examples of waste that can be recycled.
9. What products can be produced out of the mentioned waste materials?

A. In groups, do a demonstration about the principles of 5S. Present your work to the class.
Prepare rubrics for these performance tasks.
B. Identify what is being asked in each statement.
________ 1. A methodology developed in Japan that is used to organize a workplace for work to be efficient and
_________2. A principle that can be done in the work area after it has been cleared of unneeded items.
_________3. This is a principle that means creating specific tasks, responsibilities, and procedures or rules.
__________4. The process of converting waste materials into reusable products.
__________5. This is a recyclable material that is easy to recycle.

Waste management is a serious matter that needs serious attention and active participation of every individual.
Effective waste management helps address many environmental issues and also opens opportunities for earning additional
The principles of 5S can be applied to facilitate waste management efforts at home, in school, and in the community.
Materials no longer in use can be sold to recycling shops for extra income.
Re-design old materials into reusable new products.

Bring recyclable waste materials.
Recycle any of the waste materials into a useful project.
Do this in the school.

The Basics of Better Family Living 6 by Gloria A. Peralta, Ed.D., et. al
Home Economics and Livelihood Education by Josephine C.Bernardino,


Learning Competencies
4.3 Explains the process and importance of recycling CODE TLE6IA-0j-13
4.4 Recycles the identified products/waste material into functional item CODE TLE6IA-0j-14

Lesson Objectives:
Explain the process and the importance of recycling
Recycle the identified products/waste material into functional items (binding of used paper into notebook or memo pad;
bottled plastic into lampshades, flowers, and plants)

It is easy to throw away something and feel glad that you got rid of it and will never see again. But sad to say, it does not end
here. The things you throw away go somewhere, usually to dumpsites or landfills. Some may end up in empty lots, rivers,
and the sea.

It is also a reality that you are now living in a society where everything is almost disposable. You tend to buy new things
instead of getting old ones repaired. It has become more convenient to throw away items. You start to realize that it has
become a problem not only for you today but for future generations.

One of the best ways to manage trash is to recycle them. Recycling is the conversion of old and used materials into new
products. The key component to proper waste management is recycling.

Process of Recycling
Materials that can be recycled are wood, glass, metal, paper, and plastic. Electronic waste is considered special waste like ink
cartridges, cell phones, batteries, computers, and non-functioning appliances. Together with plastic products, these are non-
biodegradable wastes since they do not disintegrate or rot. Biodegradable waste such as food and garden waste can be
recycled through composting.
Collection of waste materials can be done in two ways:
1. Bring waste materials to collection centers like junk shops or the barangay waste management center where there
are separate containers for different types of trash.
2. Pick up from residences where every barangay has a schedule of garden collection.
Once materials are collected and segregated from junk shops or in your barangay center, these materials will be sorted,
cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials such as handicraft projects or to be used as raw materials for manufacturing.
Everything that comes from nature can be returned to nature.

Importance of Recycling
Recycling brings about so many benefits like:
 Employment through livelihood products
 Helping reduce pollution and the need for landfills
 Helping save energy by reducing the use of fuel in manufacturing products
 Helping families save money by reducing expenses for buying new products
 Helping the economy through investments in local recycling programs.
 Helping conserve and sustain the use of natural resources for future generations.
 Bringing out the innovative skills of individuals, and
 Promoting community spirit through unity and cooperation

Recycled Projects
The following are examples of recycled projects wherein waste materials can be made into functional items.
1. Scrap Paper Notepad
Scrap papers
Binder clips
Decorative scrap paper
Masking or decorative tape

1. Fold into half at least 40 sheets of scrap paper. Cut paper on folded side.
2. Stock the pages by lining up the cut folded sides together. Do this on an even surface to be precise.
3. With all pages evenly lined up, attach the binder clips on the top and bottom edges on the cut side of the paper. Lay
it flat on the edge of the table and place a heavy object at the center near the cut edge to keep pages compressed.
4. Apply glue evenly over the cut edge then let it dry. Repeat this 4-5 times until you have a coat of clear glue that holds
the edges together.
5. Remove the clip binders once the glue has dried completely.
6. Attach your decorative paper by gluing it across the top of the notepad.
7. Attach the tape carefully on top of the glued area. Decorate with stickers, labels, or anything else
2. Desk Organizer

6 empty plastic bottles (1 liter soft drinks bottle)
Cutter and scissors
Decorative tape
Glue stick and glue gun

1. Clean the bottles and let it dry.
2. Measure around 2 ½ - 3 inches from the base of the bottle going up then mark it all around.
3. Cut the marked area using a sharp cutter. Set aside the upper part of the bottle for future recycling projects.
4. Smoothen the cut edges using scissors.
5. Cover all the edges with decorative tape.
6. Glue together the five receptacles as seen below.
7. Decorate with stickers, labels, or anything else.

3. Tin Can Holder

2-3 tin cans
Scraps of cloth or scrap papers

Glue stick and glue gun
½ inch wide ribbon (color should match the cloth or paper)

1. Remove the top cover of the tin can and smoothen the cut edges by using a small hammer.
2. Wash the can with soap and water and let it dry under the heat of the sun.
3. Glue the cloth or paper all around the sides of the can. Let it dry.
4. Attach the ribbon around the top and bottom of the can.
5. Accessorize your tin can holder.
6. Do the same procedure with the two remaining cans.

Why is recycling very important and beneficial to you and your community?

A. Make a project plan for a recycled project

Recycling is beneficial to you and the community because it creates employment through livelihood projects,
conserves energy and money, and saves our environment from pollution and increasing landfills.

Use any of the sample recycled projects in this lesson to make a mini project or make your own recycled project
using the materials that you brought.


The Basics of Better Living 6 by Gloria A. Peralta. al.

Learning and Living in the 21st Century, by Leonora D. Basbas, Ph. D.