Anda di halaman 1dari 51

Biodiversity products and Livelihoods

Alessandra Giuliani, HAFL


T7 - Biodiversity Module, 24.11.2017

▶ School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL


Learning Points

 The benefits and values of biodiversity


to human beings

 The multiple examples of biodiversity


products and services for the people’s
livelihoods

 Interrelation between biological


diversity and culture: the bio-cultural
diversity

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 2
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 3
The Decade coincides with and supports the implementation of the
Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 adopted by the Conference
of the Parties (CoP) at its tenth meeting held in Nagoya, Japan, 2010.

http://www.cbd.int/2011-2020 decade on Biodiversity

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 4
STRATEGIC
vision PLAN
By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used,
maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and
delivering benefits essential for all people.

mission
Take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity…
STRATEGIC GOALS

A: Address the underlying


causes of biodiversity loss B: Reduce the direct C Improve the status D: Enhance the
by mainstreaming pressures on of biodiversity by benefits to all
biodiversity biodiversity and safeguarding from biodiversity
across government and promote sustainable ecosystems, species and ecosystem
society use and genetic diversity services

E:Enhance implementation through participatory planning,


knowledge management and capacity building

implementation support mechanisms

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 5
https://www.cbd.int/gbo4/

progress

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 6
Biological diversity - Biodiversity

Biodiversity

Intra-species diversity Inter-species diversity ecosystem diversity


varieties (genetic richness)
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 7
Biodiversity and human beings

The biodiversity found on Earth today is the result of approximately 3.5


billion years of evolution. Until the emergence of humans, the earth
supported more biodiversity than any other period in geological history.
However, since the dominance of humans, biodiversity has begun a rapid
decline, with one species after another suffering extinction

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 8
BIODIVERSITY LOSS

Unsustain
able agr
practices
Loss of
habitat
invasive
species

Climate
change
Pollution

140,000 species per year


1/8 species threated by extinction
Estimation: 30% of all species loss by 2050
video
But humans
Bern University depend
of Applied Sciences on biodiversity
| School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFLfor many reasons
9
Cultural
Biodiversity
diversity

Ecosystems, species, Diversity in ecological knowledge,


varieties (genetic richness) cultural values, systems and
practices, institutions, languages,
transmitted from generation to
generation through learning

Bio-cultural diversity:
It comprises the diversity of life in all its manifestations – biological,
cultural and linguistic –which are interrelated (and likely co-evolved)
within a complex socio-ecological adaptive system
(Maffi and Woodley, 2010)
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 10
‘Biodiversity products and services’
Products derived by intra-species, inter-species biological
diversity and diversity in ecosystem and habitats linked
with cultural-tradtional diversity associated to them

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 11
What are livelihoods?
Livelihood refers to the ways in which people make a living: ‘the
capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources)
and activities required for a means of living’

The Sustainable
livelihood framework

(Chambers and Conway, 1991)


Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 12
Biodiversity and human beings

Which values and benefits does Biodiversity have in your


and people’s life?

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL M. Böttger © 13
Biodiversity benefits and value to livelihoods

Risk
reduction
Resilience

Sacred
Aesthetic
religious
value
value Tourism
Medicine Ecological
and Recreation
services
health inspiration
Culture
Income Religion
generation Decoration
Traditional Scientific-
cultural knowledge
Social/ethic value
value
Food and
nutrition market
value
crafts
and
industry

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 14
1. Ecosystem Services Ecological
services

Ecosystems provide services vital to humans:


▶ purifying air and water
▶ decomposition of wastes
▶ recycling of nutrients in soil (soil fertility)
▶ Pollination of flowers (pollinators of plants)
▶ Predators
▶ Decrease environmental disasters (floods, drought, erosion)
▶ Moderation of climate (and stabilisation)
It is very difficult for people to properly replicate these intricate
ecosystems with man-made alternatives

(Perfecto et al. 2010)


Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 15
Pollination by hand: humans are not as good as
bees in pollination!!
▶ There are not enough humans in the world to pollinate all of our
crops by hand: too costly, too complicated

«Wenn die Biene einmal von


der Erde verschwindet, hat
der Mensch nur noch vier
Jahre « (A. Einstein)

▶ Bees and other insects have provided free pollination for our crops for
millennia. They will continue to do so if we learn to recognise their
importance and return the favour by providing them with what they
need to survive
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 16
Example of ecological function of biodiversity
Aquatic life found in rice-based
ecosystems provides farmers with:
• Higher rice yield in particular in poor soils
and unfertilized crops
• Biological control with fish = reduce of
costs for pesticides
• 65% of higher income than rice
monoculture
• Safety net in case of crop failure

most development plans focus on


increasing rice yields with use of
chemicals resulting in a dramatic
reduction of aquatic resources and
the nutrition of the rural poor
(Perfecto et al. 2010)
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 17
2. Biodiversity to face risks and resilience Risk
reduction
,
resilience

▶ Healthy ecosystems as buffer to mitigate environmental


disasters

▶ On-farm agrobiodiversity: prevent risks from monocrop failure

▶ Pest and desease control

▶ Better resistance and adaptability to harsh environment

▶ supporting biodiversity–based livelihoods in the face of climate


change

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 18
Ex.: Very important for vulnerable livelihoods in
post-crises: Mulberry in the Tajik Pamir
 Grow on slopes, as opposed to grain and vegetable
 Early ripening
 Cold, drought, disease, UV resistance
 constitute up to 50% of a household's intake in times of
difficulties

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 19
Traditional
3. Biodiversity for food and nutrition cultural
value
Food and
nutrition

▶ Food: people connect with and shape their environment


▶ Central to the economic and cultural lives
▶ Natural selection together with farmers, herders and
fishers, over time, have nurtured agrobiodiversity which
has co-evolved with specific environments, diets, cultural
practices
▶ Loss of biodiversity and traditional knowledge: causes of
food insecurity

(Frison et al. 2010)

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 20
Plant species used as food by humans

Total edible plant species 30,000-50,000


(out of 300,000
known species)
Cultivated (or wild food) 7,000
Making up 90% world’s 30
calories intake
50% of the world's food 4
energy intake
(FAO, 2010)

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 21
Biodiversity for food and nutrition security
Out of 7 billion people on earth:
 About 800 million people are undernourished (chronically
hunger)
 About 2 billion people are malnourished (lack of micronutrients
and vitamins)
 diseases of affluence both in rich and developing countries
Diets have become simpler (less diversity)

Reaction from society/Govnt:


 supplements and biofortification as
effective treatments (does not reach the
poorest)
 Biodiversity as alternative approach to
malnutrition and health: Promoting of
variety of food (fruits and veg) (not so
common in poor Countries’ policies)
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 22
(Biodiversity and sustainable diets, FAO 2010)
Different level of diversity used for food and
nutrition
Farmers use different level of diversity to produce
agricultural food products:

▶ Ecosystem diversity

▶ Different species of plants, animals and fish


(interspecies diversity)

▶ Different varieties of the same plant, animal, fish


species (intraspecies diversity)
Perfecto et al. 2010

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 23
Example: Ecosystem divesity for nutrition
▶ In rice-based ecosystems in Cambodia, China, Laos, Vietnam a
rich diversity of aquatic organisms can be found:

▶ 232 aquatic species collected by rural households: fishes,


crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, molluscs, plants and insects
to supplement the rice diets with animal protein, fatty acids

Additional micronutrients (Calcium,


Vitamin A)

In Bangladesh: mola fish to cure night


blindness
(Perfecto et al. 2010)
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 24
Example: Intra-specific divesity

▶ In Ethiopia: Both natural factors and farmers' selection criteria


shape sorghum diversity at farm level

▶ 3 indigenous varieties of sorghum identified

▶ Content ~ 30% more protein

▶ Content 50-60% more amino-acid (lysine)

▶ Valuable for sick children and nursing mothers

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 25
Example: Inter-specific diversity for nutrition
Commonly used vegetables
▶ Local leafy vegetables in
1.Amaranthusdubius
Kenya: 2.Amaranthushybridus
3.Amaranthuslividus/blitum
• 1000 different veg species 4.Basellaalba
5.Cleome gynandra
• 210 species recorded in Kenya 6.Corchorusolitoriusand C.
• About 5% are the key ones trilocularis
• Due to high cultural and 7.Crotalaria brevidensandC.
Ochroleuca
biological diversity
8.Cucurbitamaxima/moschata
• Produced by small farmers 9.Cucurbitaficifolia(Kahurura)
• Many collected from the wild 10.Launaeacornuta(Mutsunga)
11.Solanumamericanum
• Cooked with mix of plants
12.Solanumscabrum
(each community cooks the 13.Solanumvillosum
ones they know) 14.Urticamassaica
15.Vigna unguiculata

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 26
(Biodiversity International, 2010)
Raise awareness about the nutitional properties

African Leafy Vegetable project (Biodiversity International, 2010)

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 27
4. Biodiversity for medicine and health Medicine
and
health
Traditional
cultural
 70–80% people worldwide rely on traditional (herbal) value
medicine to meet their primary healthcare needs
 Ayurvedic medicines market: 20% annually in India

• China: 5,000 plants used in


medicine (MPs from the
province Yunnan 10 times)

• Myanmar: Buddhist
philosophy and Ayurvedic
concepts

• 10 of the world’s 25 top-


selling drugs are from
natural resources (tree
bark, coral and reptile….)
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 28
(Pei 2002, Subrat 2002)
What are medicinal plants?

 Plants cultivated and collected from the wild

 The value of medicinal plants to human livelihoods is essentially


infinite

 Symbolically significant in many cultures (magic power)

 Aromatic and flavouring, cosmetic, food and medicine, according


to culture: MAP

 Richer countries: 10-20% growth yearly: health, food


supplements, personal care

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 29
Example: Capparis spinosa (caper): medicinal or
aromatic plant?

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 30
Medicinal uses of caper plant

Uses of capparis spinosa in traditional medicine

 To cure arteriosclerosis, as
diuretics, kidney disinfectants,
vermifuges and tonics
 Caper root bark infusions and
decoctions: anemia, arthritis and
gout
 Root powder: anti-rheumatic
 Flower buds (rich in
aldosereductose): coughs, eye
infections
 Ayurvedic: hepatic stimulants
and protectors, improving liver
function

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 31
Condiment and …….Cosmetic, skin health care
 Extracts of the flower bud: hydrating properties

 Major constituents with antioxidant effects

 Topical application of the extract reduces UVB induced skin


erythema

 Results showed that C.spinosa (59.60%) is more effective than


tocopherol acetate (22%): sunscreen formulations (Balakrishnan,
2011)

(Bonina, 2002)

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 32
Thanaka in Myanmar, between tradition and fashion

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 33
Thanaka: Medicinal, cosmetic, traditional skin care
 Unique feature of the culture of Myanmar (ancient and modern)

 Refreshing/scented cosmetic paste made from ground bark

 Bark from Thanaka trees (Murraya spp.) growing in central


Myanmar

 Cosmetic, sun protection, anti-fungal (believed to be anti-acne)

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 34
The role of plant (animal) diversity in (Western)
medicine: example
 Western medicine: ingredients for drugs/drug discovery
 Potential: only 5,000 of the 250,000 known plant species
 Quinine (malaria): bark of the Amazonian tree Cinchona tree
 Digitalis (chronic heart trouble): Foxglove plant
 Morphine (pain relief): Poppy plant
 Topotecan (anti-cancer): Camptotheca (and other tropical
plants)
 Animals also plays a role, in particular in research

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 35
Ratios of doctors (practicing allopathic medicine)
and traditional medical practitioners (TMPs)
Country Doctor:Patient TMP:Patient

Kenya 1:7142 1:987

Malawi 1:50 000 1:138

Mozambique 1:50 000 1:200

Swaziland 1:10 000 1:100

Tanzania 1:33 000 1:350–450 (Dar es


Salaam)

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL (Marshall, 2008) 36
Biodiversity loss for medicine and health

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40% no data
30% Not threatened
20%
Threatened
10%
0% Exinct

(CBD, 2010)

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 37
Microbial diversity and NCDs

 Immune system needs an input of microbial diversity


from the natural environment

 Reduced contact with biodiversity leads to reduced


diversity in the human microbiota = immune
dysfunction and disease

(Romanelli et al. 2015)


Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 38
5. Biodiversity for culture, religion and Traditional
decoration cultural
value
Culture
Religion
 Many cultures have deep, traditional Decoration
connections to the earth, ranging from
medicines to tribal ceremonies
Social/ethic
 Various plant species have a deep Sacred
value
meaning religious
value
 History and modern times:

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 39
Society: Past and modern symbols

▶ Ancient Greece (Apollo) and Rome: laurus nobilis wreath was the
symbol of victory as well as poets, philosophers and honored
(emperors)

▶ Today: symbol of Master degree (Laurea)

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 40
Religion: ‘Spiritual’ biodiversity in India

Particularly important for religious,


spiritual and cultural uses:
• Sacred forest areas for praying
(sacred groves)
• Plants and animals have ritual
significance
workship

• Auspicious flower garlands offered in Hindi


temples
• Red hibiscus offered to Goddess Kali

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 41
Religion and tradition: biodiversity in India and
Myanmar

Lotus flowers for worship in:


• Hindu temples
• Buddhist pagodas

• Lotus leaves as plate


for Indian dishes, now
replaced by banana
leaves
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 42
Tradition:……..also for decoration and aesthetic

 aesthetically pleasing aspect: variety of plants used in


decoration, festivities, tradition worldwide

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 43
6. Biodiversity for tourism, recreation
Aesthetic
value
Tourism
Recreation
 Ecotourism/Agrotourism: a growing recreational activity. inspiration
Biodiversity is a source of economical wealth for many
areas, beauty and joy
 Ecotourism does not only benefit travellers through nature
education, but also benefit the local community.
Ecotourims is an income generating activity through the
preservation and promotion of their nature heritage and
culture

Yemen: Biodiversity - ecotourism project

(Economics of Ecosystems, 2009)

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 44
Biodiversity for leisure, physical and mental fitness
 Access to park and green places has shown to generating better
physical and mental health, reducing stress, crime and violence,
and increasing social cohesion

 Cultural ecosystem services, such as spiritual values and traditional


food cultures has a positive impact on physical and mental health

 Contact with nature and BD has proved to predict greater


likelihoods to develop environmental concerns

 ‘healing environment’
hospital concept in Singapore

(Horwitz and Kretsch - WHO and CBA 2015)


Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 45
7. Biodiversity for Crafts and Industry crafts
and
industry
All products extracted from natural resources and
transformed and used worldwide (animal skins, timber,
fibers, honey wax, gums, etc.) for:
 Construction/shelter
 Furniture
 Textile
 Games
 Music instruments
 Food storage
 Weapons
 Firewood
 Working tools
 Etc…
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 46
8. Biodiversity and income generation

 Marketing of biodiversity-based products providing income


generation (medicine, food, crafts, etc.)
 Managing recreation and eco-tourism based on
biodiversity
 Biodiversity: source of important marginal income for
resource poor people (landless)
 One conservation strategy through sustainable use

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 47
9. Model and inspiration for scientific and
Scientific-
technology knowledge from Nature and BD knowledge

Tapetum lucidum:
reflectors
Velcro Birds soaring

Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 48
Inspiration for poets, artists, philosophers
Aesthetic
For any form of art, music, painting, poetry, writing, value
nature has always been the source of inspiration
Nature is the art of God - Dante Alighieri
The richness I achieve comes from Nature, the
source of my inspiration - Claude Monet
There is nothing like walking to get the feel of a country. A fine
landscape is like a piece of music; it must be taken at the right
tempo. Even a bicycle goes too fast - Paul Scott Mowrer
Look deep into nature, and then you
will understand everything better -
Albert Einstein
Nature gives to every time and season some
beauties of its own - Charles Dickens
Wild roses are fairest, and nature a better
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 49
gardener than art - Louisa May Alcott
To conclude: Biodiversity benefits human livelihoods
what a wonderful world-

Risk People
reduction
Resilience everywhere
Sacred
religious
Aesthetic depend upon
value
Medicine
value
Ecological
Tourism
Recreation biodiversity for
and
health
services inspiratio
n their livelihoods,
Culture
Income
generation
Religion
Decoration
their quality of
Traditional
cultural
Scientific-
knowledge
life, and for the
Social/
ethic value
value
basic ecological
Food and
nutrition
market
value services on
crafts
and
which all life
industry
depends on.
Bern University of Applied Sciences | School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 50 (Video)
Some references:
o Perfecto I, Vandermeer J, Wright A. 2009. Nature's Matrix: Linking Agriculture,
Conservation and Food Sovereignty. Earthscan

o Pretty J, Adams B, Berkes F, de Athayde S, Dudley N, Hunn E, Maffi L, Milton K,


Rapport D, Robbins P, Sterling E, Stolton S, Tsing A, Vintinnerk E, Pilgrim S. 2009.
The Intersections of Biological Diversity and Cultural Diversity: Towards
Integration. Conservation and Society 7(2):100-112 (moodle)

o Maffi L and Woodley E. 2010. Biocultural Diversity Conservation: A Global


Sourcebook. Earthscan 2010

o Frison E, Smith IF, Timothy J, Cherfas J and Eyzaguirre PB. 2010.Agricultural


biodiversity, nutrition and health: making a difference to hunger and nutrition in
the developing world, Bioversity International (moodle)

o Burlingame B and Dernini S (eds). 2012. Sustainable diets and biodiversity:


directions and solutions for policy, research and action, FAO and Bioversity
International (moodle)

o Romanelli C, Cooper D, Campbell-Lendrum D, Maiero M, Karesh W.B, Hunter D,


Golden C.D, 2015. Connecting Global Priorities: Biodiversity and Human Health. A
state of knowledge review. WHO, and Convention on Biological Diversity (moodle)

o Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2014) Global Biodiversity


Outlook
Bern University of4. Montréal,
Applied 155ofpages
Sciences | School (moodle)
Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL 51