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Henri deVick

made in Europe . . . inventions that changed

European civilization. The inventions were: the

It was mounted in the Palais de Justice building,

and all the churches of Paris were supposed to

ring the hour according to its time. De Vick’s

moldboard plow, horseshoes, and efficient horse clock was famous as a mechanical marvel, but it

harness. also changed the way people told time. Before

his clock the time between sunup and sundown

These three devices gradually increased agricul- was divided into seven hours, based on the canon

tural output beyond what a peasant needed to of the church. On long summer days hours were

live. long, in winter hours were short. De Vick’s

clock helped change French timekeeping from

To sell the excess grain and vegetables, farmers the church’s variable length hours to the clock’s

markets developed. Around the markets towns fixed length hours of sixty minutes each.

grew. By the 1500’s towns and cities had sprung

up throughout all of Europe. It was the develop- Early clock builders like De Vick spent a lot of

ment of these towns that more than anything else time trying to make workable gear trains. Why?

led to the industrial revolution and our modern Because gears provided transmission of motion

society. in exact speed ratios. A clock builder needs the

minute hand to go exactly, not approximately, 12

Peasants don’t need clocks. They need only work times faster than the hour hand.

from sunup to sundown. As towns developed,

however, methods of keeping time were needed

to regulate hours of trade and to set appoint-

ments.

Gear Ratios

Early clocks worked by letting water drop into a

container. The level of water told the time. When two spur gears (or any other type of gears)

These water clocks were bulky and awkward to are in mesh, the number of teeth in one gear

use. What was needed was a mechanical clock. divided by the number of teeth in the other is

called the gear ratio.

ratio of this gear

In 1364 Henri de Vick, under contract to set is 59 ÷ 17, or

Charles V, King of France, began building one of 17 ÷ 59.

the world’s first mechanical clocks. When

finished in 1370 it was about sixteen feet high. It

used a hanging weight for power, had an escape-

ment mechanism and balance wheel, and used

eight gears.

13

Page 14 2. Gear Ratios and Structures

1

In gearing, we usually use a colon (:) instead of a zero six to one”.

division sign (÷). So 59 teeth and 17 teeth would

be 59 : 17 or 17 : 59.

All these ways of writing gear ratios - fractions,

colons, and division signs - are equivalent.

When speaking, the colon represents “to”. So, we They all mean the same thing.

say “fifty-nine to seventeen” or “seventeen to

fifty-nine”. A gear with a small number of teeth (under

approximately 20 to 25 teeth) is called a

pinion. (Say pin-yun).

Usually, but not always, the big number is given

first.

A pinion can be large . . .

59 : 17 . . . not 17 : 59.

gear ratio is one number divided by another.)

“three point four seven zero six to one.”

Or it can be small . . .

Ratios as Fractions

a fraction . . .

59 3.4706

59:17 = = 1

17

17 1

17:59 = = 3.4706

59

the fraction line stand for “to”.

17 If the teeth are big, the pinion is big. If the teeth

are small the pinion is small. In either case, it is

Or, if it’s divided out . . . called a pinion because it has a small number of

teeth.

14

2. Gear Ratios and Structures Page 15

with a gear with a small number of teeth, we call

them a “gear and pinion”. The big gear is called

simply a gear. The small gear is called a pinion.

Write your answers in the space allowed after each question. Correct answers follow the

questions. Don’t peek until you’ve written your best guess in the blank spaces.

b. Reduce it to 1.

c. Write it as a fraction.

15

Page 16 2. Gear Ratios and Structures

a. With a colon.

b. Colon reduced to 1.

c. As a fraction.

d. Fraction reduced to 1.

a. With a colon.

c. As a fraction.

d. As a fraction reduced to 1.

3. a. 39:13

Self Study Answers

b. 3:1

1. a. 48:12 (or 12:48, but usually written 39

with the big number first.) c.

13

d. 3

b. 4:1

1

c. 48 e. “Thirty-nine to thirteen.”

12

d. 4 f. “Three to one.”

1

61 tooth is the gear

b. 3.588:1

16

2. Gear Ratios and Structures Page 17

17

d. 3.588

1

e. “Sixty-one to seventeen.”

through the gears and either be crushed, or wreck

the gears. A hand or finger will be crushed

Direction of Rotation between the gears. A piece of clothing caught in

the gears will pull your body into the gear mesh.

Notice that a gear set reverses direction of

rotation, clockwise to counterclockwise, or CCW Keep away from rotating gears.

to CW.

Gears should be enclosed and shielded to keep

If the pinion turns clockwise, the mating gear will people and objects from getting caught.

turn counter-clockwise. If the pinion turns

counter-clockwise, the mate will turn clockwise.

measured in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).

times in one minute, it’s going 16 RPM. If it

spins exactly 1000.9 times it’s going 1000.9

RPM.

2. What’s the RPM of one turning exactly once around every five minutes?

17

Page 18 2. Gear Ratios and Structures

The larger gear always goes slower, or has a

1. 590 RPM. lower RPM than the small gear.

1

2. RPM

5

Rule 2. The Speed Ratio is the Gear Ratio

Explanation . . . in one minute it will only go turned upside down.

one fifth of a complete revolution.

Example :

3. 420 RPM Gear = 59 Teeth

Explanation . . . there are 60 seconds in a Gear Ratio = Pinion 17 Teeth

minute. 7 × 60 = 420.

Speed Ratio = Pinion

59 RPM

Mathematically we say speed ratio is the

reciprocal of gear ratio.

Speed Ratios

Teeth in Gear #1 RPM Gear #2

Teeth in Gear #2 = RPM Gear #1

The speed ratio of two gears in mesh is the RPM

of one divided by the RPM of the other.

Use two steps to get the answer. For example:

(the same as gear ratios).

What RPM does the 59 tooth gear go?

RPM #1

or RPM #2 = Speed Ratio

Step 1. 59 T. gear is bigger, so it goes slower.

Therefore, the answer will be less than

200 RPM.

When two gears are in mesh, and you know the

gear ratio and the RPM of one gear, you can Step 2. Multiply 200 RPM (pinion speed) by

figure out the RPM of the other gear. the ratio with small number on top, to

get an answer smaller than 200.

59

Rule 1. When two gears are in mesh, the smaller

gear always goes faster, (has the higher Answer is 57.63 RPM.

RPM).

18

2. Gear Ratios and Structures Page 19

Fractions

small number

100 × BIG NUMBER = smaller than 100

Remember . . . Multiplying any number by a

fraction that has a small number on top and a

large number on the bottom will give a smaller For example:

number for an answer.

365 × 10

12 = smaller than 365

100 × BIG NUMBER = BIGGER than 100

small number

12

365 × 10 = LARGER than 365

Write your answers in the space provided. Correct answers follow the questions.

pinion rotation.

19

Page 20 2. Gear Ratios and Structures

Draw an arrow showing direction of 39 T. gear rotation.

shaft at 600 RPM. What gear ratio do you need to connect motor to

shaft? Does the big or small gear go on the motor shaft?

between 15 T. and 25 T. If you pick a 20 T. pinion, how many teeth must the

gear have?

Check answer :

Self Study Answers

1. 300 is less than 900, so that much is okay.

1. Answer is 300 RPM.

2. Speed Ratio = pinion = 900 = 3

Step 1. 54 T. gear is bigger, so it will go

slower. gear 54 3

18 Gear Ratio = pinion = 18 = 1

Step 2. 900 × 54 = 300 RPM

3 1

1 is the reciprocal of 3 so the answer is correct.

20

2. Gear Ratios and Structures Page 21

Explanation : Explanation:

Step 1. 19 T. pinion is smaller, so it goes faster. Step 1. 39 T. gear is bigger, so it goes slower.

Answer will be bigger than 81 RPM. Answer will be less than 41 RPM.

60

Step 2. 81 × 19 = 255.79

Step 2. 41 × 38

39 = 39.95 RPM

Check Answer:

okay.

60 255.79 41 39

2. 19 = 3.158 81 = 3.158 = 1.0263 = 1.0263

39.95 38

OK OK

Explanation:

so answer will be bigger than

112.

Step 2. 112 × 96

21 = 512 RPM.

Check Answer : 5. Answer is 437.5 RPM.

okay.

512 96 Step 1. 80 T. gear is bigger, so it goes slower.

2. = 4.571 21 = 4.571 Answer is less than 1750 RPM.

112

OK 20

Step 2 . 1750 × = 437.5

80

Direction of rotation:

Check answer :

1750 80 = 4

437.5 = 4 20

OK

21

Page 22 2. Gear Ratios and Structures

6. Answer is 3:1 ratio with small gear on the ters or inches with a fairly loose tolerance.

motor shaft.

Explanation:

1800 3

600 = 1 = 3:1 Face

the face width. It’s given in millimeters or

inches with a loose tolerance.

7. Answer is 60 teeth.

Explanation :

than pinion, so it will have more

teeth.

Step 2. 20 × 31 = 60

Hub

Gear Parts and Structure

gears is called a hub, or hub projection.

section view. On engineering drawings you will

most often see gears shown in section views.

Outside Diameter

22

2. Gear Ratios and Structures Page 23

keyway. Matching slots, called keyways, are cut

into the shaft and the gear bore. A square pin,

called a key, is put in the slots, half in one slot,

half in the other. With the key in place, the gear

can’t spin on the shaft. The two are locked

together as if they were one piece.

A, B and C Hubs

A hub one side only is called a “B” hub, sliding out.

or B style hub.

hub.

will be over the keyway, and one at 90° or 180°.

style.

23

Page 24 2. Gear Ratios and Structures

Dimensions

sioned.

plus hub projection. In this sample it equals 3/4".

Draw or write your answers in the space provided after each question, or on the blank line.

Correct answers follow the questions.

1. Draw a section view of a steel spur gear with these dimensions. Draw

freehand. Drawing does not have to be full size, or to scale. Put

dimensions on the drawing.

3" O.D.

1" face, 1.000" bore

1/2" hub projection one side

1" hub projection other side

2" hub diameter

1/4" × 1/8" keyway

(1) set screw over keyway

2 1/2" through bore

24

2. Gear Ratios and Structures Page 25

There are three types of normal gear structures or

construction. Gears can be: Plain, Webbed, or

Spoked.

struction.

reduce the weight. Since steel and iron are

Keyway Size purchased by the pound, reducing weight reduces

cost.

An informal rule of thumb for keyway size is:

Bore diameter

Keyway width = 4 (approximately)

wide keyway. A 1-1/2" bore has a 3/8" keyway,

and so forth. K.W. widths are always even sized

. . . 1/4", 1/2", etc., and not odd decimal sizes.

To lighten gear weight even more, holes can be

made in the web. These are called lightening

holes.

25

Page 26 2. Gear Ratios and Structures

is then fastened to a shaft.

Spokes

Integral Pinions

made integral with their shaft.

tions are measured from the rim, not from the

web.

Ring Gears

gear.

made as small in diameter as possible. If you

make the pinion diameter small for a given ratio,

you can make the gear proportionately small.

This allows the whole drive assembly and

housing to be small, resulting in lower cost.

Integral pinions are often used for this reason.

26

2. Gear Ratios and Structures Page 27

Write or draw your answers in the spaces provided after each question. Correct answers

follow. Don’t peek until you’ve actually written your answers down.

a.

b.

c.

d.

27

Page 28 2. Gear Ratios and Structures

Surface Finish

1. Your sketch should look something like this. The sketch below shows a spur gear with surface

finish exaggerated. The smooth parts are surfaces

Hub diameter is usually about twice bore finish machined by the gear manufacturer. The

diameter. rough surfaces are those left in an unfinished state,

just as raw material. These unfinished surfaces

could be from a sand casting, forging, or rough

machined, depending on the raw material used.

Plain construction gears are usually finished all

over. Webbed and spoked are like this sketch.

Thickness of rim under the teeth is usually

about equal to tooth depth.

the rim. Flush hubs mean flush with the rim.

holes. Section Summary

3. a. Is a pinion

I n this section you learned what a pinion is.

You learned what gear ratios and speed ratios

are, and what RPM means. You saw how to

b. Is not a pinion. calculate speed changes through a set of gears.

c. Is a pinion. You learned what O.D., face, hubs, keys and set

d. Is a pinion. screws are, and how gears are dimensioned on

drawings. You saw what plain, webbed and

spoked gears look like.

4. This gear is spoked. From the drawing it In the next section you’ll learn the details of gear

could be webbed with lightening holes, or teeth. You’ll see what the terms pitch diameter

spoked. The way the bead is curved slightly and center distance mean, how gear teeth are

makes us think it’s spoked. measured, and how tooth sizes are standardized

and specified. You’ll learn how gear teeth are

proportioned, and what pressure angle, diametral

pitch, addendum, and dedendum are. You’ll learn

End of self study questions. what backlash is and its effect.

Proceed to the next section.

28

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