2 tayangan

Diunggah oleh hendra lam

a robust downlink beamforming
design for simultaneous wireless information and power transfer
(SWIPT) in a multiuser MISO communication system is proposed.
Our design is to maximize the minimum harvested energy
among the multi-antenna energy receivers (ERs) while guaranteeing
the secure communication requirement at the information
receiver (IR) by optimizing the transmit beamforming vectors
and power splitting ratio jointly. The considered max-min fair
problem is non-convex and hard to tackle. Using the semi-definite
relaxation (SDR) technique, we solve this problem by carrying
out a one-dimensional search which refer to the solution of a
series of semi-definite programs (SDPs). Also, we provide the
closed-form solution based on Lagrange duality and prove that
the utilized SDR is tight. Simulation results show our proposed
robust scheme is more efficient than the conventional isotropic
scheme in terms of energy harvesting.

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MISO Communication System with SWIPT

1

College of Communication and Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003, P. R.

2

College of Automation, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003, P. R.

Email: bywunjupt@foxmail.com, bywang@njupt.edu.cn

Abstract—In this paper, a robust downlink beamforming previous work on power transfer either focus on the single-

design for simultaneous wireless information and power transfer antenna receivers or assume that the CSIs are perfectly known

(SWIPT) in a multiuser MISO communication system is pro- at transmitter, which motivates us to further research the case

posed. Our design is to maximize the minimum harvested energy that the transmitter has only imperfect CSI and most of the

among the multi-antenna energy receivers (ERs) while guaran- receivers are equipped with multi-antenna.

teeing the secure communication requirement at the information

receiver (IR) by optimizing the transmit beamforming vectors In this paper, we concentrate on the optimal downlink

and power splitting ratio jointly. The considered max-min fair beamforming design for SWIPT in a multiuser MISO com-

problem is non-convex and hard to tackle. Using the semi-deﬁnite munication system, under the assumption of imperfect chan-

relaxation (SDR) technique, we solve this problem by carrying nel CSI and multi-antenna ERs available at the transmitter.

out a one-dimensional search which refer to the solution of a

series of semi-deﬁnite programs (SDPs). Also, we provide the

Meantime, the power splitting receivers and the AN-aided

closed-form solution based on Lagrange duality and prove that transmit strategy are taken into account. We aim to maximize

the utilized SDR is tight. Simulation results show our proposed the minimum harvested energy among the multi-antenna ERs

robust scheme is more efﬁcient than the conventional isotropic subject to the secure communication requirement at the IR by

scheme in terms of energy harvesting. jointly optimizing the transmit beamforming vectors and power

splitting ratio. The design of interest results in a non-convex

problem, which is hard to tackle. To resolve it, we divide the

I. I NTRODUCTION problem into two layers: the inner layer which can be solved

through the “separable SDR” [13] based on the S-procedure

The rapid growth of wireless communication requiremen-

method [11], the outer layer which can be solved through one-

t brings abundant energy consumption, which leads to the

dimensional search. As a result, we obtain the robust transmit

conventional battery-powered wireless communication devices

covariance matrices. Moreover, a closed-form solution is given

encountering a bottleneck in providing sufﬁcient power. Si-

and the SDR is proved to be tight. Therefore, the resulting

multaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT),

robust transmit covariance matrices are global optimal.

which is regarded as a potential technique to overcome this

bottleneck, has attracted great interest of the researchers in Notations: In this paper, the bold capital and lower-case

recent years [1]-[4]. Using this technology, the battery-powered letters are used to denote matrices and vectors, respectively.

H

wireless communication devices can harvest energy from the ε {•}, (•) , T r (•), rank (•), indicate the expectation, Her-

ambient radio frequency (RF) signals to prolong their lifetime. mitian transpose, trace and rank, respectively. IN denotes the

In particular, for a three-node multiple antennas SWIPT sys- N × N identity matrix; CN ×M and HN + denote the N × M

tem, the optimal precoder was designed to achieve information complex matrices and N ×N Hermitian matrices, respectively.

and energy transmission tradeoffs [1]. •2 means the Euclidean norm of a vector while •F means

the Frobenius norm of a matrix, null (•) denotes the null space

It is worth noting that all above works considered the

of a vector or matrix. x ∼ CN (μ, Λ) means the vector x is

systems with SWIPT are under the assumption of perfect

a complex Gaussion variable with mean μ and covariance Λ.

channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter.

However, in practice, it’s hard to obtain perfect CSI at the

transmitter due to the signal transmission delay, quantization II. S YSTEM M ODEL AND PROBLEM FORMULATION

errors and channel breakdowns. Furthermore, as we all know, A. system model

the perfect CSI methods are quite sensitive to the channel

uncertainties. Therefore, some systems are constructed under Let us consider the downlink of a multiuser MISO commu-

imperfect channel realization (e.g., [5]-[7]). In particular, [5] nication system which consists of a transmitter, an information

and [6] studied the secure transmission with wiretap channel receiver (IR) and K > 1 energy receivers (ER). The transmitter

for SWIPT in the MISO broadcast system. Both the system is equipped with N > 1 antennas while the information

with perfect and imperfect CSIs are studied in [7], where receiver has only one antenna and each energy receivers has

the optimal power allocation schemes based on the Taylor M > 1 antennas. We denote the channel vector between the

series expansion are derived. In [8], under the assumption transmitter and IR as h ∈ CN ×1 and the channel matrix

that the transmitter has perfect CSI, the authors investigated between transmitter and the kth ER as Gk ∈ CN ×M . In

the optimal resource allocation design for the multiuser MISO this paper, we take into account the channel uncertainties

system with SWIPT. As far as the authors know, most of the between the transmitter and receivers. Both the channels of

IEEE ICC 2015 - Signal Processing for Communications Symposium

the transmitter-to-IR and the transmitter-to-ER are modeled as cancellation also performs in [14]. In the sequel, the stored

[9] h = h̄ + Δh and Gk = Ḡk + ΔGk , respectively. Where energy of IR can be represented as

h̄ and Ḡk are the channel estimate values of the transmitter

while Δh and ΔGk denote the channel estimate errors. These

K

EI = (1 − ρ)η|hH w|2 + (1 − ρ)η(|hH v0 |2 + |hH vi |2 )

imperfect channels are assumed to be bounded in the regions: i=1

Δh2 = h − h̄2 ≤ εI and ΔGk F = Gk − Ḡk F ≤ = (1 − ρ)ηT r (HW) + (1 − ρ)η[T r (HV0 ) + T r(HV)],

εe,k , ∀k, for some εI , εe,1 , . . . , εe,K > 0.

where η is the same as ηk .

The transmitter intends to send the information signals to

the IR and energy signals to the ERs at the same time. To In addition to collecting energy from the baseband signals,

ensure a secure communication at IR and facilitate the energy the ER can also serves as an eavesdropper wiretap the infor-

harvesting at the ER, artiﬁcial noise signals are also generated mation delivered to the IR. Thus, we model the SINR at the

by our transmitter. As a result, we present the transmit signal kth ER as

vector as T r (G H

GH k WGk )

2

k w

K ΓER,k = GH 2 2 = , ∀k.

k v0 +σE T r (GH 2

k V0 Gk )+σE

x = wsI + v k sE

k + v0 , (1)

k=1 The interference cancellation from each energy beam is per-

I

where s and sE are the signals intended for IR and ERs, formed here as in [14].

k I 2

respectively. As usual, we assume that ε s = 1 and The purpose of this system is to maximize the minimum

harvested energy among all the K ERs such that the QoS

2

ε s k

E

= 1, ∀k. w ∈ C N ×1

and vk ∈ C N ×1

are the is provided for secure communication and the energy stored

information beam and energy beam, respectively. v0 ∈ CN ×1 in the device of IR is above a given threshold with limited

is the artiﬁcial noise (AN) vector generated by the transmitter, transmit power from the transmitter. Hence, consider the worst-

we model it as v0 ∼ CN (0, V0 ), where V0 ∈ HN + , V0 0. case CSI, the optimization problem of downlink beamforming

Given the transmit signal x, we model the received signals at design can be expressed as

IR and the kth ER as

max min ηk T r GH k (W + V + V0 ) Gk

yI = hH x + nI and w,{vi },v0 , k,ΔGk ,Δh

ρ

(2)

yE,k = GHk x + nE,k , ∀k ∈ {1, . . . , K} , s.t. C1 : min ΓI ≥ r,

Δh

C2 : max ΓER,k ≤ rk , ∀k, (3)

respectively. Where nI ∼ CN (0, σI2 ) and nE,k ∼ CN (0, σE 2

ΔGk

IM ) are the additive White Gaussian noises (AWGN) caused C3 : min EI ≥ Pmin ,

by the receive antennas of IR and ER, respectively. σI2 and σE2 Δh

denote the noise power of each other. C4 : T r (W + V + V0 ) ≤ P,

where r is the minimum required SINR at IR, rk is the

B. Problem formulation maximum required SINR at the kth ER, Pmin is the lower

bound of the energy stored in IR and P is the upper bound of

In this considered system, both the information and artiﬁ- the total transmit power from the transmitter. By introducing

cial noise signals generated by the transmitter are assumed to an auxiliary optimization variable t and rewriting the fractional

be energy carrying signals as well. Consequently, we model constraints, problem (3) can be reformulated as a SDP problem

the harvested energy at the kth ER as as follow

K max t

EER,k = ηk ( GH 2

k w + GH 2 H 2

k vi + G k v 0 )

W,V,V0 ,ρ

i=1 rσ 2

s.t. C1 : min T r [(W − rV − rV0 ) H] ≥ ρI ,

= η k T r GH k (W + V + V0 ) Gk , ∀k, Δh

C2 : max T r GH 2

k (W − rk V0 ) Gk ≤ rk σk , ∀k,

where 0 < ηk < 1, a constant, denotes the energy harvesting ΔGk

Pmin

efﬁciency when the ER intends to convert the received radio C3 : min T r [(W + V + V0 ) H] ≥ (1−ρ)η , (4)

Δh

K

C4 : T r (W +

signals into electrical energy; W = wwH and V = vi viH . V + V0 ) ≤ P,

i=1 C5 : min ηk T r GHk (W + V + V0 ) Gk ≥ t, ∀k,

ΔGk

The IR receives the information signal transmitted from the C6 : 0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1, C7 : W, V, V0 0,

transmitter, and the received SINR can be written as C8 : Rank(W) = 1,

ρ|hH w|2 ρT r(HW)

ΓI =

K

= ρT r(HV0 )+ρT r(HV)+σI2

,

ρ|hH v0 |2 +ρ |hH vi |2 +σI2

It is obvious that problem (4) is not a convex SDP

i=1 problem because of constraint C8. Then, by adopting SDP

relaxation (SDR) technique, remove C8, we obtain a convex

where 0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1 denotes the power splitting ratio, H = hhH . SDR problem. This convex SDR problem of (4) is given by

The power transferred to IR has been split into two parts,

one part is used for decoding information signals and another max t

part is preserved for future use. Here, we assume the energy W,V,V0 ,ρ (5)

beam vi causes interference to the IR while the interference s.t. C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7.

4752

IEEE ICC 2015 - Signal Processing for Communications Symposium

Δ5 = W̄ + V̄ + V̄0 . Substituting (7), (8), (10) and (11) back

In this section, we aim to turn problem (5) to a tractable into (5), we obtain the following SDR problem:

convex problem and to ﬁnd a rank-one optimal solution W by

studying the solution structure of (5). max t

W,V,V0 ,ρ,t,{λk },{λ̃k },λI ,λ̃I

Problem (5) is intractable for robust downlink beamforming s.t. C1 : TI (W,V, V0 , λI ) 0,

design because of the semi-inﬁniteness of constraints C1, C2,

C2 : TER,k W, V0 , λ̃k 0, ∀k,

C3 and C5. To facilitate the solution, we consider to turn these

constrains into linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) by using the C3 : MI W, V, V0 , λ̃I 0, (12)

S-procedure method:

C5 : MER,k (W, V, V0 , λk ) 0, ∀k,

Lemma 1: (S − procedure[11]) Let a function C9 : {λk } , λ̃k , λI , λ̃I ≥ 0, ∀k,

fm (x) , m = {1, 2} , be deﬁned as

C4,C6,C7.

fm (x) = xH Am x + 2Re bH m x + cm , However, the resulting problem still can’t be solved straightly

where x ∈ CN ×1 , Am ∈ HN N ×1 by available SDP solvers since the constraints C1 and C3 in

+ , bm ∈ C and cm ∈ R. then,

the deduction f1 (x) ≤ 0 ⇒ f2 (x) ≤ 0 holds if and only if (12) are not LMIs owing to the variable ρ. To make problem

there exists a λ ≥ 0 such that (12) tractable, like [12], one may assume that, for a given ρ, the

constraints C1 and C3 in (12) reduces to LMIs. Discovering

A1 b 1 A2 b2 this, we regard (12) as a two-layer optimization problem: the

λ − 0

bH1 c1 bH

2 c2 inner layer is a common relaxed SDP problem which can be

solved efﬁciently through the existing solver such as CVX [10]

provided that there exists a point x̂ such that f1 (x̂) < 0. with ﬁxed ρ; the outer layer is a single-variable optimization

For the purpose of applying Lemma 1 to problem (5), we problem which can be solved through one dimensional search

substitute h = h̄ + Δh into constraint C1 and rewrite C1 as with respect to ρ modeled as max Φ (ρ) , s.t.0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1, where

ρ

ΔhH Δh ≤ ε2I ⇒ ΔhH Δ1 Δh + 2Re h̄H Δ1 Δh Φ (ρ) denotes as the ﬁnally optimal value of (12).

rσ 2 (6)

+ h̄H Δ1 h̄ − ρI ≥ 0, During the inner layer procedure, we deﬁne

M

K

where Δ1 =W − rV − rV0 . Then, using Lemma 1, we re- (l,l) (l,l)

express (6) as B∗1 = −α∗ IN + Ze,k − Ue,k + Z̄∗ + Ψ̄∗ , (13)

k=1 l=1

C1
: TI (W, V, V0 , λI ) (l,l) (l,l)

λI I N + Δ 1 Δ1 h̄ (7) and r1 = rank (B∗1 ). Ze,k ∈ HN N

+ and Ue,k ∈ H+ are one

= 0, of the matrices in G̃k Xk G̃H NM

and G̃k Yk G̃H

k ∈ H+ k ∈

2

h̄H Δ1 h̄H Δ1 h̄ − rσρI − λI ε2I

NM

H+ , respectively; where G̃k = [ IN M ḡk ], and Xk

for some λI ≥ 0. Similarly, the constraint C3 can be re- and Yk are the Lagrange dual variables

with

respect to

expressed as MER,k (W, V, V0 , λk ) and TER,k W, V0 , λ̃k , respective-

C3 : MI W, V, V0 , λ̃I ly. Z̄∗ and Ψ̄∗ are the dual variables with

respect to

TI (W, V, V0 , λI ) and MI W, V, V0 , λ̃I , respectively.

λ̃I IN + Δ3 Δ3 h̄ (8)

= Pmin 0, Furthermore, we model the orthogonal basis of the null space

h̄H Δ3 h̄H Δ3 h̄ − (1−ρ)η − λ̃I ε2I

of B∗1 as N1 ∈ CN ×(N −r1 ) , and π1,n ∈ CN ×1 , 1 ≤ n ≤

N − r1 as the nth column of N1 . Then, to reveal the tightness

for some λ̃I ≥ 0, where Δ3 =W + V + V0 . To the matrix of SDR problem of (12), we study the structure of the solution

ΔGk , C2 can be reformulated as the following implication and give the following theorem.

H

ΔgH 2 H

k Δgk ≤ εe,k ⇒ Δgk Δ2 Δgk + 2Re ḡk Δ2 Δgk Theorem 1: The optimal solution {W∗ , V∗ , V0∗ , t∗ } to

+ ḡkH Δ2 ḡk − rk ε2e,k ≤ 0, the inner layer of problem (12) is characterized as follow:

(9) 1. The optimal solution W∗ can be expressed as

where W̄ = IM ⊗ W, V̄0 = IM ⊗ V0 , ḡk = vec Ḡk and

Δ2 =W̄ − rk V̄0 . Using Lemma 1, we re-express (9) as N

−r1

W∗ = H

μn π1,n π1,n + f τ1 τ1H , (14)

C2 : TER,k W, V0 , λ̃k n=1

λ̃k IN M − Δ2 −Δ2 ḡk where μn ≥ 0, ∀n, f ≥ 0 and τ1 ∈ CN ×1 , τ1 2 = 1 satisﬁes

= 0,

−ḡkH Δ2 −ḡkH Δ2 ḡk + rk σE2

− λ̃k ε2e,k τ1H N1 = 0.

(10)

for some λ̃k ≥ 0, k = 1, ..., K. Similarly, the constraint C5 is 2. If the optimal solution W∗ given in (14) has

equivalent to the following expression: rank (W∗ ) > 1, i.e., μn > 0, ∃n. Then, we have another

solution

C5: MER,k (W, V, V0 , λk ) N

−r1

λk IN M + Δ5 Δ5 ḡk (11) W̄∗ = W∗ − H

μn π1,n π1,n = f τ1 τ1H , (15)

= ḡkH Δ5 ḡkH Δ5 ḡk − ηt − λk ε2e,k 0, n=1

4753

IEEE ICC 2015 - Signal Processing for Communications Symposium

20 18

18

16

Average minimum harvested power (dBm)

16

14

14

per ER

per ER

12

12

10

10

Scenario 1, N=10,M=1

Scenario 2, N=10,M=2

Perfect CSI 8 Scenario 3, N=10,M=3

8

Imperfect ER CSI Scenario 4, N=12,M=1

Imperfect IR and ER CSI (Robust) Scenario 5, N=12,M=2

Without ER CSI Scenario 6, N=12,M=3

6 6

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 −5 0 5 10 15 20 25

Transmission power (mw) of transmitter Minimum required SINR of IR (dB)

Fig. 1. Average minimum harvest power versus total transmit power P . Fig. 2. Average minimum harvest power versus total transmit power P .

N

−r1

V̄∗ = V∗ + H

μn π1,n π1,n , (16) known at the transmitter the more energy harvested at the ER.

n=1

Particularly, along with the increase of the transmission power,

our proposed scheme can still achieve more than 2 dBm energy

V̄0∗ = V0∗ , t̄∗ = t∗ , (17) per ER compare to the conventional isotropic beamforming

scheme.

with W̄∗ serve as the new optimal solution and has

rank W̄∗ = 1. In Fig. 2, we illustrate the average minimum harvest power

Proof: Please refer to Appendix A. versus minimum required SINR, r, for different numbers of

transmitter antennas and the ER antennas. Here, we have the

With Theorem 1, the global optimal solution of problem (3) is total transmission power be ﬁxed at P = 10 mW. It is obvious

achieved. We solve the SDR problem (12) via CVX during that the harvested energy at ER decreases with the minimum

the inner layer optimization and utilizing one dimensional required SINR. Indeed, to meet the requirement of a better

search during the outer layer optimization. While the obtained SINR performance at IR, the transmitter has to allocate more

solution {W∗ , V∗ , V0∗ , t∗ } satisﬁes rank (W∗ ) = 1, the energy and make more accurate transmit directions towards

rank

solution turns out to be optimal. If not, i.e., (W∗ ) > 1,

the IR. Moreover, the transmitter is forced to sacriﬁce a part

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗

we format an alternative optimal solution ∗W̄ , V̄ , V̄0 , t̄ of energy for AN transmissions to weaken the interference

in accordance with (15)-(17) with rank W̄ = 1. to IR. As a result, the amount of energy allocated to ER is

further reduced. From this ﬁg, we also learn that with the same

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS antennas at the ER, the harvested energy gain signiﬁcantly

when the number of transmitter antennas increase from N=10

In this section, we evaluate the performance of our pro- to N=12. It proves that the higher degrees of freedom for

posed robust downlink beamforming design scheme for mul- resource allocation the more energy harvested at the ER. On

tiuser MISO communication system with imperfect CSI via the other hand, with the same antennas at the transmitter, the

simulation. We set the simulation parameters as N=10, K=3, harvested energy also increase signiﬁcantly with the number

M=3, rk = 0dB, Pmin = 1mW, η=0.5, σI2 = σE 2

= 10−3 , of per ER antennas. This is the reason that multi-antenna

2 2

εI = 0.03, εe,k = 0.05 and the threshold value for terminating communication system always performs better than single-

the one-dimensional search of the outer layer optimization antenna communication system.

is 0.01. The channel entries associated with our system are

randomly generated i.i.d. complex Gaussian variables which

obey CN (0, 1). All simulation results were achieved by an

average of 500 channel realizations. V. C ONCLUSION

Fig. 1 shows the performance of downlink beamforming An optimal robust downlink beamforming design for MISO

design when different channel realizations are considered. communication system with SWIPT was investigated in this

We compare our robust scenario with three other scenarios paper. By dividing the original problem into a two-layer

where the transmitter has perfect CSI, where the transmitter optimization problem, we obtained the optimal power splitting

only has perfect IR’s CSI while the ERs’ CSI is imperfect ratio and the transmit beamforming matrices based on the

and where the transmitter has no ERs CSI. During the last worst-case max-min fair energy harvesting among ERs. The

case, we design isotropic energy beams and artiﬁcial noise proposed theorem veriﬁed the tightness of the SDR. Therefore,

(AN) such that the energy beams and AN lie in the null the obtained transmit beamforming matrices were the global

space of h. The minimum required SINR of IR is ﬁxed at optimal solution. Simulation results illustrated the signiﬁcant

r=10dB while the transmission power P increased from 4 performance improvement by our proposed robust scheme

mW to 18 mW. Simulation results show that the more CSI compared to the conventional isotropic scheme.

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IEEE ICC 2015 - Signal Processing for Communications Symposium

ACKNOWLEDGMENT To rewrite W̄, V̄ and V̄0 back into their primal styles,

we specify

This paper was supported by the National Natural Science ⎡ (1,1) (1,M )

⎤

Foundation of China (No. 61271232, 61372126); the Open Z ··· Ze,k

research fund of National Mobile Communications Research ⎢ e,k ⎥

G̃k Xk G̃H = ⎢ .. .. .. ⎥ ∈ HN M

+ ,

Laboratory, Southeast University (No. 2012D05); the Priority k ⎣ . . . ⎦

(M,1) (M,M )

Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Province (Smart Ze,k ··· Ze,k

Grid and Control Technology). (l,l) N

⎡ (1,1) (1,M )

⎤ ∈ H+ ,

Ze,k

(20)

Ue,k · · · Ue,k

A PPENDIX A ⎢ ⎥

G̃k Yk G̃H ⎢

=⎣ .. .. .. ⎥ ∈ HN M

+ ,

P ROOF OF T HEOREM 1 k . . . ⎦

(M,1) (M,M )

The main idea of this proof lies in KKT condition [11] and Ue,k · · · Ue,k

(l,l)

rank analysis of matrices. The Lagrange dual function of (12) Ue,k ∈ HN +.

is modeled as

K Ψ̄ 0

L (X) = t + T r (Xk MER,k (W, V, V0 , λk )) Furthermore, we set Ψ = , Ψ̄ ∈ HN+ andZ =

0 1

k=1

K Z̄ 0

+ T r Yk TER,k W, V0 , λ̃k , Z̄ ∈ HN

+ . Combining them with H̃ = IN h̄ ,

0 1

k=1

(18) we have

+ T r (ZT

I (W, V, V0 , λI )) H̃ZH̃H = Z̄ + h̄h̄H ,

+ T r ΨMI W, V, V0 , λ̃I (21)

H̃ΨH̃H = Ψ̄ + h̄h̄H .

+ α [P − T r (W + V + V0 )]

+ T r (ΦW) + T r (ΞV) + T r (ΩV0 ) , Substituting (19), (20) and (21) into (18), we reformulate

the Lagrange dual function as

where X = {W, V, V0 , λk , λ̃k , λI , λ̃I , Xk , Yk , Z, Ψ, α, Φ, Ξ, M

K (l,l)

Ω} includes all the primal and dual variables, and L (X) = t + Tr (W + V + V0 )Ze,k + Xk ΛE,K

Xk ∈ H N +

M +1

, ∀k, Yk ∈ HN +

M +1

, ∀k, Z ∈ HN +

+1

, k=1 l=1

Ψ ∈ H+ N +1

and α ∈ R+ are the dual variables with

K M

(l,l)

+ Tr (rk V0 − W)Ue,k + Yk Λ̃E,K

respect to MER,k (W, V, V0 , λk ), TER,k W, V0 , λ̃k , k=1 l=1

H

+ T r (W − rV − rV0) Z̄ + h̄h̄

TI (W, V, V0 , λI ), MI W, V, V0 , λ̃I and C4, + T r (W + V + V0 ) Ψ̄ + h̄h̄H

N N

respectively. Φ ∈ H+ , Ξ ∈ H+ and Ω ∈ H+ are the N + α [P − T r (W + V + V0 )] + T r [ΦW]

dual variables regard to W, V and V0 , respectively. + T r [ΞV] + T r [UV0 ] .

(22)

For the convenience of expression, we re- It is veriﬁed that, to the inner optimization of (12), the SDR

express MER,k (W, V, V0 , λk ), TER,k W, V0 , λ̃k , problem is jointly convex with respect to the primal variables

TI (W, V, V0 , λI ) and MI W, V, V0 , λ̃I as and satisﬁes the Slaters condition [11]. Thus, according to (22),

the dual optimization problem is given by

MER,k(W, V, V0 ,λk ) = G̃H

k W̄ + V̄ + V̄0 G̃k + Λe,k , min max L (X) , (23)

{Xk },{Yk },Z,Ψ≥0 W,V,V0 ≥0

TER,k W, V0 , λ̃k = G̃H k rk V̄0 − W̄ G̃k + Λ̃e,k , Φ,Ξ,U≥0 t

α≥0

H

V, V0 , λI ) = H̃ (W − rV − rV0 ) H̃ + ΛI ,

TI (W,

and the solution is equivalent to (12) by the time the outer

MI W, V, V0 , λ̃I = H̃H (W + V + V0 ) H̃ + Λ̃I , layer optimization of (12) tend to over. Through it, we obtain

(19) {W∗ , V∗ , V0∗ , t∗ } and {X∗k , Yk∗ , Z∗ , Ψ∗ , Φ∗ , Ξ∗ , U∗ , α∗ } as

where the primal and dual optimal solution of (12). On the ba-

G̃k = [IN M ḡk ], H̃ = [IN h̄], sis of KKT conditions [11], the equation A∗1 + Φ∗ =

0, A∗1 W∗ = 0, Φ∗ W∗ = 0 holds, where A∗1 =

λk IN M 0

K M

(l,l) (l,l)

Λe,k = 0 − t − λ ε2 , Ze,k − Ue,k + Z̄∗ +Ψ̄∗ +2h̄h̄H − α∗ IN . For the

η k e,k

k=1 l=1

case that Φ∗ 0, so we have A∗1 0. Deﬁne

λ̃k IN M 0 M

Λ̃e,k = 2 , K

0 rk σE − λ̃k ε2e,k B∗1 ∗

= −α IN +

(l,l)

Ze,k − Ue,k

(l,l)

+ Z̄∗ + Ψ̄∗ , (24)

k=1 l=1

λI IN 0

ΛI = 2 , then we obtain

0 − rσρ − λI ε2I

A∗1 = B∗1 + 2h̄h̄H . (25)

λ̃I IN 0 Without loss of generality, we deﬁne r1 = rank (B∗1 ).

Λ̃I = Pmin .

0 − (1−ρ)η − λ̃I ε2I Next, two cases are considered of r1 to help our analysis of A∗1 .

4755

IEEE ICC 2015 - Signal Processing for Communications Symposium

∗

Firstly, we assume that r1 = N , i.e., the matrix ∗ T r GHk W̄

∗

− rk V̄N0−rGk

∗B1 is ofHfull-

rank. Upon this, we ∗

haverank (A1 ) = rank B1 + 2h̄h̄ ≥ 1

= T r GH k W ∗

− μ π π

n 1,n 1,n

H

− r V

k 0

∗

G k

rank (B∗1 )−rank 2h̄h̄H = N −1. However, rank (A∗1 ) = N H n=1

is undesirable because according to A∗1 W∗ = 0 it follows ∗ ∗

≤ T r Gk (W − rk V0 ) Gk ≤ rk σk , ∀k, 2

(12). Such that, we choose rank (A∗1 ) = N − 1 and deﬁne T r W̄∗ + V̄∗ + V̄0∗ H

τ1 ∈ CN ×1 , with unit norm, spans the null space of A∗1 . Then Pmin (32)

= T r [(W∗ + V∗ + V0∗ ) H] ≥ (1−ρ)η

we get the optimal solution W∗ = f τ1 τ1 H , f ≥ 0. Secondly,

we consider r1 < N , i.e., the matrix B∗1 is rank-defective. In T r W̄∗ + V̄∗ + V̄0∗ = T r (W∗ + V∗ + V0∗ ) ≤ P (33)

this case, we model N1 ∈ CN ×(N −r1 ) as the orthogonal basis ∗

k W̄ + V̄ + V̄0 Gk

∗

(34)

rank (N1 ) = N − r. Also, we set π1,n ∈ CN ×1 , 1 ≤ n ≤ = η T r GH ∗ ∗

k (W + V + V0 ) Gk

∗

≥ t̄∗ , ∀k,

N − r1 , as the nth column of matrix N1 . Then, we obtain the W̄∗ 0, V̄∗ 0, V̄0∗ 0. (35)

equality

H

∗

π1,n A∗1 π1,n = π1,nH

B1 + 2h̄h̄H π1,n The properties from

(30) to (35)

demonstrate that the

(26)

= 2π1,nH

h̄h̄H π1,n . alternative solution W̄∗ , V̄∗ , V̄0∗ , t̄∗ not only achieves the

same optimal value as {W∗ , V∗ , V0∗ , t∗ }, but also satisﬁes

Owing to A∗1 0 and |π1,n

H

h̄| ≥ 0, it results that all the

constraints

of our primal optimization problem with

rank W̄∗ = 1. Thus, we ﬁnish the proof of the second part

A∗1 N1 = 0 and h̄h̄H N1 = 0, (27) of Theorem 1.

i.e., N1 lies in the null space of both A∗1 H

and h̄h̄ . Since

rank (N1 ) = N − r1 , it deduces that rank (A∗1 ) ≤ N − R EFERENCES

(N − r1 ) = r1 . Whats more, according to (25), we achieve

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Now, we come to discuss about rank (W∗ ), i.e., whether [3] L. Liu, R. Zhang, and C. Ho, “Secrecy Wireless Information and Power

it equals to N − r1 or N − r1 + 1. Suppose that rank (W∗ ) = Transfer with MISO Beamforming,” in IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol.

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N−r1 [4] H. Zhang, K. Song, Y. Huang, and L. Yang, “Energy harvesting balancing

N1 and express W∗ as W∗ = H

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μn ≥ 0, ∀n. Nevertheless, due to (27), T r (HW∗ ) = Signal Processing (WCSP), Hangzhou, China, Oct. 2013.

N

−r1 [5] D. W. K. Ng, E. S. Lo, and R. Schober, “Robust Beamforming for

μn T r h̄h̄H π1,n π1,n

H

= 0 holds which violates the Secure Communication in Systems with Wireless Information and Power

n=1

Transfer,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., pp. 1-18, Apr. 2014, vol. PP,

SINR of IR ΓI > 0. Thus, it remains rank (W∗ ) = N −r1 +1. preprint.

According to what we have deﬁned the unique unit norm vector [6] R. Feng, Q. Li, Q. Zhang, “Robust Secure Transmission in MISO

τ1 ∈ CN ×1 which lie in the null space of A∗1 , it also satisﬁes Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer System,” to

N1 τ1 = 0. So, we obtain appear in IEEE Vehicular Technology Society, 2014.

W ∗ = [ N1 τ1 ] , (28) [7] H. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Li, and L. Yang, “Energy-Efﬁcient Precoder

Design for MIMO Wiretap Channels,” in IEEE Communications Letters,

and the optimal solution of (12) can be modeled as vol.18, no.9, pp.1559-1562, Sept. 2014.

[8] D. W. K. Ng, R. Schober, “Max-min Fair Wireless Energy Transfer for

N

−r1

Secure Multiuser Communication Systems,” arXiv:1404.1820v1 [cs.IT]

W∗ = H

μn π1,n π1,n + f τ1 τ1H , (29) 7 Apr. 2014.

n=1 [9] Q. Li and W.-K. Ma, “Spatially selective artiﬁcial-noise aided transmit

where μn ≥ 0, ∀n and f > 0. The ﬁrst part of Theorem 1 is optimization for MISO multi-eves secrecy rate maximization,” IEEE

Trans. Signal Process., vol. 61, pp. 2704-2717, May 2013.

thus proved.

[10] M. Grant and S. Boyd, CVX: Matlab software for disciplined convex

Next, we proof the second part of Theorem 1. Suppose programming (web page and software)., http://cvxr.com/cvx/, Apr. 2010.

we achieved the optimal solution {W∗ , V∗ , V0∗ , t∗ } of (12), [11] S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization, Cambridge Uni-

where the W∗ is given in (14) and μn > 0, i.e., rank

(W∗ ) > versity Press, 2004.

1. Then, an alternative solution W̄∗ , V̄∗ , V̄0∗ , t̄∗ can be [12] Y. Yang, Q. Li, and W.-K. Ma, “Cooperative secure beamforming for

AF relay networks with multiple eavesdroppers,” IEEE Signal Processing

constructed as given in (15)-(17) and it has the following Letters, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 35-38, Jan. 2013.

properties:

∗ ∗ ∗

[13] Y. Huang and D. P. Palomar, “Rank-constrained separable semideﬁnite

T r W̄ − rV̄ − rV̄0 H

program with applications to optimal beamforming,” IEEE Trans. Signal

N

−r1 Process., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 664-678, Feb. 2010.

∗ ∗ ∗ H

= T r W − rV − rV0 − (r + 1) μn π1,n π1,n H [14] J. Xu, L. Liu, and R. Zhang, “Multiuser MISO beamforming for

n=1 simultaneous wireless information and power transfer,” to appear in

rσI2

= T r [(W∗ − rV∗ − rV0∗ ) H] ≥ ρ ,

IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Pro-

cessing(ICASSP), 2013.

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