Deep beams are the members loaded on one face and supported on the opposite face so that
compression struts can develop between the loads and the supports. The analysis of deep beam by finite element
method is presented in this paper, which involves the convergence study of deflection, bending stress and shear
stress stresses at a critical point of the beam.There are several analytical tools available for analyzing of deep
beam. Among all the available analytical methods, finite element analysis (FEA) offers a better option. The
structural bending members can be broadly divided into two regions. The first region is the Bernoulli regions (Bregions), where the strain distribution is linear The second region is the D or Distributed regions, where the strain
distribution is nonlinear as in the case of deep beams. It is recognized that the distribution of the strain across the
section of deep beam is nonlinear and hence, these structural elements belong to the D-Regions. Traditionally, the
D-Regions have been designed using empirical formulae or past experience. The analysis of deep beams we
generally use SAP, ANSYS software. Result of flexural stress and shear Stress of cantilever prismatic deep beam
obtained using FEM program for Iso-parametric elements and ANSYS 2D and 3D analysis are compared.
Keywords: Deep beam, Aspect ratio, Convergence study, Flexural stress

© All Rights Reserved

18 tayangan

Deep beams are the members loaded on one face and supported on the opposite face so that
compression struts can develop between the loads and the supports. The analysis of deep beam by finite element
method is presented in this paper, which involves the convergence study of deflection, bending stress and shear
stress stresses at a critical point of the beam.There are several analytical tools available for analyzing of deep
beam. Among all the available analytical methods, finite element analysis (FEA) offers a better option. The
structural bending members can be broadly divided into two regions. The first region is the Bernoulli regions (Bregions), where the strain distribution is linear The second region is the D or Distributed regions, where the strain
distribution is nonlinear as in the case of deep beams. It is recognized that the distribution of the strain across the
section of deep beam is nonlinear and hence, these structural elements belong to the D-Regions. Traditionally, the
D-Regions have been designed using empirical formulae or past experience. The analysis of deep beams we
generally use SAP, ANSYS software. Result of flexural stress and shear Stress of cantilever prismatic deep beam
obtained using FEM program for Iso-parametric elements and ANSYS 2D and 3D analysis are compared.
Keywords: Deep beam, Aspect ratio, Convergence study, Flexural stress

© All Rights Reserved

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PARAMETRIC ELEMENTS

1

M. Tech Student, 2Asst. Prof., 3HOD,

1,2,3

Department of Civil Engineering,

1,2,3

G. H. Raisoni Academy of Engg. & Tech. Nagpur, India.

Abstract: Deep beams are the members loaded on one face and supported on the opposite face so that

compression struts can develop between the loads and the supports. The analysis of deep beam by finite element

method is presented in this paper, which involves the convergence study of deflection, bending stress and shear

stress stresses at a critical point of the beam.There are several analytical tools available for analyzing of deep

beam. Among all the available analytical methods, finite element analysis (FEA) offers a better option. The

structural bending members can be broadly divided into two regions. The first region is the Bernoulli regions (B-

regions), where the strain distribution is linear The second region is the D or Distributed regions, where the strain

distribution is nonlinear as in the case of deep beams. It is recognized that the distribution of the strain across the

section of deep beam is nonlinear and hence, these structural elements belong to the D-Regions. Traditionally, the

D-Regions have been designed using empirical formulae or past experience. The analysis of deep beams we

generally use SAP, ANSYS software. Result of flexural stress and shear Stress of cantilever prismatic deep beam

obtained using FEM program for Iso-parametric elements and ANSYS 2D and 3D analysis are compared.

I. INTRODUCTION

Deep beam defind as when ratio of effective span to overall depth is less than 1) 2.0 for simply supported

beam 2) 2.5 for continuous beam. The main objective of this project is to provide a brief idea about

behavior of tapered deep beams and the use of Finite Element Method Program for isoparametric

elements for the analysis of deep beams. The study is focused on the variation of distribution of flexural

stress and shear stress through the section of deep beam. The specific objectives of this thesis include.

1. Analysis of deep beams and deep tapered beam subjected to point load.

2. Comparative study of deep beams of various aspect ratios using FEM.

3. Comparisons of the results obtained from FEM Program for Iso-parametric elements, and

ANSYS 2D and 3D

The displacement potential formulation is investigated here to analyze the elastic behavior of a guided

deep beam under uniform loading with two simple supports. The lateral displacement, bending stress and

shear stress are studied. The displacement potential solutions are then compared with those of the

classical bending theory as well as finite element method (FEM).The comparative study reveals that the

classical theory of bending is simply inadequate to predict the stress and displacements fields of the

International Journal of Scientific Research and Review ISSN NO: 2279-543X

guided beam, however, the solutions obtained by FEM are found to approach towards the analytical

solution far better than that of classical theory.

Hyperbolic shear deformation theory is used for thick isotropic beams. The hyperbolic sine function is

used in the displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent shear deformation. General

solutions of thick isotropic simply supported, cantilever and fixed beams subjected to uniformly

distributed and concentrated loads are obtained. Expressions for transverse displacement of beams are

obtained and contribution due to shear deformation to the maximum transverse displacement is

investigated.

Analytically studied R.C. simply supported beams subjected to two point loads using FEM. Flexural

stress, flexural strain, and shear stress variations at different sections for various L/D ratios were studied

and compared with Euler Bernoulli Theory (EBT). L/D ratios are varied as 1.25, 1.375, 1.5 .It is

concluded that the flexural stress and strain variation graphs indicate that the definition of simply

supported deep beam as per IS456:2000 i.e when L/D ratio is less than or equal to 2.0 is reasonably

accurate. Flexural strain and stress of deep beams is not linear. Shear effect is predominant in beams

having L/D ratio less than or equal to 2.0 which may lead to warping of the section. The flexural steel

requirements are inversely proportionally to the Effective span to Depth Ratio of deep beam.

In this paper they have investigated the factors influencing the selection of elements in finite element

analysis (FEA) by considering the effects of different types of elements on the results of FEAA simple

case study of an I-beam subjected to an asymmetric load is carried out by FEA. Three different models of

the I-beam were prepared and analyzed separately using 1D elements2D elements, and 3D elements. The

FEA results of these models showed good agreement with the theoretical calculation despite the small and

negligible errors in the analysis.

The experimental investigation using different country codes is carried out to find out the strength,

cracking pattern and behavior of deep beam under two point loads for L/D ratios such as 1.71, 1.6 and

1.5The conclusions made are

– As L/D ratio decreases the flexure steel increases

– As L/D ratio decreases there is an increase in strength of deep beam

– As L/D ratio increases the lever arm decrease

In the book titled “Introduction To Finite Element Method” P. N. Godbole Presented different

isoparametric elements such as two noded bar element for 1D analysis, linear, quadratic and cubic and

triangular elements for 2D analysis and their formulation in Finite Element Method. It gives the details of

Finite Element Method Program for analysis of 2D problems of plain stress, plain strain, axisymmetric

problems using linear and quadratic isoparametric elements.

International Journal of Scientific Research and Review ISSN NO: 2279-543X

The Euler-Bernoulli elementary theory of bending (EBT) of beam disregards the effect of shear

deformation. The theory is suitable for slender beams and not for the deep beams since it is based on the

assumption that the plane section before bending remains plane after bending. The elementary beam

theory neglects the transverse shear deformation and hence underestimates the deflections in case of deep

beams, where shear deformation effects are significant. The discrepancies in the elementary theory of

beam bending forced the development of higher order or refined shear deformation theories. Following

are the various methods which can be used for the flexural analysis of deep beams:

• Finite Element Method

• Finite Difference Method

• Stress Function Approach

• Elementary Beam Theory

• First-order Shear Deformation Theory

• Higher order Shear Deformation Theory

• Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory

• Parabolic Shear Deformation Theory

• Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory

The finite element method (FEM) is a numerical analysis technique for obtaining approximate solutions

to a wide variety of problems in engineering and science. The FEM is ideally suited for problems

involving complicated geometries, loadings and boundary conditions, for which analytical mathematical

solutions are not possible. This method is similar to matrix displacement method of structural analysis in

which a skeletal structure is made up of one-dimensional members connected at joints (bars/truss,

beam/frame type). The basic concept of finite element method is based on dividing the complete

structure0/domain/region into smaller pieces or sub-regions known as elements. It is assumed that, these

elements are interconnected at finite number of joints or nodes. The elements can be of any size

depending on the problem. The dividing or splitting of the structure into number of elements is called

discretization or idealization.

V. ANSYS

ANSYS software is a powerful and flexible general-purpose finite element analysis and computational

fluid dynamics package used for civil engineering. Mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, physis

and chemistry simulations. Simulation tools including ANSYS Mechanical APDL,ANSYS CFX and

International Journal of Scientific Research and Review ISSN NO: 2279-543X

ANSYS FLUENT, can also solve mechanical problems, static/dynamic structural analysis, heat transfer

and fluid problem as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems.

ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of

problems in engineering, in particular:

1. Static/dynamic structural analysis ( both linear and non-linear)

2. Fluid analysis- Laminar and turbulent flow

3. Acoustic analysis

4. Electromagnetic analysis

5. Thermal analysis-conduction, convection , radiation

6. Transient thermal analysis

7. Spectrum analysis

8. Bucking analysis

9. Harmonic analysis

10. Model analysis – Vibration characteristics

6.1For Finite Element:The basic requirement for the element to be Iso-parametric is to use same shape

function or interpolation function to define the element shape (i.e. coordinates) as is used to define the

unknown functional (i.e. displacement) within the element. The element can be for one-, two-, three-

dimensional elasticity problems or for plates and shell problem.

6.2For Ansys:PLANE82 is a higher order version of the 2-D, four-node element (PLANE 42). It provides

more accurate results for mixed (quadrilateral-triangular) automatic meshes and can tolerate irregular

shapes without as much loss of accuracy. The 8-node elements have compatible displacement shapes and

are well suited to model curved boundaries.

The 8-node element is defined by eight nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in

the nodal x and y directions. The element may be used as a plane element or as an axisymmetric element.

The element has plasticity, creep, swelling, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities.

Various printout options are also available. See PLANE82 in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical

APDL and Mechanical Applications for more details about this element. See PLANE83 for a description

of an axisymmetric element which accepts nonaxisymmetric loading.

The use of reinforced concrete deep beam has become more prevalent in recent years. Deep beams often

appear in form of transfer girders in high rise building as well as pile caps, foundation walls, water tanks,

bins, folded plate roof structures, floor diaphragms, shear walls & brackets or corbels. Plane section

before bending remains plane after bending does not hold good for deep beams. The behavior of deep

International Journal of Scientific Research and Review ISSN NO: 2279-543X

beam is significantly different from that of beams of more normal proportions, requiring special

consideration in analysis, design and detailing of reinforcement. A deep beam is in fact a vertical plate

subjected to loading in its own plane. The strain or stress distribution across the depth is no longer a

straight line, and the variation is mainly dependent on the aspect ratio of the beam.

VII. CONCLUSION

Most importantly it is observed that maximum value of shear stress in case of DEEP TAPERED BEAM

is always on the tapered edge and it goes on reducing towards the straight edge giving the minimum value

on straight edge.

Deflection values given by EBT are much less than the values given by FEM program and ANSYS in

case of rectangular deep beam. Hence, the present method of analysis is more relevant and useful for the

analysis of deep elements.

REFERENCES

1. MuziburRahman, ReazAhmed S. (2008) “Toward The Exact Elasticity Solution Of A Deep Beam With Guided

Ends”, Proceedings of the 4th BSME-ASME International Conference on Thermal Engineering 27-29 Dhaka,

Bangladesh.

2. Yuwaraj M. Ghugal And Rajneesh Sharma (2011) “A refined shear deformation theory for flexure of thick

beams”, Latin AmericanJournal of Solids and Strures Vo1. 8183-195.

3. Niranjan B.R. and Patil S. S. (2012), “Analysis of Deep Beam By Finite Element Method” , IJMER VOL. 2, Issue

4. Wai Chi Mun, AhemadRivai, OmarBapokutty“Effects of elements on linear elastic stress analysis: A Finite

Element Approach”. IJRET: International Journal of Reaserch in Engineering and TechnologyVolume:2 Issue:10-

Oct 2013

5. Sudarshan D. and Patil S.S. (2013) “Analysis and Design of R. C. Deep Beams Using Code Provisions of

Different Countries and Their Comparison” , , International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology

(IJEAT) ISSN: 2249-8958, Volume-2, Issue-3.

6. Godbole P. N. (2013) “Introduction to Finite Element Method”, Page No. 23-184 I. K. Publishing House Pvt.

Ltd. New Delhi Page

7. ANSYS 12 Manual (2007), “Element References”, Ansysln.,

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