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Practical Application of the Cognitive Process

Dimension to Daily Teaching and Assessment

Using S. C. Standards
Prepared by:
Gerald Moore, School Improvement Consultant
JBHM Education Group, LLC
January 2008
The Cognitive Process Dimension and Question Template
1. Remember--Retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory.

1.1 Locating knowledge in long-term

Teacher Students
memory that is consistent
with presented material (e.g., Directs Respond
Recognize the dates of important
events in United States history) Tells Absorb
Shows Remember
1.2 Retrieving relevant knowledge
RECALLING Retrieving from long-term memory (e.g., Examines Recognize
Recall the dates of important Questions Memorize
events in United States
history) Evaluates Define

The skills demonstrated at this level are:

Observation and recall of
Knowledge of dates, events, and
Passive Participants
Knowledge of major ideas. in Learning
Mastery of subject matter.

Question Template for Remember Level
Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential Activities and Products
Collect Can you name the...? List the story.
Define Can you tell why...? Make a chart showing...
Describe Define the term... Make a facts chart...
Examine Describe what happened at...? Make a list of the main events...
Find Find the meaning of...? Make a timeline of events...
Identify How many...? Make an acrostic...
Label Name... Recite a poem...
Write a list of any pieces of
List What happened after....? information you can remember...
Locate What is....?
Match When did.....take place?
Name Which is true or false...?
Quote Who did...?
Relate Who spoke to...?
Show Who was it that...?

2. Understand--Construct meaning from instructional messages including oral,
written, and graphic communication.
2.1 Changing from one form of
Teacher Students
Clarifying representation (e.g., numerical)
Paraphrasing to another (e.g., verbal) (e.g., Demonstrates Explain
Representing Paraphrase important speeches
Translating and documents) Listens Describe
Questions Outline
Compares Restate
2.2 Finding a specific example or
EXEMPLIFYING illustration of a concept or Contrasts Translate
principle (e.g., Give examples of Demonstrate
various artistic painting styles) Interpret
Summarize (explain)
2.3 Determining that something
CLASSIFYING Categorizing belongs to a category (e.g.,
Subsuming Classify observed or described
cases of mental disorders) Active Participants In
2.4 Abstracting a general theme or Learning.
SUMMARIZING Abstracting major point(s) (e.g., Write a short
Generalizing summary of events portrayed on
a videotape)

2.5 Drawing a logical conclusion

INFERRING Concluding from presented information (e.g.,
Extrapolating In learning a foreign language,
Interpolating infer grammatical principles from
Predicting examples)
(Continued on next page)

2. Understand (Continued)--Construct meaning from instructional messages
including oral, written, and graphic communication.

2.6 Detecting correspondences

COMPARING Contrasting between two ideas, objects, and
Mapping the like (e.g., Compare historical
Matching events to contemporary

2.7 Constructing Constructing a cause-and-effect

EXPLAINING Models model of a system (e.g., Explain
the causes of important 18th
Century events in France)

The skills demonstrated at this level are:

Interpretation of facts, compare,
Order, group, and infer causes.
Predict consequences.
Grasping meaning.
Translation of knowledge into
new context.

Question Template for Understand Level
Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential Activities and Products
Based on the written description, draw
Compare Can you distinguish between...? an outline.
Cut out or draw pictures to show a
Contrast Can you provide a definition for...? particular event.
Can you provide an example of what you Illustrate what you think the main idea
Demonstrate mean...? was.
Make a cartoon strip showing the
Describe Can you write a brief outline..? sequence of events.
Discuss Can you write in your own words...? Make a coloring book showing events.
Distinguish Classify these....according to...... Paint a picture of some aspect you like.
Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the
Exemplify Compare... sequence of events.
Explain Contrast... Retell the story in your words.
Extend Find examples of the reading. Write a summary report of an event.
Write and perform a play based on the
Illustrate Sort these... story.
Infer Use a map to determine...
Interpret Use the graph to determine...
Outline Use the table to determine...
Predict What differences exist between...?
Rephrase What do you think could happen next...?
Restate What do you think....?
Summarize What does not belong in this group?
Translate What does...symbolize?
What sequence did this happen?
What technique (or process) is being used?
What was the main idea...?
Who was the main character...?
Write in your own words...

3. Apply--Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation.
3.1 EXECUTING Carrying out Applying a procedure to a Teacher Students
familiar task (e.g., Divide one
whole number by another
Shows Solve Problems
whole number, both with
multiple digits)
Facilitates Demonstrate Use of Knowledge
3.2 Applying a procedure to an
Using Observes Calculate
IMPLEMENTING unfamiliar task (e.g., Use
Newton’s Second Law in
situations in which it is Organizes Illustrate
Questions Construct
4.1 Distinguishing relevant from
DIFFERENTIATING irrelevant parts or important
from unimportant parts of
presented material (e.g.,
Distinguish between relevant
and irrelevant numbers in a
mathematical word problem)

The skills demonstrated at this level are:

Use information.
Active Participants in
Use methods, concepts, Learning
theories in new situations.
Solve problems using required
skills and knowledge.

Question Template for Application Level
Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential Activities and Products
Can you apply the method used to some
Build experience of your own...? Classify the characters as ....
Carry Out Can you group by characteristics such as... Construct a model to demonstrate how it works.
Choose Could this have happened in...? Design a market strategy using a known technique.
Give examples of people that the student knows
who have the same problems as the characters in the
Classify Do you know another instance where...? story. (Be careful with this one.)
From the information given, can you develop a
Complete set of instructions about...? Make a clay model of an item in the material.
Construct What factors would you change if...? Make a diorama to illustrate an important event.
Develop What questions would you ask of...? Make a game using the ideas from the material.
Make a paper-mache map to include relevant
Examine Would this information be useful if you had a ...? information about an event.
Illustrate Make a scrapbook about the areas of study.
Make puppets and act out part of the story or the
Organize item under study.
Prepare a Power Point presentation on the material
Plan under study.
Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a
Practice particular point.
Think of a situation that occurred to a character and
Relate write how you would have handled it differently.
Select Transfer the main character to a new setting.

4. Analyze--Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts
relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose.

4.2 ORGANIZING Determining how elements fit or Teacher Students

function within a structure (e.g., Probes Discuss
Finding Coherence
Structure evidence in a historical
description into evidence for and
Outlining Guides Uncover
against a particular historical
Observes Argue
Questions Debate
Acts as a
Think Deeply
4.3 ATTRIBUTING Deconstructing Determine a point of view, bias, Organizes Examine
values, or intent underlying Dissects Question
presented material (e.g.,
Determine the point of view of the
author of an essay in terms of his
or her political perspective)

The skills demonstrated at this level are:

Seeing patterns. Active
Organization of part.
Participants in
Recognition of hidden meanings.
Identification of components.

Question Template for Analysis Level
Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential Activities and Products
Analyze a family tree to show
Advertise Can you compare your...with that presented in...? relationships.
Conduct an investigation to produce
Analyze Can you explain what must have happened when...? information to support a point of view.
Design a questionnaire to gather
Categorize How was this similar to...? information.
Make a flow chart showing critical stages
Conclude If ....happened, what might the ending have been? of a process or experiment.
If the student had been .....(one of the characters) what Review a work of art in terms of form,
Correlate would he/she have done...? color, and texture.
Select part of the .....that were the funniest, saddest, Write a biography about a person being
Differentiate happiest, or most unbelievable. studied.
What are some of the implied characteristics of the
Distinguish main character.
Document What are some of the problems of...?
Edit What do you see as the other possible outcomes?
Examine What events could have happened...?
Finding Coherence What must have happened when?
Integrating What was the problem with...?
Investigate What was the turning point in the...?
Outlining What was the underlying theme of...?
Parsing What were some of the motives behind...?
Separate Why did...changes occur?
Test for Theme

5. Evaluate--Make judgments based on criteria and standards.

5.1 Detecting inconsistencies or

Coordinating Teacher Students
fallacies within a process or
product; determining whether a Clarifies Judge
process or product has internal Accepts Dispute
consistency; detecting the Guides Critique
effectiveness of a procedure as it
is being implemented (e.g.,
Determine if a scientist’s Question
conclusions follow from observed
5.2 Detecting inconsistencies between
Judging Assess
CRITIQUING a product and external
consistency; detecting the Decide
appropriateness of a procedure Select
for a given problem (e.g., Judge
which of two methods is the best Justify
way to solve a given problem)

The skills demonstrated at this level are:

Assess the value of theories.
Make choices based on reasoned Active Participants
in Learning
Verify value of evidence.
Recognize subjectivity
Discriminate between ideas.

Question Template for Evaluation Level
Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential Activities and Products
Argue Are you a ....person? Appraise the value of the story.
Conduct a debate about an issue of special
Assess Can you defend your position about...? interest.
Decide of the incident or story really
Conclude Did...behave appropriately? Why or Why Not? happened and justify why.
Decide which character you would like to
Construct Did...choose a wise course of action? Give reasons. spend the day with and why.
Estimate Do you believe...? Form a panel to discuss....
Formulate Do you a good or a bad thing? Explain. Indicate priorities and rating of ....
List the facts and opinions in the story and tell
Hypothesize How effective are you...? why that should be classified as such.
Make a booklet about five rules you see as
Judge How well are the conclusions supported by the facts? important.
Justify How would you feel if...? Prepare a case to present your view about...
Monitoring How would you have handled...? Prepare a list of criteria to judge a
Originate If you were the judge, what would your decision be? Write a half-year report on...
Write a recommendation of the book and why
Predict Is there a better solution? it should be read by others?
Prioritize Judge the value of... Review a movie, performance, or exhibit.
Was the argument convincing? What makes you
Rank think so?
Rate Was this...well designed? Defend your answer.
Recommend Was...worth the costs? Explain your answer.
Support What changes to...would you recommend?
Test What do you think about...?
Theorize What would you have done in this situation?
Verify Which is the best? Why do you think so?

6. Create--Put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole,
reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure.

6.1 Coming up with alternative

Hypothesizing Teacher Students
hypotheses based on criteria (e.g.,
Generate hypotheses to account
for an observed phenomenon) Facilitates Design
Extends Formulate
6.2 Devising a procedure for
PLANNING accomplishing some task (e.g., Reflects Plan
Plan a research paper on a given
historical topic) Analyzes Take Risks
Evaluates Modify
6.3 Inventing a product (e.g., Build
PRODUCING habitats for a specific purpose) Create

The skills demonstrated at this level are:

Generalize from given facts. Active
Relate knowledge from several
areas. Participants in
Predict and draw conclusions. Learning
Use old ideas to create new ones.

Question Template for Create Level
Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential Activities and Products
Create Can you design a Why not compose a song about...?
Invent Can you see a possible solution to...? Develop a new recipe for a tasty dish?
If you had access to all necessary resources how
Compose would you deal with...? Invent a machine to do a specific task.
Why don't you devise your own way to deal
Predict with...? Design a building...
Create a new product. Give it a name
Plan What would happen if...? and create a marketing campaign.
Construct How many ways can you...? Write a TV show or play about...
Design an advertising campaign for a
Design Can you create new and unusual uses for ...? product.
Design a CD, book, or magazine
Imagine Can you develop a proposal which would...? cover for...?
Sell an idea about the school to your
Propose principal.
Develop a new set of discipline rules
Devise for your school.
Develop a commercial to promote
Formulate your school.