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Biology 1 Cancer Biology

Cancer
 malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm
 a large group of diseases (over 200)
 characterized by uncontrolled growth
Cancer Biology and spread of abnormal cells

Normal Abnormal
cell cell
growth growth

Normal Cells vs Cancer Cells

Hallmarks of Cancer Hallmarks of Cancer

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Biology 1 Cancer Biology

Tumors evolve by
repeated rounds of
Development of Cancer mutation, proliferation,
and natural selection

PROGRESSION OF CANCER Terminologies


Invasive cancer
 Hyperplasia – increased number of cells
In situ cancer

Mutation Dysplasia
 Hypertrophy – increased size of cells
Hyperplasia
 Dysplasia – disorderly proliferation
 Neoplasia – abnormal new growth
 Anaplasia – lack of differentiation
 Metastasis – spread and growth at a
distant site

Metastasis

Blood or
lymphatic
vessel Metastasis

Secondary tumors in a human Higher-magnification


liver, originating from a view of one of the
primary tumor in the colon. secondary tumors.

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Biology 1 Cancer Biology

Stages of Cancer

 pass through
the basement  lump in the
membrane lymph node

 cancer has spread


within the general
region in which it first
began but not to
other parts of the
body

• A polyp

Tumorigenesis and the angiogenic switch

Types of Cancer Carcinoma vs Sarcoma

EPITHELIUM => CARCINOMA


 Carcinomas (cells
that cover internal and
Basal Lamina
external body surfaces) Leukemia
(Blood Cells) Collagen MESENCHYMAL ORIGIN
Lung
Lymphomas => SARCOMA
Breast (Lymph nodes &tissues) fibroblasts
blood vessels
blood cells
Colon muscle
adipocytes (fat)
bone
Bladder cartilage
Prostate Sarcomas
(Men) Cells in supportive
tissues – bones &
muscles

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Biology 1 Cancer Biology

Types of Cancer 3. Lymphoma and Leukemia


 arise from hematopoietic (blood-forming)
1. Carcinoma cells that leave the marrow and tend to
mature in the lymph nodes and blood,
 derived from epithelial cells
respectively.
 include nearly all those developing in the
breast, prostate, lung, pancreas, and colon
4. Germ Cell Tumor
2. Sarcoma  derived from pluripotent cells, most often
present in the testicle or the ovary
 Cancers arising from connective tissue (i.e.,
bone, cartilage, fat, nerve), each of which
develops from cells originating in 5. Blastoma
mesenchymal cells outside the bone marrow.  derived from immature "precursor" cells or
embryonic tissue

The role of genes and environment in the development of cancer Genes associated with risk of different cancers

The variety of proto-oncogenes and tumor


Two Main Classes of Genes Are Critical for suppressor genes code for proteins of many
Cancer: different types:

 Proto-oncogenes  proteins involved in signaling pathways


that regulate cell survival, cell growth, or
 Tumor suppressor genes cell division
 involved in DNA repair, mediate the DNA
damage response, modify chromatin
 proteins that help regulate the cell cycle
or apoptosis

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Biology 1 Cancer Biology

Cancers that have been linked to alcohol and smoking. Percentages represent the
cancer mortality attributable to alcohol and smoking in men and women
P. Irigaray, et al. Lifestyle-related factors and environmental agents causing cancer: an overview. Biomed. Pharmacother. 61:640–58 (2007)

Various cancers that have been linked to obesity. In the USA overweight and
obesity could account for 14% of all deaths from cancer in men and 20% of
those in women

Cancer deaths (%) linked to diet


W. C. Willett. Diet and cancer. Oncologist. 5:393–404 (2000)

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Biology 1 Cancer Biology

SCIENCE • 2 JANUARY 2015 • VOL 347 ISSUE 6217 • pp.78-81

R-tumors D-tumors

stochastic factors related to


errors during DNA replication
most strongly appear to affect
cancer risk
Environmental or inherited
Extra Risk Score(ERS) =product of the lifetime risk and the factors play a relatively
total number of stem cell divisions (log10 values). more important role in that
cancer’s risk
Stochastic (replicative) factors versus environmental and inherited factors