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Hermosa, Maria Gemma Lou J.

Date: January 5, 2018

F 5:30-8:30PM


Small Water Impounding Management Project
Report Date: March 2001
Field Survey: November 2000
1. Project Profile and Japan’s ODA Loan

The Philippines



Site Map: The whole of the Philippines Sub-project Site in the Northern Manila

(1) Background
Due to the harsh climate and topography of the Philippines, the country suffers frequent natural
calamities, including droughts and floods, which cause enormous losses in the agricultural
sector. The development of large-scale irrigation had been emphasized, and the development of
small-scale irrigation areas was lagging behind. At that time there was growing concern over
disparities in agricultural productivity, the income gap between rural and urban areas, and the
excessive concentration of people in urban areas, which was harming public order. This was the
background to the beginning of the Small Water Impounding Management (SWIM) Plan, which
was based on the Presidential Administrative Decree No.408 in May 1976. The Plan, which
covered the whole territory of the Philippines, aimed to reduce flood damage and make effective
use of water resources in applications such as irrigation and power generation in order to reduce
rural poverty and the economic and social gaps between rural and urban areas.

(2) Objectives
The project aimed to build small-scale reservoirs in all parts of the country for multi-purposed
utilization of water resources such as flood control, irrigation, household water supplies, power
generation and the prevention of soil erosion, to make diverse and thereby improve the
infrastructure for life and production in rural areas.

(3) Project Scope

The plan as a whole called for the construction of small-scale multi-purpose reservoirs at 187
locations between 1982 and 1992, benefiting a total area of 13,000ha. Further construction of
facilities for irrigation, power generation and other uses were to be added as required at each site.
At the time of the appraisal, the portions of the plan scheduled for implementation in 1988 and
beyond were to be covered by Japan’s ODA loan1. The project was divided into three portions:
A Civil works (construction of access roads, dam base works, dam wall works, sluice gate
installation, drainage outlet installation, construction and installation of irrigation facilities).
B Procurement and installation etc. of generation equipment2 (generators, transformers,
electricity transmission cables, turbines).
C Consulting services (detailed design and construction supervision).

(4) Borrower/Executing Agency

Republic of the Philippines / Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)

(5) Outline of Loan Agreement

Loan Amount/Loan Disbursed

Amount ¥3,193 million / ¥2,743 million
Exchange of Notes/Loan Agreement December 1987 / January 1988
Interest rate: 3.0%, Repayment period: 30 years (10
Terms and Conditions years for
grace period), General Untied (consulting services
are partial
Final Disbursement Date December 1998



Resources management, poverty, lack of employment, and sustainable

development are some of the challenges that our country is facing. And so, I got
particularly interested in this topic as this one tackles and aims to solve these problems.


Identity of the researcher/s was/were unstated, but the proposal must have come
from the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), as they were also the
executing agency. The ones who would largely benefit from this project are small scale
farmers, and other persons belonging to the agricultural sectors in rural areas. Other
parties involved in the execution of the scheme were the National Irrigation Agency,
Department of Environment and Natural Resources, National Economic Development
Corporation, and small local organizations of farmers.


The project aims to build a number of reservoirs around the archipelago as a

solution to flood problems in some areas, as well as provide irrigation systems and power
supply to the areas affected. Not only would this provide ease and comfort to the
beneficiaries, but will also educated them of their surroundings, as well as increase their


The project covers the rural areas in the Philippines who have been largely
affected by disasters and are stricken by poverty due to lack of job opportunities, and low


The project was implemented in the late 80s to early 90’s, but may still be
considered relevant to this day. It is not apart from our knowledge that still, most of our
farmers are living in poverty, and the agricultural sector seems to be lagging behind other
sectors. Natural calamities are still one of our concerns, as well as energy supply.
NAME OF PROJECT: “Free Wi-Fi Internet Access in Public Places”


The Department of Science and Technology, through its Information and Communications
Technology Office (ICT Office), will embark to provide Internet connectivity in public places
across the Philippines. This Project aims to accelerate the government’s efforts in enhancing
Internet accessibility for Filipinos to accelerate economic, social and educational opportunities
and in reducing the growing Digital Divide under the overarching e-Filipino Program of the
DOST ICT Office. This project is directly in line with the “Internet For All” thrust identified in
the Philippine Digital Strategy 2011-2016.

The budget for this project as authorized in the 2015 General Appropriations Act (GAA) is
₱1.408 billion, instead of the originally proposed ₱339 million in the National Expenditure
Program (NEP).

With the increase in the budget, the scope of the project has been expanded. In addition to the
original 748 plazas of Class 4, 5 and 6 municipalities, the public spaces in public school,
libraries, government hospitals and rural heath units, and possibly others, in all municipalities
Class 3 and lower shall now also be covered. Sites in Metro Manila, Cebu and Davao, as well as
other cities that will serve as distribution points or Points of Presence shall also be included.

Once fully deployed, the Project will serve 105,000 concurrent users with 256 kbps each, which
is the lowest prevailing speed requirement for “broadband” service. A data volume based Fair
Usage Policy shall also be implemented to promote an equitable distribution of the public
The concept of managed services shall be leveraged all throughout the project, not only ensure
rapid rollout, a responsive service, allow economies, and other aggregation derived benefits, but
also to create commercial opportunities for private sector participants that would redound to
greater economic benefit through expanded services for all.

The Project by design shall be implemented using the new organization of the DOST ICT Office.
Led by a Project Management Team, all vertical services and field operations offices and
provincial offices shall have a role.


Answering questions:

For the past years, technological development has definitely impacted the way
people live and interact with each other. Communication has been made easier especially
to those people who are miles apart, through simple text messages, or even video calls.
Information has also been readily accessible through the internet, and has become
beneficial to people of different strata.

The Department of Science and Technology Information and Communications
Technology Office is the proponent of this project. Basically, all people who have an
electronic device that can access the internet will benefit from this. Several organizations
such as the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), Department of
Transportation and Communications (DOTC), Department of Budget and Management
(DBM), etc., will play key roles in this project.

The project covers more than 700 places across the Philippines, giving priority to
the major cities, as well as educational establishments, which has a higher demand of
network connectivity.

The issue tackled here is very recent and relevant to this day. As technology
continues to advance, and knowledge continues to expand, the need for access of
information, as well as rapid connection is starting to become a necessity. Not only would
this provide easier communication, but could also help boost productivity, and
consequently, income, if to be used for the right purposes.