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# Nonlinear Control

Lecture # 14
Tracking & Regulation

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Normal form:
η̇ = f0 (η, ξ)
ξ˙i = ξi+1 , for 1 ≤ i ≤ ρ − 1
ξ˙ρ = a(η, ξ) + b(η, ξ)u
y = ξ1

η ∈ Dη ⊂ Rn−ρ , ξ = col(ξ1 , . . . , ξρ ) ∈ Dξ ⊂ Rρ
Tracking Problem: Design a feedback controller such that
lim [y(t) − r(t)] = 0
t→∞

## while ensuring boundedness of all state variables

Regulation Problem: r is constant

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Assumption 13.1

b(η, ξ) ≥ b0 > 0, ∀ η ∈ Dη , ξ ∈ D ξ

Assumption 13.2
η̇ = f0 (η, ξ) is bounded-input–bounded-state stable over
Dη × Dξ

## Assumption 13.2 holds locally if the system is minimum phase

and globally if η̇ = f0 (η, ξ) is ISS
Assumption 13.3
r(t) and its derivatives up to r (ρ) (t) are bounded for all t ≥ 0
and the ρth derivative r (ρ) (t) is a piecewise continuous
function of t. Moreover, R = col(r, ṙ, . . . , r (ρ−1) ) ∈ Dξ for all
t≥0

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

The reference signal r(t) could be specified as given functions
of time, or it could be the output of a reference model
Example: For ρ = 2
ωn2
, ζ > 0, ωn > 0
s2 + 2ζωns + ωn2

## ẏ1 = y2 , ẏ2 = −ωn2 y1 − 2ζωn y2 + ωn2 uc , r = y1

ṙ = y2 , r̈ = ẏ2
Assumption 13.3 is satisfied when uc (t) is piecewise
continuous and bounded

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Change of variables:
e1 = ξ1 − r, e2 = ξ2 − r (1) , ..., eρ = ξρ − r (ρ−1)

η̇ = f0 (η, ξ)
ėi = ei+1 , for 1 ≤ i ≤ ρ − 1
ėρ = a(η, ξ) + b(η, ξ)u − r (ρ)

## Goal: Ensure e = col(e1 , . . . , eρ ) = ξ − R is bounded for all

t ≥ 0 and converges to zero as t tends to infinity
Assumption 13.4
r, r (1) , . . . , r (ρ) are available to the controller (needed in state
feedback control)

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Feedback controllers for tracking and regulation are classified
as in stabilization
State versus output feedback
Static versus dynamic controllers
Region of validity
local tracking
regional tracking
semiglobal tracking
global tracking
Local tracking is achieved for sufficiently small initial states
and sufficiently small kRk, while global tracking is achieved
for any initial state and any bounded R.

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Practical tracking: The tracking error is ultimately bounded
and the ultimate bound can be made arbitrarily small by
choice of design parameters
local practical tracking
regional practical tracking
semiglobal practical tracking
global practical tracking

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Tracking
 
η̇ = f0 (η, ξ), ė = Ac e + Bc a(η, ξ) + b(η, ξ)u − r (ρ)

Feedback linearization:
 
u = −a(η, ξ) + r (ρ) + v /b(η, ξ)

η̇ = f0 (η, ξ), ė = Ac e + Bc v

v = −Ke, Ac − Bc K is Hurwitz

## Ac − Bc K Hurwitz ⇒ e(t) is bounded and limt→∞ e(t) = 0

⇒ ξ = e + R is bounded ⇒ η is bounded

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Example 13.1 (Pendulum equation)

## We want the output y to track a reference signal r(t)

e1 = x1 − r, e2 = x2 − ṙ

## ė1 = e2 , ė2 = − sin x1 − bx2 + cu − r̈

1
u = [sin x1 + bx2 + r̈ − k1 e1 − k2 e2 ]
c
K = [k1 , k2 ] assigns the eigenvalues of Ac − Bc K at desired
locations in the open left-half complex plane

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Simulation
r = sin(t/3), x(0) = col(π/2, 0)

## Perturbed: b = 0.015, c = 0.5 Figure (c)

Reference (dashed)
  √
Low gain: K = 1 1 , λ = −0.5 ± j0.5 3, (solid)
  √
High gain: K = 9 3 , λ = −1.5 ± j1.5 3, (dash-dot)

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

(a) (b)
2 2

1.5 1.5
Output

Output
1 1

0.5 0.5

0 0

−0.5 −0.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time Time
(c) (d)
2

5
1.5
Control
Output

1 0

0.5
−5

0
−10
−0.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time Time

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Robust Tracking

η̇ = f0 (η, ξ)
ėi = ei+1 , 1≤i≤ρ−1
ėρ = a(η, ξ) + b(η, ξ)u + δ(t, η, ξ, u) − r (ρ) (t)

## Sliding mode control: Design the sliding surface

ėi = ei+1 , 1≤ i≤ρ−1

## View eρ as the control input and design it to stabilize the

origin
eρ = −(k1 e1 + · · · + kρ−1 eρ−1 )

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

s = (k1 e1 + · · · + kρ−1 eρ−1 ) + eρ = 0
ρ−1
X
ṡ = ki ei+1 + a(η, ξ) + b(η, ξ)u + δ(t, η, ξ, u) − r (ρ) (t)
i=1
" ρ−1 #
1 X
u = v or u = − ki ei+1 + â(η, ξ) − r (ρ) (t) + v
b̂(η, ξ) i=1

## ṡ = b(η, ξ)v + ∆(t, η, ξ, v)

∆(t, η, ξ, v)
Suppose
≤ ̺(η, ξ) + κ0 |v|, 0 ≤ κ0 < 1
b(η, ξ)
 
s ̺(η, ξ)
v = −β(η, ξ) sat , β(η, ξ) ≥ + β0 , β0 > 0
µ (1 − κ0 )

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

sṡ ≤ −β0 b0 (1 − κ0 )|s|, |s| ≥ µ

## ζ = col(e1 , . . . , eρ−1 ), ζ̇ = (Ac − Bc K) ζ + Bc s

| {z }
Hurwitz
V0 = ζ T P ζ, P (Ac − Bc K) + (Ac − Bc K)T P = −I

## V̇0 = −ζ T ζ+2ζ T P Bc s ≤ −(1−θ)kζk2 , ∀ kζk ≥ 2kP Bc k |s|/θ

0 < θ < 1. For σ ≥ µ
{kζk ≤ 2kP Bc k σ/θ} ⊂ {ζ T P ζ ≤ λmax (P )(2kP Bck/θ)2 σ 2 }

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

For all e(0) ∈ Ω, e(t) enters the positively invariant set
Ωµ = {ζ T P ζ ≤ ρ1 µ2 } × {|s| ≤ µ}

Inside Ωµ ,
|e1 | ≤ kµ
√  
k = kLP −1/2 k ρ1 , L = 1 0 ... 0

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Example 13.2 (Reconsider Example 13.1)

s = e1 + e2

## ṡ = e2 − sin x1 − bx2 + cu − r̈ = (1 − b)e2 − sin x1 − bṙ − r̈

(1 − b)e2 − sin x1 − bṙ − r̈ |e2 | + 1 + 0.1/3 + 1/9

c 0.5
 
e1 + e2
u = −(2|e2 | + 3) sat
µ

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Simulation:
µ = 0.1, x(0) = col(π/2, 0)

b = 0.03, c = 1 (solid)

## b = 0.015, c = 0.5 (dash-dot)

Reference (dashed)

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

(a) (b)
2
1.2
1.5
1
0.8
Output

1
0.6

s
0.5 0.4
0.2
0
0
−0.5 −0.2
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Time Time

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Robust Regulation via Integral Action
η̇ = f0 (η, ξ, w)
ξ˙i = ξi+1 , 1≤i≤ ρ−1
ξ˙ρ = a(η, ξ, w) + b(η, ξ, w)u
y = ξ1

## Disturbance w and reference r are constant

Equilibrium point:
0 = ¯ w)
f0 (η̄, ξ,
0 = ξ¯i+1 , 1≤i≤ρ−1
0 = ¯ ¯ w)ū
a(η̄, ξ, w) + b(η̄, ξ,
r = ξ¯1

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Assumption 13.5
¯ w) has a unique solution η̄ = φη (r, w)
0 = f0 (η̄, ξ,

¯ w) def
a(η̄, ξ,
ū = − ¯ w) = φu (r, w)
b(η̄, ξ,
Augment the integrator ė0 = y − r
   
e1 ξ1 − r
 e2   ξ2 
   
z = η − η̄, e =  ..  =  .. 
 .   . 
eρ ξρ

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

def
ż = f0 (z + η̄, ξ, w) = f˜0 (z, e, r, w)
ėi = ei+1 , for 0 ≤ i ≤ ρ − 1
ėρ = a(η, ξ, w) + b(η, ξ, w)u

## Sliding mode control:

s = k0 e0 + k1 e1 + · · · + kρ−1 eρ−1 + eρ

## λρ + kρ−1 λρ−1 + · · · + k1 λ + k0 is Hurwitz

ρ−1
X
ṡ = ki ei+1 + a(η,"ξ, w) + b(η, ξ, w)u #
i=0 ρ−1
1 X
u=v or u = − ki ei+1 + â(η, ξ) + v
b̂(η, ξ) i=0

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

ṡ = b(η, ξ, w)v + ∆(η, ξ, r, w)

∆(η, ξ, r, w)
b(η, ξ, w) ≤ ̺(η, ξ)

 
s
v = −β(η, ξ) sat , β(η, ξ) ≥ ̺(η, ξ) + β0 , β0 > 0
µ

Assumption 13.6

## α1 (kzk) ≤ V1 (z, r, w) ≤ α2 (kzk)

∂V1 ˜
f0 (z, e, r, w) ≤ −α3 (kzk), ∀ kzk ≥ α4 (kek)
∂z

Assumption 13.7
z = 0 is an exponentially stable equilibrium point of
ż = f˜0 (z, 0, r, w)

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Theorem 13.1
Under the stated assumptions, there are positive constants c,
ρ1 and ρ2 and a positive definite matrix P such that the set
Ω = {V1 (z) ≤ α2 (α4 (cρ2 )} × {ζ T P ζ ≤ ρ1 c2 } × {|s| ≤ c}

## where ζ = col(e0 , e1 , . . . , eρ−1 ), is compact and positively

invariant, and for all initial states in Ω
lim |y(t) − r| = 0
t→∞

## Special case: β = k (a constant) and u = v

 
k0 e0 + k1 e1 + · · · + kρ−1 eρ−1 + eρ
u = −k sat
µ

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Example 13.4 (Pendulum with horizontal acceleration)

## d is constant. Regulate y to a constant reference r

0 ≤ b ≤ 0.1, 0.5 ≤ c ≤ 2, 0 ≤ d ≤ 0.5

e1 = x1 − r, e2 = x2

## ė0 = e1 , ė1 = e2 , ė2 = − sin x1 − bx2 + cu + d cos x1

s = e0 + 2e1 + e2

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

e1 + (2 − b)e2 − sin x1 + d cos x1 |e1 | + 2|e2 | + 1 + 0.5

c 0.5
 
e0 + 2e1 + e2
u = −(2|e1 | + 4|e2 | + 4) sat
µ
For comparison, SMC without integrator
s = e1 + e2 , ṡ = (1 − b)e2 − sin x1 + cu + d cos x1
 
e1 + e2
u = −(2|e2 | + 4) sat
µ
Simulation: With integrator (dashed), without (solid)
µ = 0.1, x(0) = 0, r = π/2, b = 0.03, c = 1, d = 0.3

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

2 1.6

1.58
1.5
Output

Output
1.56
1
1.54

0.5
1.52

0 1.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 9 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.8 10
Time Time

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Output Feedback
Tracking:
η̇ = f0 (η, ξ)
ėi = ei+1 , 1≤i≤ρ−1
ėρ = a(η, ξ) + b(η, ξ)u + δ(t, η, ξ, u) − r (ρ) (t)

Regulation:
η̇ = f0 (η, ξ, w)
ξ˙i = ξi+1 , 1≤i≤ ρ−1
ξ˙ρ = a(η, ξ, w) + b(η, ξ, w)u
y = ξ1

## Design partial state feedback control that uses ξ

Use a high-gain observer

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Tracking sliding mode controller:
 
k1 e1 + · · · + kρ−1 eρ−1 + eρ
u = −β(ξ) sat
µ

## Regulation sliding mode controller:

 
k0 e0 + k1 e1 + · · · + kρ−1 eρ−1 + eρ
u = −β(ξ) sat
µ

ė0 = e1 = y − r
β is allowed to depend only on ξ rather than the full state
vector. On compact sets, the η-dependent part of ̺(η, ξ) can
be bounded by a constant

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

High-gain observer:
αi
ê˙ i = êi+1 + i (y − r − ê1 ), 1≤i≤ρ−1
ε
α ρ
ê˙ ρ = ρ (y − r − ê1 )
ε

## λρ + α1 λρ−1 + · · · + αρ−1 λ + αρ Hurwitz

e → ê

ξ → ξˆ = ê + R

ˆ → βs (ξ)
β(ξ) ˆ (saturated)

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

Tracking:
 
ˆ sat k1 ê1 + · · · + kρ−1 êρ−1 + êρ
u = −βs (ξ)
µ

Regulation:
 
ˆ sat k0 e0 + k1 ê1 + · · · + kρ−1 êρ−1 + êρ
u = −βs (ξ)
µ

## We can replace ê1 by e1

Special case: When βs is constant or function of ê rather
ˆ we do not need the derivatives of r, as required by
than ξ,
Assumption 13.4

## Nonlinear Control Lecture # 14 Tracking & Regulation

The output feedback controllers recover the performance of
the partial state feedback controllers for sufficiently small ε. In
the regulation case, the regulation error converges to zero
Relative degree one systems: No observer
   
y−r k0 e0 + y − r
u = −β(y) sat , u = −β(y) sat
µ µ