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19/09/16 Page 1/6

House 320, Wazir Akbar Khan - - Kabul - Afghanistan


SufHam

Grid-Connected System: Simulation parameters

Project : Grid-Connected Project at Shindand Substation


Geographical Site Shindand Substation Country Afghanistan
Situation Latitude 33.4°N Longitude 62.3°E
Time defined as Legal Time Time zone UT+4.5 Altitude 650 m
Albedo 0.20
Meteo data: Shindand Substation Synthetic - Meteonorm 6.1

Simulation variant : New simulation variant


Simulation date 19/09/16 11h06

Simulation parameters
Collector Plane Orientation Tilt 35° Azimuth 0°
Models used Transposition Perez Diffuse Erbs, Meteonorm
Horizon Average Height 5.8°
Near Shadings No Shadings

PV Array Characteristics
PV module a-Si:H tandem Model SZYL.60Cell
Manufacturer Yingli Solar
Number of PV modules In series 21 modules In parallel 200 strings
Total number of PV modules Nb. modules 4200 Unit Nom. Power 260 Wp
Array global power Nominal (STC) 1000 kWp At operating cond. 992 kWp (50°C)
Array operating characteristics (50°C) U mpp 506 V I mpp 1840 A
Total area Module area 6820 m²

Inverter Model 40000TL3-NS


Manufacturer Growatt
Characteristics Operating Voltage 450-750 V Unit Nom. Power 40 kWac
Inverter pack Nb. of inverters 25 units Total Power 1000 kWac

PV Array loss factors


Array Soiling Losses Loss Fraction 3.0 %
Thermal Loss factor Uc (const) 29.0 W/m²K Uv (wind) 0.0 W/m²K / m/s
Wiring Ohmic Loss Global array res. 4.9 mOhm Loss Fraction 1.5 % at STC
Module Quality Loss Loss Fraction 1.5 %
Module Mismatch Losses Loss Fraction 0.8 % at MPP
Incidence effect, ASHRAE parametrization IAM = 1 - bo (1/cos i - 1) bo Param. 0.05
Unavailability of the system 7.3 days, 3 periods Time fraction 2.0 %

User's needs : Unlimited load (grid)


19/09/16 Page 2/6

House 320, Wazir Akbar Khan - - Kabul - Afghanistan


SufHam

Grid-Connected System: Horizon definition


Project : Grid-Connected Project at Shindand Substation
Simulation variant : New simulation variant

Main system parameters System type Grid-Connected


Horizon Average Height 5.8°
PV Field Orientation tilt 35° azimuth 0°
PV modules Model Yingli Solar Pnom 260 Wp
PV Array Nb. of modules 4200 Pnom total 1000 kWp
Inverter Model Growatt, 40KW Pnom 40 kW ac
Inverter pack Nb. of units 25.0 Pnom total 1000 kW ac
User's needs Unlimited load (grid)

Horizon Average Height 5.8° Diffuse Factor 0.94


Albedo Factor 100 % Albedo Fraction 0.57

Height [°] 0.0 6.1 5.8 2.5 8.8 10.1 10.4 9.1 6.5 5.2 4.8 0.0
Azimuth [°] -120 -92 -77 -67 -46 -31 -12 20 35 49 64 120

Horizon line at Genève


Plane: tilt 35°, azimuth 0°
90
1: 22 june
2: 22 may - 23 july
12h 3: 20 apr - 23 aug
1 13h 4: 20 mar - 23 sep
2 5: 21 feb - 23 oct
75
6: 19 jan - 22 nov
11h 7: 22 december
3 14h

60 10h
4 15h
Sun height [[°]]

9h
45 5
16h

6
8h
7
30 17h

7h
18h
15

6h

Behind Behind
the plane the plane
0
-120 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 120
Azimuth [[°]]
19/09/16 Page 3/6

House 320, Wazir Akbar Khan - - Kabul - Afghanistan


SufHam

Grid-Connected System: Main results


Project : Grid-Connected Project at Shindand Substation
Simulation variant : New simulation variant

Main system parameters System type Grid-Connected


Horizon Average Height 5.8°
PV Field Orientation tilt 35° azimuth 0°
PV modules Model Yingli Solar Pnom 260 Wp
PV Array Nb. of modules 4200 Pnom total 1000 kWp
Inverter Model Growatt, 40KW Pnom 40 kW ac
Inverter pack Nb. of units 25.0 Pnom total 1000 kW ac
User's needs Unlimited load (grid)

Main simulation results


System Production Produced Energy 1864 MWh/year Specific prod. 1865 kWh/kWp/year
Performance Ratio PR 78.1 %
Investment Global incl. taxes 1358035 US$ Specific 1.36 US$/Wp
Yearly cost Annuities (Loan 0.0%, 20 years) 67902 US$/yr Running Costs 10000 US$/yr
Energy cost 0.04 US$/kWh

Normalized productions (per installed kWp): Nominal power 1000 kWp Performance Ratio PR
10 1.0
PR : Performance Ratio (Yf / Yr) : 0.781
Lc : Collection Loss (PV-array losses) 1.07 kWh/kWp/day
Ls : System Loss (inverter, ...) 0.35 kWh/kWp/day
Yf : Produced useful energy (inverter output) 5.11 kWh/kWp/day

8 0.8
Normalized Energy [kWh/kWp/day]

Performance Ratio PR

6 0.6

4 0.4

2 0.2

0 0.0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

New simulation variant


Balances and main results

GlobHor T Amb GlobInc GlobEff EArray E_Grid EffArrR EffSysR


kWh/m² °C kWh/m² kWh/m² MWh MWh % %
January 104.2 3.75 172.2 160.8 150.0 143.5 4.75 4.55
February 114.9 6.21 162.7 150.3 140.5 134.0 4.71 4.50
March 154.0 10.79 185.5 170.3 159.4 136.2 4.69 4.01
April 193.0 17.26 202.1 185.3 169.8 161.9 4.58 4.37
May 233.6 22.28 217.8 199.2 179.3 171.0 4.49 4.28
June 241.2 26.76 211.6 193.7 171.4 163.3 4.42 4.21
July 241.8 28.20 217.7 199.6 175.8 155.8 4.41 3.90
August 226.2 26.61 225.0 207.6 182.8 174.4 4.43 4.23
September 193.7 22.78 225.2 209.5 185.2 176.8 4.49 4.28
October 157.0 16.96 216.9 202.8 181.9 173.8 4.58 4.37
November 112.3 9.94 183.4 170.4 155.3 137.8 4.62 4.10
December 96.0 6.01 166.4 154.6 142.1 135.8 4.66 4.45
Year 2067.8 16.52 2386.5 2204.1 1993.6 1864.2 4.56 4.26

Legends: GlobHor Horizontal global irradiation EArray Effective energy at the output of the array
T Amb Ambient Temperature E_Grid Energy injected into grid
GlobInc Global incident in coll. plane EffArrR Effic. Eout array / rough area
GlobEff Effective Global, corr. for IAM and shadings EffSysR Effic. Eout system / rough area
19/09/16 Page 4/6

House 320, Wazir Akbar Khan - - Kabul - Afghanistan


SufHam

Grid-Connected System: Loss diagram


Project : Grid-Connected Project at Shindand Substation
Simulation variant : New simulation variant
Main system parameters System type Grid-Connected
Horizon Average Height 5.8°
PV Field Orientation tilt 35° azimuth 0°
PV modules Model Yingli Solar Pnom 260 Wp
PV Array Nb. of modules 4200 Pnom total 1000 kWp
Inverter Model Growatt, 40KW Pnom 40 kW ac
Inverter pack Nb. of units 25.0 Pnom total 1000 kW ac
User's needs Unlimited load (grid)

Loss diagram over the whole year

2068 kWh/m² Horizontal global irradiation


+15.4% Global incident in coll. plane

-2.4% Far Shadings / Horizon


-2.5% IAM factor on global
-3.0% Soiling loss factor

2204 kWh/m² * 18327 m² coll. Effective irradiance on collectors


efficiency at STC = 5.47% PV conversion

2210 MWh Array nominal energy (at STC effic.)


-1.5% PV loss due to irradiance level
-5.1% PV loss due to temperature
+0.1% Spectral correction for amorphous

-1.5% Module quality loss


-0.8% Module array mismatch loss
-1.2% Ohmic wiring loss
1994 MWh Array virtual energy at MPP

-4.5% Inverter Loss during operation (efficiency)


0.0% Inverter Loss over nominal inv. power
0.0% Inverter Loss due to power threshold
0.0% Inverter Loss over nominal inv. voltage
0.0% Inverter Loss due to voltage threshold
1903 MWh Available Energy at Inverter Output

-2.0% System unavailability

1864 MWh Energy injected into grid


19/09/16 Page 5/6

House 320, Wazir Akbar Khan - - Kabul - Afghanistan


SufHam

Grid-Connected System: Economic evaluation


Project : Grid-Connected Project at Shindand Substation
Simulation variant : New simulation variant

Main system parameters System type Grid-Connected


Horizon Average Height 5.8°
PV Field Orientation tilt 35° azimuth 0°
PV modules Model Yingli Solar Pnom 260 Wp
PV Array Nb. of modules 4200 Pnom total 1000 kWp
Inverter Model Growatt, 40KW Pnom 40 kW ac
Inverter pack Nb. of units 25.0 Pnom total 1000 kW ac
User's needs Unlimited load (grid)

Investment
PV modules (Pnom = 312 Wp) 3204 units US$ / unit US$
Supports / Integration US$ / module US$
Inverters (Pnom = 100 kW ac) 10 units US$ / unit US$

Settings, wiring, ... US$


Transformers US$
AC cabling US$
Grid Connection + SCADA US$
Transport and assembly US$
Engineering US$
Substitution underworth 0 US$
Gross investment (without taxes) US$

Financing
Gross investment (without taxes) US$
Taxes on investment (VAT) Rate 15.0 % US$
Gross investment (including VAT) US$
Subsidies 0 US$
Net investment (all taxes included) US$
Annuities ( Loan 0.0 % over 20 years) US$/year
Annual running costs: maintenance, insurances ... US$/year
Total yearly cost US$/year

Energy cost
Produced Energy 1864 MWh / year

Cost of produced energy 0.04 US$ / kWh


19/09/16 Page 6/6

House 320, Wazir Akbar Khan - - Kabul - Afghanistan


SufHam

Grid-Connected System: CO2 Balance


Project : Grid-Connected Project at Shindand Substation
Simulation variant : New simulation variant

Main system parameters System type Grid-Connected


Horizon Average Height 5.8°
PV Field Orientation tilt 35° azimuth 0°
PV modules Model Yingli Solar Pnom 260 Wp
PV Array Nb. of modules 4200 Pnom total 1000 kWp
Inverter Model Growatt, 40KW Pnom 40 kW ac
Inverter pack Nb. of units 25.0 Pnom total 1000 kW ac
User's needs Unlimited load (grid)

Produced Emissions Total: 1881.55 tCO2


Source: Detailed calculation from table below
Replaced Emissions Total: 5592.7 tCO2
System production: 1864.24 MWh/yr Lifetime: 30 years
Annual Degradation: 1.0 %
Grid Lifecycle Emissions: 100 gCO2/kWh
Source: Custom value supplied by User
CO2 Emission Balance Total: 2971.1 tCO2

System Lifecycle Emissions Details:


Item Modules Supports
LCE 1713 kgCO2/kWp 5.27 kgCO2/kg
Quantity 1000 kWp 32040 kg
Subtotal [kgCO2] 1712720 168828

Saved CO2 Emission vs. Time


3000

2000
Balance [tCO2]

1000

-1000

-2000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Year