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The 7th Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region Kiruna, SWEDEn, 2–4 auguSt 2006 Conference

The 7th Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region

Kiruna, SWEDEn, 2–4 auguSt 2006

The 7th Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region Kiruna, SWEDEn, 2–4 auguSt 2006
Conference Report
Conference Report

The Swedish Parliament 007

Written by Martin Palm, Rapporteur,The Swedish Parliament

Produced by The Information Department of the Riksdag

Printed by The Riksdag Printing Office

Seventh Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region

The Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region is a parliamentary body comprising delega- tions appointed by the national parliaments of the Arctic states (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, U.S.A.) and the European Parliament.The conference also includes Perma- nent Participants representing Indigenous peoples, as well as observers.The conference meets every two years, and the Seventh Conference was held in Kiruna, Sweden on August -4, 006.

Between conferences the Arctic parliamentary coo- peration is carried on by a Standing Committee, which started its activities in 1994.The Conference and Standing Committee take initiatives to further Arctic cooperation, and act, in particular, as a par- liamentary forum for issues relevant to the work of the Arctic Council.The Standing Committee takes part in the work of the Council as an observer.

Foreword

5

Introduction

7

Wednesday 2 August

7

Thursday 3 August

12

Friday 4 August

18

Conference Statement

22

Programme

26

List of Participants

28

Foreword

70 parliamentarians, representing seven Arctic countries, attended the 7th Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region which was held in Kiruna from to 4 006.The issues discussed are of great importance, not only for the Arctic Region.An obvious example was the debate on climate change. The Conference unanimously adopted a Conference Statement, covering a wide range of different subjects, which will be forwarded to relevant institutions and organisations.

It is extremely valuable that parliamentarians from different countries meet to discuss issues of common concern. But it is also important that the results of these meetings are brought back to the national parliaments and made part of discussions on national policies. Hopefully this report, which outlines the major themes of discussions, will prove to be a useful and inspiring source of information in continuing Arctic cooperation, and also in the debate on Arctic issues in national parliaments.

On behalf of the Swedish Parliament, which had the pleasure of hosting the Conference, I would like to thank all the participants who contributed to the success of the conference.

Björn von Sydow

The City Hall of Kiruna. Introduction The 7th Conference of Parliamentarians researchers and representatives from

The City Hall of Kiruna.

Introduction

The 7th Conference of Parliamentarians

researchers and representatives from non-

of the Arctic Region was held in Kiruna,

governmental organisations and journalists.The

a

city situated in northern Sweden, which

major themes of discussion were:

is

a part of the Arctic region and also in

Arctic Cooperation

the very heart of traditional Sami territory. The Conference, organised by the Swedish Parliament (the Riksdag) and the Standing Committee of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region (SCPAR), gathered more than 10 parliamentarians, guest speakers, representatives from indigenous people’s organisations,

The International Polar Year 007-008

Innovation in Arctic Governance:The possibilities and limitations of a legally binding regime for the Arctic

The opening of the Arctic Sea Route:

Economic/commercial opportunities and environmental/cultural challenges

Wednesday 2 August

Opening of the Conference The participants of the Conference were welcomed by Dr Björn von Sydow, Speaker of the Swedish Parliament, Ms Sylvia Simma, Chairman of the Swedish Sami Parliament and Mr Runar Patriksson, member of the Swedish Parliament and the SCPAR.

In his speech of welcome Dr Björn von Sydow expressed his delight that Sweden has been given the opportunity to host the Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region. He stressed that the Conference has played an important role in Arctic cooperation, advancing a number of important policies since the start only 1 years ago. Examples are the establishment of the Arctic Council, the increased focus on environmental issues and the attention given to the living conditions of the indigenous peoples of the Arctic region.

The Speaker recalled that radioactive fallout was one of the major issues of the first conference.Today the threat and possible opportunities related to climate change constitute the greatest challenge.The Arctic flora and fauna are unique and extremely sensitive to environmental pollution. Parliamentarians of the Arctic countries therefore have a responsibility to guarantee that this unique resource is managed with respect and common sense.

The Speaker further emphasised that meetings between parliamentarians from different countries have a great value, since they are an opportunity to discuss and advance polices of common interest. In order to ensure a positive and sustainable development for the Arctic region, it is also important that the participants bring back the conclusions of this conference to their national parliaments and gather support for them.Arctic cooperation is important not only for the Arctic region, but also for the rest of the world.

Ms Sylvia Simma welcomed the participants of the conference to traditional Sami territory which includes not only the part of Sweden where the conference took place, but also parts of Norway, Finland and Russia.

took place, but also parts of Norway, Finland and Russia. Dr Björn von Sydow, Speaker of

Dr Björn von Sydow, Speaker of the Swedish Parliament. Photo:Alexander Linder.

Ms Simma stressed that the Sami people are united through common history, culture, language and land areas. In harmony with nature and the weather elements they prospered in the region long before today’s national borders were established. Seeing that the population today is divided between four different sovereign states, cooperation across national boundaries is a question of survival. Since March 000 the cooperation between the Sami parliaments of the different countries has been formalised by the establishment of the Sami Parliamentary Council, a cooperative body representing the Sami parliaments of Norway, Sweden and Finland.The Sami population of Russia attends as permanent participants.The purpose of this council is to work on matters affecting the Sami across national boundaries, for example issues concerning language, education, research and industrial development.

Ms Simma also mentioned the Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous People which most likely will be adopted by the Assembly of the United Nations towards the end of the

year and that this will be a breakthrough for all indigenous people.The increasing demand for the natural resources of the Arctic region is a great challenge in terms of economic development, environmental risks, security, health and the rights of indigenous people. Ms Simma called attention to the status and protection of the Sami as an indigenous people through national legislation and political development, as well as in international developments in human rights. It was also emphasised that the Sami must be integrated into future policy development as an integral part and that traditional knowledge of the Sami and other indigenous peoples should be integrated into the management of the Arctic region.

Finally Ms Simma stressed that Arctic parliamentarians, governments and indigenous people need common political visions for the future of the Arctic, and the courage to carry out these visions.

Mr Runar Patriksson, member of the Swedish Parliament and the SCPAR welcomed the participants on behalf of the SCPAR. In his speech of welcome he introduced the participants to the region of Kiruna, and to the programme for the conference. Mr Patriksson stressed that the Conference is a great opportunity to discuss and produce policy proposals which will benefit the development in the Arctic region in a positive direction with respect to the environment and with respect to the people living in the area. He also underlined the need for an open dialogue where all the delegations participate and give their points of view on the issues discussed. And also to stimulate debate on Arctic issues in the national parliaments, since increased parliamentary activity is one of the objectives of the conference.

Arctic cooperation After the opening, the conference continued with a session dedicated to following up what has happened with regard to Arctic cooperation since the last conference in Nuuk two years ago. Ambassador Alexander Ignatiev, Chairman of the Senior Arctic Officials,Arctic Council, gave a progress report on behalf of the Russian chairmanship of the Arctic Council.

The Ambassador began his presentation by accentuating that one of the priorities of the Russian chairmanship is to develop close and working ties between the Arctic Council and the Parliamentarians of the Arctic region. There is a need to bring all the actors of the North together.The Ambassador continued by outlining the current activities of the Arctic Council and its five expert groups.

The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) conducts monitoring and assessment of pollution, human health and climate change in the Arctic. Amongst the projects of the AMAP the Ambassador pointed out the Assessment of the impact of oil and gas development in the Arctic, which hopefully will be delivered to the ministerial meeting in the autumn of 006.

The working group of the protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME) has elaborated the Arctic Council Strategy for protecting the Arctic marine environment through the Arctic Marine Strategic Plan. One important contribution towards meeting the objectives of PAME will, according to the Ambassador, be the Russian National Programme of Action to protect the Arctic marine environment from land-based activities.

The working group on Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) aims at promoting the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of living natural resources. CAFF’s new Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring program (CBMP) was endorsed at a ministerial meeting in November 004 as a cornerstone programme of CAFF and has a primary focus on community-based monitoring.

The Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG) implements projects addressing the economic, social and cultural aspects of sustainable development. Sixteen projects have been or are being implemented.These working groups oversaw the preparation of the Arctic Human Development Report which is the first comprehensive attempt to document and compare the welfare of Arctic residents on a circumpolar basis.The report provides an information base and tool to identify areas for future programmes.

The conference was held at Folkets Hus Congress Centre in Kiruna. The Emergency Prevention, Preparedness

The conference was held at Folkets Hus Congress Centre in Kiruna.

The Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (EPPR) working group deals with issues related to the need to enhance security of marine transport, including smooth border assistance among neighbouring states. The working group has among other things prepared a circumpolar map of resources at risk from oil spills in the Arctic.The EPPR has also decided to initiate a number of projects that will focus on the exchange of information, training and experience; public information; technical development and support and coordination of response.

The AMAP, CAFF and the International Arctic Science Committee participated in the ACIA Steering Committee. More than 00 leading Arctic Scientists, indigenous representatives and other experts from 1 nations participated in the work of ACIA.They have distilled and synthesised available knowledge in order to examine how climate change and ultraviolet radiation have changed in the Arctic, how they are projected to change in the future and what the consequences will be for the Arctic and the rest of the world.The report will provide the foundation for a broad range of policy recommendations.A group, established to coordinate the activities, will report to the Senior Arctic Officials who will deliver their

recommendations to the Ministers in the autumn of 006.

The Ambassador also informed the conference that the Arctic Council intends to play an active role in the International Polar Year. At a ministerial meeting it has been decided that the Council should contribute to the IPY especially in the areas of observation, monitoring and human health.

At the end of the presentation the Ambassador accentuated that the Arctic Council pays special attention to relations with the Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region and fully supports all steps to enhance the parliamentary dimension of Arctic cooperation.

State Secretary Hans Dahlgren started his presentation by underlining that the Arctic Council is a forum for promoting cooperation, coordination and interaction on Arctic issues of common interest and concern.According to the State Secretary the Arctic Council has made significant progress over the last 10 years.The eight Arctic states have a particular responsibility for developments but other countries show interest as well. Five states already have observer status and others, like Spain, are interested in joining.

The State Secretary stressed that one attractive part of Arctic cooperation is its usefulness, which is easy to identify in very practical terms. One example is climate change, an issue that engages much concern.As climate change is more profound and visible in the Arctic region, the Arctic works as an early warning of what will happen in the rest of the world. At the moment the changes are observable; ice is melting, which means that the sea will rise, centimetre by centimetre, year after year. The Swedish government is deeply concerned about this development and is trying to work, at home and on the global level, as well as in the EU, towards building consensus on the actions required.There is a need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and to facilitate adaptation.The State Secretary hopes that the Arctic Council will continue its pioneering work and aim to influence the formation of global climate policy. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol is a first step, where global participation is crucial.The United States is therefore urged to join the other members of the Arctic Council in the multilateral efforts necessary to make substantial progress.The Swedish government has decided to pursue policies that aim to radically reduce the national dependence on hydrocarbons by 00.

The State Secretary underlined that climate change has direct effects on key economic activities in the Arctic region.The traditional lifestyles of Arctic indigenous peoples depend directly on the Arctic environment. Since the people who live and work in the Arctic have the right to share in the welfare of the rest of society, the indigenous people must be allowed to find ways to develop their cultures and traditional sources of livelihood.

The region has always been of strategic importance, but now the political focus is shifting from military security to energy security and sustainable development.That raises the question of whether there will be new and stronger conflicts of interest. Oil and gas exploitation is already on its way on a large scale. New global transport lanes will open up as the ice melts.The State Secretary stressed that the approach to these challenges will have lasting consequences and there will certainly be an increased risk to the vulnerability of the

Arctic environment, as a result of exploitation of natural resources and the resulting increase in emission of greenhouse gases.

According to the State Secretary conflicting

interests in the Arctic can only be reconciled

if the governments of the Arctic states work

together and pursue policies for economic and social development that ensure sustainable development throughout the circumpolar Arctic.Therefore the sensitivity of the Arctic ecosystem, established indigenous rights and local cultures must be respected and fully taken into account.This should be the focus of discussion on Arctic governance.The Arctic parliamentarians are needed in this discussion and the conference statement will be an important input to governments and the Arctic Council ministerial meeting.

Sweden has started to prepare for the IPY.

One of the crucial requirements for successful Arctic research is access to reliable data. That is why it is so urgent to put in place

a permanent comprehensive network for

monitoring stations throughout the Arctic that will combine scientific monitoring with indigenous observations and traditional knowledge.The State Secretary hopes that such a network, under the auspices of the Arctic Council, can be a concrete and lasting legacy of the IPY.

The State Secretary ended the presentation by emphasising that there are many other good practical reasons for an intensified

Arctic cooperation since all these efforts serve

a directly useful purpose – to preserve the

climate, to help make the earth liveable for all

the years to come, and to serve the welfare of the people of the Arctic.

Ms Hill-Marta Solberg, Chairman of the Standing Committee of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region (SCPAR) gave a progress report on behalf of the SCPAR. Ms Solberg called attention to the fact that the Arctic Council this year is celebrating its tenth anniversary. Despite the fact that Arctic cooperation does not have a long history in this respect, much has been achieved at the same time as the work of the SCPAR has evolved and found its form.

Mr Simo Rundgren, MP, Substitute to SCPAR, Finland, Mr Runar Patriks- son, MP, Member of

Mr Simo Rundgren, MP, Substitute to SCPAR, Finland, Mr Runar Patriks- son, MP, Member of SCPAR, Sweden and Mr Alf Josefsson.

Ms Solberg recalled that the ACIA report was launched shortly after the last conference and that this report has created a new momentum in the debate on climate change, an issue that was on top of the agenda when the SCPAR met in March 00. Ms Solberg pointed out that more knowledge is needed, but that there also is a need to act on the basis of what is already known.The Arctic Human Development Report was presented at the Arctic ministerial meeting in November 004 and is an important reminder that there is more to the Arctic than its flora, fauna and climate. People live there and it is crucial not to end up knowing more about the polar bear than about the people of the Arctic. Since the initiative to this report was taken by an earlier conference, the parliamentarians have a special responsibility to follow it up.

On the subject of living conditions in the Arctic Ms Solberg stressed that Education is a vital tool in improving living standards in the region. For this reason the University of the Arctic (UArctic) has been close to the heart of many parliamentarians.According to Ms Solberg the UArctic is a success; the number of students increased from 66 in 00 to 70 in 00.All parliamentarians must work to secure the funding of this institution. Ms Solberg argued that Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), is another important tool

in creating strong and sustainable societies in the Arctic. ICT are closely related to education, but also health issues such as telemedicine.This is one of the priorities of the Arctic Council, and the Committee is impatient to make progress in this field and see the technology in use all over the Arctic.

In 00 the Standing Committee arranged a workshop to look at different aspects of creating a binding legal regime for the Arctic. The concept is not new since it has been in place in the Antarctic for 40 years. Ms Solberg finds it timely that politicians are taking a lead in this process. It is necessary to find ways to regulate developing activities in the Arctic.

Ms Solberg finished her presentation by accentuating that the SCPAR and its members aim to play a constructive role on Arctic issues, both in national parliaments and in cooperation with the Arctic Council.This conference will give inspiration and new ideas which will create a solid basis for the coming two years until the next conference.

Bernard Funston, Executive Secretary of the Arctic Council talked about one of the priorities of the Arctic Council, ITC in the Arctic. Mr Funston started his presentation by recalling that communication and information were once interlinked, at the time when

messages were sent on horseback, but that new technologies have led to a situation where even the populations in the most remote areas are able to get instant contact with the rest of the world.At the same time it should not be forgotten that new infrastructure in itself does not guarantee that this potential is used. So it is crucial that the users are not forgotten in the discussions.

Mr Funston argued that ICT will play an increasingly important role in the Arctic, especially within the fields of social and economic development, scientific cooperation, distance education, telehealth, telemedicine and e-governance.The SCPAR has been advancing this issue within the Arctic Council.The report IT and the Arctic by the SCPAR (00) provided a major input in the process.The report outlined the following five goals:

ICT must be a tool available to everybody living in the Arctic

ICT must boost the possibilities of setting up and investing in knowledge- intensive enterprises in the Arctic

ICT must help the Arctic become a region with a high general level of education

ICT must be used to revamp the social services in the Arctic,

ICT must help reinforce participation, transparency and access, and the Arctic identity.

The Arctic ICT Assessment (AICTA) of the Arctic Council has been set up with the goal to provide a baseline understanding of the state of ICT in the Arctic to assist an increased human and social capital in the north, contributing to northern economic development and improving the quality of life in the Arctic.The work is well on its way and will be completed in 008.

There was also general agreement that ways must be found to adapt to the changes which are already observable and which can be expected in the near future. It was pointed out that it must be a shared responsibility to deal with this issue and that people living in the Arctic, the indigenous peoples in particular, must not be left alone in this process.A representative of the Sami community pointed out that the United Nations after 10 years of negotiations is about to adopt a declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples and asked the conference to support this draft.

It was also discussed whether the accessibility and growing demand for natural resources in the Arctic is likely to create new conflict. State Secretary Dahlgren’s response to the question is that there is such a risk. Huge economic interests are at stake which will mean that energy security will be an increasingly important question.

The Russian delegation argued that the Conference in its present form cannot address the challenges of today.A working group should therefore be created to discuss the rules of procedure and launch reform of parliamentary cooperation.Another speaker recalled that the Arctic Council is celebrating its 10th anniversary and that it is a good time to review Arctic cooperation and analyse the difficulties in order to improve it.

Another issue that was discussed was the funding of the Project Support Fund.All member states were asked to fulfil their commitment in this respect.The initiatives of the Arctic Council in the ICT field were welcomed since this has been one of the key areas pointed out in earlier conferences.

Finally Ms Solberg announced that the priorities of the forthcoming Norwegian chairmanship of the Arctic Council will be

Debate

1.

Sustainable development and use of

Everybody seemed to agree that the Arctic is facing great challenges and that the

.

natural resources Climate change

problems can only be solved by means of

.

The working methods of the Arctic

strong commitment and cooperation. Some representatives regretted that the USA did not have elected representatives at the Conference.

council. These priorities are thus well in line with the concerns expressed in the debate.

Thursday 3 August

The International Polar Year (IPY)

2007–2008

The second theme of the Conference was the International Polar Year. Dr David Carlsson, director of the IPY International Programme Office, started the session with an introduction to this event.

The international Polar year, which will take

place between 007 and 008, is one of the largest and most complex scientific enterprises ever undertaken, with 0 000 participants from 60 countries.The expected outcome

is not only scientific knowledge but also

increased public attention towards the regions with regard to current status of the regions, past and future challenges, linkages to global processes and social and cultural dynamics and adaptability. By reaching out to countries not part of the polar regions a message will be brought out to the world.The IPY will leave a big legacy in the form of data and information, but also infrastructure, education and a new science community. Dr Carlsson stressed that the IPY has a great potential in all these respects but that strategic political and financial support is necessary.

The IPY builds on a large number of specific projects covering all areas of science and

a number of different aspects of the polar

regions including earth, land, people, ocean, ice, atmosphere and space.There are also projects focusing on education and outreach. Many of the projects are interlinked and the different projects must agree to share their data with other projects.This will create international partnerships and requires a great deal of cooperation. A Joint Committee appointed by the International Council for Science (ICSU) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) will be responsible for scientific planning, coordination, guidance and review of the IPY. In performing its functions, it will be supported by an International Programme

Office.

Dr. David Carlsson finished his presentation by presenting some of the 188 projects that have been endorsed so far. One of them is searching for the longest possible ice core record,

covering 1. million years.These cores contain an abundance of climate information and provide a very powerful tool for understanding the history and dynamics of the atmosphere and climate change.Another project deals with carbon pools in permafrost. Climate change will have the consequence that green house gas which is today absorbed by permafrost will be released into the atmosphere.The project intends to provide a better understanding of this process. But the IPY is not only about the environment, flora and fauna of the Polar Regions; many are concerned about the people living in these areas. One project is about community adaptation and vulnerability; another is about reindeer herding and climate change.

The second presentation on the IPY was given by Prof Terry Callaghan, Director of the Abisko Scientific Research Station, which will take part in the IPY in a number of ways: as leader of projects, as a participant but also as a host to international events.

The Abisko Scientific Research Station was established in 190 and was at that time the most northerly research station worldwide. This places the station in a unique position since data on a number of variables has been collected for a long time, allowing analysis of changes occurring during the last century. Some examples are that the snow depth has increased by – centimetres every decade, that the ice thickness has decreased by almost 6 centimetres during the last 0 years and that the number of days with ice has decreased by 1 in 100 years.The location of the station has several advantages, especially that the area has a varied topography, geomorphology, geology and climate, as well as varied flora and fauna, which allows for different kinds of studies.

The original mission of the station was to facilitate research into the natural environment of the Abisko area by Swedish and foreign scientists and to undertake research with its own staff.These days it is more outward- looking and is visited by 700 scientists every year.The strengths of the station are geosciences research (post glacial landscape- forming processes, extreme events such as avalanches and the transports of materials

Mr Mikhail Nikolaev, Vice-president of the Council of Federation of the Russian Parliament and member of SCPAR,

Russia, Mr Olle Norberg, Head of the Swedish Space Corporation Esrange and Mr Artur

Chilingarov,Vice-presi-

dent of the State Duma of the Russian Parliament.

dent of the State Duma of the Russian Parliament. from the mountains) and ecological research (understanding

from the mountains) and ecological research (understanding environmental controls on ecological processes and biodiversity and in particular how these are affected by changes in climate and UV radiation).

During the IPY the Abisko Research station will be involved in several projects.The professor mentioned especially one: Carbon dynamics and other feedback to climate change.The purpose of this study is to understand and make models of the changes occurring for when climate change decreases the permafrost, which leads to emissions of the greenhouse gas methane.Another project, called Back to the Future, aims to assess past changes in biodiversity and ecological processes and assess the current status of polar ecosystems and biodiversity.A part of this project is to rescue old data and locate and preserve old sites for future assessment.The Abisko Research Station is also involved in the Consortium for Coordination of Observation and Monitoring of the Arctic for Assessment and research (COMAAR) which aims to improve coordination for sustained long-term time series observation in the Arctic and an

increased effectiveness and efficiency in the use

of infrastructure, personnel and funding.

Debate Several speakers expressed their strong enthusiasm for the IPY, since it will be a good opportunity to learn more about the complex Arctic region, but also because of the expected international attention to the opportunities and difficulties of the region. It was pointed out that the International Polar Year occurs only once every 0 years and that the opportunity should not be lost.

A number of delegates stressed that the

networks and infrastructure established during this period must not be abandoned when the IPY has come to an end. Especially because

it is more cost-effective to maintain existing

structures than create new ones.The long-term funding and commitment has to be secured. The necessity to pay attention to the storage of and access to data was also underlined.

Several speakers talked about the role of Arctic parliamentarians during the IPY. Some pointed out that all parliamentarians must secure

Mr Hans Corell, Ambassador, Sweden and Ms Diana Wallis, MEP, Member of SCPAR, Euro- pean

Mr Hans Corell, Ambassador, Sweden and Ms Diana Wallis, MEP, Member of SCPAR, Euro- pean Parliament.

funding and political support in their national parliaments but also create public debate about the issues dealt with during the IPY and spread information about the results achieved.

One point that was raised is that special attention must be given to the living conditions of the people of the Arctic since we must not end up knowing everything about the polar bear but nothing about the people living in the region.The importance of involving indigenous people in the projects was underlined by several speakers. As an answer Mr Carlsson pointed out that many projects focus on the people living in the Arctic, and that great attention is paid to social and cultural responsibilities, while working in these areas. Many of the projects also have indigenous participation.

Innovation in Arctic Governance:

The possibilities and limitations of a binding legal regime for the Arctic. At the last Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region the SCPAR was asked to prepare a discussion at the conference in 006 on the possibilities of a binding legal regime for the Arctic.The SCPAR consequently asked the Fridjtof Nansen Institute to prepare a paper on the issue and invite two speakers to give their points of view on the subject.

The first presentation was made by Diana Wallis, Member of the European Parliament and member of the Standing Committee.The second presentation was made by Ambassador Hans Corell, former Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs and the Legal Counsel of the United Nations.

Ms Wallis started her presentation by recalling that different aspects of Arctic governance have been debated at earlier conferences of parliamentarians of the Arctic region.The issue has also been discussed within the framework of the new Northern Dimension of the European Union, where Ms Wallis has successfully called for a reference to a charter for Arctic Governance to be included. EU involvement in the discussion is justified not only since the EU has three member states in the Arctic but also because the impact of developments in the Arctic reaches further than its boundaries.

Ms Wallis pointed out that the great commercial opportunities and challenges in the region come at a time when the Arctic is more accessible than ever.There is thus a need to check whether or not the governance structures in place are up to the task now imposed on them. It can be argued that many of the existing international

agreements in relation to the Arctic are a

Ms Wallis stressed that history has taught us

The second presentation on the subject was

.

It should be ensured that the existing

product of their times and that the development has led to a situation where they are to some extent out of date.There is for example no international or regional regime that covers the

.

regime is implemented and that the states that have not yet acceded to or otherwise accepted elements of the regime do so.

shift of fish stocks to the High Arctic.According to Ms Wallis the plethora of international treaties and multilateral organisations today has become such a tangled complexity that it denies democracy and fails to give the Arctic the clear and coherent voice it desperately needs on the international stage.This situation is aggravated by developments since 11 September 001 and the increased disregard to abide by the rules of international law amongst leading countries on the international stage.

about what the consequences of untrammelled commercial activities may be and that people are now talking about an Arctic “gold rush”. The Arctic is unique in the sense that a number of countries encircle an enclosed ocean. The governance structures need to reflect this uniqueness. It is sometimes said that it is possible to have a charter for the Antarctic because there are no people there. But it is even more important to have a coherent regime in areas where people want to carry out activities, even if it is harder to achieve and politically sensitive. It is a political responsibility to face this task.As parliamentarians are in a unique position to reach across national boundaries, Ms Wallis argued that this conference and the parliamentarians of the Arctic region should use the attention focused on the Arctic during IPY to promote discussion, dialogue and research concerning the possibilities of a new innovative regime for the Arctic.

made by Ambassador Hans Corell, former Under- Secretary-General for Legal Affairs and the Legal Counsel of the United Nations. Mr Corell argued along the following lines:

It is necessary to build political support to achieve the necessary protection of the Arctic.

In the discussion about the possibilities of a new regime Mr Corell referred to the treaty of the Antarctic which could serve as a model. He pointed out that there are some important differences between the two polar regions, one of them being that existing regimes covering the Arctic give the coastal states extensive rights.They are probably not ready to accept limitations to these. In the opinion of Mr Corell the creation of a new regime would be a tremendous effort. Furthermore, to be authorative the regime would have to be accepted by the major players in the international arena. It is therefore more important to focus on what the threats are and then act accordingly, for example by assuring that the existing regimes are implemented and accepted.

The real dilemma according to Mr Corell is that the problems identified as threatening the Arctic do not primarily originate in the Arctic.And that the consequences of the development in the Arctic, melting ice for example, in their turn will have disastrous effects in other parts of the world, seeing that large parts of Bangladesh will be flooded as the sea level rises. So a meaningful regime must aim for global participation. Since the biggest threat is greenhouse gases and the threats to the ozone layer, we will immediately find ourselves in the realm of the Kyoto and Montreal protocols and the whole field of environmental agreements that apply generally in the world today.

Mr Corell suggested that efforts should be concentrated towards an examination on

1.

There is already a binding regime that applies in the Arctic. Rather than focusing on new regimes, it is necessary to concentrate resources on working with these, to examine whether the present legal regime is sufficient and, if not, work towards strengthening it.

whether the present legal regime is sufficient and if some elements need strengthening. The analysis must be made in a systematic manner, sector by sector.The next step is to build political support.This is a precondition in order to achieve policy decisions and to give legitimacy to the norms that will eventually be elaborated with the help of lawyers and

other experts. Politicians, non-governmental organisations and media play an important role in this work.

Discussion Several participants pointed out that recent developments in the Arctic with climate change and increased interest in natural resources call for urgent action and that Arctic governance faces new challenges. The exploitation of natural resources must be carried out in a sustainable manner. It was underlined that research and strong international cooperation are essential prerequisites for a successful development in this respect.A representative of the European Council pointed out that the issue has been discussed in the European Council and that representatives from many countries outside the Arctic also show great concern.

Some representatives pointed out that there is a long history of cooperation in the Arctic, for example in the scientific field. Many issues have been solved in multilateral negotiations but the new situation calls for new treaties. The positive experiences of earlier negotiations must be remembered and used as a base for future cooperation. It was also said that a consensus approach should be used where common interests are used as a platform.

One point of view raised by the Canadian representative was that decisions about the territories of sovereign countries have to be made by the national parliaments and not by an international organisation, not least to secure the democratic process. It was said that decision-making by international organisations is less transparent in this respect and that the best way to proceed is to strengthen existing regimes and make them work. Several representatives argued that a sectorial approach might be a good start, but that the idea of a comprehensive regime should not be forgotten. In the conference statement later adopted by the conference these discussions were summarised with the following paragraph:

The governments in the Arctic region and the institutions of the European Union are asked to, in light of the impact of climate change, and increasing economic and human activity, to initiate, as a matter of urgency, an audit of

existing legal regimes that impact the Arctic and strengthen them where necessary.

Mr. Corell recalled that the United Nations

every year has a special treaty event, which is

a campaign for the signature and ratification

of international treaties in a specific area. Mr Correl volunteered to contact the General Secretary of the United Nations and propose that the next event would focus on treaties related to the Arctic, since this will create international attention and ratification of important treaties.The suggestion was applauded by the Conference which later included a paragraph in the conference statement urging the governments in the Arctic region and the institutions of the European Union to propose to the United Nations that

the scope of the annual treaty event in 007, or at the earliest possible time, should be UN treaties relevant to the Arctic.

Friday 4 August

The opening of the Arctic Sea route The final theme of the Conference was the opening of the Arctic sea route. Mr Sergey Kharyuchi, chairman of the Yamal – Nenets State Duma started the session with an introduction to the topic. It was pointed out that the Barents Sea has been used as a transport route for a long time and that the wellbeing of some Russian regions already depend on it. Recent developments, especially reduced sea ice, are likely to increase maritime activities and access to natural resources, as stated in the ACIA report.There are a number of reasons for this interest, one being that the Northern sea route is the shortest way from Europe to Asia, and from Europe to the west coast of the USA, another being the huge oil and natural gas resources in the region.

Obstacles to this development arise from legal, infrastructure, management and financial issues.The safety aspects are of crucial importance since only one accident will be

a catastrophe, not only for the environment

but also for indigenous peoples.According to Mr. Kharyuchi the development of the route must be based on the following principles. First it must be recognised that shipping will

Folkets Hus Congress Centre. Photo:Alexander Linder. continue to grow, as well as the necessity to

Folkets Hus Congress Centre. Photo:Alexander Linder.

continue to grow, as well as the necessity to supply oil and gas. Secondly, that no single country is capable of addressing the issue alone.

Thirdly, to provide for security all the following components should be taken into consideration:

Design safety and equipment upgrade

Qualification and training of personnel

Development of a unified security plan drawn up by suppliers and buyers, countries included in the route, coastal services and support fleets

To facilitate cooperation in Arctic marine shipping, Mr Kharyuchi proposed that an expert group should be established to analyse the existing recommendations to include the northern sea route as part of the Euro- Asian transport corridor and to single out the factors interfering with this process.The results should be submitted to the next Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic region.The governments of the Arctic states should also be asked to establish a working group on the northern sea route and international marine shipping development.The conference should also invite the governments of the Arctic council member and observer states to support investment activities in the Arctic directed at the integration of the northern sea route into the Euro-Asian transport corridor. Mr

Kharyuchi also asked for an expert group to consider the legal and economic possibilities of establishing an international transport risk insurance company dealing with Euro- Asian transport corridor shipping. Finally Mr Kharyuchi suggested that the Arctic council should be asked to produce a document defining principles and approaches to human activities in the Arctic, ways of minimising the consequences of such activities for the vulnerable ecosystem in the Arctic and to further recommend the document to the interested states.

The Arctic Council’s Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment At the Ministerial meeting in November 004 the PAME was asked to conduct a comprehensive Arctic marine shipping assess- ment (AMSA), as a follow up to the findings in the ACIA report that reduced sea ice is likely to increase marine transport and access to resources.The findings of the assessment will lead to PAME recommendations for the member states and the international maritime community.

Dr Lawson W. Brigham, vice chairman of PAME gave a status report on this work.The leading countries of the review, which will be carried

out in 00 – 008 are Canada, Finland and the USA.The identified tasks are to:

Analyse the shipping situation of the Arctic today and make a review of current traditional marine use.

Make projections of maritime activity based on climate and economic scenarios,

Make risk analyses, accident scenarios and responses.

The AMSA has a strategy for traditional Arctic marine use.Town meetings will be held in Arctic communities and a panel of experts will be established. Information about traditional marine use will also be requested from the Arctic states and participants from the indigenous community will be involved in all stages of the review.

During his presentation Mr Brigham also gave a status report of the current situation and expected development of shipping in the Arctic region.A decrease in ice thickness can be observed, as well as an increase in the number of days without ice.The trends have been observable since 190, but the development has accelerated since the 1980s. On 6 September 00 a historic minimum of Arctic sea ice extent was observed.According to the ACIA report scenarios, there is a possibility of an ice-free Arctic Ocean in September 00 even though there will still be plenty of ice during the winter season. Finally Mr Brigham also discussed how the Conference of Arctic Parliamentarians could contribute to this work by securing funds and nominating experts to the working panels.

Debate There was general agreement that climate change is real and that this will have conse- quences including: higher accessibility, changed living conditions, opportunities for economic development, welfare and exploitation of natural resources. But the development also poses great threats to the environment and the people living in the region.

Some participants pointed out the need to adapt to the new circumstances and that the new opportunities presented by the development should be met with a positive mind. But there was general agreement that

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caution is necessary.A new gold rush, with short-sighted behaviour where everybody is trying to grab their part must be avoided. Research is therefore a key factor as well as the responsibility to exploit in a sustainable way. It was stressed that history teaches many lessons about the results of irresponsible exploitation of other parts of the world.These lessons must be remembered. Some participants pointed out that environmental questions are a global concern and that the issue cannot be reduced to a regional question; it must be discussed for example within the framework of the new Northern dimension in the EU.

It was stressed by a number of participants that the safety aspects of increased activities in the region are of crucial importance and that this issue must be resolved in cooperation, since no single country is capable of taking on all the responsibility.There is always a risk of large accidents, which have happened in the past, maybe once every decade. It was also recalled that shipping is international and that international cooperation is the only way to deal with the safety issues involved. The shipping crews must be prepared for the challenges of these waters with special training. The need for icebreaking assistance must also be addressed. Maps, marked routes and pilots are needed. It was asked whether there is not a need for a special IMO regime for shipping in Arctic waters, with special requirements.

Some participants underlined the need for the highest possible safety standards in the Arctic including a ban on single-hull vessels, zero tolerance for spills, and pollution and the need for close monitoring to ensure that the rules are followed.

Study visits In connection with the conference three study visits were organised to different sites in the surroundings of Kiruna.The objective of these excursions was to examine and discuss concrete examples of how the particularities of this Arctic region have been used in different enterprises.

Esrange The first visit was to Esrange, an international space centre outside Kiruna which among

The LKAB iron ore-mining in Kiruna.

The LKAB iron ore-mining in Kiruna. other things offers launch services for rockets and balloons, services

other things offers launch services for rockets and balloons, services for ground-based instrumentation and aerospace testing of new technical systems.The location of the station in this Arctic environment offers several advantages, for example that:

Payloads from sounding rockets have a landing zone of 10 x 7 km in size.

The landing area for balloon payloads is a vast area in the north of Sweden, Finland and Russia.

The location is outstanding for observations of boreal phenomena such as the northern lights, noctilucent cloud and mother-of-pearl clouds.

Polar satellites make 1 to 14 passes daily through Esrange's coverage area. The prospects of future circumpolar balloon flights were discussed during this visit since the balloons launched today are usually landed in Alaska after passage over the Atlantic. It was concluded that the obstacles to circumpolar flights are of a political nature and must be solved in cooperation between involved countries.

The Ice Hotel Tourism is playing an increasingly important role in the regional economy of Kiruna.The most famous tourist attraction has now become the ice hotel in Jukkasjärvi, a concept based on the idea that the unique elements of the Arctic - a dark and cold winter - should be regarded as an asset and not as a disadvantage.The ice hotel, each year reconstructed with ice from the Torne River, had melted at the time of the conference. But the exhibition of ice art at

the site of the hotel gave a good impression of what it is like in the winter.

The Mine of LKAB The history of Kiruna is very much interlaced with the history of the LKAB mine. In fact, the city was planned and founded by the first director of the mine 100 years ago. Today LKAB is an international high-tech minerals group, and the mine has become the world’s largest underground mine. Even though other trades have become increasingly important

for the region, the mine still provides the basis

of the local economy.The participants of the

conference were given a guided tour of the mine and the possibility to discuss LKAB’s present-day operations.

Conference Statement

A Conference Statement Drafting Committee

with elected representatives from all the present delegations met several times during

the Conference to discuss how the conclusions

of the debate could be formulated in a

Conference Statement.

This document was adopted unanimously by the present representatives of the member states on the last day of the conference and will be forwarded to the Arctic Council, governments, parliaments, the institutions of the European Union and other relevant organisations.The SCPAR will follow up the implementation of this document until the next Conference.

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CONFERENCE STATEMENT

We, the elected representatives of Canada, Denmark/Greenland, the European Parliament, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden,

Meeting in Kiruna, Sweden, on -4 August 006, to discuss shared responsibilities and opportunities related to the Arctic region,

Recalling the Conference Statements from the six previous Conferences of Parliam¨¨entarians of the Arctic Region held in the period 199 – 004

A. NOTING

1. The consequences of climate change

which are becoming more visible and greatly influencing the living conditions of human beings, especially the indigenous peoples, as well as the region’s flora and fauna;

.

That climate change makes the Arctic

more accessible to human activities such as exploitation of resources and increased shipping activities;

.

The international environmental

cooperation which has taken place concerning sustainable development, climate change and biodiversity;

4. The cultural diversity in the Arctic

represented by more than 40 distinct peoples, cultures and languages;

.

The steps being taken within the

European Parliament to host a Northern Dimension Parliamentary Conference to increase coordination between the existing regional organisations in Arctic region;

6. That the eco-system in the Arctic is

vulnerable to pollution, over-exploitation and developmental strains and is under pressure;

B. TAKING INTO ACCOUNT

7. The Declaration and Policy document from the Arctic Council meeting in Reykjavik 4 November 004;

8. That the United Nations has designated

the period from 00-014 as the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development;

9. The Joint Communiqué from the 10 th

Session of the Barents Euro-Arctic Council in November 00;

10. The Statement from the first meeting

of Ministers of Culture of the Arctic Council member states in January 006;

11. The fundamental rights of the

Arctic Indigenous Peoples expressed in International Law;

1. The planning of the International Polar Year, 007/008, and the significance and potential it holds for the development of Arctic science, and the provision of information that may be useful in policymaking;

1. The work towards developing a framework document and a policy declaration for the Northern Dimension Policy;

14. The Draft Nordic Sami Convention

submitted in November 00 by the Expert Group appointed by the Governments and the Sami Parliaments of Finland, Norway and Sweden which is now being reviewed on a national level;

1. The draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous peoples adopted by the UN Human Rights Council;

C. ASK GOVERNMENTS IN THE ARCTIC REGION AND THE INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TO

16. Use the attention and debate following

the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) to raise a strong Arctic message on climate change on the international agenda, underlining the role of the Arctic as an early warning sign for global climate change;

17. Make sure that concrete policy

proposals are made on how to follow up the ACIA Policy Document from the Arctic Council meeting in Reykjavik, November 004, and initiate a continuous follow up with reports at regular intervals ( – 10 years);

18. Ensure financial resources to generate

monitoring and research stations/platforms that can secure observations of climate change and the effect of pollution;

19. Strengthen the adaptive capacities

of the Arctic residents as mentioned in a political statement by the Arctic states at the COP 11 meeting in Montreal, and to promote research, exchange of experiences and good practices, to develop strategies needed to support Arctic residents in their efforts to sustain their health, culture, economic life and general well being;

0. Retain and intensify efforts to reduce CO emissions and other greenhouse gases and strengthen the multilateral environmental agreements relevant to the Arctic;

1. Ensure openness to data and accessibility to geographical areas and research related data;

. Carry out the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment as outlined in the Arctic Marine Strategic Plan adopted by the Arctic Council of Ministers at the 4th Arctic Council meeting in November 004;

. Make sure that the ongoing Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment within the Arctic Council fully covers the Indigenous Peoples’ past, present and projected future activities in the Arctic Seas;

4. Ensure that natural resources of the Arctic are exploited in a sustainable manner and to the benefit of the peoples living in the Arctic;

. Call on the partners to the Northern Dimension, EU, Russia, Norway and Iceland, to agree on a clear cut, visible and dynamic Arctic policy, with a strong political commitment by all partners that should include the USA and Canada as observers, and establish Arctic partnerships within the Northern Dimension on energy and the marine environment;

6. Make concerted efforts to develop environmentally friendly technology for transport and economic activity in the Arctic to protect its vulnerable nature and the way of life for the Arctic peoples;

7. Promote and invest in research, development and deployment of alternative and low impact energy sources suitable to the Arctic region;

8. In light of the impact of climate change, and the increasing economic and human activity, initiate, as a matter of urgency, an audit of existing legal regimes that impact the Arctic and to continue the discussion about strengthening or adding to them where necessary;

9. Propose to the United Nations that the scope of the Annual Treaty Event in 007, or at the earliest possible time, should be UN Treaties relevant to the Arctic;

0. Strengthen the dialogue, analyzes and take concrete measures regarding gender aspects in Arctic societies, especially men’s changing role in society and female out- migration from rural areas;

1. Make sure the potential of the International Polar Year 007/008 is maximised through sufficient governmental financial support and use the findings of the Arctic Human Development Report as a tool to give the International Polar Year 007/008 a strong human dimension;

. Use the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development to implement specific programs for Arctic education;

. Take initiatives to ensure a coordinated and joint effort to analyse and make use of the results of the International Polar Year in policymaking;

4. Conduct under the auspices of the UN, by the end of IPY in 008, an international conference “The Arctic – a region of global cooperation”;

. Promote the Arctic region and Arctic science, with a special focus on the young generation, to create a renewed curiosity and interest in Arctic science, and use the University of the Arctic as an important player in this process, and to hold in 007 with the assistance of UNESCO an international conference on the role of the Universities situated in the Arctic with regard to the sustainable development of the Arctic Region;

6. Ensure the participation of the Arctic indigenous peoples and the use of their knowledge in the Arctic science;

7. Provide increased funding to the University of the Arctic to ensure its continuous success;

8. Implement the funding of the approved Project Support Instrument;

9. Carry out an assessment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as proposed by the Arctic ICT network;

40. Strengthen their cooperation regarding

marine security, especially search and rescue matters;

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D. ASK THE STANDING COMMITTEE OF PARLIAMENTARIANS OF THE ARCTIC REGION TO

41. Continue the work, also at a

national level, of promoting a strong social dimension in Arctic cooperation, as indicated in the Arctic Human Development Report, with a special focus on children and youth;

4. Actively follow the work of the planning and implementation of the International Polar Year 007/008;

4. Actively promote the Arctic region with regard to the new Northern Dimension policy;

44. Continue to promote the use of

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in concrete projects as a tool for delivering services to Arctic citizens, such as telemedicine and education in local communities;

4. Ensure that there is adequate and continuous follow-up, in parliaments of Arctic countries as well as in international organisations and negotiations, of conclusions and recommendations that have implications for the Arctic regions and peoples;

46. Consider to review the Rules of

Procedure for the Standing Committee before the next conference in 008 in order to improve the working methods;

47. Work in their home parliaments

to prepare a common concept for the development and control of environmental programs, programs of natural resources development, transport and energy networks which affect (or does not affect) to climate change and of preservation of Arctic nature for next generations of the Arctic peoples;

E. THE CONFERENCE

48. Acknowledges the interest and

presence of parliamentary observers and representatives from governments and non- government agencies at this Conference, and recognises their important role in relaying the messages and supporting the actions herein discussed;

49. Welcomes the forthcoming Norwegian

Chairmanship of the Arctic Council and looks forward to continued cooperation with the Arctic Council in 006-008;

0. Welcomes and accepts the kind invitation of the USA to host the Eighth Conference in 008.

PROGRAMME Tuesday 1 august 2006

Wednesday 2 august 2006

17.00–19.00

Registration

08.0

Excursion to Esrange,The Swedish Space Corporation

18.00–19.00

Meeting with the SCPAR

(Standing Committee of Parliamentarians of the Arctic

1.00–14.4

Buffet lunch at Hotel Ferrum

Region)

14.00–1.00

Registration

19.0

A light meal Host:The Swedish Parliament

1.00–17.0

Opening of the Conference Chair: Ms Hill-Marta Solberg, Norway Vice-chair: Mr Runar Patriksson, Sweden

 

– Welcome by Dr Björn von Sydow, Speaker of the Riksdagen – Welcome by Ms Sylvia Simma, Chairman of the Swedish Saami Parliament – Welcome by Mr Runar Patriksson, MP, Swedish member of the SCPAR

Arctic cooperation Progress report from the Arctic Council Ambassador Alexander Ignatiev on behalf of the Russian Chairmanship of the Arctic Council

Mr Jan Eliasson, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sweden (TBC)

Progress report from the Standing Committee Ms Hill-Marta Solberg, MP, Chair, Norway

Special report on ICT (Information and communication technology) in the Arctic/ICT assessment Mr Bernard Funston, Executive Secretary, Sustainable Development Working Group

Debate

 

17.30

Conference Statement Drafting Committee

0.00

Reception at the City Hall of Kiruna Host:The Municipality of Kiruna

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Thursday 3 august 2006

09.00–1.0

The International Polar Year

2007-2008

Chair: Mr Artur Chilingarov, Russia Vice-chair: Ms Sinikka Bohlin, Sweden

International Enthusiasm, Energy and Effort for the International Polar Year Dr David Carlson, Director IPY International Programme Office

IPY activities at the Abisko Scientific Research Station Prof.Terry Callaghan, Abisko Scientific Research Station

Question & Answer session

Debate

1.0–1.4

Lunch

14.00– 17.0

Innovation in the Arctic Governance: The possibilities and limitations of a binding legal regime for the Arctic Chair: Mr Simo Rundgren, Finland Vice-chair: Mr Sigurð ur Kári Kristjánson

Is it time for an Arctic Charter? Perspectives on governance in the Arctic Region Ms Diana Wallis, MEP, member of the SCPAR

Reflections on the possibilities and limitations of a binding legal regime for the Arctic Ambassador Hans Corell, Under- Secretary-General for Legal Affairs and the Legal Counsel of the United Nations 1994–004

Question & Answer session

Debate

17.0

Conference Statement Drafting Committee

18.00

Outdoor event and dinner Host:The Swedish Parliament

Friday 4 august 2006

08.00–09.00

Conference Statement Drafting Committee

09.00–1.0

The Opening of the Arctic Sea Route:

economic/commercial opportunities and environmental/cultural challenges Chair: Mr Bob Mills, Canada Vice-chair: Mr Kupik Kleist, Denmark

– Introduction Mr Sergey Kharyuchi, Chairman of Yamal-Nenets State Duma, Russia

The Arctic Council’s Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment: Responding to Changing Marine Access Dr. Lawson W. Brigham, Vice Chair, PAME (Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment) and Deputy Director, U.S.Arctic Research Commission

Question and answer session

Debate

0.0

Adoption of Conference Statement Chair: Ms Hill-Marta Solberg, Norway Vice-chair: Mr Runar Patriksson, Sweden

Closing Remarks

1.00

Lunch

1.00–14.00

Meeting of the SCPAR (Standing Committee of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region)

14.00–16.00

Excursion to LKAB – an international high-tech minerals group

Afternoon

Departure

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List of Participants

Speakers Brigham, Dr. Lawson W., Deputy Director, U.S. Arctic Research Commission Callaghan,Terry, Prof.,Abisko Scientific Research Station, Sweden Carlson, David, Director IPY International Programme Office Corell, Hans, Ambassador Dahlgren, Hans, State Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Sweden Funston, Bernard, Executive Secretary,Arctic Council, SDWG Ignatiev,Alexander, Ambassador,Arctic Council SAO, Russian Chairmanship of the Arctic Council Kharyuchi, Sergei, President, State Duma of the Yamal-Nentes autonomous district, Russia Patriksson, Runar, MP, Member of SCPAR, Sweden Simma, Sylvia, Speaker of the Swedish Sameting Solberg, Hill-Marta, MP, Member of SCPAR, Norway von Sydow, Björn, Speaker of the Swedish Parliament Wallis, Diana, MEP, Member of SCPAR, European Parliament

Parliamentary Delegations Canada Bagnell, Larry, MP Lèvesque,Yvon, MP Mills, Bob, MP, Member of SCPAR Trost, Brad, MP

Denmark/Greenland Kleist, Kuupik, MP, Member of SCPAR Niebuhr,Allan, MP Nonbo, Karsten, MP Sindal, Niels, MP

Finland Jaakonsaari, Liisa, MP Rundgren, Simo, MP, Substitute to SCPAR Tynkkynen, Oras, MP

Iceland Kristjánsson, Jón, MP Kristjànsson, Sigurdur Kàri, MP, Member of SCPAR Sigurðsson, Björgvin, MP

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Norway Aspaker, Elisabeth, MP Fredriksen, Jan Henrik, MP Gullvåg, Steinar, MP Nielsen, Eva Margrethe, MP Reikvam, Rolf, MP Solberg, Hill Marta, Chair of SCPAR

Russia Chilingarov,Artur, MP Ishchenko,Alexander, MP Kulikov,Anatoly, MP Nikolaev, Mikhail, MP, Member of SCPAR Sitnov,Victor, MP Usoltsev,Vasily, MP, Member of SCPAR

Sweden Ahlqvist, Birgitta, MP Bohlin, Sinikka, MP, Substitute to the SCPAR Furustrand, Reynoldh, MP Hammarbergh, Krister, MP Patriksson, Runar, MP, Member of SCPAR Winbäck, Christer, MP Öberg, Maria, MP

United States

European Parliament Bonde, Jens-Peter, MEP Hedkvist Petersen, Ewa, MEP Wallis, Diana, MEP, Member of SCPAR

Permanent Participants Baer, Lars-Anders, Chairman of the Swedish Sami Parliament board Fjellheim, Rune Sverre, Executive Secretary,Arctic Council Indigenous People’s Secretariat Sulyandziga, Pavel, 1st Vice President, Russian Association of Indigenous People’s Secretariat of the North (RAIPON), Russia

Observers Gudmunsdottir, Rannveig, MP, Nordic Council Rusetsky, Gleb, Attaché,Arctic Council SAO, Russian Chairmanship of the Arctic Council Stavad, Ole, President of the Nordic Council Thorarinsson,Thordur, Secretary General of the West-Nordic Council

Invited guests Anawack, Jack, Ambassador, Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada Andreassen, Björn, Adviser, Nordic Secretariat, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway Brørby, Berit, MP,Vice-chair of the Norwegian delegation to the Nordic Council, Norway Burhenne,Wolfgang E., Dr., IUCN,The World Consevation Union Carlson, Mary Corell, Inger Dando, Lori Peterson, Director US Embassy Nordic- Baltic Environment Office in Denmark De Gou, Floris, Counsellor Political Section Assembly of WEU Eriksson, Per-Ola, Governor, County Administrative Board of Norrbotten, Sweden Fredriksson,Ann-Catrin, Director,The Municipality of Kiruna Funston, John, Canada Hannu, Ulrika, Press Secretary,The Municipality of Kiruna Hansen, Camilla, IPY coordinator, Swedish Research Council Häggroth, Sören, Director, Folkets Hus Högmark,Anders G., MP, Council of Europe Jaakonsaari, Seppo, Finland Jankauskaite, Renata, Secretary of the delegation, Baltic Sea Parliamentary Conference (BSPC) Johnsen, Kathrine Ivsett, Deputy Programme Manager, UNEP, Norway Jonasson, Christer, Deputy Director,Associate Professor,Abisko Scientific Research Station, Sweden Liakka, Juha Keskitalo,Aili, President, Sami Parliament, Norway Klippmark,Thore, Chairman of the Town Council of the Municipality of Kiruna, Sweden Kristjánsson, Kristján, President IASC Kullerud, Lars, Director, University of the Arctic, Norway Mathiesen, Svein D, Consuellor, AWRH, Association of World Reindeer Herders, Finland Mazharov,Alexander, Director of department For International and Interregional relations, theYamal Nenets autonomous district, Russia Mazuronis,Valentinas, MP, Baltic Sea Parliamentary Conference, BSPC Nielsen, Finn D., Norway Nikulainen, Jukka, Second Secretary, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland

Norberg, Olle, Head of the Swedish Space Corporation Esrange Nystö, Sven-Roald, Sami Parliament, Norway Olli, Egil, Sami Parliament, Norway Olsen, Erling, Dr. polit., University of the Arctic, Denmark Phillips, Kimberly, Counsellor, Canadian Embassy in Sweden Reiersen, Lars-Otto, Executive Secretary,AMAP Romanus, Gabriel, MP, Chair of the Swedish Delegation to the Nordic Council Rosqvist, Gunhild Ninis, Docent, PhD, Stockolm University, Sweden Rydén, Rune, Fil. lic former MP, University of the Arctic, Sweden Rystedt, Magnus, Managing Director, NEFCO - Nordic Enviroment Finance Corporation Sazhinov, Pavel, Chairman of the Murmansk Regional Duma, Parliamentary Association of the North-West Russia (PANWR), Russia Shmatkova, Marina, Advisor, State of Duma North-West Russia Sixto,Alfred, Secretary, Parliamentary Assembly Council Of Europe Skakunova, Evgeniya, Expert, International Department ofYamal-Nenets autonomous district, Russia Smith, Samantha, Director,WWF Arctic Programme, Norway Snellman, Outi, Director of Administration, University of the Arctic, Finland Tihonova, Dina, Acting Head of the Baltic Assembly Secretariatm Baltic Sea Parliamentary Conference, BSPC Turi, Johan Mathis, General secretary,AWRH, Association of World Reindeer Herders, Finland Yevai,Alexander, Deputy chair of Social Policy Committee, State Duma ofYamal-Nentes autonomous district, Russia Åström, Karin, MP Ödmark, Helena, Ambassador, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Sweden

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Conference secretariat Alvarson, Dan, International assistant,The Swedish Parliament Forsell, Göran, Head of Security,The Swedish Parliament Green, Christina, Press Secretary,The Swedish Parliament Håkansson. Björn, The Swedish Parliament Hedenström, Jonas, International assistant,The Swedish Parliament Hjelm, Eva, International Secretary,The Swedish Parliament Kristjánsson, Kristján, President IASC Myhre-Jensen, Kjell, Head of Department, Stortinget, Norway Olsson, Camilla, The Swedish Parliament Palm, Martin, Rapporteur,The Swedish Parliament Rana,Anna-Maria, International assistant,The Swedish Parliament Robstad, Bjørn Willy, Secretary General to the SCPAR Smekal, Eva, Head of Section,The Swedish Parliament Zorn, Eva, International Secretary,The Swedish Parliament

Secretariats Andreev, Egor, Executive Secretary, Council of Federation, Russia Arnold, Steward, Policy & Communication Adviser, European Parliament Brynjolfsson,Tomas, Secretary of delegation, Althingi - Parliament of Iceland Chikin,Alexander, Interpreter, Council of Federation, Russia Hagemann, Henrik, Secretary General, Nordic Council, Denmark Hansen, Lavst Riemann, Deputy Secretary General, Folketinget, Denmark Kozurev,Alexey, Interpreter, Council of Federation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Russia Kuzmina, Irina, Adviser, State Duma, Russia Lindström, Guy, Deputy Director International Department, Parliament of Finland Méla, Philippe, Association Secretary, Parliament of Canada Olsen, Henrik, Head of Secretariat, European Parliament Santalov,Alexander, Interpreter, State Duma, Russia Widberg, Jan, Senior Adviser, Nordic Council Williams,Tom, Analyst, Parliament of Canada

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Interpreters Bryn,Anne E., Granlöf, Mikael, Larsen, Stein, Mørk, Hanne, Repin,Aleksei, Turganova Lööw,Alexandra,

Press Dergacheva, Irina, Reporter, ITAR-TASS, Russia Heikkilä, Markku, Reporter, Kaleva, Finland Herrmann, Gunnar, Sueddeutsche Zeitung C/o World Television Niska, Sini-Marja, Photographer, Pohjolan Sanomat Nuutinen,Tania, Photographer, Pohjolan Sanomat

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