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[4] PEMBIAKAN

4.1 PEMBIAKAN SEKSUAL & ASEKSUAL


PEMBIAKAN SEKSUAL Perbezaan PEMBIAKAN ASEKSUAL
2 Bil Induk 1

Ya Adakah melibatkan Tidak


gamet?
(sel pembiakan)
Ya Persenyawaan Tidak
(gabungan sel jantan &
betina)
Tinggi Aras Organisma Rendah

Berbeza dari induk Ciri anak yang Sama seperti induk


dihasilkan

PEMBIAKAN

PEMBIAKAN PEMBIAKAN
SEKSUAL ASEKSUAL

belahan dedua Penjanaan semula


Persenyawaan dalam Persenyawaan Luar Amoeba Flatworm
paramesium Starfish

Pembentukan tunas pembentukan spora


Hydra Fungi, mushroom
Yeast Mosses, fern

Vegetatif

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4.2 Sistem Pembiakan Lelaki

Kelenjar
prostat Pundi
kencing kencing

Vesikel
semen semen

duktus
sperma
uretra
zakar

testis
skrotum

Struktur Fungsi

Testis Menghasilkan sperma dan hormone testosteron


(sperma -> gamet jantan)
Duktus sperma Memindahkan sperma dari testis ke uretra

Vesikel semen Menghasilkan cecair yang membekalkan nutrient


kepada sperma
(sperma + cecair = cecair semen)
Kelenjar Prostat Menghasilkan cecair yang mengaktifkan sperma

Uretra Mengangkut sperma dan urin keluar dari badan

Zakar Memindahkan sperma ke dalam faraj.

Skrotum Memelihara dan mengawal suhu testis

Kelenjar seks Merangkumi vesikel semen dan prostat

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4.3 Organ Pembiakan Wanita

Tiub fallopio
(oviduktus)
ovari
uterus

pundi kencing
serviks

uretra

faraj

Struktur Fungsi

Ovari Menghasilkan sel ovum dan hormone (progestron)

Tiub fallopio Tempat dimana persenyawaan berlaku.


Memindahkan ovum.
Uterus Tempat dimana proses penempelan berlaku
Embrio akan terus berkembang disini membentuk
fetus.
Servik Membenarkan sperma memasuki uterus

Faraj Menerima sperma dari organ pembiakan lelaki (zakar)

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Perbezaan antara Sperma dan Ovum: (sel gamet)

Ciri
Sperma Ovum
Merupakan sel terkecil dalam Saiz Merupakan sel terbesar
manusia dalam manusia
Testis Tempat dihasilkan Ovari
Berenang Pergerakan Tidak boleh bergerak sendiri
Berjuta Bil dihasilkan 1 dalam tempoh 28 hari
72 jam Jangka hayat sel 24 jam
(di luar badan manusia)
Persamaan:
 Kedua-duanya merupakan sel pembiakan
 Kedua-duanya diperlukan semasa persenyawaan

Perubahan semasa peringkat akil baligh

Lelaki Wanita
(testosterone) (progesteron)
Perubahan suara (suara garau) Pembesaran payudara & pinggul

Pertumbuhan misai / janggut / bulu ketiak haid

Pertumbuhan jerawat Pertumbuhan bulu ketiak & sekitar pubis

Pertumbuhan otot Mula berasa malu


(dada , lengan)
Pertumbuhan jerawat / perubahan suara

Lebih beremosi

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4.4 Kitar haid

Days in menstrual cycle Phase


1–5 Menstrual phase
 Discharge of death egg, blood, uterus lining.
6 – 11 Repair phase
 Rebuild and thickening of uterus lining.
12 – 16 Fertile phase
 Ovulation (release of ovum) on day 14
 Uterus lining continue to develop
17 – 28 Premenstrual phase
 Uterus lining continue to develop
 Repair for implantation (pregnancy)
 If not pregnan, uterus lining will break and new
cycle start.

4.5 Fertilisation and Pregnancy

Dedinition:
Fertilisation – diffusion of male gamete(sperm) and famalegamet(ovum) to form zygote
(at fallopian tube / oviduct)

Implantation – attachment of embryo to uterus wall (pragnency)

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PART FUNCTION

Plasenta

Umbilical cord :
- Umbilical artery
- Umbilical vein

Amniotic fluid

Development of embryo:

(result of fertilisation) (1 week) (8 weeks) (36-40 weeks)


Zygote  embryo  foetus  baby
(a ball of cells) (resembles of human) (at birth)

4.6 The Importance of Prenatal Care

Nutrien for pregnant mother:


(i) Iron - formation of haemoglobin.
(ii) Calcium & phosphorous – formation of bones and teeth.
(iii) Foric acid – development of nervous system / brain.

Harmful substance for pregnant mother:


(i) alcohol – cause foetal alcohol syndrome(slow growth, damage brain/nervous system).
(ii) Cigarette smoke – smaller, stillborn, retarded babies.
(iii) Drug – foetal death, damage brain

4.7 The Importance of Research in Human Reproduction

A. Sterility / Infertility
1. Causes of sterility
(i) In female
 Defective of reproductive organ
 Inability to produce ovum
 Blocked fallopian tube
 Inability to implant
 Health problem (diabetes, hypertension)

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(ii) In male
 Defective of reproductive organ
 Inability to produce sperm
 Low sperm count
 Weak, defect, inactive sperm

2. Method to overcome sterility


(i) In vitro fertilisation (IVF) - test tube baby
(ii) Nutrition - take nutritious food
(iii) Hormones treatment
(iv) Surgery – remove blockage
(v) Surrogate mother (ibutumpang)
(vi) Sperm bank / donation
(vii) Ovum donation
(viii) GIFT (gamete intra-fallopian transfer)
(ix) ZIFT (zygote intra-fallopian transfer)
(x) IUI (intrauterine insemination)

B. Birth control
Method of Birth Control How its works
Natural Method
 Rhythm  Avoid sexual intercorse during fertile phase.
 Withdrawal  Ejaculation outside female body
Mechanical
 Condom  Prevent fertilisation
 Diaphragm  Prevent fertilisation
 IUCD / IUD  Prevent fertilisation and implantation
Chemical
 Spermacides  Kill sperm
Hormonal
 Contraceptive pills / injection /  Prevent ovulation
implant
Surgical
 Vasectomy (male)  Prevent fertilisation (stop sperm from released)
 Tubectomy / Ligation (female)  Prevent fertilisation (stop ovum from released)

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4.8 Sexual Reproductive System of Flowering Plant

Male parts
(Stamen)

Female parts
(Pistil)

Part of flower Function


Anther

Filament

Stigma

Style

Ovary

Ovule

Petal

Sepal

Stalk

4.9 Pollination
Define – transfer of pollen grain from anther to stigma

Pollination agent:
1. Animal
(i) Insects (bees, butterfly)
(ii) Birds (honey birds)
(iii) Bat
2. Wind
3. Water

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Characteristic of flowers pollinated by insects and wind:
Insects pollinated flower Wind pollinated flower
Big, bright colour Petal Small, not bright
Large size, small number, Pollen grain Small size, large number,
sticky powdery
Sticky Stigma Feathery
Located in the flower Anther Hang outside the flower
Presence Nectar Absence
Scented Smell No scent

Type of pollination:
(i) Self pollination- transfer of pollen grain from anther to stigma of same plant.
(ii) Cross pollination- transfer of pollen grain from anther to stigma of different plant.

Self pollination Cross pollination


1 Number of plant required 2
1 or 2 Number of flower 2
Same time (1 flower), Time of stigma and entherto Same time
Different time (2 flower) mature

Advantages of Cross pollination (produce new variety of plant):


(i) Produce healthier plant – resistance to disease and insects
(ii) Produce stronger plant – able to live in difficult condition.
(iii) Produce plant with better quality of fruit, flower, seed
(iv) Produce plant which mature earlier.

4.10 Development of Fruit and Seed

Fertilisation
i) Pollen grain fall on stigma and germinate in sugary liquid.
ii) Pollen tube grow from pollen grain to ovary
iii) Male gamete move along the pollen tube.
iv) The end of pollen tube break and male gamete fuse with
female gamete (ovule)-fertilisation.

Formation of fruit and seed (after fertilisation):


(i) Ovary – develope into fuit.
(ii) Ovule – develop into seed.
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4.11 Germination of Seeds
Structure and function of seed

Changes during germination


(i) Seed absorb water through micropile.
(ii) Testa breaks
(iii) radicle develop into root
(iv) Plumule develop into shoot,
(v) Cotyledon shed / fall off

Condition for gemination:


(i) Water
 Soften the testa
 Medium for enzyme action
(ii) Air (oxygen)
 For respiration (oxidation of food)

(iii) Suitable temperature (30-35°C)


 To activate enzyme

Type of germination

Epigeal – cotyledon moved above soil Hipogeal - cotyledonremain under soil

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Experiment to determine the condition for germination of seed

Observation:
Test Condition presence Changes of Inferences
tube seed
A Water, air, suitable Germinate Presence of Water, air,
temperature suitable temperature
B Air, suitable temperature Not Absence of water.
germinate
C Water, suitable temperature Not Absence of air
germinate
D Water, air Not Absence of suitable
germinate temperature

4.12 Vegetative Reproduction in Flowering Plant

Vegetative Part Description Examples

Stem
 Runner  Creeping spem at surface Grass, strawberry,
 Tuber  Underground swollen stem English potatto
 Rhizome  Underground stem Ginger, lalang, kunyit
 Bulb  Stem with wollen leaf based Onion, garlic
 Corm  Underground vertical stem Yam, water chestnut

Leaves Bryophyllum, begonia

Roots Carrot, sweet potatto

Shoot
 Sucker  Underground shoot Bannana, bamboo

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