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JPT Review Center The Great Pyramid

 the Pyramid of Khufu is the largest
in the world, measuring 230m (756
(circa 1200 BC – AD 1st Century)

Temple of Luxor
 or Southern Sanctuary at
Luxor, Egypt, 18th dynasty
 dedicated to Amon-Re, king
of the Gods
 built of sandstone for the
quarries of Gebel Silsila

(circa 300 – 30 BC)
Abu Simbel
 dedicated chieftly to Re-
Harakhti, God of the rising sun Parthenon
 built during the reign of Ramses 447-438
II (1304 – 1237 BC) Architect: Itchinus and Callicrates with
Location: Athens, Greece
Style: Ancient Greek Doric
 on the historic Acropolis. Doric

Pyramid of King Zoser Erechtheum

Architect: Imhotep 421 – 405
 earliest pyramidal structure of Architect: Mnesicles
the ancient world, the Step Location: Athens, Greece
Pyramid (c.2630 BC) of King Style: Ancient Greek, Ionic
Zoser at Saqqara, Egypt  has Caryatid Porch with figural
 consist of six terraces of columns. On the Acropolis, uses grade
receding sizes with a one staba change.
Epidaurus Theater  largest known forums
Architect: Polykleitos
Location: Epidauros, or Epidhavros, Colosseum
Greece 70 – 82
Style: Ancient Greek Architect: Vespacian and Domitian
 and the quality of its acoustics Location: Rome, Italy
make the Epidaurus theatre one of Style: Ancient Roman
the great architectural  three-quarter columns and
achievements of the fourth century. entablatures, Doric in the first story,
 the largest and best preserved Ionic in the second, and Corinthian in
ancient theaters in Greece. the third, face the three tiers of
 can accommodate 14,000 arcades
spectators.  largest Roman Amphitheater
 designed to hold 50,000 spectators
 had approximately eighty entrances so crowds could arrive and leave
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE easily and quickly
(300BC – 365 AD)


118 - 126
Architect: Acrippa White House
Location: Rome, Italy Architect: James Hoban
Style: Ancient Roman Location: Washington, D.C.
 great domed hall with oculus Date: 1793 to 1801, burned 1814,
oculus – a single circular opening porticos 1824 to1829
 one of the great spiritual buildings of Style: Georgian Neoclassical
the world  official residence of the president of
 it was built as a Roman temple and the United States of America, for the
later consecrated as a Catholic Church last 200 years
 revived the use of brick and concrete
in temple Architecture Capitol of the United States
Architects: Thornton-Latrobe-Bulfinch
Trajan’s Forum Location: Washington, D.C.
100 – 112 Date: 1793 to 1830
Architect: Apollodorus of Damascus Style: Neoclassical
Location: Rome, Italy  meeting place of the U.S. Congress,
Style: Roman the national assembly of the United
 composed of an arc of arched arcade States of America, consisting of the
 most magnificent and architecturally House of Representatives and the
most pleasing Senate
National Gallery of Art  designed in a Gothic Revival materials at English and French Gothic
Architect: John Russel Pope Style
 houses one of the finest collections of painting, sculptures, and graphic Connecticut State Capitol
arts in the world Architect: Richard Upjohn

Washington Monument Monticello

Architect: Robert Mills 1768 to 1782
Location: Washington, D.C. Architect: Thomas Jefferson
Style: Neo-Egyptian Location: Charlottesville, Virginia
 the obelisk is the only remnant of the Building Type: House
original blue print that remains Style: Colonial Georgian
 with George Marsh, competition 1836.  Remodeled1796 to 1808
standard Egyptian proportion of 10:1  beautiful hilltop home is a classical
height to base example of the late 18th Century
American architecture and a
national historic landmark

New York City Hall

University of Virginia Architect: Pierre L’enfant
1826 Style: French Renaissance - Georgian Style
Architect: Thomas Jefferson  one of the most historical architecturally distinguished building in New
Location: Charlottesville, Virginia York
Building Type: University campus
Style: Classical, Neo-Palladian Fallingwater
 ideas of symmetry and use of brick 1934, 1938, 1948
 arcades connect buildings around Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright
central lawn Location: Ohiopyle, Pennsylvania
 curving brick walls surround campus Building Type: house
Style: Expressionist Modern
 cantilevers dramatically over rock
Massachusetts State House outcropping and rushing stream
Architect: Charles Bulfinch - first native-born professional American  sends out free-floating platforms
architect audaciously over a small waterfall
 classical elements are pilasters, porticos and domes and anchors them in the natural
Saint Patrick’s Cathedral
Architect: James Renwick
Location: New York
 shaped like a Latin cross
 the largest Roman Catholic Cathedral in the United States
Guggenheim Museum
1956 to 1959
Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright Johnson Wax Building
Location: New York, New York 1936 to 1939 and 1944
Building Type: art museum Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright
Style: Modern Location: Racine, Wisconsin
 a gift of pure architecture—or rather Construction system: precast
of sculpture concrete and brick
 based on organic forms that the Style: modern
architect found in seashells and snails  unique structural expression in
open hall, tower with rounded
 the tower is totally enclosed and
does not allow for horizontal
Coonley House
expansion of work space
 articulated by dendriform columns capable of supporting six times the
Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright
weight imposed upon them, a fact Wright had to demonstrate in order
Location: Riverside. Illinois
to obtain a building permit
Style: Prairie style
Building Type: house
Construction System: wood frame with Larkin Building
stucco 1904, demolished 1950
 a large, sophisticated prairie house Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright
Location: Buffalo, New York
Building Type: commercial offices
Construction system: brick masonry
Style: Early modern
 large four-storey central atrium
Ennis House
 the first entirely air-conditioned
modern office building on record
Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright
Location: Los Angeles, California
Building type: house Wingspread
Style: Deco Modern 1937
Construction system: bearing masonry, Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright
concrete blocks Location: Wind Point, Wisconsin
 the last of the four Los Angeles textile Building type: large house
block house Style: neo-Vernacular
 living room, dining room, kitchen,
family sleeping rooms, guest rooms,
were separate unites grouped
together and connected by
Golden Gate Bridge continues to the City’s Western edge
1933 to 1937 Palais Royal
Architect: Joseph Strauss  commissioned by Cardinal Richeliev
Location: San Francisco, California  original name is Palais Cardinal
Building type: suspension bridge  17th century
Construction system: steel frame, steel  Daniel Buren: stripped columns
Styles: Structural Modern with some Art
Deco details
 one of the longest bridge in the world
 a powerful and elegant human
structure in an equally beautiful
natural location
 overall bridge length of 9266 feet, or
2824 meters Sacre-coeur
 bridge main span length of 4200 feet, or 1280 meters  located at the hill of Montmartre which is the highest point in the city of
 1874: Paul Abadie
FRENCH ARCHITECTURE  1910: completed by Lucien Magne

The Louvre Hotel de Ville

1546 to 1878  largest renaissance building
Architect: Pierre Lescot  16th and 17th century
Location: Paris, France  Italian designer Domenico de Cortona
Building type: palace, art museum  1871: burned, renovated in 2 years
Construction system: cut stone bearing
masonry Arc de Triomphe
Style: French Renaissance  Napoleon, the French emperor decided
 also designed by Catherine de Medici, to build a very big arch of triumph,
J.A. du Cerceau II, Claude Perrault, which stands at the top of the Champs
etc. Elysees
 I.M. Pei: design the glass pyramid,
which serves as the main public entrance

 the Tuileries Garden of
Paris is part of the
Triumphal way, which
begins at the Louvre and
Pompidou Centre  masterpiece of 19th century architecture
1972 to 1976  one of the largest and most opulent theaters in the world
Architect: Richard Rogers and Renzo  false ceiling painted by Marc Chagall
Location: Paris, France Elysee Palace
Building Type: modern art museum 1718
Construction system: high-tech steel Architect: Claude Mollet
and glass  official residence of the president of France
Style: High-tech modern
 a cost of $100,000,000, with an Hotel de Invalides
average attendance of approximately  Napoleons tomb is within the structure
seven million people a year  founded by Louis XIV for disabled soldiers
 massive structural expressionist cast  late 17th century
exoskeleton, "exterior" escalators
enclosed in transparent tube La Madeleine
Architect: Napoleon I
Notre Dame de Paris  church of Ste. Marie Madeleine
1163 to 1250  constructed as a church in 1842
Architect: Maurice de Sully  surrounded by 52 Corinthian columns
Location: Paris, France
Building Type: church, cathedral
Construction system: bearing masonry,
cut stone
Style: Early Gothic
 one of the most celebrated Gothic
cathedrals in France Sorbonne
 twin towers marking the entrance  most famous building at the University of Paris
 probably the most famous image in
French Gothic art Chartres Cathedral
1194 to 1260
Location: Chartres, France
Paris Opera House Building type: cathedral
1857 to 1874 Construction system: bearing masonry
Architect: Charles Garnier Style: Gothic exemplar
Location: Paris, France  the elevation was in three tiers as it
Building type: theater, opera house had no gallery and the vaulting was
Construction system: masonry, cut quadripartite, which eliminated the
stone need for alternating supports
Style: Neo-Baroque  supreme monument of High Gothic
 polychrome façade, opulent staircase art and architecture
 commission by competition
Amien’s Cathedral
1220 Notre dame du Haut
 145 meters long 1955
 largest French Gothic Cathedral ever Architect: Le Corbusier
built Location: Ronchamp, France
 intricate façade completed during the Building type: church
15th century Construction system: reinforced
Style: Expressionist Modern
 soft-form composition, deep windows
with colored glass (wall thickness 4' to
 Le Corbusier’s dramatic pilgrim church

Rheims Cathedral Villa Savoye

 one of the greatest monument of 1928 to 1929
Gothic art and architecture Architect: Le Corbusier
 construction commerced by Jean Location: Poissy, France
d’Orbais and was completed by Building type: house
Robert de Coucy Construction system: concrete and
 a work of remarkable unity and plastered unit masonry
harmony Style: modern
 an early and classic exemplar of the
"International Style", which hovers
above a grass plane on thin concrete
pilotti, with strip windows, and a flat
roof with a deck area, ramp, and a
few contained touches of curvaceous
Eiffel Tower walls
1887 to 1889
Architect: Gustave Eiffel
Location: Paris, France GERMAN ARCHITECTURE
Building Type: exposition observation
tower Burgtheater
Construction system: exposed iron 1874 to 1888
Style: Victorian Structural Expressionist Architect: Gottfried Semper with
 dominates the sky line of Paris Karl von Hasenaver
 one of the most famous landmarks in
the world
 built for the Paris Exposition of 1889
Berlin Opera House Construction system: masonry, cut stone
(STAATSOPER) Style: Victorian Ionic façade, Classical Revival
Architect: Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorf  Includes one of the world's great library rooms. Glazed roof over
restored courtyard by Norman Foster

Wurzburg Residenz Salisbury Cathedral

Architect: Balthazar Neumann 1220 to 1258
 one of the best structure of Location: Salisbury, England
the Baroque-Rococo period Building type: Cathedral (church, temple)
Construction system: bearing masonry,
cut stone
Style: English Gothic
 Cathedral of Saint Mary
 an outstanding example of the Early
English architectural style
Einstein Tower  tallest in England 404ft (123m)
1919 to 1921  use of Purbeck marble to create a
Architect: Erich Mendelsohn strongly coloured scheme
Location: Potsdam, Germany
Building type: laboratory, observatory Queen’s House
Construction system: bearing 1616 to 1635
masonry, concrete over brick Architect: Inigo Jones – the greatest of
Style: Expressionist Early Modern English Classical architect
 curvaceous, streamlined form Location: Greenwich, England
 designed to hold Einstein's own Building type: large house
astronomical laboratory Construction system: bearing masonry
 this 'sarcophagus of architectural Style: Palladian, Late English Renaissance
Expressionism' is one of the most  was built by Jones for Anne of
brilliantly original buildings of the Denmark, wife of James I
twentieth century


1776 to 1786
British Museum Architect: William Chambers
1823 to 1847 Location: London, England
Architect: Sir Robert Smirke Building type: government offices and art
Location: London, England school
Building type: art and historical Construction system: cut stone masonry
museum, library Style: Neoclassical
 Home of Royal Academy of the Arts. Corinthian orders above arched
courtyard apertures, rusticated base
Saint Paul’s Cathedral
1675 to 1710 Glasgow School of Art
Architect: Sir Christopher Wren 1897 to 1909
Location: London, England Architect: Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Building type: church Location: Glasgow, England
Construction system: masonry, brick, Building type: college
timber and cut stone Construction system: bearing masonry
Style: Late renaissance to Baroque Style: art and crafts, art nouveau
 the dome peaks at 366 feet above  imaginative synthesis of elements of
pavement Art Nouveau and Scottish Architecture
 a masterpiece of Baroque architecture
 largest cathedral in England

Chiswick House
1729 Durham Cathedral
Architect: Lord Burlington 1093 to 1280
Location: Chiswick, England Location: Durham, England
Building type: large house Building type: church, cathedral
Construction system: bearing masonry Construction system: bearing masonry, cut
Style: Palladian stone
 also known as “Burlington House” Style: Romanesque
 one of the most impressive Norman
Romanesque style in Europe
 had a reciprocal influence on the
architecture of Normady
Westminster Palace  the rib vault covering of Durham Cathedral
1836 to 1868 is the oldest example that has survived
Architect: Sir Charles Barry
Location: London
Building type: seat of government,
government center Buckingham Palace
Construction system: cut stone bearing Architect: sir George Goring
masonry  built during the reign of king
Style: English Gothic Revival James I
 Big Ben: the clock tower best known
is a great symbol of London
 originally seat of kings as a royal
Pisa Cathedral
Temple of Heaven 103 to 1350
Location: China Location: Pisa, Italy
 700 acre enclosure built by the Building type: church complex
Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle Construction system: bearing masonry,
(Yung-Io) cut stone, white marble
 means “Perpetual Help” Style: Romanesque
 "Pisa Cathedral with Baptistery,
Campanile and Campo Santo,
together form one of the most famous
building groups in the world
 the cathedral complex includes the
famous Leaning Tower, La Torre Pendente
Hagia Sofia  white marble with colonnaded facades
532 to 537
Architect: Isidoros and Florence Cathedral
Anthemios 1296 to 1462
Location: Istanbul, Turkey Architect: Arnolfo di Cambio
Building type: church Location: Florence, Italy
Construction system: bearing Building type: domed church, cathedral
masonry Construction system: bearing masonry
Style: Byzantine Style: Italian Romanesque
 a tremendous domed space  1296: Cathedral begun on design by
 built as the new Cathedral Arnolfo di Cambio
of Constantinople by the  1357: Project continued on a modified
Emperor Justinian plan by Francesco Talenti
 a masterpiece of Byzantine architecture  1366-7: Talenti's definitive design
 additional minarets when the church became a mosque emerged calling for an enormous
octagonal dome
Cathedral of Siena  1418: competition for construction of dome.
Location: Southern Italy  1420: technical solution for vaulting proposed by Brunelleschi
 incorporated Gothic elements approved and construction begun
in a strongly Mediterranean  The Duomo – dome added by Brunelleschi
design  1436— church consecrated
Krak des Chevaliers
1150 to 1250 Casa Mila
Location: Syria 1905 to 1910
Building type: fort Architect: Antonio Gaudi
Style: Medieval Location: Barcelona, Spain
 crusader castle Building type: multifamily housing
 the best preserved and most Construction system: masonry and
wholly admirable castle in concrete
the world Style: Art Nouveau
 expressionistic, fantastic, organic
forms in undulating facade and roof
Alhambra  light court
1338 to 1390  it could be compared with the steep
Location: Granada, Spain cliff walls in which African tribes build their cave-like dwellings
Building type: palace
Construction system: bearing masonry Sagrada Familia
Style: Moorish (Islamic) 1882 to 1926
 palace of Nasrid Dynasty Architect: Antonio Gaudi
 the most beautiful remaining example Location: Barcelona, Spain
of Western Islamic Architecture Building type: church
 built as a cathedral in the mid-1200’s Construction system: masonry
 “hall of justice”: noted from its Style: Expressionist
elaborate stalactite (maqarnas)  Church of the Holy Family
decoration  uncompleted during Gaudi’s lifetime
 crowned by four spires
Casa Batllo
1905 to 1907
Architect: Antonio Gaudi
Location: Barcelona, Spain Taj Mahal
Building type: apartment building 1630 to 1653
Construction system: concrete Architect: Emperor Shah Jahan
Style: Expressionist or Art Nouveau Location: Agra, India
 uses animal styles al through-out the Building type: Islamic tomb
structure Construction system: bearing masonry,
inlaid marble
Style: Islamic
 onion-shape domes, flanking towers,
built for wife Mumatz Mahal
 located on the Jumna River
 museum for Mogul emperor’s consort