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On-Off Temperature Control

2010

1. Introduction

1.1 Brief introduction to Instrumentation


The technology of using instruments to measure and control the physical and
chemical properties of materials is called instrumentation. Therefore instrumentation is an
aggregation or assembly of devices united by some form of regular interaction
interdependence .When the instruments are used for measurement and control of industrial
manufacturing, conversion or treating process, the term process instrumentation is applied.
When the measuring and controlling instruments are confined so that measurement provides
impulses for remote automatic action, the result is called control system.

Data acquisition systems via analog signals are used in communication electronic and
medical applications. Conversion to digitalized system is widely used today because complex
circuits are low cost accurate simple to implement. In addition there is rapid growth of
microprocessor and microcomputers to perform difficult measurements and control functions.
The demand for more and faster information from physical systems and devices used for
space and nuclear research and development and for industrial automation have produced
many new and effective instrumentation for data acquisition and reduction.

Data acquisition systems are used to measure and record analog signals in basically
two different ways:

1) Signals which originate from direct measurement of electrical quantities.


These signals may be DC and AC voltages, frequency or resistance etc.

2) Signals which originate from the transducers.

Types of instrumentations:
The instrumentation systems can be classified into two distinct categories:

1. Analog systems: These system deals with information in analog form. An analog
signal may be defined as continuous function such as a plot of voltage versus time or
displacement verses force.

2. Digital Systems: A digital quantity may consist of a number of discrete or


discontinuous pulses whose time relationship contains information about the
magnitude and the nature of the quantity under measurement.

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1.2 Control system


The control system is that means by which any quantity of interest in a machine,
mechanism or other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired manner.
Consider for example, the driving system of an automobile, speed of the automobile is a
function of the position of its accelerator. The desired speed can be maintained (or a desired
change in speed can be achieved) by controlling pressure on the accelerator pedal. This
automobile driving system (accelerator, carburetor and engine-vehicle) constitute a control
system. For the automobile driving system the input (command) signal is the force on the
accelerator pedal which through linkages causes the carburetor valve to open (close) so as to
increase or decrease fuel (liquid form) flow to the engine bringing the engine-vehicle speed
(controlled variable) to the desired value.

Fig. 1: The Basic control system


The diagrammatic representation of Fig. 1 is known as block diagram representation
wherein each block represents an element, a plant, mechanism, device etc., whose inner
details are not indicated. Each block has an input and output signal which are linked by a
relationship characterizing the block. It may be noted that the signal flow through the block is
unidirectional.

Classification of Control System

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1.2.1 Closed-loop control

Let us reconsider the automobile driving system. The route, speed and acceleration of
the automobile are determined and controlled by the driven by observing traffic and road
conditions and by properly manipulating accelerator, clutch, gear-lever, brakes and steering
wheel etc. suppose the driver wants to maintain a speed of 50 Km. per hour (desired output).
He accelerates the automobile to this speed with the help of the accelerator and then
maintains it by holding the accelerator steady. No error in the speed of the automobile occurs
so long as there are no gradients or other disturbances along the road. The actual speed of the
automobile is measured by the speed meter and indicated on its dial. The driver reads the
speed dial visually and compares the actual speed with the desired one mentally. If there is a
deviation of speed from the desired speed, accordingly he takes the decision to increase or
decrease the speed. The decision is executed by change in pressure of his foot (through
muscular power) on the accelerator pedal.

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of a manually Controlled Closed-loop System


These operations can be represented in a diagram form as shown in Fig.2. In contrast
to the sequence of events in Fig.1, the events in the control sequence of Fig.2 follow a closed-
loop, i.e., the information about the instantaneous state of the output is feedback to the input
and is used to modify it in such a manner as to achieve the desired output. It is on account of
this basic difference that the system of Fig.1 Is called an open-loop system, while the system
of Fig. 2 is called closed-loop system.
System of the represented in Fig.(2) and (3) involve continuous manual control by a
human operator. These are classified as manually controlled systems. In many complex and
fast acting systems, the presence of human element in the control loop is undesirable because

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the system response may be too rapid for an operator to follow or the demand on operator’s
skill may be unreasonably high. Furthermore, some of the systems, e.g. missiles are self
destructive and in such systems human element must be excluded. Even in situations where
manual control could be possible, an economic case can often be made out reduction of
human supervision. Thus in most situations the use of some equipment which performs the
same intended functions as a continuously employed human operator is preferred. A system
incorporating such equipment is known as automatic control system. In fact in most situations
an automatic control system could be made to perform intended functions better than a
human operator, and could further be made to perform such functions as would be impossible
for a human operator.
The general block diagram of an automatic control system which is characterized by a
feedback loop is shown in Fig.3. An error detector compares a signal obtained through
feedback elements, which is a function of the output response, with the reference input. Any
difference between these two signals constitutes an error or actuating signal, which actuates
the control elements. The control elements in turn alter the conditions in the plant (controlled
number) in such a manner as to reduce the original error.

Fig.3 General block diagram of an automatic control system.

Examples of closed loop control system

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Following are some examples of closed loop control system in which controlled
output is continuously measured and a proportional signal is feed back for comparison with
the input signal and the error, if any, is used for bringing about correction in the actual output.
i) Home heating system with feed back control:

Fig.4 Home heating system

In a feedback home heating system as shown in fig.4 there is a thermostat which


adjusts the burner in accordance to the room temperature. The oil input to the a furnace
depends on a comparison of the actual room temperature with the desired temperature. This
comparison produces an error signal. The controller opens the oil value if the error signal
indicates that the room temperature is lower than the desired valve in this example, different
components of the closed loop system are as follows:
(a) Process: Heating of home at a desired value of temperature.

(b) Measuring devices: thermostat, furnace with oil

(c) Error detector: oil input to the furnace

(d) Controller: oil valve

(e) Control elements(actuator) thermostat

ii) Gasoline engine :

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For feedback a tachometer is attached observing the speed as shown in fig.5.The actual
speed is compared with the desired speed. Any change in speed is detected by the tachometer
and the signal is feedback for comparison with the reference input for throttle operation. Thus
the throttle is automatically adjusted to maintain the desired speed. The tachometer reading is
sent to an error detector which compares the actual speed to the desired speed and a controller
adjusts the throttle to maintain the desired speed.

Fig.5

iii) Cruise control of automobiles :

This is a familiar form of closed loop system. The throttle is automatically adjusted to
maintain the desired speed. A speed sensor on the speed meter cable generates a signal
proportional to the actual speed; an electronic error detector compares the actual speed to
the desired speed, and a controller sends a demand signal to the actuator (usually a
pneumatic device) which adjusts fuel flow to the engine.

iv) Machine tool positioning :

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In particular machine tools, position commands may be coded on a magnetic tap.


Feedback is used to check to see if the machine actually reaches each position
commanded. If not, corrections are made automatically. This principle of comparing
commanded positions with actual positions is the vital point that forms the basis of
automatic control.

Components of closed-loop control system


I. Process: Process represents what we are going to control by the feedback
loop, such as an automatic room heating system. In a more descriptive way a
process is a voluntary progressively continuing operation, that consists of a
series of controlled actions or movements systematically directed towards a
particular result or end.

II. Measuring devices (sensors): In a closed loop systems these devices are used
to measure the controlled variable and send a signal to the error detector.
Basically, these devices are used for sensing pressure, temperature flow and
speed or whatever variable is to be controlled.

III. Error detector: The error detector receives the measured signal and compares
it with the required signal value or set point. The difference between these two
provides the error signal.

IV. Controller: It is responsible for what is to be done with the error signal and
accordingly sending out signals to an actuator.

V. Control elements (Actuator): An actuator or control elements finally


accomplishes the job according to the signal obtained from the controller. In
this way a complete loop with feedback is produced.

Advantages and disadvantages of closed loop control system:


The major advantages of closed loop control systems are as follows:
1. Closed-loop systems can perform a job faster than human beings. Moreover, they
can be used in hazards or remote areas, such as chemical plants, fertilizer plants,
areas with high nuclear radiations, and places at very high or very low
temperatures.

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2. Decision making and initiative action is very fast, may be in milliseconds, as


compared to a human operator requiring several seconds to take a control
decision. Some of the chemical process cannot be controlled manually because
temperature or pressures changes rapidly.

3. They are more reliable than a human operator.

4. A number of variables can be handled simultaneously by closed loop control


system, whereas a human being is not capable of handling several operations
simultaneously.

5. Closed-loop control system can be adjusted to optimum control performance.


Their behavior is not a changed variable whereas, different operators in a control
room are prone to changed behavior and quite obviously often may get tired of
making system corrections.

Disadvantages of closed-loop control system:

1. Closed-loop control systems are more expansive than simple man operated
system.

2. Installation and adjustment is intricate.

3. Maintenance is difficult as it involves complicated electronics. Moreover it


can be done only by persons who have training in this related fields.

4. If there is any fault in the instrument itself which leads to a faulty error signal
then no type of control is possible. It may occur due to open circuit or short
circuit in the inner circuitry. In such a case fault location becomes difficult and
time consuming.

1.2.2 Open-loop control system

As stated already, any physical system which does not automatically correct for
variation in its output, is called an open-loop system. Such a system may be represented by

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the block diagram of fig.6. In this system the output remains constant for a constant input
signal provided the external conditions remain constant. The output may be changed to any
desired value by appropriately changing the input signal but variations in external conditions
on internal parameters of the system may cause the output to vary from the desired value in
an uncontrolled fashion. The open loop control is therefore, satisfactory only if such
fluctuations can be tolerated or system components are designed and constructed so as to
limit parameter variations and environmental conditions are well controlled.

Fig. 6 General block diagram of open-loop system

It is important to note that the fundamental difference between an open and closed-
loop control system is that of feedback action. Consider, for example, a traffic control system
for regulating the flow of traffic at the crossing of two roads. The system will be termed
open loop if red and green lights are put on by a timer mechanism set for predetermined fixed
intervals of time. It is obvious that such an arrangement takes no account of varying rates of
traffic flowing to the road crossing from the two directions. If on the other hand a scheme is
introduced in which the rates of traffic flow along both directions are measured( some
distance ahead of the crossing) and are compared and the difference is used to control the
timings of red and green lights, a closed loop system (feedback control) results. Thus the
concept of feedback can be usefully employed to traffic control.

Examples of open-loop control system:


Following are the examples of the open loop control systems
1. Automatic washing machine: In this machine the operating time is set by the
operator based upon his experience of the time required for washing different types of
cloths. After a particular set time, the machine stops automatically with the result that
we may not get the desired amount of cleanliness of washed clothes as the machine
cannot measure the output, i.e. the cleanliness of the clothes, and

Re-adjust the machine operating time automatically. As no part of the machine is able
to provide feedback to the machine operating time, there is no guarantee that the
output obtained will be the desired output. Further any part of the clothes, like collars

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and the cuffs, still may remain dirty and the system is not able to detect such
inaccuracies of the output for extra washing.

2. Automatic traffic light system: For automatic control of traffic, lamps of three
different colours - red, yellow and green are installed at road crossings. The time and
sequence of operation of these signal lamps are fixed when they are installed.

Advantages and disadvantages of open-loop control system:

Advantages of open-loop control system:

1. Open-loop control systems represent the simplest and most economical type of
control systems.

2. Open-loop control systems are not expansive.

3. Maintenance of the equipments is not difficult because complicated electronic


circuitry is not involved.

4. Proper calibration is not a problem as the operation of the system is fully


controlled by a human operator.

Disadvantages of open-loop control system:

1. They are usually inaccurate and unreliable.

2. The control adjustment of open loop control systems depends on human judgment
and estimate which is likely to give inaccurate result due to variations in
atmospheric and such other conditions.

3. These systems do not adapt to variations in environmental conditions or external


disturbances.

4. Open loop control systems are slow because they are manually controlled. A
human being is not sufficient enough to control several parameters simultaneously
and taking decisions and initiative action in a short interval of time.

5. Only a few variables can be introduced in these systems.

6. Optimization in control is not possible in these types of operation.

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1.2.3 Closed-loop versus open-loop control systems


An advantage of the closed loop control system is the fact that the use of feedback
makes the system response relatively insensitive to external disturbances and internal
variations in system parameters. It is thus possible to use relatively in accurate and
inexpensive components to obtain the accurate control of a given plant, whereas doing so is
impossible in the open loop case.
From the point of view of stability, the open loop control system is easier to build
because system stability is not a major problem. On the other hand, stability is a major
problem in the closed loop control system, which may end to overcorrect errors and thereby
can cause oscillations of constant or changing amplitude.
It should be emphasized that for system in which the inputs are known ahead of time
and in which there are no disturbances it is advisable to use open loop control. Closed loop
control systems have advantages only when unpredictable disturbances and/or unpredictable
variations in system components are present. Moreover the output power rating partially
determines the cost, weight, and size of a control system. The number of components used in
a closed loop control system is more than that for a corresponding open loop control system.
Thus the closed loop control system is generally higher in cost and power. To decrease the
required power of a system, open loop control may be used where applicable. A proper
combination of open loop and closed loop control is usually less expansive and will give
satisfactory overall system performance.

1.2.4 Servo mechanism


Basic elements of a servo mechanism:
A servo mechanism or servo mainly represents a particular group of feedback control
systems choose controlled output are mechanically positions. A typical servo system is
represented by a block diagram as shown in fig. 7

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Fig. 7 Block diagram showing the basic components of a servo system


The feedback path consists of transducers and compensating networks. The error
detector compares the reference input with the actual output for some function of the output
signal and sends out an error signal proportional to the difference to improve the performance
of the system.

1.3 Basic control action


1.3.1 Automatic controller:
An automatic controller compares the actual value of the plant output with the
reference input (Desired value) determine the deviation and produces a control signal that
will reduce the deviation to zero on to a small value. The manner in which the automatic
controller produces the control signal is called the control action. Fig(a) is a block diagram of

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an industrial control system, which consists of an automatic controller, an actuator, a plant


and a sensor (measuring element). The controller detects the actuating error signal, which is
usually at a very low power level, and amplifies it to a sufficiently high level. The o/p of an
automatic controller is fed to an actuator, such as an electric motor, a hydraulic motor, or a
pneumatic motor or valve. (The actuator is a power device that produces the input to the plant
according to the control signal so that the output signal will approach the reference input
signal.)
The sensor or measuring element in a device that converts the output variable into
another suitable variable, that can be used to compare the output to the reference input signal.
This element is in the feedback path of the closed-loop system. The set point of the controller
must be converted to a reference input with the some units as the feed back signal from the
sensor or measuring element.

Fig.9(a) Block diagram of an industrial control system

Classification of industrial controller:


Industrial Controller may be classified according to their control actions as,
1. Two position or on-off controllers
2. Proportional controllers
3. Integral controllers
4. Proportional plus integral controllers
5. Proportional plus derivative controllers
6. Proportional plus integral plus derivative controllers
Most industrial controllers use electricity or pressurized fluid such as oil or air as
power sources. Consequently, controllers may also be classified according to the kind of
power employed in the operation, such as pneumatic controllers, hydraulic controllers, or
electronic controllers. What kind of controllers to use must be decided based on the nature of
the plant and the operating conditions, including such considerations as safety, cost,
availability, reliability, accuracy, weight and size.

1.3.2 Two position or on-off control action:

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In a two position control system, the actuating element has only two fixed positions,
which are in many cases, simply on and off, in very widely used in both industrial and
domestic control system.
Let, the output signal from the controller be u(t) and the actuating error signal be e(t).
In two position control, the signal u(t) remain at either a maximum and minimum value,
depending on whether the actuating error signal is positive or negative, so that

u(t) = U1 for e (t) > 0


= U2 for e (t) < 0

Where U1 and U2 are constant. The minimum value U2 is usually either zero or – U1.
The two position controllers are generally electrical devices and on electric solenoid operated
valve is widely used in such controllers. Pneumatic proportional controllers with very high
act two position controllers and are sometimes called pneumatic two position controllers.

Fig.10(a) and (b) shows the block diagrams for two position or on-off controllers. The
range through which the actuating error signal must move before the switching occurs is
called the differential gap. A differential gap is indicated in fig(b). Such a differential gap
causes the controller output U(t) to maintain its present value until the actuating error signal
has moved slightly beyond the zero value. In some cases the differential gap is a result of
unintentional friction and lost motion, however, quite often it is intentionally provided in
order its prevent too frequent operation of the on-off mechanism.

Consider the liquid level control system shown in the fig.11. This valve is either open
or closed. With this two position control, the water inflow rate is either a position constant or
zero. As shown in fig.12 the output signal continuously moves between the two limits
required to cause the actuating element to move from one fixed position to the other. Notice
that the output curve follows one of two exponential curves, one corresponding to the filling
curve and the other to the emptying curve. Such output oscillation between two limits is a
typical response characteristic of a system under two position control.

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Fig.11 Liquid system level control

Fig.12 level h(t) versus t curve for the system

1.3.3 Proportional control action


For a controller with proportional control action, the relationship between the output
of the controller u(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is

U(t) = KP e(t)

Or, in Laplace transformed quantities

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Where, Kp is termed the proportional gain whatever the actual mechanism may be
and whatever the form of the operating power, the proportional controller is essentially an
amplifier with an adjustable gain.

1.3.4 Integral Control Action:


In a controller with integral control action, the value of the controller o/p u(t) is
changed at a rate proportional to the actuating error signal e(t). that is,

Where Ki is an adjustable constant. The transfer function of the integral controller is –

1.3.5 Proportional-plus-integral control action.


The control action of a proportional-plus-integral controller is defined by

Or the transfer function of the controller is

Where Ti called the integral time.

1.3.6 Proportional-plus-derivative control action.


The control action of a proportional plan derivative controller is defined by –

And the transfer function is

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Where Td is called the derivative time.

1.3.7 Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative control action.


The combination of proportional control action integral control action and derivative
control action is termed proportional-plus-integral plus derivative control action. This
combined action has the advantages of each of the three individual control action. The
equation of a controller with this combined action is given by –

Or the transfer function is –

Where Kp is the proportional gain, Ti is the integral time, and Td is the derivative time. The
block of a proportional plan integral plan derivative controller is shown in fig.12.

Fig.12 Block diagram of a Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative control action

2. Project overview
2.1 Aim of the project
We are familiar with the sensation which is called warmth. Our sense enables us to
distinguish between different degrees of warmth, to some extent and we express this by
saying a body is either hot or cold. The measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a

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body is known as its temperature. In our day to day life and also in the industry the
temperature of certain body, room or space may keep constant. For this purpose we must
apply the temperature control system. The aim of our project “on-off temperature control” is
to keep the temperature at a desired value by using the on-off control action.

2.2 Working principle of the system


On-off temperature control action takes if any deviation occurs from a set point. The
action responds quickly but it is sensitive to input noise which causes chattering (on-off
switching at short intervals).
To accurate control process temperature without extensive operator involvement, a
temperature control system release upon a controller, which accepts a temperature sensor
diode or input. It compares the actual temperature to the desired control output, or set point,
and on output to a control element. The controller is one part of entire control system, and the
whole system should be analyzed in selecting the proper controller.

2.3 Necessity and it’s application

Many electrical and electronic devices produce heat when they are in the working
state. If we do not cool the device then the device will damage.
By using on-off temperature control system we can do heatsink cooling, computer
emergency cooling, metal cooling when drilling etc.

3. Circuit description
3.1 Circuit diagram

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3.2 Circuit analysis

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The on-off temperature control circuit is supplied with 12v, DC. It constitutes of three
branches B1,B2 and B3. In the first branch B1, reverse biased zener diode is connected parallel
with a potentiometer and the both are in series with resister R1. The potentiometer is
connected with the non inverting terminal of the OP-Amp. In the second branches B2, a
forward biased sensor diode, D2 is used with a resistor R3, in series. The anode of the sensing
diode is connected with the inverting input of OP-Amp. The pin no.8 of the OP-Amp is the
supply voltage and the pin no.4 is grounded. The output of the OP-Amp (pin no.1) is
connected with the base of the transistor T1. Through resistor R4. The collector of the
transistor is connected 12V, DC supply. The emitter of the transistor is connected with the
form S1 (12V,200mA max). A LED connected in series with resistor R 5 is connected across
the fan. The LED will indicate that the fan (motor) is passing current through its armature
and it is in the condition of movement.

3.3 Simplified circuit arrangement

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3.5 Working principle of the circuit

These circuit moves a motor (fan) based on a temperature compared with a set
point. The set point is taken with reference voltage which is found by the combination of a
zener diode and a potentiometer. The zener diode supplies constant voltage across the
potentiometer & with the help of potential meter desired value of reference voltage can be
supplied to the non- inverting input of the OP Amp (as a comparator). The inverting terminal
of the OP-Amp is connected with the sensor diode which can sense temperature and
transducer to respective voltage. So when the temperature rises above the set point the
forward voltage drops under the reference voltage and the comparator output is Vcc turning on
the transistor and so the fan starts rotating and will try to decrease the temperature to a value
which is approximately equal to the set point.

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3.5 List of the components used in the circuit

Component Specification Number


Adapter 0 to 12 V 1

Temperature Sensor Diode 1N4007GP 1

Zener Diode 2.6 V 1

Operational Amplifier as LM358 1


comparator

Transistor 2N3904 1

LED 1

Resistors R1 (10 kilo ohm_5%)


1
R3 (1.0 kilo ohm_5%) 1

R4 (820 ohm_5%) 1

R5 (2.2 kilo ohm_5%) 1

Variable resistor R2 (50 kilo ohm_50%) 1

Motor, usually a fan 12V, 200mA max 1

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3.6 Description of the components


1. AC Adapter

An AC Adapter disassembled to reveal a simple unregulated DC supply circuit.

A linear or switched-mode power supply (or in some cases just a transformer ) that is
built into the top of a plug is known as a “plug pack”, “plug-in adapter”, “adapter block”,“
domestic mains adapter or just “power adapter” . Slang terms include “wall wart” and “power
brick”. They are even more divers than their names; often with either the same kind of DC
plug offering different voltage or polarity, or a different plug offering the same voltage.
“Universal” adapters attempt to replace missing or damaged ones, using multiple plugs and
selectors for different voltages and polarities. Replacement power supplies must match the
voltage of, and supply at least as much current as, the original power supply.

The least expensive AC units consist solely of a small transformer, while DC adapters
include a few additional diodes. Whether or not a load is connected to the power adapter, the
transformer has magnetic field continuously present and normally cannot be completely
turned off unless unplugged.

Because they consume standby power, they are sometimes known as “electricity
vampires” and may be plugged into a power strip to allow turning them off. Expensive
switched- mode power supplies can cut off leaky electrolyte-capacitors, use powerless
MOSFETs, and reduce their working frequency to get a gulp of energy once in a while to
power, for example, a clock , which would otherwise need a battery.

Overload protection

Power supplies should have some type of overload protection. Overload protection is
important to protect the electronic equipment hooked up to the power supply and to also
prevent overheating, which could potentially lead to an electrical fire. Fuses and circuit
breakers are two of the more frequent mechanisms used for overload protection.

A fuse is a piece of wire, often in a casing that improves its electrical characteristic. If
too much current flows, the wire overheats and melts. This interrupts the power supply, and
the equipment stops working until the problem that caused the overload is identified and the
fuse is replaced.

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Fuses
There are various types of fuses used in power supplies.
• Fast blow fuses cut the power as quick as they can
• Slow blow fuses tolerate more short term overload
• Wire link fuses are just an open piece of wire, and have poorer overload
characteristics than glass and ceramic fuses.
Some power supplies use a very thin wire link soldered in place as a fuse.

Circuit breaker
One benefit of using a circuit breaker as opposed to a fuse is that it can simply be
reset instead of having to replace the blown fuse. A circuit breaker contains an element that
heats, bends triggers a spring which shuts the circuit down. Once the element cools, and the
problem is identified the breaker can be reset and the power restored.

Thermal cutouts
Some PSUs use a thermal cutout buried in the transformer rather than a fuse. The
advantages is it allows greater current to be drawn for limited time than the unit can supply
continuously. Some such cutouts are self resetting, some are signal use only.

Current limiting
Some supplies use current limiting instead of cutting off power if overloaded. The 2
types of current limiting used are electronic limiting and impedance limiting The former is
common on lab bench PSUs, the latter is common on supplies of less than 3 watts output.

Power conversion
The term “power supply” is sometimes restricted to those devices that convert some
other form of energy into electricity (such as solar power and fuel cells and generators).A
more accurate term for devices that convert one form of electric power into another
form(such as transformers and linear regulators) is power converter. The common conversion
is from AC to DC.

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2. Transistor
A transistor consists of two pn junctions formed by sandwiching either p-type or n-type semi-
conductor between a pair of opposite types. Accordingly there are two types of transistors, namely;
(i) n-p-n transistor
(ii) p-n-p transistor
An n-p-n transistor is composed of two n-type semiconductors separated by a thin section of
p-type as shown in Fig. 1(i). However, a p-n-p transistor is formed by two p-sections separated by a
thin section of n-type as shown in Fig.1 (ii).

Fig. 1

In each type of transistor, the following points may be noted:


(i) These are two pn junctions. Therefore, a transistor may be regarded as a combination of two diodes
connected back to back.
(ii) There are three terminals, one taken from each type of semiconductor.
(iii) The middle section is a very thin layer. This is the most important factor in the function of a
transistor.

Naming the Transistor Terminals


A transistor (pnp or npn) has three sections of doped semiconductors. The section on
one side is the emitter and the section on the opposite side is the collector. The middle section
is called the base and forms two junctions between the emitter and collector.

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(i) Emitter: The section on one side that supplies charge carriers (electrons or holes) is
called the emitter. The emitter is always forward biased w.r.t. base so that it can supply a
large number of *majority carriers. In Fig.2 (i), the emitter (p-type) of pnp transistor is
forward biased and supplies hole charges to its junction with the base. Similarly, in Fig.2 (ii),
the emitter (n-type) of npn transistor has a forward bias and supplies free electrons to its
junction with the base.

(ii) Collector: The section on the other side that collects the charges is called the collector.
The collector is always reverse biased. Its function is to remove charges from its junction
with the base. In Fig.2 (i), the collector (p-type) of pnp transistor has a reverse bias and
receives hole charges that flow in the output circuit. Similarly, in Fig.2 (ii), the collector (n-
type) of npn transistor has reverse bias and receives electrons.

(iii) Base: The middle section which forms two pn-junctions between the emitter and
collector is called the base. The base-emitter junction is forward biased, allowing low
resistance for the emitter circuit. The base-collector junction is reverse biased and provides
high resistance in the collector circuit.

Fig.2
Transistor Action
The emitter-base junction of a transistor is forward biased whereas collector-base
junction is reverse biased. If for a moment, we ignore the presence of emitter-base junction,
then practically no current would flow in the collector circuit because of the reverse bias.
However, if the emitter-base junction is also present, then forward bias on it causes the
emitter current to flow. It is seen that this emitter current almost entirely flows in the
collector circuit. Therefore, the current in the collector circuit depends upon the emitter
current. If the emitter current is zero, then collector current is nearly zero .However, if the
emitter current is 1mA, then collector current is also about 1mA. This is precisely what
happens in a transistor. We shall now discuss this transistor action for npn and pnp
transistors.

(i) Working of npn transistor: Fig. 3 shows the npn transistor with forward bias to emitter-
base junction and reverse bias to collector-base junction. The forward bias causes the
electrons in the n-type emitter to flow towards the base. This constitutes the emitter current

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IE. As these electrons flow through the p-type base, they tend to combine with holes. As the
base is lightly doped and very thin, therefore, only a few electrons (less than 5%) combine
with holes to constitute base current IB. The remainder (more than 95%) cross over into the
collector region to constitute collector current IC. In this way, almost the entire emitter
current flows in the collector circuit. It is clear that emitter current is the sum of collector and
base currents i.e.
IE = IB + IC

Fig .3
(ii) Working of pnp transistor: Fig. 4 shows the basic connection of a pnp transistor. The
forward bias causes the holes in the p-type emitter to flow towards the base. This constitutes
the emitter current IE. As these holes cross into n-type base, they tend to combine with the
electrons. As the base is lightly doped and very thin, therefore, only a few holes (less than
5%) combine with the Fig. 4 electrons. The remainder (more than 95%) cross into the
collector region to constitute collector current IC. In this way, almost the entire emitter
current flows in the collector circuit. It may be noted that current conduction within pnp
transistor is by holes. However, in the external connecting wires, the current is still by
electrons.

Fig.4

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Transistor Symbols
In the earlier diagrams, the transistors have been shown in diagrammatic form.
However, for the sake of convenience, the transistors are represented by schematic diagrams.
The symbols used for npn and pnp transistors are shown in Fig. 5

Fig.5
Note that emitter is shown by an arrow which indicates the direction of conventional
current flow with forward bias. For npn connection, it is clear that conventional current flows
out of the emitter as indicated by the outgoing arrow in Fig. 5. Similarly, for pnp connection,
the conventional current flows into the emitter as indicated by inward arrow in Fig. 5.

Transistor Connections
There are three leads in a transistor viz., emitter, base and collector terminals.
However, when a transistor is to be connected in a circuit, we require four terminals; two for
the input and two for the output. This difficulty is overcome by making one terminal of the
transistor common to both input and output terminals. The input is fed between this common
terminal and one of the other two terminals. The output is obtained between the common
terminal and the remaining terminal. Accordingly; a transistor can be connected in a circuit in
the following three ways:
(i) Common base connection.
(ii) Common emitter connection.
(iii) Common collector connection.
Each circuit connection has specific advantages and disadvantages. It may be noted
here that regardless of circuit connection, the emitter is always biased in the forward
direction, while the collector always has a reverse bias.

In this project we have used the common emitter connection.

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Common Emitter Connection


In this circuit arrangement, input is applied between base and emitter and output is
taken from the collector and emitter. Here, emitter of the transistor is common to both input
and output circuits and hence the name common emitter connection. Fig. 6 (i) shows common
emitter npn transistor circuit whereas Fig. 6 (ii) shows common emitter pnp transistor circuit.

Fig .6
Characteristics of Common Emitter Connection
The important characteristics of this circuit arrangement are the input characteristics
and output characteristics.

Fig.8

1. Input characteristic. It is the curve between base current IB and base-emitter


voltage VBE at constant collector-emitter voltage VCE. The input characteristics of a CE
connection can be determined by the circuit shown in Fig. 8. Keeping VCE constant (say at
10 V), note the base current IB for various values of VBE. Then plot the readings obtained on
the graph, taking IB along y-axis and VBE along x-axis. This gives the input characteristic at
VCE = 10V as shown in Fig. 9. Following a similar procedure, a family of input
characteristics can be drawn. The following points may be noted from the characteristics:
(i) The characteristic resembles that of a forward biased diode curve. This is expected
since the base-emitter section of transistor is a diode and it is forward biased.
(ii) As compared to CB arrangement, I B increases less rapidly with VBE. Therefore,

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input resistance of a CE circuit is higher than that of CB circuit.

Fig.9
Input resistance: It is the ratio of change in base-emitter voltage (ΔVBE) to the change in
base Fig. 9 current (ΔIB) at constant VCE i.e.
ΔVBE
Input resistance, ri = at constant VCE
ΔI B

The value of input resistance for a CE circuit is of the order of a few hundred ohms.

2. Output characteristic. It is the curve between collector current IC and


collector-emitter voltage VCE at constant base current IB. The output characteristics of a CE
circuit can be drawn with the help of the circuit shown in Fig.8. Keeping the base current IB
fixed at some value say, 5 µA, note the collector current IC for various values of VCE. Then
plot the readings on a graph, taking IC along y-axis and VCE along x-axis. This gives the
output characteristic at IB = 5 µA as shown in Fig. 10 (i). The test can be repeated for IB =
10 µA to obtain the new output characteristic as shown in Fig10 (ii). Following similar
procedure, a family of output characteristics can be drawn as shown in Fig. 10 (iii).

Fig.10
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The following points may be noted from the characteristics:


(i) The collector current IC varies with VCE for VCE between 0 and 1V only. After this,
collector current becomes almost constant and independent of VCE. This value of VCE up to
which collector current IC changes with VCE is called the knee voltage (Vknee). The
transistors are always operated in the region above knee voltage.
(ii) Above knee voltage, IC is almost constant. However, a small increase in IC with
increasing VCE is caused by the collector depletion layer getting wider and capturing a few
more majority carriers before electron-hole combinations occur in the base area.
(iii) For any value of VCE above knee voltage, the collector current IC is approximately
equal to

Output resistance: It is the ratio of change in collector-emitter voltage (ΔVCE) to the


change in collector current (ΔIC) at constant IB i.e.

It may be noted that whereas the output characteristics of CB circuit are horizontal,
they have noticeable slope for the CE circuit. Therefore, the output resistance of a CE circuit
is less than that of CB circuit. Its value is of the order of 50 kΩ.

In this project we have used the transistor 2N3904.


DESCRIPTION
NPN switching transistor in a TO-92; SOT54 plastic package. PNP complement:
2N3906.
FEATURES
• Low current (max. 200 mA)
• Low voltage (max. 40 V).
APPLICATIONS
• High-speed switching.
• Well suitable for tv and home appliance equipment.
• Small load switch transistor with high gain and low saturation voltage.
• Suitable for through-hole pcb assembly.

3. Diodes
Semiconductor diodes

A modern semiconductor diode is made of a crystal of semiconductor like silicon that


has impurities added to it to create a region on one side that contains negative charge carriers
(electrons), called n-type semiconductor, and a region on the other side that contains positive
charge carriers (holes), called p-type semiconductor. The diode's terminals are attached to
each of these regions. The boundary within the crystal between these two regions, called a
PN junction, is where the action of the diode takes place. The crystal conducts conventional

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current in a direction from the p-type side (called the anode) to the n-type side (called the
cathode), but not in the opposite direction.

Another type of semiconductor diode, the Schottky diode, is formed from the contact
between a metal and a semiconductor rather than by a p-n junction

Circuit symbol:

Function

Diodes allow electricity to flow in only


one direction. The arrow of the circuit symbol
shows the direction in which the current can
flow. Diodes are the electrical version of a valve
and early diodes were actually called valves.

Forward Voltage Drop

Electricity uses up a little energy pushing


its way through the diode, rather like a person
pushing through a door with a spring. This
means that there is a small voltage across a
conducting diode, it is called the forward
voltage drop and is about 0.7V for all normal
diodes which are made from silicon. The forward
voltage drop of a diode is almost constant
whatever the current passing through the diode so they have a very steep characteristic
(current-voltage graph).

Reverse Voltage

When a reverse voltage is applied a perfect diode does not conduct, but all real diodes
leak a very tiny current of a few µA or less. This can be ignored in most circuits because it
will be very much smaller than the current flowing in the forward direction. However, all
diodes have a maximum reverse voltage (usually 50V or more) and if this is exceeded the
diode will fail and pass a large current in the reverse direction, this is called breakdown.

Ordinary diodes can be split into two types: Signal diodes which pass small currents of
100mA or less and Rectifier diodes which can pass large currents. In addition there are LEDs (which
have their own page) and Zener diodes (at the bottom of this page).

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In this Project we use sensor diode (1N4007GP)which can sense temperature. It’s
brief description is as follows:

1N4007 Silicon Diode

Pack of 4 (Four) 1N4007 Silicon Rectifier Diodes:


The 1N4007 is a general purpose plastic encapsulated silicon rectifier.
Features
• Diffused Junction
• High Current Capability and Low Forward Voltage Drop
• Surge Overload Rating to 30A Peak
• Low Reverse Leakage Current
• Lead Free Finish, RoHS Compliant

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Tj = 25 °C; unless otherwise specified.

Maximum continuous ratings.

V RRM (repetitive peak reverse voltage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1000V


V R (continuous reverse voltage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1000V
IF ( AV ) average forward current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .1 A
IF RM repetitive peak forward current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 A
IF SM non-repetitive peak forward current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 A
Tstg storage temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . -65 +175 °C
Tj junction temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -65 +175 °

4. Zener diode
Current-voltage characteristic of a Zener diode with a breakdown voltage of 17 volt.
Notice the change of voltage scale between the forward biased (positive) direction and the
reverse biased (negative) direction.

A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction
like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the

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breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage". The device was
named after Clarence Zener, who discovered this electrical property.

A conventional solid-state diode will not allow significant current if it is reverse-


biased below its reverse breakdown voltage. When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is
exceeded, a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. Unless
this current is limited by circuitry, the diode will be permanently damaged. In case of large
forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow), the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to
its junction built-in voltage and internal resistance. The amount of the voltage drop depends
on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations.

A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties, except the device is specially
designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage, the so-called Zener voltage. By
contrast with the conventional device, a reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled
breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode at the Zener
voltage. For example, a diode with a Zener breakdown voltage of 3.2 V will exhibit a voltage
drop of 3.2 V if reverse bias voltage applied across it is more than its Zener voltage. The
Zener diode is therefore ideal for applications such as the generation of a reference voltage
(e.g. for an amplifier stage), or as a voltage stabilizer for low-current applications.

The Zener diode's operation depends on the heavy doping of its p-n junction allowing
electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the
n-type material. In the atomic scale, this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence
band electrons into the empty conduction band states; as a result of the reduced barrier
between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels
of dopings on both sides. The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the
doping process. While tolerances within 0.05% are available, the most widely used tolerances
are 5% and 10%. Breakdown voltage for commonly available Zener diodes can vary widely
from 1.2 volts to 200 volts.

Another mechanism that produces a similar effect is the avalanche effect as in the
avalanche diode. The two types of diode are in fact constructed the same way and both
effects are present in diodes of this type. In silicon diodes up to about 5.6 volts, the Zener
effect is the predominant effect and shows a marked negative temperature coefficient. Above
5.6 volts, the avalanche effect becomes predominant and exhibits a positive temperature
coefficient. In a 5.6 V diode, the two effects occur together and their temperature coefficients
neatly cancel each other out, thus the 5.6 V diode is the component of choice in temperature-
critical applications. Modern manufacturing techniques have produced devices with voltages
lower than 5.6 V with negligible temperature coefficients, but as higher voltage devices are
encountered, the temperature coefficient rises dramatically. A 75 V diode has 10 times the
coefficient of a 12 V diode.

All such diodes, regardless of breakdown voltage, are usually marketed under the
umbrella term of "Zener diode"

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5. Light-emitting diode

Light-emitting diode

Red, green and blue LEDs of the 5mm type

Type Passive, optoelectronic

Working principle Electroluminescence

Invented Nick Holonyak Jr. (1962)

Electronic symbol

Pin configuration Anode and Cathode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as


indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a
practical electronic component in 1962,early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but
modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with
very high brightness.

The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. When a diode is forward biased
(switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy

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in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light
(corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the
semiconductor. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical
components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. LEDs present
many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption,
longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability
and reliability. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and
heat management than traditional light sources. Current LED products for general lighting are
more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.

They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light
sources in aviation lighting, automotive lighting (particularly indicators) and in traffic
signals. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be
developed, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications
technology

Technology

Parts of an LED

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The inner workings of an LED

I-V diagram for a diode an LED will begin to emit light when the on-voltage is
exceeded. Typical on voltages are 2-3 Volt

6.Resistor

Resistor

Three resistors

Type Passive

Electronic symbol

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(Europe)

(US)

A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its


terminals that is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with
Ohm's law:

V = IR

Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous
in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and
films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as
nickel/chrome).

The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the tolerance, maximum
working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient,
noise, and inductance. Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below which power
dissipation limits the maximum permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied
voltage. Critical resistance is determined by the design, materials and dimensions of the
resistor.

Units: The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg
Simon Ohm. Commonly used multiples and submultiples in electrical and electronic usage
are the milliohm (1x10−3), kilohm (1x103), and megohm (1x106).

Measurement

The value of a resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter, which may be one
function of a multimeter. Usually, probes on the ends of test leads connect to the resistor.

Measuring low-value resistors, such as fractional-ohm resistors, with acceptable


accuracy requires four-terminal connections. One pair of terminals applies a known,
calibrated current to the resistor, while the other pair senses the voltage drop across the
resistor. Some laboratory test instruments have spring-loaded pairs of contacts, with
neighboring contacts electrically isolated from each other. Better digital multimeters have
four terminals on their panels, generally used with special test leads. These comprise four
wires in all, and have special test clips with jaws insulated from each other. One jaw provides
the measuring current, while the other senses the voltage drop. The resistance is then
calculated using Ohm's Law

Ohm's law

The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm's


law:

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Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I)
through it where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R).

Equivalently, Ohm's law can be stated:

This formulation of Ohm's law states that, when a voltage (V) is maintained across a
resistance (R), a current (I) will flow through the resistance.

This formulation is often used in practice. For example, if V is 12 volts and R is 400
ohms, a current of 12 / 400 = 0.03 amperes will flow through the resistance R.

Series and parallel resistors

Resistors in a parallel configuration each have the same potential difference (voltage).
To find their total equivalent resistance (Req):

The parallel property can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "||" (as in
geometry) to simplify equations. For two resistors,

The current through resistors in series stays the same, but the voltage across each
resistor can be different. The sum of the potential differences (voltage) is equal to the total
voltage. To find their total resistance:

A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series can be broken up into
smaller parts that are either one or the other. For instance,

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However, many resistor networks cannot be split up in this way. Consider a cube,
each edge of which has been replaced by a resistor. For example, determining the resistance
between two opposite vertices requires additional transforms, such as the Y-Δ transform, or
else matrix methods must be used for the general case. However, if all twelve resistors are
equal, the corner-to-corner resistance is 5⁄6 of any one of them.

The practical application to resistors is that a resistance of any non-standard value can
be obtained by connecting standard values in series or in parallel.

Power dissipation

The power dissipated by a resistor (or the equivalent resistance of a resistor network)
is calculated using the following:

All three equations are equivalent. The first is derived from Joule's first law. Ohm’s
Law derives the other two from that.

The total amount of heat energy released is the integral of the power over time:

If the average power dissipated is more than the resistor can safely dissipate, the
resistor may depart from its nominal resistance and may become damaged by overheating.
Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it
burns out, which could cause a fire in adjacent components and materials. There are
flameproof resistors that fail (open circuit) before they overheat dangerously.

Note that the nominal power rating of a resistor is not the same as the power that it
can safely dissipate in practical use. Air circulation and proximity to a circuit board, ambient
temperature, and other factors can reduce acceptable dissipation significantly. Rated power
dissipation may be given for an ambient temperature of 25 °C in free air. Inside an equipment
case at 60 °C, rated dissipation will be significantly less; if we are dissipating a bit less than

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the maximum figure given by the manufacturer we may still be outside the safe operating
area, and courting premature failure.

6. Variable Resistors
Construction

Variable resistors consist of a resistance track with


connections at both ends and a wiper which moves along the
track as you turn the spindle. The track may be made from
carbon, cermet (ceramic and metal mixture) or a coil of wire
(for low resistances). The track is usually rotary but straight
track versions, usually called sliders, are also available.
Variable resistors may be used as a rheostat with two
connections (the wiper and just one end of the track) or as a
potentiometer with all three connections in use. Miniature
versions called presets are made for setting up circuits which Standard Variable Resistor
Photograph
will not require further adjustment.
Variable resistors are often called potentiometers in books and catalogues. They are
specified by their maximum resistance, linear or logarithmic track, and their physical size.
The standard spindle diameter is 6mm.

The resistance and type of track are marked on the body:


4K7 LIN means 4.7 k linear track.

4K7 LIN means 4.7 k linear track.

Some variable resistors are designed to be mounted directly on the circuit board, but
most are for mounting through a hole drilled in the case containing the circuit with stranded
wire connecting their terminals to the circuit board.

Linear (LIN) and Logarithmic (LOG) tracks

Linear (LIN) track means that the resistance changes at a constant rate as you move
the wiper. This is the standard arrangement and you should assume this type is required if a
project does not specify the type of track. Presets always have linear tracks.
Logarithmic (LOG) track means that the resistance changes slowly at one end of the
track and rapidly at the other end, so halfway along the track is not half the total resistance!
This arrangement is used for volume (loudness) controls because the human ear has a

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logarithmic response to loudness so fine control (slow change) is required at low volumes and
coarser control (rapid change) at high volumes. It is important to connect the ends of the track
the correct way round, if you find that turning the spindle increases the volume rapidly
followed by little further change you should swap the connections to the ends of the track.

Rheostat

This is the simplest way of using a variable resistor.


Two terminals are used: one connected to an end of the track,
the other to the moveable wiper. Turning the spindle changes Rheostat Symbol
the resistance between the two terminals from zero up to the
maximum resistance.
Rheostats are often used to vary current, for example to control the brightness of a
lamp or the rate at which a capacitor charges.
If the rheostat is mounted on a printed circuit board you may find that all three
terminals are connected! However, one of them will be linked to the wiper terminal. This
improves the mechanical strength of the mounting but it serves no function electrically.

Potentiometer

Variable resistors used as potentiometers have all three


terminals connected. Potentiometer Symbol
This arrangement is normally used to vary voltage, for
example to set the switching point of a circuit with a sensor, or control the volume (loudness)
in an amplifier circuit. If the terminals at the ends of the track are connected across the power
supply then the wiper terminal will provide a voltage which can be varied from zero up to the
maximum of the supply.

Potentiometer applications

Potentiometers are widely used as user controls, and may control a very wide variety
of equipment functions. The widespread use of potentiometers in consumer electronics has
declined in the 1990s, with digital controls now more common. However they remain in
many applications, such as volume controls and as position sensors.

Theory of operation

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A potentiometer with a resistive load, showing equivalent fixed resistors for clarity.
The potentiometer can be used as a voltage divider to obtain a manually adjustable
output voltage at the slider (wiper) from a fixed input voltage applied across the two ends of
the pot. This is the most common use of pots.
The voltage across RL can be calculated by:

If RL is large compared to the other resistances (like the input to an operational


amplifier), the output voltage can be approximated by the simpler equation:

As an example, assume

, , , and

Since the load resistance is large compared to the other resistances, the output voltage
VL will be approximately:

Due to the load resistance, however, it will actually be slightly lower: ≈ 6.623 V.
One of the advantages of the potential divider compared to a variable resistor in series
with the source is that, while variable resistors have a maximum resistance where some
current will always flow, dividers are able to vary the output voltage from maximum (VS) to
ground (zero volts) as the wiper moves from one end of the pot to the other. There is,
however, always a small amount of contact resistance.
In addition, the load resistance is often not known and therefore simply placing a
variable resistor in series with the load could have a negligible effect or an excessive effect,
depending on the load.

Presets

These are miniature versions of the standard variable


resistor. They are designed to be mounted directly onto the
circuit board and adjusted only when the circuit is built. For
Preset Symbol

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example to set the frequency of an alarm tone or the sensitivity of a light-sensitive circuit. A
small screwdriver or similar tool is required to adjust presets.
Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are sometimes used
in projects where a standard variable resistor would normally be used.

Multiturn presets are used where very precise adjustments must be made. The screw
must be turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other, giving very fine
control.

7. Operational Amplifier LM 358


Op-amp LM 358 is a low power dual operational amplifier. Its appearance is as shown in
Figure 2.

Figure 2: LM 358

This circuit consists of two independent, high gains, internally frequency


compensated which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a
wide range of voltages. The low power supply drain is independent of the magnitude of the
power supply voltage. Application areas include transducer amplifiers, dc gain blocks and all
the conventional op-amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power
supply systems. For example, these circuits can be directly supplied with the standard +5V
which is used in logic systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics
without requiring any additional power supply. In the linear mode the input common-mode
voltage range includes ground and the output voltage can also swing to ground, even though
operated from only a single power supply voltage.

Low Power Dual Operational Amplifier LM358


• Available in 8-Bump micro SMD chip sized package,

• Internally frequency compensated for unity gain

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• Large dc voltage gain: 100 dB

• Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated)

• Wide power supply range:

• Single supply: 3V to 32V or dual supplies: ±1.5V to ±16V

• Very low supply current drain (500 µA)-essentially independent of supply


voltage

• Low input offset voltage: 2 mV

• Input common-mode voltage range includes ground

• Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage

• Large output voltage swing

Pin Connection LM358

Unique Characteristics
• In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and
the output voltage can also swing to ground, even though operated from only a
single power supply voltage.
• The unity gain cross frequency is temperature compensated.
• The input bias current is also temperature compensated.

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2010

Advantages
• Two internally compensated op amps
• Eliminates need for dual supplies
• Allows direct sensing near GND and VOUT also goes to GND .
• Compatible with all forms of logic
• Power drain suitable for battery operation
Features
• Available in 8-Bump micro SMD chip sized package,
• Internally frequency compensated for unity gain
• Large dc voltage gain: 100 dB
• Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated)
• Wide power supply range:
• Single supply: 3V to 32V or dual supplies: ±1.5V to ±16V
• Very low supply current drain (500 μA)—essentially independent of supply
voltage
• Low input offset voltage: 2 mV
• Input common-mode voltage range includes ground
• Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage.
• Large output voltage swing

8. 12V DC Brushless Fans:


The fans used for this project are of the DC Brushless type. The cross-sectional
diagram and the specifications are provided below –

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On-Off Temperature Control
2010

The specifications of the fan, as obtained from the manufacturer are as follows:

1. Voltage – 12

2. Current – 0.25

3. Power – 3.0

4. RPM – 3010

5. Air Flow (CFM) – 38.6

6. Pressure (inches) – 0.160

7. Noise (dB/A) – 34.4

8. Weight (gm) – 86

3.Observation table:
Set point IC voltage
temperature Pin no. Voltage Fan status

Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 47


On-Off Temperature Control
2010

1 8.44 v
2 0.66 v
3 2.03 v
Room temperature
4 0
(Below set point) OFF
5 Not connected
6 Not connected
7 Not connected
8 9.2 v
1 9.95 v
2 0.65 v
3 1.37 v
High temperature
(Above set point) 4 0
ON
5 Not connected
6 Not connected
7 Not connected
8 10.7 v

Remarks:

We are not able to take the actual reading of the temperature because the temperature
sensing diode is so small that we can not insert temperature measurement device to get the
temperature.

5. Troubleshooting:

Serial no Problem found Cause Solution

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On-Off Temperature Control
2010

1 Variable output of the The cause may be We take a average value of


adapter which is used in variation of the a.c voltage from several
our project to give power input to the adapter or reading voltage displaced
supply to the circuit. the improper function in the multimeter.
of the components of
the adapter.
2 Damage of LED. The cause may be We change the LED.
inability of LED to
bear the voltage for
long period.

3 Low sensitivity of the It is difficult to give Large temperature change


sensing diode. heat at proper place of is applied around the
the diode. diode.

4 Large error in the It may cause due to We apply only two


temperature controller. non-correct input type temperature
being used for the (i) Room temperature
temperature sensor. (ii) High temperature

6. Conclusion
6.1 Features
1. In this control system, an amplifier is used as comparator.
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On-Off Temperature Control
2010

2. A temperature sensor diode is used to sense the temperature.


3. This circuit comparators a precise voltage reference (due to the Zener diode) with
the forward voltage drop of the diode forward biased with 11mA of current.
4 .High power transistors can be substituted for bigger fans, or one substitute a relay,
MOSFET etc to control higher loads (and higher voltages).
5. The set point is adjusted with the help of potentiometer.
.

6.2 Conclusion
Temperature control can be done by three methods : on-off temperature control,
proportional control and PID control .But the simplest and non-expensive method of
temperature control is the on-off temperature control where the motion (fan)or relay has two
state only on or off. But till today it has limited application such as heatsink cooling,
computer emergency cooling. Proper research on this control in future is very necessary to
fulfill our day to day life.
We think that this on-off temperature control will replace air conditioner or room
heater in future.

7. Reference:
• Control System Engineering (I.J.Nagrath & M.Gopal)
• Modern Control Engineering (Katsuhiko Ogata)
• Control System (Samarajit Ghosh)

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On-Off Temperature Control
2010

• Principles of Electronics (V.K. Mehta & R. Mehta)


• www.google.com
• www.wikipedia.com
• www.edupedia.com
• www.electronices-lab.com
• www.scribd.com

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