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PRESSURE VESSEL PLATE

The Pressure Vessel Plate article provides you information about the
ASME Code requirement regarding plate material and related points in
the pressure vessel inspection.

You need to take care about your Pressure Vessel Plate Materials, there
are lots of requirements and specific prohibitions in the ASME code.

Some of these requirements are ASME and Non ASME plate materials,
plate specifications, inspection requirements and material test reports.
This article describes these requirements for you.

What is ASME Material?

ASME Code Sec VIII DIV 1 requires the materials that are used for
pressure containing parts to be one of:

Material specified in ASME section II materials but with some


restrictions, which are stated in ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1 in subsection
C e.g. UCS, UHF, UNF.

For example, SA 283 plate material is listed in ASME Sec II, but when
you refer to subsection C in Sec VIII Div 1, you see it is not allowed to
be used for lethal substance services as well as for unfired steam
boilers. Also, you cannot use this material when you need your thickness
to be greater than 5/8 inch.

What is Difference Between ASTM Material and ASME Material?

When you refer to ASME Section II Part A, you see all material with SA
prefix identification and on one side there is an ASTM logo, and on the
other side is ASME logo.

But the ASTM prefix is single A.


The material specification in ASME Section II Part A was originally
developed by ASTM and then reviewed and adopted by ASME Code. That
is the reason you see both societies' Logos.

For example, if you open the SA 516 material specification in ASME


Section II, material Part A, edition 2004, you will see this statement
below the page title:

“Identical with ASTM specification A 516/ A516M-90”;

This means you can use A 516 Edition 1990 instead SA 516 2004.

But if your ASTM material is A 516 and not manufactured based on


ASTM Edition 1990, you cannot use this material unless you do the
assessment based on clause UG-10 in ASME Section VIII Div 1, and your
assessment result will determine either it is permissible, or you need to
do more tests to recertify this material.

For some materials, the specifications are not identical or may be


identical with some exceptions, so again we cannot use these ASTM
material unless we make an assessment based on the above mentioned
clause (UG-10)

Is it possible to use Non ASME material instead of ASME Section


II material?

The answer is “Yes,” but with some conditions. These conditions ar


addressed in UG-10(a) as following items:

 Melting method, melting practice, deoxidation, quality and heat


treatment to be same between suggested non-ASME material and
equivalent permitted ASME section II material.

 Material certificate proves there is no conflict in chemical analysis


between suggested non-ASME material and equivalent permitted
ASME material.

 Material certificate proves the suggested non-ASME material was


produced and tested in accordance to equivalent permitted ASME
material.

 The material certificate to be recertified by the equivalent


permitted ASME material with a notation of “ Certified per UG-10”

Example:

A manufacturer received an order for manufacturing a pressure vessel


with an SA 516 Gr.60 pressure vessel plate normalized material, but
apparently this material is not available in the market...
So the material supplier recommended to the pressure vessel
manufacturer to purchase an available P265GH material instead. The
manufacturer requested a copy of the material certificate for P265GH to
verify for recertification per UG-10.

Pressure Vessel Manufacturer Assessment:

Step 1: Checking of melting method, melting practices, deoxidation, and


heat treatment

P265GH is produced based on the European EN-10028 Standard,


manufacturer controls plate material certificate and confirms:

Melting method, practice, deoxidation and heat treatment are consistent


with SA 516 Gr.60 specification, the current available P265GH material
produced by basic oxygen process and secondary vacuum process
refinement and both normalized.

Step 2: Plate material certificate prove there is no conflict in chemical


analysis between the suggested non-ASME material and the equivalent
permitted ASME material.

The manufacture controlled chemical analysis in pressure vessel plate


material certificate of P265GH with SA 516 Gr.60 specification and
confirm everything is in specific minimum or ranged limits.

Step 3: Plate material certificate prove the suggested non-ASME


material produced and tested in accordance to equivalent permitted
ASME material.

Manufacturer the first control with the required number of test


specimens for each mechanical test, as well as the size of specimens and
confirm that both standards are the same;

Then check the plate material mechanical test result for yield stress,
tensile strength and elongation and confirm all are in specific range of
SA 516 Gr.60.

Manufacturer control for plate material impact test requirement and


notice impact test carried out by ISO V method and in - 53 degree F;

But SA 516 Gr.60 requires to be impact tested in -60 degree F with


Charpy V-notch test method based on SA 370 Specification so there are
two conflicts here. First is the test method, and seconder is in the test
temperature.

So pressure vessel manufacturer requests that the plate material


supplier provide a test plate and send the test piece to a laboratory for
impact testing based the SA 516 Gr.60 specification.
The lab test report confirms that the P265GH plate material covers the
SA 516 Gr.60 impact testing requirement.

Step 4: The material certificate is to be recertified by the equivalent


permitted ASME material with a notation of “Certified per UG-10.”

The manufacturer purchases the P265GH plate material and changes the
marking on the plate and also rectifies the material test report with SA
516 Gr.60 material. This material identification will be SA 516 Gr.60

In the above example, a vessel manufacturer with doing extra tests


recertified a non ASME pressure vessel plate material.

In some other cases, this might not be possible even by extra testing for
example if the tensile strength is less than the ASME permitted material.

Sometimes it might be recertified even without any extra test when


everything falls in the limitation range of the ASME permitted material.

What is the Other Requirement for Pressure Vessel Plate?

UG-93 in ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1 specifies requirements for plate
material inspection.

Based on this clause, only plate material is require to have a material


test certificate(MTR).

It means this requirement only can be applied for plate material; for
other material such as pipe and flange, MTR's are not required and
marking on the materials would be acceptable.

You need to inspect the plate material per specification of ASME Sec II
Part A. For example, for SA 516 Gr.60 refer to this specification and
check the chemical composition, mechanical property with your MTR.

You need to check that the Heat Number stated in MTR is the same
stenciled on the plate material marking and make sure this MTR belongs
to this material.

You need to check your pressure vessel plate dimensions, such as


thickness, width, length, weight as per tolerances stated in specification
SA 20. Visual inspection for surface defects also need to be done based
on SA 20 specification.
ASME CODE SECTION VIII

The ASME Code Section 8 is the construction code for pressure vessel
and covers design, manufacturing and pressure vessel inspection and
testing in the manufacturing shop.

This Code section addresses the mandatory requirements, specific


prohibitions, and non-mandatory guidance for Pressure Vessel Materials,
design, fabrication, examination, inspection, testing, certification, and
pressure relief.

In this article you will learn about the different subsections and
guidelines for the use and application of this code.

For ASME Code Section 8 scope and boundaries, review the Pressure
Vessel Definition article.

You may know ASME Code Section 8 has three divisions. Division 1
covers pressure up to 3000 psi, Division 2 has an alternative rule and
covers up to 10,000 psi and Division 3 can be used for pressure higher
than 10,000 psi.

Hierarchy of Standard

1. Law and Regulation at Location of Installation

Mandatory application of ASME pressure vessel code is determined by


rule and regulation at location of installation.

For example, if you are living in the state of Minnesota, the application
of ASME Code for construction and stamping is mandatory in your
location, but if you are living in the state of South Carolina, it is not
mandatory.
2. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

The next item in this hierarchy is ASME Code itself; the ASME Code
generally is divided into three groups as following:

Group 1: Construction Codes

Some of them are: Section VIII for pressure vessel, Section I for Power
Boiler, section III for Nuclear Power Plant and Section IV for heating
Boiler

Group 2: Reference Codes

These are the codes which are referenced from construction codes as
explained in group 1.

The ASME Section IX for welding and Section V for Non Destructive
Testing are in this Group.

For example, ASME Code section VIII for welding requirement such as
WPS (Welding Procedure Specification), PQR (Procedure Qualification
Record), Welder Performance Qualification, etc. refer you to ASME
Section IX.

Group 3: In-Service Codes

These are the codes for in-service inspection after placing the equipment
into service.

The ASME Section VI for the heating boiler and Section VII are from this
group.

3. National Board Inspection Code(NBIC):

We have assigned a separate article for the NBIC, but as required for
this article, the NBIC is making certification for ASME Authorized
Inspectors and is also certifying R stamp for Repair services for stamped
pressure vessels.

ASME Code Section 8 Content:

See following Fig; it shows ASME Code Section 8 Content:


This section is divided into three Subsections, Mandatory Appendices,
and Nonmandatory Appendices.

Subsection A consists of Part UG, covering the general requirements


applicable to all pressure vessels.

Subsection B covers specific requirements that are applicable to the


various methods used in the fabrication of pressure vessels.

It consists of Parts UW, UF, and UB dealing with welded, forged, and
brazed methods, respectively.

Subsection C covers specific requirements applicable to the several


classes of materials used in pressure vessel construction.

It consists of Parts UCS, UNF, UHA, UCI, UCL, UCD, UHT, ULW, and ULT
dealing with carbon and low alloy steels, nonferrous metals, high alloy
steels, cast iron, clad and lined material, cast ductile iron, ferritic steels
with properties enhanced by heat treatment, layered construction, and
low temperature materials, respectively.

For example, if you need to manufacture a pressure vessel with SA 516


Gr.70 material (Carbon Steel), then you need to meet the marked items
in above Fig.

Please note that ASME Code Section 8, does not provide you fabrication
tolerances except for misalignment and weld reinforcement.

For example, for nozzle orientation, projection, elevation and other


required tolerances there are no values in the code, and you may refer
to pressure vessel handbooks for such information.
Review the Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection article for such
tolerances.

If you review the ASME Forward statement it clearly says “The Code
does not address all aspects of construction activities, and those aspects
which are not specifically addressed should not be considered
prohibited.”

In continuing it says, “The Code is not a handbook and cannot replace


education, experience, and the use of engineering judgments.”

For example, ASME Code Section 8 Div 1 in UG-28 mandates all loading
to be considered in pressure vessel design, but the method for
calculation of all of them has not been addressed.

For example, the formula for wind or earthquakes is not provided in the
ASME Code Section 8, and these items and other similar loading
considerations need to be designed by using the information provided in
the pressure vessel handbooks.

For ASME pressure vessel manufacture certification, as well as


Authorized Inspection Agency certification, Review the Pressure Vessel
Certification article.

What is the Summary of Important Points in ASME Code Section


8?

1. ASME Code Section 8 edition is issued once every 3 years and


addenda, once a year – both on July 1st. Edition and addenda become
effective on the 1st of January of next year (i.e., 6 months after issue).

2. Thickness of cylindrical shell t = PR/(SE-0.6P) + C

3. Longitudinal weld is more critical because it is subjected to double the


stress than Circ. Weld.

4. “Weld joint categories” A, B, C, D – are based on joint locations in the


vessel and stress levels encountered. “Weld Types” (type 1, 2, 3, etc.)
describe the weld itself.

5. Depths of 2:1 Ellip. and hemisph. heads are D/4 and D/2 respectively.
(D= Head diameter.)

6. Weld Joint categories:

Category A:

- All longitudinal welds in shell and nozzles.

- All welds in heads, Hemisph-head to shell weld joint


Category B:

- All circumferential welds in shell and nozzles

- Head to shell joint (other than Hemisph.)

Category C and D are flange welds and nozzle attachment welds


respectively.

7. Weld Types:

Type 1: Full penetration welds (Typically Double welded)

Type 2: Welds with backing strip

Type 3: Single welded partial penetration welds

Type 4, 5 and 6: Various Lap welds (rarely used)

8. For full penetration welds (type 1):

Joint efficiency, E = 100%, 85%, 70%

(For the radiography = Full, Spot, Nil respectively)

9. Radiography marking on name plates (typically for Type-1 welds)

RT-1: (E=1) All butt welds – full length radiography

RT-2: (E=1.0) All Cat. A Butt welds Full length, Cat B, spot

RT-3: (E=0.85) Spot radiography of both Cat A and B welds

RT-4: (E=0.7) Partial/No radiography

10. For Welded Heads for E=1, all welds within the head require full
length radiography (since they are all Cat. A welds)

11. For seamless heads, E=1, If a) head to shell weld is fully


radiographed (if Cat. A), and at least spot radiographed (if Cat. B)

12. Compared to Cylindrical shell, thickness of 2:1 Ellipsoidal head is


approx. same as shell, Hemisph. head approx. half and Torisph head is
77% higher.

13. MAWP is calculated for: Working condition (Hot & Corroded). Vessel
MAWP is always taken at the Top of the Vessel and is lowest of all part
MAWPs adjusted for static pressure.

14. Hydro-Test is Standard Pressure test on Completed Vessels.

Hyd. Test Pr. = 1.3 x MAWP x stress ratio


Insp. Pressure (hydro) = test pr. / 1.3

Min. Test temp. = MDMT + 30°F

Max. Inspection temp. = 120°F

15. Pneumatic test is performed if hydro is not possible due to design or


process reasons. Prior to the test, NDT as per UW-50 is mandatory.

Pneumatic test pressure = 1.1 x MAWP x stress ratio, Pressure should be


increased in steps (Total 6).

1st step – 50% of test pressure

2nd to 6 step – 10% of test pressure

Insp. Pr. (pneumatic) = test pressure /1.1

16. Pressure gauge range should be about twice the test pressure.
However, in any case it shall not be lower than 1.5 times and not higher
than 4 times the test pressure.

17. Vessel MAWP represents the maximum safe pressure holding


capacity of the vessel. Vessel MAWP is measured at top-most point and
is lowest of vessel part MAWPs, adjusted for hydrostatic head.

18. For vertical vessels, hydrostatic pressure caused due to liquid with
specific gravity = 1, 1ft of height = 0.43 psig. Or 1 mtr of height = 0.1
Bar

19. Total pressure at any point of Vertical vessel is given by:

Total Pr. = Vessel MAWP + h x 0.433.

(h = height from top in ft.)

20. If part MAWP and elevations are known, Vessel MAWP can be
calculated by the deducting hydrostatic head from part MAWP.

21. Ext. Pressure is worked out on basis of Geometric factor A (which


depends on L/Do and Do/t ratios) and factor B (depends on A, )

Allowable Ext. Pressure, Pa = 4B/(3(Do/t))

22. For values of A falling to the left of material line in the material
chart:

Pa = 2AE/(3(Do/t))

23. Name plate shows The Code stamping, MAWP, design temp., MDMT,
and Extent of Radiography.
24. ASME materials (SA) shall be used for code stamped vessel
fabrication instead of ASTM (A) materials.

25. Reinforcement pad is not required, if the size of finished opening is


(UG 36)

 Not exceeding 2-3/8” for all thicknesses of vessel

 Not exceeding 3-½”, if vessel thickness is ≤ 3/8’’

26. Reinforcement pad with OD = 2d and thk = vessel thk is always safe
(d = diameter of finished opening)

27. Reinforcement limit along vessel wall = 2d

28. Reinforcement limit normal to vessel wall = smaller of 2.5 t or 2.5 tn

29. In reinforcement pad calculations, credit can be taken for area


available in shell and nozzle.

30. Fillet weld throat dimension = 0.707 x leg of weld

31. Adequacy of weld sizes shall be checked as required by UW-16. The


nozzles construction shall be one of the Code acceptable types.

32. The maximum permitted ovality tolerance (D max – D min) shall not
exceed 1% of nominal diameter of vessel. If there is opening, then the
tolerance can be increased by 2% x d (d = diameter of opening) if
measurement is taken within a distance of ‘d’ from axis of opening.

33. The mismatch tolerances and the maximum allowable weld


reinforcement is more strict on longitudinal welds compared to
circumferential welds (UW-35).

34. Principle of reinforcement:

Area removed = Area compensated.

Compensation area shall be within reinforcement limits.

35. For use as pressure parts, the plates shall be fully identified.
Maximum permitted under tolerance on plates is 0.01” (0.3 mm) or 6%
of ordered thickness, whichever is less.

36. All welding (including tack, seal, etc.) shall be done using qualified
procedures and welders.

37. Mandatory full radiography in ASME Code Section 8 is required for all
welding with thickness exceeding Table UCS-57, and also for lethal
service vessels and unfired boilers with Design Pr. More than 50 psig.
38. PWHT is ASME Code Section 8 requirement if thickness exceeds
those given in tables UCS-56 (given in notes under the tables). These
tables also give min. PWHT temperature and min. holding time (soaking
period) based on P-Nos. and thickness respectively.

39. For Furnace PWHT in ASME Code Section 8 , Loading Temperature


shall not exceed 800°F, heating rate 400 deg F/hr/inch of thickness,
cooling rate 500°F /hr/inch of thickness. Still air cooling permitted below
800°F. During soaking period, temp difference between hottest and
coldest part shall not exceed 150°F.

40. Minimum overlap for PWHT in multiple heats = 5 ft.

41. For the ASME Code Section 8 impact test requirement, UCS 66
curve. If MDMT-thickness combination falls on or above the curve,
impact testing is exempted. Additional exemptions are given as per UG-
20(f) and UCS=68 (c).
PRESSURE VESSEL DEFINITION

The Pressure Vessel Definition article provides you the definition and
boundaries of pressure vessel based API code and ASME Code.

Based on the ASME Code Section VIII, pressure vessels are containers
for the containment of pressure, either internal or external.

This pressure may be obtained from an external source or by the


application of heat from a direct or indirect source, or any combination
thereof.

The ASME Code is a construction code for pressure vessels and contains
mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions and non-mandatory
guidance for pressure vessel materials, design, fabrication, examination,
inspection, testing, and certification.

Pressure Vessel Definition - Scope

These scopes are based ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1

 The vessel with maximum allowable working pressure(MAWP)


higher than 15 psi

 Inside diameter to be higher than 152 mm

 No piping or piping component

 No rotating or reciprocating Equipment

 Not Water Vessel up to 300psi or 210°F

 Not within the scope of other Sections

 Also for gas fired double shell heat exchangers < 50 psi

 Not Steam Boilers with direct firing


 Not for Human Occupancy (PVHO)

Boundaries

 The welding end of the first circumferential joint for welded


connections

 The first threaded joint for screwed connections

 The face of the first flange for bolted, flanged connections

 The first sealing surface for proprietary connections or fittings

 Non pressure parts welded directly to a pressure retaining surface

 Pressure retaining covers

 Pressure relief devices

What is API Code Definition from Pressure Vessel ?

Contrary of ASME Code Sec VIII, which was developed for construction,
the API STD 510 covers the in-service inspection, repair, alteration, and
rerating activities for pressure vessels.

This inspection code applies to all refining and chemical process vessels
that have been placed in service.

What is the API STD 510 coverage?

 Vessels constructed in accordance with an applicable construction


code
 Vessels constructed without a construction code (non-code)—A
vessel not fabricated to a recognized construction code and
meeting no known recognized standard

 Vessels constructed and approved as jurisdictionally special based


upon jurisdiction acceptance of particular design, fabrication,
inspection, testing, and installation

 Non-standard vessels—A vessel fabricated to a recognized


construction code but has lost its nameplate or stamping.
PRESSURE VESSEL HEADS

The Pressure Vessel Heads article provides you with information about
different types of ASME heads and related points in pressure vessel
inspection.

How many standard Pressure Vessel Heads are in the ASME Code? What
are their characteristics?

This article introduces you, different type of Heads, applications and


dimensional features.

The Ellipsoidal Head, Hemispherical Head and Torispherical Head are


three types of ASME Pressure Vessel Dished Heads.

See the following Fig. for these heads sketches:

Ellipsoidal Head Dimensional Characteristics:

In the same design condition, such as design pressure, design


temperature and material, your calculated wall thickness under internal
pressure will be approximately equal to shell thickness.

For example if you have calculated your shell thickness under internal
pressure and obtained 12 mm, your ellipsoidal head thickness also will
be approximately 12 mm.

The inside depth of your ellipsoidal head (h in above fig.) will be one-
fourth of the head inside diameter (h = D/4).

Your ellipsoidal head knuckle radius is 0.17D and the spherical radius is
0.9D.

Torispherical Head Dimensional Characteristics:

In the same design conditions within the same design pressure, design
temperature and material, your calculated wall thickness under internal
pressure will be approximately equal to 1.77 times the shell thickness.
For example, if you have calculated your shell thickness under internal
pressure and obtained 12 mm, your torispherical head thickness will be
approximately 21.24mm.

Your torispherical head knuckle radius is 6% of the inside crown radius,


and your crown radius is equal to outside the diameter of the head skirt.

Hemispherical Head Dimensional Characteristics:

With the same same design conditions with the same design pressure,
design temperature and material, your calculated wall thickness under
internal pressure will be approximately half of the shell thickness.

For example, if you have calculated your shell thickness under internal
pressure and obtained 12 mm, your hemispherical head thickness also
will be approximately 6 mm.

The inside depth of your hemispherical head will be one-half of head


inside diameter (h = D/2).

Dimensional Inspection of Pressure Vessel Dished Heads

You need to make a dimensional inspection on the pressure vessel heads


for any effort for the fit-up process. The dimensional inspection is done
on the knuckle radius, crown radius, skirt length, depth and thickness.

Review the Pressure Vessel Dimensional Inspection Article for a detailed


description for heads inspection.

Pressure Vessel Dished Head Joint Efficiencies:

If your dished head is welded and the joint efficiency is 1, then all of
your head welds need full length radiography.

If your dished head is seamless and your joint efficiency is 1, your head
to shell needs full radiography and spot radiography for your ellipsoidal
or torispherical heads.
PRESSURE VESSEL HANDBOOK

The Pressure Vessel Handbook article provides you information about


handbook application in pressure vessel design and pressure vessel
inspection.

When there is ASME Code Section VIII, why we need Handbook? What
are the applications?

All design formulas and calculations methods have not been addressed
in ASME Code and also there are no fabrication tolerances in ASME Code.

So handbook assists us to cover all these requirements.

The Pressure Vessel handbook supports pressure vessel designers,


pressure vessel manufacturer quality control technicians and engineers,
third party inspectors and any other dealing persons with pressure
vessels.

What is the Application of Pressure Vessel Handbook?

1. Non-Covered ASME Code Section VIII Design Formula and


Methods

You may review ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1 in U2 (g) clauses, you
will see following statement:

“This Division of Section VIII does not contain rules to cover all details of
design and construction. Where complete details are not given, it is
intended that the Manufacturer, subject to the acceptance of the
Inspector, shall provide details of design and construction which will be
as safe as those provided by the rules of this Division.”

So the manufacture is responsible for non-covered item in design


process, but what reference manufactures need to use for these kinds of
cases.

Here is the place manufactures use handbook for design formulas and
calculations.

The lists of non-covered design details have been addressed in UG-22


clauses; the code says the manufacturer need to consider following
loading in his design:

 Weight of the vessel

 Superimposed static reactions from weight of attached equipment

 Cyclic and dynamic reactions

 Wind, snow, and seismic reactions

 etc.

Above items are examples, for design calculation manufactures need to


use Press. Vessel Handbook.

2. Non-Covered Construction Tolerances

You may review ASME Code Forward, you will see following statement:

“The Code does not fully address tolerances. When dimensions, sizes, or
other parameters are not specified with tolerances, the values of these
parameters are considered nominal and allowable tolerances or local
variances may be considered acceptable when based on engineering
judgment and standard practices as determined by the designer.”

So what is the reference book for these tolerances, here is another


application of pressure vessel handbook.

Some of these construction tolerances are :

 Nozzles and attachment deflection tolerances

 Nozzles and attachment orientation tolerances

 Nozzles and attachment elevation tolerances

 Nozzles and attachment projection tolerances


 Overall length, measured between the tangents lines tolerances

 etc.

3. Facilitate Design Calculation

You may review following statements in ASME Code Forward:

“It is not intended that this Section be used as a design handbook”

And in other place says:

“The Code is not a handbook and cannot replace education, experience,


and the use of engineering judgment.”

So the code book is like law book, we need take care about specific
prohibitions and mandatory requirement but for design we need
handbook to facilitate our design process.

The aim of your handbook is to be easily handled and consulted. Some


tables and charts eliminate the necessity for calculations.
Spherical Pressure Vessel

The Spherical Pressure Vessel article provides you with information


about this vessels characteristics and related points for the pressure
vessel inspection.

What is construction code for spherical pressure vessel? What is In-


Service code for spherical vessel? What are the applications? What are
the advantages?

This article either provides you the answers of your questions or refers
you to the specific sources.

What is the Difference Between the Design Formula of a


Cylindrical Shell and a Spherical Shell?

In the same design condition with the same design pressure, design
temperature and material, the thickness you obtain from the internal
pressure formula for spherical pressure vessel will be half that of the
cylindrical pressure vessel.

The design formula for the cylindrical shell is t = PR/ (SE-0.6P) and for
the spherical shell is t = PR/ (2SE-0.2P)

When the “t” is represent Thickness, “R” the Inside Radius,” S “the
Allowable Stress, “P” the Design Pressure and “E” the Joint Efficiency;

For example, if your design pressure is 250 psi, inside radius 20 inch. ,
allowable stress 20,000 psi and joint efficiency 1.

Your thickness for cylindrical shell will be 0.24 inch. or 6.10 mm, and for
the spherical shell, it will be 0.125 inch. or 3.175 mm.

What is the Application and Advantage of a Spherical Pressure


Vessel?

When you need to make storage for a great amount of pressurized liquid
or gas, meaning you need a big volume, then you need a big pressure
vessel, so a spherical shell pressure vessel would be more economical.

As you see above, the thickness is half that for a similar design
condition. Also placing a long cylindrical pressure vessel might not be
suitable in regards to the regarding plant layout.

What is the Disadvantage of a Spherical Pressure Vessel?

Spherical shell pressure vessels are more expensive than cylindrical


pressure vessels to fabricate, and this higher price is only justifiable for
large vessels.
What is Difference in Fabrication Method Between Cylindrical and
Spherical Shell Pressure Vessel?

Cylindrical shell pressure vessels generally are built in the shop and then
transferred to the plant field except for long process towers, which might
be built in two pieces and completed in the field by one circumferential
weld.

This is only because of the facilitating shipping process.

But spherical shell pressure vessels are assembled in the field. The
plates generally are formed in the rolling shop and then carefully
transferred to the field for assembly.

What is the Difference in the Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT)


Process?

If PWHT is a code or process requirement, the PWHT for cylindrical shell


pressure vessels generally are done in the furnace, and if the vessel is
too long, it is done in two heating process with a 5 ft. overlap.

But PWHT for spherical shell pressure vessels are done by one or more
high velocity burners that are fired into the vessel using the top or
bottom manways (or both) as burner entry and exhaust positions.

This is done because using a PWHT furnace is not possible.

What Kinds of Materials are Stored in a Spherical Pressure


Vessel?

Most of the LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) and LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas)
tanks are Spherical Vessels.

Butane, Propane, Ammonia, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen also are


stored in spherical vessels.

What are the In-Service Inspection Requirements for Spherical


Shell Pressure Vessels?

In-service inspection requirements are similar to those for the cylindrical


pressure vessel and are based on the requirement of the API STD 510
Standard.

Some important points about in-service inspection are:

The inspection plan needs to be developed for the vessels, and


generally, internal inspection is a mandatory requirement.

You need to do internal inspection in intervals not exceeding one half of


the remaining life, or 10 years, whichever is less.
You can calculate the remaining life with the following simple formula:

RL = (Tc-Tmin)/CR ;

When Tc is Actual Thickness, and Tmin is Minimum Required Thickness,


it is can be obtained by the deduction of nominal thickness from
corrosion allowance, and CR is corrosion rate.

Example: you have a spherical shell storage vessel with an actual


thickness of 1.121 in., and the minimum required thickness is 1.0 and
the corrosion rate is 0.005 in./year, so the reaming life will be:

(1.121-1.0)/0.005 = 24.2 years;

So the internal inspection interval will be:

Half-life = 24.2/2 = 12.1, so 10<12.1, then the internal inspection


interval will be 10 years.

But in most plants, evacuation of storage vessels is very difficult and


costly, so integrity engineers try to find a new technique to replace
internal inspection.

API STD 510 allows the On-Stream inspection to be replaced with the
internal inspection with some conditions.

This is the definition of On-Stream Inspection per the API 510 Standard:

“An inspection performed from the outside of a pressure vessel while it


is on-stream using NDE procedures to establish the suitability of the
pressure boundary for continued operation.”

But only you may replace this technique if all of following conditions are
met with your vessel:

The general corrosion rate is less than 0.005 inch. per year, remaining
life is greater than 10 years, there is no corrosive character in the
contents, no questionable condition is observed in the External
inspection and the vessel is not subject to SCC cracking.

What is the Best Technique to Use as On-Stream Inspection?

The best technique, which is widely used, is acoustic emission testing. In


this technique, the spherical vessel is completely filled by content fluid to
maximize stresses.

Meanwhile highly-sensitive proprietary acoustic sensors are attached to


the vessel wall to detect the fracture of corrosion products during the
monitoring period.
The suspect areas are identified and located. If the suspect shows a high
risk issue, then the vessel would be evacuated for internal inspection
and necessary repairs.

What are the Repair Methods for a Spherical Shell Pressure


Vessel?

There are three sources for repair of a spherical pressure vessel; API
STD 510 has provided some repair requirements and instructions.

Based the API 510, only repair organizations are allowed to do repairs,
and the definition and condition for being a repair organization has been
provided in the API 510.

The other source is the ASME-PCC-2, which provides you detailed


instructions and requirements.

The other source is the NBIC Part 3 Code book, which similarly provides
requirements and instructions.

Please note if your spherical pressure vessel is a “U” or “U2” stamped


pressure vessel, only repair organizations that are ”R” stamp holders
from NBIC are allowed to do repair on your vessel.
ASME PRESSURE VESSEL JOINTS EFFICIENCIES

The ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies article provides you with
information about pressure vessel joint efficiency requirements and their
connection with radiography testing.

You may know Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies are linked to the
radiography testing grades and there is a concession for full radiography
testing as per the UW-11(a) (5) (b) clause which it is a little bit
confusing.

This article provides you the ASME pressure vessel joint efficiencies
requirements and guidelines for the above clause.

Based on the ASME Code requirement, manufacturers have to mark the


type of RT i.e. RT1, RT2, RT3 and RT4 in the pressure vessel name plate
and state the same in Pressure Vessel Data Report.

We have seen many professionals, from inspectors to quality control


engineers who are confused between RT1 and RT2, specifically when
they see ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies for both RT1 and RT2 is
the same and equal to 1(E=1).

They say both RT1 and RT2 are categorized in the “Full Radiography”
part in UW-11 clause ...

So why are some joints in RT2 radiographed in spots?

We are making spot radiography, but it is categorized in full


radiography!!!

So in this "ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies" article we want to


answer this question in very simple way, but before this, we need review
joint categories and summarize them as below:

Category A:

 All longitudinal welds in shell and nozzles


 All welds in heads, Hemisph-head to shell weld joint

Category B:

 All circumferential welds in shell and nozzles


 Head to shell joint (other than Hemisph.)

Category C and D are flange welds and nozzle attachment welds


respectively

Longitudinal welds (Category A) are more critical than Circumferential


welds (Category B) because they are under double stress.

This the reason why in different part of ASME code we have stringent
rules in category A joint compared to category B joint.

See the following Fig. for joint categories:

Now let's get back to the ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies subject,
to remove the above confusion about RT1 and RT2.

We need to know:

When and where is there a code requirement for full


radiography?

Item 1: All butt welds in vessels used to contain a lethal substance


(UW-11(a)).Lethal substances have specific definitions in ASME Code in
UW-2 and it is the responsibility of the end user to determine if they
ordered a vessel that contains lethal substances.

Item 2: All butt welds in vessels in which the nominal thickness exceeds
specified values (UW-11(a). You can find these values in subsection C, in
UCS-57, UNF-57, etc. For example, this value for P-No.1 in UCS-57 is 1
¼ inch.

Item 3: All butt welds in an unfired steam boiler with design pressure >
50 psi (UW-11(a)).
Item 4: All category A and D butt welds in vessel when “Full
Radiography” optionally selected from table UW-12(column (a) in this
table is selected); and categories B and C which intersect Category A
shall meet the spot radiography requirement (UW-11(a) (5) (b)).

The point is this: items 1, 2 and 3 are similar, but item 4 is completely
different. In items 1, 2 and 3 it is mandated by code; to do full
radiography in all butt welds in vessel so it means it is mandatory for
designer to select column (a) in UW-12 table.

But in item 4, there is no mandating rule. A manufacturer with its own


decision has chosen to use column (a) in table UW-12 for full
radiography.

So here there is a concession or bonus to manufacturers for categories B


and C.

What is concept behind this concession or bonus in pressure


vessel RT test?

If you review item 1, 2 and 3 one more time, you will see that the
pressure vessel RT tests are related to the type of welds and services.

You can see the pressure vessels in these items are critical from a safety
point of view, one contains a lethal substance, the other one has a high
thickness, which implicates high pressure, and the last one is an unfired
steam boiler. But item 4 has no criticality like the other items have.

But you should note all 4 items have been categorized in full radiography
clause( U-11(a)), so to differentiate item 1, 2 and 3 from item 4, the RT
symbols are used in Code (UG-116).

RT 1: Items 1, 2 and 3, (E=1), All butt welds-full length radiography

RT 2: Item 4 (E=1), Category A and D butt welds full length radiography


and category B and C butt welds spot Radiography

RT 3: (E=0.85), Spot radiography butt welds

RT 4: (E=0.7), Partial / No radiography

You need to consider the hemispherical head joint to shell as category A,


but ellipsoidal and torispherical head joint to shell as category B;

Do you know why? Why ASME considered the stringent rule for pressure
vessel RT test in hemispherical head joint?

It is because this joint is more critical, because the thickness obtained


from the formula for hemispherical head approximately would be half of
the shell thickness;
It means if the shell thickness is 1 inch, the hemispherical head
thickness would be 0.5 inch.

For more detail, you may review the Pressure Vessel Heads article.

ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies for welded Heads

For Welded Heads, the joint efficiency of the vessel will be 1(E=1), if all
welds within the head's full length are radiographed (since they are all
Cat. A welds). See above figure.

ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies for Seamless Heads

For seamless heads, the joint efficiency of the vessel will be 1(E=1) if
the head to shell weld is fully radiographed for the hemispherical Head
(Cat A);

See the following Figure for RT types:

Spot radiographed for ellipsoidal and torispherical heads(Cat. B).

Weld Types:

Here is some clarification about the different type of welds that have
specific definitions in ASME Code SEC VIII DIV 1 and related to the
pressure vessel RT test.

The concept is to define the different types and then introduce some
restriction for using them.

For example, a Type 1 weld is defined as a full penetration weld,


typically double welded and Type 2 is welds with backing strips.

So when you go to service restriction for a vessel containing a lethal


substance, you see there is a restriction there that says all category A
joints shall be weld Type 1 and Category B and C shall be type 1 or type
2.
You should take this point in to account, which is this: the same joint
category with different weld types have different joint efficiencies.

Summary of weld types:

Type 1: Full penetration welds (Typically Double welded)

Type 2: Welds with backing strip

Type 3: Single welded partial penetration welds

Type 4, 5 and 6: Various Lap welds (rarely used)


PRESSURE VESSEL DIMENSION INSPECTION

The Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection article provides you with


information about the dimensional requirements in pressure vessel
construction and pressure vessel inspection.

You may know some fabrication tolerances have not been addressed in
ASME Code Section VIII.

So you need to refer to other sources for inspection. This article provides
you the most important dimensional inspection requirements.

The dimensional check of a pressure vessel consists of the following


items:

 Mill Undertolerance of Plates and Pipes

 Tolerances for Formed Heads

 Out of Roundness of shell

 Nozzles and attachments Orientation

 Nozzles and attachments Projection

 Nozzles and attachments elevation

 Nozzles and attachments levelness

 Weld mismatch

 Weld reinforcement

Mill Undertolerance of Plates and Pipes

Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Plate:


Your pressure vessel plates with 0.01 inch or
6% undertolerance, whichever is smaller, may be used for full design
pressure, instead of at the given design thickness specified.

However, if the material specification allows greater undertolerance,


then the ordered thickness for the material should be sufficiently
greater.

For example, if you have SA 516 Gr.70 plate with a 0.625 inch nominal
thickness, and the actual thickness is 0.615, it is acceptable, and you
may use this plate without any specific design consideration.

But if the same plate has an actual thickness of 0.595 inches, you need
to consider mill undertolarence in your design calculation.

This plate thickness is acceptable based on the material specification


(see table in SA 20 for thickness tolerances). We cannot reject this plate
because it is in the permissible tolerance of plate specification, but based
on ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1, you need to consider this 0.03 inches in
your design calculation: e.g. Thickness = Min Thickness + Corrosion
Allowance + Mill Undertolrance

Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Pipe:

Contrary to the plate material, your pipe and tube mill undertolrances
need to be taken into account for design consideration.

Pipe and tube undertolrances are almost -12.5 % of the nominal wall
thickness, but sometimes there are differences for different materials, so
for any specific material, it shall be referred to the suggested pipe or
tube material specification to obtain the exact amount of mill
undertolrances.

For example, if there is a pressure vessel with nominal shell thickness of


0.5 inch, it needs a 6” SA 106 Gr.B nozzle to be attached to the shell
plate.

Assume that external loading is not a design controlling factor (is not
governor), so as our minimum, nozzle thickness will be the same as the
shell thickness.

So with a consideration of -12.5%, the calculation will be: 0.5 / 0.875 =


0.571 inches. So when we refer to ASME B36.10 and select our pipe
schedule it will be SA 106 Gr.B Schedule 160.
Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Tolerances for Formed
Head:

You may know that there is a specific rule for dimensional checking of
formed heads, based the fact that the UG-81 inner surface shall not
deviate outside of the specified shape more than 11⁄4% of D and inside
the shape more than 5⁄8%.

You can use sweep boards, which are made by cutting a thin steel sheet
or piece of wood for checking your crown and knuckle radius.

For your skirt, the difference between the maximum and minimum inside
diameter, should not be more than 1%, and you can use a tape measure
or laser measure for dimensional control of the skirt.

So to fully understand, let's check the following head together:

Head ID = 3364 mm

Head Type: Torispherical

Limit for Outside of specified Shape = 3364 x 1 ¼% = 42.05 mm


Limit for Inside of specified Shape = 3364 x 5/8 % = 21.025 mm

So we check the depth, and the drawing is 656.3 mm and the actual is
672 mm, so it is outside of the shape. We need to check if it is in the
range of tolerance, so the maximum outside of the shape will be 42.05
+ 656.3 = 698.35 so our actual value is 672 mm. 672<698.35, so it
is OK.

We cut a sweep board equal to the head drawing crown radius (3400
mm) and other one for the knuckle radius equal to 204 mm, so we try to
fit the sweep boards in the heads for the above example of the sweep
boards. The edge distance to the head surface should not be deviate
from the above limited values.

Skirt max and min ID should not be more than 1% of the ID, which is
33.64 mm. So, in the above example skirt is also is OK. Our nominal
thickness is 20 mm, so up to 19.746 is acceptable then for the above
example. The thickness dimension is also OK.

So the above head dimensions are ok

Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Out of Roundness of


Shell:

UG-80 deals with out of roundness of shell. The maximum permitted


ovality tolerance (D max – D min) shall not exceed 1% of the nominal
diameter of the vessel.

If you have an opening, then the tolerance can be increased by 2% x d


(d = diameter of opening), if the measurement is taken within a distance
of ‘d’ from the axis of the opening.

The out of roundness generally is measured in two directions with a


normal measuring tape or laser measure, so one direction would be the
D max and other one would be the D min.

The following picture shows an out of roundness measurement:


Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Nozzles and Attachments
Orientation:

ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1 has not specified the orientation tolerances
for nozzles and attachments, so you need refer to the pressure vessel
handbook.

It is almost +/- 1 degree. The orientation check can be done by a simple


calculation by using a measuring tape in the actual measurement work
on the vessel.

For example, we want to check N3 orientation in following drawing.

N3 is located at 120 degrees in the drawing. The manufacturer has


located this point in the vessel with a marker, and we want to check the
location, and if it is OK, then we can allow the manufacturer to cut.

So we run this simple calculation:

Vessel OD = 97.875”

Shell outside Circumference length = π x OD = 3.14 x 97.875 =


307.3275”

307.3275 distributed to 360 degrees so each degree represents

307.3275/ 360 =0.8536”

N3 is located at the 120 degree position, so if we use a measuring tape


and keep 0 at the zero reference point in the vessel and pull the tape,
the nozzle center should be located at 120 x 0.8536 = 102.4425 inches.

This 102.4425 is a perfect case so our tolerance is ±1 degrees. So if the


tape shows in following range, it will be OK.

102.4425 – 0.8536 =101.5889”


102.4425 + 0.8536 =103.2961”

Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Nozzles and Attachments


Projection:

Nozzle and attachment projection is the length from the nozzle or the
attachment face to the vessel shell centerline.

Projection dimensions are addressed in general assembly drawings. The


projection tolerances are not addressed in ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1,
but if you refer to the pressure vessel handbook, almost ± 0.25 of an
inch is permissible.

In following figure, we need to check the BD nozzle projection. It should


be 660 mm in distance from shell centerline to the flange face.

In practical measurement, you may use a measuring tape to measure


the distance between the shell outside circumference to the nozzle face.
Then the measured value is summed with the shell thickness and the
inside radius. So for the above example, the following range is
acceptable:
660 – 6.35 = 653.65

660 + 6.35 =666.35

Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Nozzles and Attachments


Elevation:

Your Nozzles and attachments elevation is the length between the


nozzles or the attachments centerline and the bottom or top head
tangent line.

The elevation dimension is addressed directly in the general assembly


drawing. The elevation tolerances are not addressed in ASME Code SEC
VIII Div 1, but if you refer to the pressure vessel handbook, almost
±0.25 inch is permissible.

In following figure, we need to check Nozzle EB elevation. As you see in


the drawing, the distance between the nozzle centerline to the bottom
head tangent line is 700 mm.
In actual measurement, the measuring tape or laser measure is used to
measure from the nozzle neck center line to the tangent line. In this
example, the following range is acceptable:

700 – 6.35 = 693.65

700 + 6.35 = 706.35

Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Nozzles and Attachments


Levelness:

The nozzles and attachments levelness tolerances are not addressed in


ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1, but in the pressure vessel handbook, a ½ ˚
deflection is permissible.

For levelness checking, a level gage is used. If the bubble is in the


middle of the designated lines, the nozzle is level.
But if the bubble intersects the designated limit lines, you need to run a
simple calculation and see if your deflection is within the tolerance limit.

You need to move one end of the level gage up to the bubble to be
placed in middle. Then measure the distance between the level gage end
and the flange face. The measured value is the X in the figure.

Then obtain α, if α is less than 0.5˚, the deflection falls within the
tolerances. And it is OK otherwise it will require cutting out and re-
welding.

Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Weld Mismatch:

ASME Code SEC VIII Div. 1 specified tolerances for weld mismatch in
UW-33. It is important to know that the limit for weld mismatch is
stringent for a category A weld (Longitudinal joint and circumferential
shell to hemispherical head).

The concept behind this is that the longitudinal joint bears double the
amount of stress, and inspectors should precisely check these joints.
For example, you have a pressure vessel with a nominal thickness of 1
inch. You do a visual and measure the mismatch by the welding gauge.
Assume you found a 0.143 inch mismatch in one longitudinal and one
circumferential joint.

So you look to the UW-33 table:

The permissible weld mismatch in the longitudinal joint for your case is
0.125 of an inch, and for the circumferential joint, it is 0.1875 of an
inch.

Your weld mismatches for both longitudinal and circumferential joints


are 0.143, so your circumferential joint is OK, but your longitudinal joint
should be repaired.

Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Weld Reinforcement:

The same concept for weld mismatch exists for weld reinforcement
tolerances. The longitudinal joint weld reinforcement limit is more
stringent than that for circumferential joints.

This is because longitudinal joint bears double stress, and it is required


that the stress concentration is minimized.
In the same example, assume that there are 0.150 of an inch welds
reinforcement for both category A and B welds. Do you want to review
your weld acceptance?

Category A allowances = 0.093 inch

Category B allowances = 0.1875

So our circumferential joint is OK, but the longitudinal is not OK and


should be repaired by removing the excess weld reinforcement.
ASME IMPACT TEST REQUIREMENTS

The ASME Impact Test Requirement article provides you with


information about impact test requirements in pressure vessel design
and construction.

Let's say, you have a pressure vessel under design, process and
construction has not started yet.

Based on the ASME impact test requirement, you need to make


assessment to see that either your pressure vessel is exempted from
impact testing, or you need to carry out the test.

There are 4 steps for impact test exemption assessment. You need to
know these steps. You might be exempted in the first, second or third
steps and might not be exempted even in step 4.

So if you are in step 4 and you have not exempted, then you need to
carry out the test. I will explain the process for exemption in this article.

Basic Concept:

You may know carbon steels and low alloy steels exhibit a drastic change
in their room temperature ductility at sub-zero service temperatures.
Different types of materials exhibit different types of transition behavior.

We can see there is a sudden, phenomenal drop in their notch-


toughness properties below the "transition" range of temperature, which
should be a matter of concern for us.

Body centered cubic or Ferritic alloys exhibit a significant transition in


behavior when impact tested over a range of temperatures. Above
transition temperature range, impact specimens fracture in a "ductile"
manner, absorbing relatively large amounts of energy.

At lower temperatures, i.e. below the transition temperature range, the


impact test specimens are found to fracture in a brittle (cleavage)
manner, absorbing less energy.
And within the transition temperature range, the fracture is a mixture of
ductile and brittle nature.

A material would be invulnerable to a sudden drop in notch-toughness at


the lowest specified service (or design) temperature, if it is proved by
conducting Charpy V-notch Impact tests on representative test samples,
at reference (the lowest service) temperature.

Grain refined carbon steel forgings and wrought materials (thoroughly


worked and normalized) generally exhibit good notch toughness.

ASME Code Section VIII Div 1 exemption rules for ASME Impact
Test Requirement:

There are specific rules in ASME Code for exemption from ASME Impact
Test Requirement. This test is very expensive, so pressure vessel
manufacturers are trying to be exempted for this costly test.

You need to follow the following clauses to make exemption assessment


for ASME impact test requirement:

UG-20(f) →→→UCS-66(a) →→→ UCS-66(b) →→→UCS-68(c)

First you have to keep your pressure vessel design data available and
then refer to UG-20 (f). If you are exempted from this clause, you do
not need proceed further.

But if you are not exempted by UG-20 (f), you have to proceed to UCS-
66(a), but again if you are exempted, there is no need for more
assessment.

But if not, you have to proceed to UCS-66(b). If you are exempted now,
there is no need for more assessment; otherwise, you have to proceed
to UCS-68(c), and again if you are still not exempted, you have to carry
out impact testing.

For some cases, You might be exempted from the ASME impact test
requirement in the first stage in UG-20 (f). In others, You might be
exempted in UCS-66(a) or UCS-66(b) or UCS-68(c). If you are not
exempted, you must prepare yourself for doing this costly test.

This test would be more costly out of the US because of Laboratory


Accreditation requirements. Also, there are fewer accredited labs in
Europe and the Middle East, and their price is high as well.

UG-20(f)

We will start with UG-20(f) for the ASME impact test requirement. If
your MOC (Material of Construction) is categorized in P-No. 1 or 2 (Refer
to ASME Code Section IX for P-No Definition) and your MOC thickness
has the limited value defined in this clause, then you might be exempted
from impact testing.

But you need to refer to Fig UCS-66 in ASME Code Section VIII Div 1
and see in which A, B, C or D curves your MOC is listed. All ASME carbon
steel and low alloy steel material is distributed in these 4 groups
(Curves) of materials.

You need to know that the materials listed in curve D have the best
toughness property, better than the materials listed in curve C. Similarly
materials listed in curve C have better toughness properties compared to
materials listed in curve B and materials listed in Curve B have better
toughness than materials listed in Curve A .

See Following Fig UCS-66(a):

When you determine your MOC curve, then you have to review UG-20(f)
and look for the possibility of exemption from the ASME impact test
requirement. There are some other conditions in this clause, which you
should consider for exemption.

For instance, the vessel should be hydrostatically tested after


completion, and the thermal and mechanical loading can not be a design
controlling factor.

For example, if your MOC is a normalized SA 516 Gr.70 with 0.75 inch
thickness you will be exempted from ASME impact test requirement.

Your thickness, in this example, is 0.75 of an inch, and is listed in curve D


which is up to 1 inch, you are exempted by this clause. Of course, you
will be carry out hydro-static test and ensure that
the mentioned loadings are not a design controlling factor in your
considered pressure vessel.

UCS-66(a)

So assume that in the above example, your MOC thickness is 1.125 inch
instead of 1 inch, you will not be exempted by UG-20(f) and you have to
refer to UCS-66(a);

But for assessment, based on this clause, you need to know your
pressure vessel MDMT (Minimum Design Metal Temperature). Assume
that is -20 degree F, so you should now go to Fig. UCS-66 and locate
1.125 inch in the horizontal axis and draw a vertical line.

In a similar way, locate -20 degree F in the vertical axes and draw a
horizontal line. These two lines will cross each other.

See above Figure, the lines are identified in red.

If the cross point falls above the curve D (because your MOC is listed in
curve D) you are exempted. Otherwise you are not, but for the current
example, you are above the curve D so you are exempted from impact
testing.

To simplify your assessment for the ASME impact test requirement, the
Fig-66 has been converted to the table(table UCS-66). For any MOC with
specific thickness you can go to this table and see what is the minimum
permissible temperature without impact testing.

See following UCS-66(a) Table:


In the above example (normalized SA 516 Gr.70, Curve D, 1.125 inch
thickness), the minimum permissible temperature without impact test is
-26 degree F. This means that, if in the above example your MDMT
changes from -20 degree F to -27 degree F, then you cannot be
exempted from the ASME impact test requirement by UCS-66(a), and
you have to proceed to UCS-66(b)

UCS-66(b)

Let us explain this clause with the above example. Your MDMT from
above is -27 degree F, nominal thickness is 1.125 inch, normalized SA
516 Gr.70 listed in curve D and you are not exempted by UCS-66(a)

So you are here to continue your assessment to find a chance for


exemption. You have to refer to Fig UCS-66.1 and calculate the following
formula:

Ratio= tr E / (tn –c)

tr is the required design thickness for all applicable loading. We assume


for the above example that is 0.95 inch. E is your joint efficiency, and
we assume for this vessel it is 1. This means your vessel is RT2, tn is
your nominal thinness, which in the example from above it is 1.125
inches, and C is corrosion allowance, and we assume it is 0.125 inches;
so let calculate:

Ratio = 0.95x1/(1.125 – 0.125) Ratio= 0.95

See following Fig UCS-66(b):


Then go to the Figure UCS-66(b) and in the vertical axes locate Ratio
and draw a horizontal line. Then locate the cross point with the graph
and draw a vertical line to cross the horizontal axis.

You will be able to reach a value of 8 in the horizontal axes. This 8, is


your 8 degree F bonus from table UCS-66, which you can reduce by 8
degrees F minimum permissible temperature in table without impact
testing.

In the above example, your MDMT is -27 degree F, and in the UCS 66
table, the minimum permissible temperature without impact testing
designated -26 degree F. So with this clause you can reduce it to -36
degree F(-26 -8 = -34). Your MDMT is -27 degree F, so you are
exempted from impact testing with this clause.

UCS-68(c)

Let us change one variable in the above example. Let's assume you need
to have -45 degree F for your MDMT. Other variable are the same; it
means normalized SA 516 Gr.70 listed in curve D, thickness 1.125, so
you can see you are not exempted by UCS-66(b);

This is because the minimum permissible temperature is -36 degree F,


but your MDMT is -45 degree F, so UCS-68(c) might be helpful.

It says that if post weld heat treatment is not a code requirement and
your P-No is 1 and you carry out post weld heat treatment, a 30 degree
F bonus will be granted to you to reduce the minimum permissible
temperature in table UCS-66.

So when post weld heat treatment is code requirement?

It is code requirement when your service is lethal and when your


thickness for P-No. 1 is greater than 1.5 inch;

So, for our example, our service is not lethal and our P-No. is 1 and
thickness is 1.125 and it is less than 1.5 inch: therefore, post weld heat
treatment is not code requirement.

It means if you carry out post heat treatment, a 30 degree F bonus will
be granted by this clause. For this example our minimum permissible
temperature would be -36-30=-66 degree F, and your MDMT is -45
degree F, so you are exempted from impact testing.

Now the worst case: in the above, assume you need to have -70 degree
F for your MDMT; you can see with this new condition you cannot be
exempted even by UCS-68(c) and you have to carry out impact testing.
PRESSURE VESSEL RT TEST

The Pressure Vessel RT Test article provides you with information about
Radiography testing in the pressure vessel manufacturing process and
related items in pressure vessel inspection.

Do you know what your pressure vessel RT test requirements are? Is full
radiography mandatory for your vessel? When is full radiography
mandatory? What are the acceptance criteria? What are the RT symbols?

So if you need this information, this article answers all of these


questions.

We recommend that you to review this article in conjunction with


the ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies article.

Before going into the RT test, we need to know about joint categories.
These categories are base on ASME Code Section VIII:

Category A:

 All longitudinal welds in shell and nozzles.


 All welds in heads, Hemisph-head to shell weld joint

Category B:

 All circumferential welds in shell and nozzles


 Head to shell joint (other than Hemisph.)

Category C and D are flange welds and nozzle attachment welds respectively

Longitudinal weld (Category A) is more critical because it is subjected to double the


stress than Circ. Weld (Category B) and this the reason in different part of the
ASME code, we have stringent rules in category A joints compared to category B
joints.

Pressure Vessel RT Test -When We Need to Do a Full Radiography Test?


When one of following conditions is existing, you need to do the full radiography:

1. All butt welds in vessels used to contain a lethal substance


2. All butt welds in vessels in which the nominal thickness exceeds
specified values
3. All butt welds in unfired steam boilers with design pressure > 50
psi
4. All category A and D butt welds in a vessel when “Full
Radiography” is optionally selected

As you see, the item numbers 1, 2 and 3 are really mandatory for a full RT test;

But pressure vessel manufacturers can make an optional decision for full
radiography in item number 4

Pressure Vessel RT Test - Why do pressure vessel manufacturers want to spent


more money for full radiography in item # 4?

Because the joint efficiency in the full radiography condition is 1, the higher joint
efficiency in the pressure vessel wall thickness formula causes less wall thickness.
The manufacturer might save lots of money with a lower thickness plate material.

But code has given some bonus to manufacturers in item 4, because it is not
mandated to do full radiography in all butt welds. Manufacturers can do spot
radiography in B and C joints with the same joint efficiency of item 1.

Item number 2 describes thickness limitations. Any pressure vessel material is


designated to the specific P. Number by ASME section IX, so there are several
tables in ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1 Subsection C, which determine this
limitation.

For example, SA 516 material is P Number 1, and needs to be fully radiographed if


its thickness is greater than 1.25 of an inch. At the same time, SA 204 material is P
Number 3 and needs to be fully radiographed if the thickness is greater than 0.75 of
an inch.

Pressure Vessel RT Test - Is Acceptance Criteria in Full Radiography or in


Spot Radiography More Stringent?

Acceptance criteria for welding defects in full radiography is stringent. These


criteria are stated in UW-51 and UW-52 in ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1

It means there is a defect if interpreted based on the full radiography criteria in UW-
51, and it might be rejected, but if it is interpreted by the spot radiography criteria in
UW-52, it might be accepted.
Pressure Vessel RT Test - What is the Important Spot Radiography
Requirement?

 One spot shall be examined on each vessel for each 50 ft.


increment

 For each increment of weld to be examined, a sufficient number of


spot radiographs will be taken to examine the welding of each
welder or welding operator

 Each spot examination will be made as soon as practicable after


the completion of the increment of weld to be examined

 The location of the spot shall be chosen by the Inspector after the
completion of the increment of welding to be examined

Pressure Vessel RT Test - Radiographic Personnel Qualification:

The radiographic personnel need to be certified by the pressure vessel


manufacturer according to their written practice.

Holding the ASNT Radiographic certificate is not enough

In fact, SNT-TC-1A can be used as a guideline for manufacturers to establish their


written practice for qualification and certification of their personnel.

Radiographic Examination Procedure and method

ASME Code Section VIII Div 1 mandates that all tests shall be done based on
ASME Code Section V, article number 2.
VESSEL PRESSURE TESTING

The Vessel Pressure Testing article provides you with information about
pressure vessel hydro-static testing requirements and related item in
pressure vessel inspection.

The requirements have been described based on ASME Code Section


VIII. You need to do this test after completion of the construction
process, but before the internal parts assembly and also before painting
process.

This content covers all major requirements and provides you with
guidelines for test performance.

Please note that performing the pneumatic test instead of the Hydro-
Static Test is not allowed, and it can be replaced only when it is not
possible due to the design and process.

Vessel pressure testing requirements have been addressed in UG-99 and


UG-100 in ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1.

These are important points, which you need to take care of in vessel
pressure testing:

Activities before pressure vessel hydro-static testing, which need


to be checked by the manufacturer quality control team and a
third party inspector:

1. Checking all welding already finished and fully accepted by the NDT
examination per the project Inspection and test plan.

2. Making sure the inner part of the vessel is clean and free of remaining
slag or other elements.

making sure the external surface is dry for the correct execution of the
visual inspection during the vessel pressure testing.
3. Checking the pressure gauges' calibration tag and certificate and the
range of the lower limit and upper limit of the gauges. It needs to be
between 1.5 and 4 of the pressure test value.

4. Controlling testing equipment such as the test pump and housing for
soundness and tightness.

5. Making sure the test temperature will not violate the following values:

Min. Test temperature= MDMT + 30°F

Max. Test temperature = 120°F

MDMT is the pressure vessel minimum design metal temperature, and it


is stated in the pressure vessel design document.

This reduces the risk of a brittle fracture during the test.

6. Making sure which reinforcement pads are already soap tested.

7. Controlling the testing water quality and using corrosion inhibitor if it


is necessary or when the vessel metal is sensitive material

8. Checking of vents. It is required to be placed at high points of the


vessel in a position where it is possible to purge air pockets while the
vessel is filling.

Activities during the pressure vessel hydro-static testing that


need to be checked by the manufacturer quality control team and
a third party inspector:

1. Making sure the filling and pressurizing are done from the lowest
point and venting from the highest point.

2. Witnessing water overflow through the venting in order to assure that


no air bubbles remain in the vessel.

3. Controlling and witnessing which pressurizing is done in three stages


as follow:
First Stage: Raise the pressure to 40% of the final pressure, stop
pressurizing, keep it for 5 minutes, and then make a fast visual
inspection of the external surface.

Second Stage: Restart pressurizing up to 70% of final pressure, stop


the operation, keep for 5 minutes and make a fast visual inspection on
external surface.

Third Stage: Restart pressurizing up to 100% of the final pressure, stop


the operation, and keep for 45 minutes.

4. When 45 minutes elapse, making sure the de-pressurizing is started


and the pressure is dropped to the “Inspection Pressure.”

This inspection pressure can be calculated as following:

Inspection Pressure = Hydrostatic Test Pressure / 1.3

Making sure a detail and a comprehensive inspection is carried out over


the whole body of the vessel and in the welding joints and attachments.

5. Making sure the pressure vessel hydro-static testing pressure


calculated correctly as following:

Hydrostatic Test Pressure = 1.3 x MAWP X Stress ratio

Stress Ratio = (Allowable Stress at Test Temperature)/(Allowable Stress


at Design Temperature)

6. Making sure the vessel is immediately and carefully drained after the
test and dried by air.

Activities after the pressure vessel hydro-static testing that need


to be checked by the manufacturer quality control team and a
third party inspector:

1. The pressure vessel hydro-static testing report needs to be prepared


by the manufacturer quality control team and signed by the third party
or authorized inspector.

2. If the test failed by leaking from weld joints or any other kind of
defect, it is necessary that the vessel is drained and dried and repaired
based on approved repair procedure. pressure vessel hydro-static
testing needs to be repeated.
THIRD PARTY INSPECTION FOR PRESSURE VESSEL

The Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel article provides you with
information about pressure vessel inspection and pressure vessel testing
in the manufacturing shop.

You may need to review this article in conjunction with the following
articles:

Pressure vessel Inspections

Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure Vessel

This content guides you through all the necessary stages in the production of the
pressure vessels, including the raw material, final inspection, preservation and
packing, and dispatch to site.

You need to take this point into account: this article is written for a typical pressure
vessel and might not be detailed for special cases.

This content may be useful for second party inspectors, pressure vessel
manufacturer quality control personnel, engineering companies, and purchasers, as
well.

You may also note that if a pressure vessel is ordered with a U Stamp,
then any Third Party Inspection Agency cannot do the inspection, and an
authorized third party ASME inspection needs to be hired. This also
called third party inspection for U stamp.

The authorized third party inspection agencies must be insurance


company and accreditation by ASME.

All pressure vessel inspection and testing is done against the approved drawings,
purchase order specifications, purchasers or company standards, and within the
practices and rules of the country, state or province and any government decrees,
laws, ordinance or regulation as may apply.

The applicable codes and specifications for a pressure vessel that is under the
construction process is:

 Design code
 Purchase order specification
 Purchaser's standards
 Approved drawings

And the applicable codes and standard are:

 ASME VIII Division 1 or 2


 ASME V
 ASME IX

The applicable codes and standard may be based other international


standards such as BS 5500, etc. This content is general and can be
useful if even the design code is different from ASME Code.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Required Documents


for Third Party Inspector Review:

The list of documents normally is agreed upon in the Pre-Inspection meeting, which
is held several weeks before the actual commencement of the inspection work.

The parties that participate in this meeting are the manufacturer, purchaser and
third party inspection agency representatives.

This already explained in the Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure
Vessel article.

These are the list of documents which are normally agreed to be


presented to the inspector:

 Pressure Vessel Manufacture Quality Control Plan


 Pressure Vessel Inspection and Test Plan
 Pressure Vessel Data Sheet
 Pressure Vessel Approved Drawings
 Pressure Vessel Strength Calculation Sheets
 Pressure Vessel Material Test Reports
 Pressure Vessel Welding Specification Procedures (WPS) and Procedure Qualification
Records(PQR)
 Pressure Vessel Welding Map
 Pressure Vessel Welders Qualifications Reports
 Pressure Vessel NDE Procedures (Radiography, Ultrasonic, Magnetic Particle, Dye
Penetration, etc.)
 Pressure Vessel NDE Personnel Qualifications Reports
 Pressure Vessel Heat Treatment Procedure
 Pressure Vessel Calibration Certificates for Test Equipment
 Pressure Vessel Hydrostatic Testing Procedure and Water Quality Document
 Pressure Vessel Preparation and Painting Procedure
 Pressure Vessel Preservation, Packing and Shipping Procedure
 Pressure Vessel Packing List

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Material Inspection

The first actual inspection work on the pressure vessel is the raw
materials inspection. Based on the ASME Code, providing material test
reports for pressure vessel plates is mandatory. For other components,
the marking inspection will be enough.
But if the purchase order has mandated the MTR to be provided for all
components, such as nozzle pipes, fittings, etc., then the manufacturer
needs to provide them as well.

For more details, you may review the Pressure Vessel Plate article.

As mentioned above, the original or authenticated copies of mill


certificates for plates normally are available at the manufacturer's
premises.

The third party inspector examines these certificates for compliance with
specifications, and where appropriate, drawings.

The review includes checks on:

 Certificate No.
 Heat or Cast No.
 Chemical Composition.
 Mechanical Properties.
 Heat Treated Condition.
 NDE Applied and Results.

Then the inspector witnesses the plate material identification on the


certificates against the plate marking. It is also necessary to check the
identification with the pressure vessel drawing datasheet, material list
and other specifications as appropriate.

The transfer identification to cut off plates also is checked.

Visual inspections for surface finish and probable defects are done and
dimensional compliance with specification also needs to be controlled.

For more detail about pressure vessel raw material inspection, you may
review the Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection article.

When the third party inspector carries out the material inspection, then provides the
inspection visit report (IVR), the report contains the following items:

 Confirmation of satisfactory document review


 Record of the endorsement of certification reviewed/witnessed
 Record of all non-conformities
 Record of any tests witnessed and the result
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Fabrication

When the pressure vessel raw material inspection is carried out, and the results
were satisfactory or non-conformities were closed by remedial action, then the
pressure vessel manufacturer will start fabrication.

The third party inspector checks the following points on the pressure vessel, based
on the inspection and test plan (ITP), which has already been agreed upon
between the purchaser and the pressure vessel manufacturer.

The inspection scope is determined in the ITP. Some purchasers prefer to have
stringent controls and assign the TPI for more “hold or witness points” for
inspection and test activities, and some others prefer less “hold or witness points”
and assign the TPI much more work in the “review document.”

This depends in the inspection budget, which purchasers assign for inspection.
Much more inspection will have a much larger cost and less risk, and conversely,
less inspection will have less cost but more risks.

For more detail, review the Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure Vessel
article. There is a draft of the ITP in this article, which we believe is the best
practice for pressure vessel inspection.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Preparation for


Welding

The third party inspector carries out the visual and dimensional check to
ensure compliance with WPS and other specifications. Where specified,
weld bevels are examined by the required code method after
grinding/machining.

It is necessary that the edges and weld bevels are clean, dry and free
from surface defects, laminations, cracks, voids, notches, etc.

They are causes for rejection unless suitable/satisfactory remedial action


can be taken.

Weld repairs are carried out in accordance with the code requirements
and approved by the client before welding proceeds and serious or
excessive defects normally are reported.

If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for this
inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel manufacturer quality
control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Fit-Up Inspection


Shapes and dimensions are checked in accordance with the approved
WPS and drawing.

Tack welds are produced using the applicable WPS conditions, and it is
necessary to be visually free from defects.

Magnetic Testing (MT) or Penetration Testing (PT) may be performed in


accordance with the code requirement.

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for
this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel manufacturer
quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Monitoring of Weld


Conditions

The third party inspector controls preheat heat temperature and method,
interpass temperatures, weld material control, welder and process
qualifications for conformity to the code requirements.

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for
this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel manufacturer
quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Back Gouging


Inspection

The third party inspector controls the shape and dimensions of the back
gouged groove for conformity to the WPS requirement.

It is necessary that the visual appearance is clean and free from defects.
NDE examination is done in accordance with the code requirement.

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for
this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel manufacturer
quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Post Weld Inspection

After completion of all welding and grinding operations, a visual


examination confirms there are no harmful defects such as cracks, lack
of fusion, surface porosity or exposed slag inclusions, incomplete
penetration, incorrect profile of the weld, lack of leg length and overlap.

Temporary attachments are removed, ground smooth, and the areas are
checked for defects by MP or PT for defects.

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for
this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel manufacturer
quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Non-Destructive
Examination

NDE is performed by qualified personnel by the approved techniques.


The techniques available are dependent on the vessel classification and
the materials used.

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for
this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel manufacturer
quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

For more detail, review the following articles:

ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies

Pressure Vessel RT test

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Weld Repair

The pressure vessel weld repairs are completed using an approved WPS
method and retested accordingly.

It is necessary that all repairs are approved before any post weld heat
treatment is carried out.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Post Weld Heat


Treatment

The third party inspector reviews the post weld heat treatment record of
the temperature and time in accordance with the approved
code/procedure.

The results of hardness tests are reviewed in accordance with the code
requirements.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Dimensional


Measurement and Visual Inspection

The third party inspector checks all major dimensions and that the
position/orientation of attachments are in accordance with the code
requirements.

For more details, review the Pressure vessel Dimension


Inspection article.

In addition, a full visual examination of both inside (where practicable)


and outside surfaces of the vessel is completed by the third party
inspector.
Particular attention is paid to the cleanliness of the interior of the vessel,
the condition/appearance of welds and associated areas, and the
condition of the sealing faces.

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for
this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel manufacturer
quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Pneumatic Test

The third party inspector witnesses the low pressure pneumatic test for
nozzle reinforcing pads, support saddles or other attachments when
specified by approved low pressure pneumatic test procedure using
soapy water as the indicating medium.

A minimum of 1 gauge with correct working ranges as described by the


code is used.

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for
this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel manufacturer
quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Hydro-static Testing

The third party inspector controls the following items for Hydro-static
Testing:

 Calibration status and correct working ranges of gauges. A


minimum of 2 pressure gauges are attached to each item under
testing.
 Adequate provision for venting of high points and draining is
provided.
 Test pressure is applied as directed by procedure or code until the
testing limit pressure is reached. During hold period, a methodical
check for leaks is conducted.
 Test pressures, metal and water temperatures are recorded.
 Water quality is as specified.

Special requirements of the purchaser's specification for deflection or


strain gauges or pressure/time/temperature recordings are examined by
the inspector and the records are verified.

For more detail in hydro-static testing, review the Vessel Pressure


Testing article.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Final Inspection


After hydrostatic testing, the vessel is thoroughly drained and dried out
by approved methods. All internal fittings, attachments, coatings or
other requirements need to be completed.

The specified post hydrostatic test NDE needs to be completed and the
vessel closed.

All pressure vessels are checked for cleanliness and dryness by an


approved method.

The third party inspector rechecks the nozzle, saddle and bracket
locations and orientations against the assembly drawings.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Name Plate

The content of the marking is checked in accordance with the approved


drawing and specifications by the third party inspector.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Painting and Coating


Inspection

Surface preparation for painting is checked for the following points,


according to specification by the third party inspector:

 Cleaning method (Blast or scraping and wire brushing)


 Preparation grades
 Freedom from weld spatter, blow-holes and other defects
 Dry film thickness is checked according to specification

Surface condition needs to be free from pin-holes, runs damage and


other discontinuity

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Spares and


Accessories

The third party inspector controls spares, tools and accessories and
makes visual and dimensional inspection for materials, workmanship and
quantity according to the purchase order specification and packing list.

The marking and/or tag is checked for identification.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Pressure Vessel


Reporting

The third party inspector provides an Inspection Visit Report (IVR) after each visit,
as well as a final report summarizing the activities carried out during the pressure
vessel production in accordance with the contract requirements and circulated
within the time limits specified in the contract.

The report is in the format required by the client and clearly indicates final
acceptance or rejection of the pressure vessel.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Pressure Vessel
Release Note

When required by the contract or purchase order, a release note is issued by the
third party inspection agency and given to the manufacturer when the pressure
vessels have been accepted.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Packing, Marking


and Shipping

The following points are checked by the third party inspector:

 Cleanliness and dryness of pressure vessels


 Rust prevention for all machined surfaces
 Protection for cover for all opening and protruding parts
 Packing style and suitably for overseas transportation
 Shipping marks and other markings and notification of welding prohibited,
etc.
 Where nitrogen purge is specified the gas pressure is checked and the
presence of warning notices checked.

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Pressure Vessel Final


Book (Dossier)

The following final documents are reviewed and signed off by the third
party inspector:

As built, drawings if required, Manufacturer's data reports, Material


certificate or certified mill test reports for all pressure parts, Material list
or map, Welder record for each seam or map, Heat treatment records
(Temperature-time record chart during PWHT), Dimensional record, NDE
records, Production test record/mock test record, Alloy verification
records, (if required), hydrostatic test record, Pneumatic test record,
Hardness test record, Post weld heat treatment NDE, if specified, Name
plate or other marks, Packing list, Spare parts and tool list

INSPECTION AND TEST PLAN FOR PRESSURE VESSEL


The inspection and test plan for pressure vessel article provides you
information about pressure vessel inspection and pressure vessel test in
manufacturing shop. The draft Inspection and test plan for pressure vessel
provided as well.

Click here if you like immediately review the Inspection & Test Plan
for Pressure Vessel draft sheet.

You may need to review this article in conjunction of following


articles:

Pressure Vessel Inspections

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel

The ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1 or 2 requirements normally are


applied for inspection and test plan in pressure vessel manufacturing
shop.

The witness of some inspection and test by third party inspector or


authorized inspector is mandatory and cannot be waived.

Some others can only monitored and fully witnessing are not
necessary, for these items, the inspection man-days etc. depends to
the purchaser decision, some prefer stringent monitoring and even
assign resident inspector in pressure vessel manufacturing shop and
some others relay to quality control system of the pressure vessel
manufacture and assign only few days for monitoring points.

These are some of inspection points which need to be witnessed,


checked monitored and reviewed by third party or ASME authorized
inspector.

Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure Vessel - Important


Points

 All plates need to be identified against mill test certificates at the


Vendonr`s works before commencement of fabrication.

 Ensuring that welding procedure and welders are qualified and


welding electrodes are approved before commencement of
fabrication.

 Selection of location for spot radiography

 Reviewing of radiographs

 Witnessing of hydrostatic test


 Dimensionally checking and carrying out final internal and external
inspection for quality of workmanship.

 Checking that all material test certificates and, where applicable,


heat treatment charts are in order

 If specified witnessing any crack detection, hardness checks,


ultrasonic tests etc.

 Checking fit-up and chipping-back of welded seams.

 Monitoring welding process based WPS

 Monitoring all NDE activities

 Ensuring that Vendor is familiar with the requirements regarding


data books and ensure that the documentation is submitted
without any delay.

 Checking internal lining of reactors and vessels (if applicable) to


specifications.

 Checking trays of each diameter and type, mock assembled in the


shop. (for process towers)

 Checking for interchangeability of parts, where applicable for


process towers

 Ensuring that any uncommon down comers are fully assembled


and offered along with their respective trays. (for process towers)

PRESSURE VESSEL CERTIFICATION


The Pressure Vessel Certification article provides you with information
about the ASME stamp holder process for manufacturers and third party
inspection companies.

Do you what the pressure vessel certification process is? Do you know
how pressure vessel manufacturers can be ASME stamp holders?

How Third Party inspection companies can be certified by ASME and be


Authorized Inspection Agencies? What is a “U” stamped pressure vessel?

This article describes all the required information regarding pressure


vessel certification and regulation.

Pressure Vessel Manufacturer Certification:

You may know pressure vessel manufacturer certification is the same as


authorization for an ASME Stamp.

The pressure vessel manufacturers can implement an ASME Quality


Control System and then apply for the ASME Stamp.

This means that if a manufacturer is accredited by the ASME


organization for pressure vessels per ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1,
they can stamp the letter “U” in the pressure vessel nameplate.

See the following Fig. for Pressure Vessel Certification (The Stamp Item)

This is the process for ASME stamp accreditation:

1. Obtain Application Forms from ASME

2. Sign a Service Agreement with an Authorized Inspection Agency (AIA)


Authorized inspection agencies are third party inspection companies,
which have accredited by an ASME organization and their inspectors are
certified by the National Board Inspection Code (NBIC).

These inspectors are named authorized inspectors and hold commission


cards issued by NBIC organization.

Summary: AIAs are accredited by ASME, but these inspectors are


certified by NBIC.

3. Submit Application Forms to ASME and transfer Fees

4. Purchase ASME Code Books

5. Describe a QC-System according to the ASME code quality control


manual and have the procedures prepared by the manufacturer.

6. Prepare a Demonstration Item

A representative demo pressure vessel needs to be constructed and all


drawings, calculations, part lists, purchase orders, material test reports,
fabrications, inspections, tests and reporting shall be based on ASME
code section VIII requirements.

7. Qualify Procedures and Personnel

Quality control procedures and personnel also need to be approved by


the manufacturer.

8. Pre-Joint Review by the Supervisor of AIA

It takes almost 4 months to fulfill the above requirements. Then an audit


needs to be conducted by a supervisor authorized inspector, which is
designated by an authorized inspection agency, which is under contract
with the manufacture.

This auditor would report non-conformities found in the audit process,


and then the manufacturer would have some time to correct them.

9. Joint Review (Audit) with ASME Designee, Inspector and Supervisor

Finally, the audit would be conducted by an ASME designated person,


supervisor authorized Inspector and authorized inspector.

That is the reason this audit is named a joint review.

10. Issuance of Certificate and Stamp by ASME

If the result of Audit was satisfactory, the certificate would be issued by


ASME and then manufacture would be authorized to stamp name plate
with “U” Stamp.
What are the Different Pressure Vessel Stamps?

Manufacturing of Pressure Vessels (Shop and /or Field): U

Alternative Rules Section VIII, Division 2(Shop and /or Field):U2

Manufacturing of High Pressure Vessels (Shop and /or Field):U3

What is the Quality Control System that Needs to be


Implemented in Pressure Vessel Certification?

For U the stamp, the quality control system needs to be based on ASME
section VIII Div. 1 Appendix 10.

What is the Benefit for a Pressure Vessel Purchaser to Order a


Stamped Pressure Vessel?

When a purchaser orders stamped pressure vessel from a stamp holder


manufacturer, it is not necessary to hire a third party inspector.

Because this pressure vessel would automatically be inspected by an


AI(Authorized Inspector) and its data report would be signed by him.

Another benefit can be the purchaser's assurance of the quality of the


pressure vessel, because of the manufacturers responsibility to the
ASME organization.

At the same time, ordering a stamped pressure vessel would be more


expensive than a non-stamped pressure vessel.
INDUSTRIAL INSPECTION

The industrial inspection article provides you with information about shop inspection, site
inspection and plant inspection.

The articles are about different inspection field categories such as shop inspection,
site inspection and in-service inspection requirements.

The articles present you applicable codes and standards. There will be also some
links to other articles to complete your required information.

Industrial Inspection System - Do you need to know different categories of


inspection field such as Shop inspection, Site inspection, Pre-shipment inspection
and In-service inspection? If yes, this article has been written for you.

This content explains each category with some examples and guides you to some
other links in this website to give you even more information.

Industrial Plant Inspection - If you need some information about industrial plant
inspection, this article will be useful for you. This content explains in-service
inspection requirement in the industrial plants.

This article provides you applicable in-service inspection codes and standards for
static equipment in an industrial plant. There will be some links to other articles to
provide you with more detailed information.

Inspection and Test Plan - The inspection and test plan is term, which is widely
used in the procurement and purchase of industrial equipment.

It is applied in shop or vendor inspections and is a document that identifies the


responsibility of the vendor, engineering company, third party inspection company
and client regarding inspection "hold", "witness" and "Review" points.

Shop Inspection - shop or vendor inspection covers inspection activities that are
done by the second party or third party inspector.
It is applied in manufacturing process of industrial equipment such as pressure
vessels, pumps, compressors, valves, etc.

Vendor Inspection - Vendor inspection is just a different name for shop inspection
and is applied in the purchase and procurement of industrial equipment.

This will describes the tasks of the vendor quality control personnel, the third party
inspector and the client responsibilities. This is very important subject in industrial
inspection application.

Industrial Quality Control - Do you need information about detailed tasks and
responsibilities of the industrial equipment vendors and manufactures?

This article will show you, the detailed tasks of the quality control team of the
manufacturers and their relationship and connection to the purchaser's inspector.

Factory Acceptance Test - This article provides you with information about the
factory acceptance test (FAT). This terminology is used for rotating, electrical and
instrumental equipment that is under construction in manufacturing shops.

Inspection scope - This article provides you information about the inspection scope
of work. More stringent scopes of work will cause higher inspection costs and higher
assurance for quality products, while less stringent scopes will cause lower costs
and higher risks of producing non-conforming products. So you need to optimize
your inspection level.

Industrial Test Systems - This article provides you information about industrial
inspections and test systems. This content explains the required test in each
inspection field such as shop inspection, pre-shipment inspection, site inspection
and in-service inspection.

The test is some part of an inspection process. Explaining -the required tests for
each equipment type is not possible in a single article.

This article only guides you to accessing more information through the other
articles in this website or by introduction to the codes and standards.

Industrial Test Calibration - This article provides you basic information about
industrial test calibration. Measuring, inspection and testing equipment calibration
is mandated by most construction and in-service codes.

The manufacturer's quality control system needs to define a process for the
calibration of measuring and testing equipment to ensure the reading values are
correct and accurate.

Material Inspection Receiving Report - This article provides you with information
about material inspection receiving reports which are very important in the
industrial inspection system. This report applies in the shop and site inspection and
controls all incoming material to shop and site for construction. It is one of the
more important inspection subjects in the industrial inspection system.
Dye Penetration Inspection - This article provides you with a example dye penetrant
inspection procedure.

Magnetic Particle Inspection - This content provides you with a draft MP test
procedure. Yon need modify this procedure based your project specifications.

Radiographic Testing - This content provides you with a RT procedure. It is draft


and must be changed to meet your requirements.

Ultrasonic Testing - This article gives you a sample ultrasonic testing procedure.
This is a draft procedure and need to be modified based user requirements.

Engineering Specification for for Piping Stress Analysis - This article provides you with a
example engineering specification for piping stress analysis that is used in plant construction
projects.

Engineering Specification For Piping Hanging And Support - This article provides
you with sample piping hanging and support engineering specification.
This content will be useful for inspectors involved in construction projects for
industrial plants.

Engineering Specification for Painting - This content provides you a sample for
engineering specification for painting in the construction projects and covers both
shop and site painting activities.

Engineering Specification for Piping Design - This content is usefull for inspection
engineers that have task for inspection of ASME B31.3 piping in construction
projects.

Engineering Specification for Steam Tracing - This content provides you with a
example steam tracing specification that is used in construction projects.

Engineering Specification for Hot Thermal Insulation - This content provides you
with a sample hot thermal insulation specification. This is useful content for its
design, application and inspection.

Engineering Specification for Cold Thermal Insulation - This content provides you
with a sample cold thermal insulation specification. This content is useful for design,
application and inspection.

Engineering Specification Piping Shop Fabrication Specification -This content with


sample specification and can be applied for site inspection activities.

Engineering Specification for Piping Fabrication and Erection - Not Edited Yet

Engineering Specification for Pressure Test of Piping System - Not Edited Yet

Engineering Specification for Piping and Equipment Cleaning - Not Edited Yet

For other information on the other Industrial Fields, you may review the HotVsNot
Web Directory.
SHOP INSPECTION

The shop inspection or vendor inspection article provides you with


information about the second party or third party inspection process in
manufacturing shops. This article also provides lots of other links for
shop inspection practices for each equipment type.

Assume an oil company orders manufacturing of several pumps from a


pump manufacturer.

So there will be a proforma invoice (PI) and a purchase order (PO). The
PI is issued by the pump manufacturer, with detailed pump
specifications and prices, and at the same time, a PO will be issued by
the oil company, which stats its agreement with the specifications,
prices, and ordering for the manufacturing of the pumps.

PI and PO are important commercial documents.

Before the start of the manufacturing process, the oil company will agree
with the pump manufacturer for the inspection process. Normally, this
process will be done based on the agreed upon inspection and test plan.

For more details, review the Inspection and Test Plan article.

In this important document, the inspection “hold” and “witness” points


will be determined, and it will be necessary for the pump manufacturer
to notify the oil company inspector for such inspection in advance.

Assume the “inspection and test plan” determine 5 inspection points in


the manufacturing process, such as material certificate review and
identification, casing hydro static testing, impeller balancing,
performance test and run-out test.

So when the manufacturer reaches to these points, it must notify the oil
company inspector (in advance) to come for the inspection and testing.
Finally, if the result of inspection visits were satisfactory, then the
inspector will issue the inspection release note.

This oil company has several options to designate an inspector as


follows:

 Ordering this inspection from the inspection agency, which is


called third party inspection,

 Or dispatching its own competent inspector's shop, which is called


second party inspection.
 It might be that there is not a direct contract between the oil
company and the manufacturer, and the contract is between the
oil company and the engineering company. The engineering
company will make a contract with the pump manufacturer, so the
engineering company is responsible for the inspection. If the
engineering company uses its own inspector, it will be similar to
the second party inspector, and if he hires the inspection agency,
it will be a third party inspector.

Please note that most of the clients such as this oil company mandate
the engineering company to hire a third party inspection agency.

Using the “inspector” wording for the engineering company's personnel


and the name of inspection department in the engineering company are
not correct. They must be called the and must be quality control
department. But some engineering companies call their quality control
department an inspection department.

Inspector can only be used for someone who is the purchaser's


employee or the purchaser's designated person working in the inspection
agency.

When the inspection is carried out in the manufacturing shop, it is called


shop inspection.

The 3rd Party Shop Inspection article provides you some more
supplementary information regarding this subject.

You may review TPI Inspection Services page to submit your


Shop/Vendor Inspection Enquiry.