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GCSE Science – Schemes of Work

Biology

Unit 2: Biology 2

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B2.1.1 This unit builds on the understanding that all living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions. Students should
be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding to relate the structure of different types of cells to their function

B2.1.2 To get into or out of cells, dissolved substances have to cross the cell membranes. Students should be able to explain how materials can simply be transported into and
out of cells by diffusion.
Green plants and algae use light energy to make their own food. They obtain the raw materials they need to make this food from the air and the soil. The conditions in which
plants are grown can be changed to promote growth. Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to interpret data showing how factors affect the rate of
photosynthesis.

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B2.1 Cells and simple cell transport

B2.1.1 Cells and cell structure

a Most human and Describe and label diagrams of 2 Communication for audience and Assessing risk and working Join the Biology
animal cells have a animal and plant cells. purpose safely community for
nucleus, cytoplasm, Describe cell structure using a Are all cells the same? Prepare slides of onion more resources at
membrane, microscope. Students describe and compare the epidermis, rhubarb epidermis, national Stem
mitochondria and similarities and differences between cheek cells, spirogyra, moss etc. Centre by
Explain how to prepare slides of
ribosomes. plant and animal cells from prior and observe under a registering with
plant and animal cells.
Plant and algal cells knowledge and extend to include microscope. http://www.national
b Explain how cell organelles are stemcentre.org.uk
also have a cell wall mitochondria and ribosomes. They Describe the structure of root
related to their functions. produce a presentation of this using
and often have hair cells in sprouting mung BBC class clips
media of their choice. plant and animal
chloroplasts and a beans.
Label diagrams of plant and animal cells video
permanent vacuole. Explain how these observations
cells. http://www.bbc.co.u
are matched to the function.
k/learningzone/clips/
Evaluate and assess risk in the plant-and-animal-
Developing explanations using models
investigation. cell-
Watch video clip on plant and animal structures/4188.ht
structures. ml

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Use resources such as ‘Learning Skills Cells: Microscopes,


for Science’ on National Stem Centre slides, coverslips,
portal to structure student note taking tiles, forceps,
Models: Students make a plant or mounted needles,
animal cell model and create a display iodine solution,
to explain cells for year 7 pupils methylene blue,
onion, rhubarb,
Can cells survive without mitochondria
spirogyra and moss.
and ribosomes?
Sprouting mung
Discuss: Discuss which structures could beans
be seen and compare with EM images
Explain how organelles are structured
Puzzles, quizzes and
to suit their functions.
images can be
found at
www.cellsalive.com
Useful information
on cell structure can
be found at
www.biology4kids.c
om

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Assess using
Powerpoint AQA
B2.1 cells

c Bacterial cells have Describe and label diagrams of 1 Presenting and writing arguments Using models Cells observation:
cytoplasm and a bacterial and yeast cells. How are bacterial and yeast cells  Use computer simulations microscopes, slides,
membrane different from plant and animal cells? to model the relative size coverslips, yeast
surrounded by a cell Observe under microscope. Culture of culture, bacterial
Recognise diagrams of cells as of different cells, organelles
wall; genes are not in yeast cells to show budding. Students cultures and EM
being from an animal, plant, and molecules
a distinct nucleus. develop an argument for and against images.
bacterium or yeast.
d Yeast cells have a bacteria and yeast cells to be classified  Describe and label Diagrams of
nucleus, cytoplasm as plants or animals diagrams of bacterial and bacteria and yeast
and a membrane yeast cells cells.
surrounded by a cell
wall.  Display images of cells to Comparing cell size
classify as plant, animal, http://www.bbc.co.u
bacterial or yeast and k/learningzone/clips/
compare sizes of cells and understanding-the-
organelles. size-of-
bacteria/2279.html

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e Cells may be Make observations and describe 1 Presenting and writing descriptions and Obtaining and presenting A useful video clip
specialised to carry different types of cells under a explanations primary evidence on cells and their
out a particular microscope. Do all organisms start from the same What would happen to plants if functions can be
function. Relate their structure to their ball of cells? there were no root hair cells? found on the BBC
function. website at
Can all cells carry out any job? Extend above practicals to
www.bbc.co.uk/lear
Explain how specialised cells are Students use a structured worksheet to obtain and record data to relate
ningzone/clips by
adapted for their function. gather evidence to describe specific structure of cells to function eg searching for
cells and explain how structure relates root hair cells of mung bean ‘1832’.
to function
Look at National
eg Watch video clip of egg and sperm Learning Network
cells or generalise cell structure materials on
compared to function National Stem
Produce a poster of labelled specialised Centre website for
cells to explain how they are adapted interactive
for their function. resources
. Assess using
Powerpoint AQA
B2.1 cells

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B2.1 Cells and simple cell transport

B2.1.2 Dissolved substances

a Dissolved substances Explain the term ‘diffusion’. 1-2 Developing argument Working critically with primary Demo:
can move into and Can diffusion occur in space? evidence Concentrated
out of cells by Through teacher demonstration NH4OH,
Do large particles diffuse too?
diffusion. or student concentrated HCl,
Students are presented with a series of gloves, mask,
b Definition of diffusion Explain that diffusion is faster if Does diffusion stop at the North
scenarios and present balanced forceps, cotton
and factors affecting there is a bigger concentration Pole?
arguments to arrive at an explanation. wool, long glass
rate. difference.
eg Investigation as appropriate. tube with strips of

c Oxygen passes Describe examples of substances Students collect valid and reliable
Time how long it is before damp litmus along
through cell that diffuse into and out of cells. data to arrive at conclusions
candidates can smell a perfume length; two gas
membranes by relating to factors affecting jars of NO2, two
placed in a corner of the room
diffusion. diffusion. They identify any empty gas jars;
 Fresh beetroot placed in iced water errors and anomalies. eg beaker of water,
and warm water – compare and  Diffusion of ammonium pot perm crystals;
explain the difference in the depth hydroxide and hydrogen agar in test tube;
of colour of the water. Are there a chloride in a glass tube; strong perfume;
number of viewpoints? nitrogen dioxide in gas jars beetroot.

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 Video: Watch a video or computer  potassium permanganate in Agar: Agar plates


simulation of diffusion – see beaker of water; potassium impregnated with
Mcgraw-Hill website. permanganate on agar UI solution, cork
borers, solutions of
 Investigate diffusion of acids and alkalis.
Explain using Models; different acids and alkalis Glucose: Beakers,
Role play of diffusion in gases and through agar cellulose tubing,
liquids at different temperatures and glucose solution,
 Investigate rate of diffusion timers, test tubes,
concentrations.
of glucose through cellulose Benedict’s solution
HT only
tubing and water bath or
Search for ‘interactive biochemistry’ on
glucose test strips.

the internet, then choose ‘Wiley’ to find
Use digital microscope to
the related animations. Further
describe diffusion of particles
information can be
in milk or yogurt solution found on BBC
GCSE Bitesize at
www.bbc.co.uk/sch
ools/gcsebitesize
be able to name
the process by
which oxygen
passes into a lung
cell.

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A useful video on
diffusion can be
found on the
McGraw-Hill
website at
http://highered.mcg
raw-
hill.com/sites/0072
495855/student_vi
ew0 by selecting
‘Chapter 2’ and the
‘How Diffusion
Works’ animation.

Assess using
Powerpoint AQA
B2.1 cells

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B2.2 Tissues, organs and organ systems (could be taught before B2.1)
The cells of multicellular organisms may differentiate and become adapted for specific functions. Tissues are aggregations of similar cells; organs are aggregations of tissues
performing specific physiological functions. Organs are organised into organ systems, which work together to form organisms. The structure and function of plant and animal
tissues, organs and systems is considered so that students can apply their understanding in various contexts.

B2.2.1 Animal organs

d Systems are groups Explain the term organ system. 1 Communication for audience and Obtaining and presenting Rat for dissection
of organs that Describe the main systems in purpose primary evidence from reputable
perform a particular the human body and state their Students produce a flyer or leaflet for a Teacher demonstration of source, dissection
function; structure functions. doctor’s surgery to describe the main dissection of a rat. Students board or waxed
and function of the organ systems and explain their tray, dissection kit,
Identify and label a diagram of describe how the major organs
functions (can be linked to unit B1 tape measure.
digestive system. the digestive system. are linked and observe
Healthy Lifestyles) structure of the digestive Torso/model of
Describe the functions of the
digestive system.
digestive system to digest and Developing argument system. Key measurements of
absorb food molecules. Plan for structured, small-group organs can be made to inform The Digestive
discussion and research on whether, System builder can
Describe the functions of the discussion. Offer an alternative
and to what extent, digestion depends be found at
organs in the system – salivary and opt out for those students
on diffusion. http://science.walter
glands, stomach, small who prefer not to take part eg mack.com/flashTeac
intestine, liver, pancreas and video of dissection or research herTools/biology/dig
large intestine. topic. estiveSystemBuilder
2a.swf

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Develop explanations using models Useful information


Explain digestion using different models on the human body
eg can be found at

http://kidshealth.org
Label a diagram of the digestive
/kid by selecting
system and colour areas where
‘How the body
digestion, digestion and absorption works’ in the left
of food, and absorption of water navigation bar.
occur
You can download a

digestive system to
Add labels to diagram to state
label from
functions of organs in the system
http://klbict.co.uk/int
 Watch a video about the digestive eractive/science/dig
system and collect evidence to estion2.htm
support explanation of digestive A useful video clip
process on digestion and
absorption can be
 Make a life size model of digestive found on the BBC
system website at
www.bbc.co.uk/lear
 Develop animation of digestion ningzone/clips

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 Role play – what happens to food Search for clip


as it moves along the digestive ‘4180’.
system (opportunity for
investigations – see B2.5.2).

c Organs are made of Recognise the main organs in 1 Using models Torso and posters of organ Be able to
tissues; tissues in the human body and state their Describe a model of the stomach systems. appreciate the sizes
stomach. functions. showing different tissues. Label a Model of stomach. of cells, tissues,
b A tissue is a group of Describe the tissues in the diagram of the stomach with the names organs and organ
cells with similar stomach and explain what they of the tissues and their functions. systems.
structure and do. Explain how tissues match with their
function; muscular, Explain the terms tissue and functions.
glandular and organ. Extended writing (remember Extended writing
epithelial tissues.
a Explain why large organisms P – point (use Quality of
Multicellular need different systems to E – evidence Written
organisms develop survive.
E – explanation Communication
systems for Explain what cell differentiation
which is used in English lessons) guidance to assess)
exchanging materials; is.
during development Describe different types of cells in the
Describe organisation in large
cells differentiate to stomach and explain differentiation–
organisms.
link with lesson on specialised cells.
perform different

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functions. Use a model to summarise, produce a


flow diagram showing organisation in
large organisms and relate to size.

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B2.2.2 Plant organs

a Plant organs include Describe the main organs of a 1-2 Communication for audience and Assessing risk and working Plant tissues: eg
stems, roots and plant and describe their purpose safely celery Microscopes,
leaves. functions. Do plant organs do the same job in all Make sections of plant tissue eg slides etc. prepared
b Examples of plant Recognise different tissues in a plants? using celery stems. Students slides and
tissues – epidermal, leaf and describe their Describe and label a diagram of a plant identify hazards and explain bioviewers.
mesophyll, xylem and functions. with names and functions of organs. how risk is managed safely.
phloem. Explain how shape of plant organs vary Observe and describe their
but tissue function is similar. prepared slides or bioviewers of
leaves, stems and roots and
Analyse a cross section of a leaf and
identify different tissues;
explain function of tissue.
hypothesise what they are for.
Evaluate efficiency of transport of
coloured dye in celery or a plant – could
prepare slides and observe them (links
with B2.3, B3.1.3 and B3.2.3).

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B2.3 Photosynthesis
Green plants and algae use light energy to make their own food. They obtain the raw materials they need to make this food from the air and the soil. The conditions in which
plants are grown can be changed to promote growth. Students will be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding to interpret data showing how factors affect the
rate of photosynthesis and how we can apply this in horticulture
B2.3.1 Photosynthesis

a Photosynthesis Explain the word equation for 3 Developing explanations using ideas Planning an approach Lots of ideas and
equation. photosynthesis. and models Where are the stomata? info can be found at
b Light energy is Investigate how light, carbon Discuss: Brainstorm what plants need www-
Students research methods
absorbed by dioxide and chlorophyll are to survive and how they are useful to saps.plantsci.cam.ac
before planning
chlorophyll in needed to make glucose. other organisms in order to come up .uk/pubphoto.htm
eg Dip privet leaves into hot and www.s-
chloroplasts and used Explain why plants should be with the word equation for
water and observe nail varnish cool.co.uk
to convert carbon destarched before photosynthesis.
imprints of leaves (links with
dioxide and water into photosynthesis experiments and B2.2.2 leaf structure, xylem
glucose, oxygen is a describe how this is done. Broad leaved plant
and phloem, B3.1.3 exchange
by-product. and bioviewers.
Describe experiments to show systems in plants and B3.2.3
e Glucose may be that plants produce oxygen in transport in plants). Stomata: Leaves
converted into starch the light. Demo: Plants produce oxygen in the from privet and
Obtaining and presenting
for storage. light. spider plants, kettle,
Explain the steps involved in primary evidence
beakers, nail
testing a leaf for starch. How is the leaf adapted for varnish, slides,
Explain why glucose is photosynthesis? coverslips and

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converted to starch for storage. Using models Set up experiments to show microscope.
 Write word equation for that light, carbon dioxide and Photosynthesis:
photosynthesis – produce cards for chlorophyll are needed to make Geraniums, plants
starch – follow up with testing with variegated
equation and put into correct order
a leaf for starch in later lesson. leaves, lamps, black
 Label diagram of a plant to show paper and paper
that water enters via the roots and clips, bell jars,
saturated KOH
travels in the xylem to the leaves;
solution or soda
carbon dioxide enters leaves via
lime, ethanol,
stomata; light is absorbed by boiling tubes,
chlorophyll in leaves beakers, glass rods,
tiles, iodine solution,
 Produce a 3D model of a leaf to heating apparatus
explain photosynthesis and goggles.
Oxygen:
Elodea/Cabomba,
glass funnel, large
beaker, test tube
and splints.
Glucose: Plant in
light, Benedict’s
solution, boiling

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tube and Bunsen


burner.
Starch: Pieces of
apple and potato,
sharp knives, slides,
coverslips, iodine
solution and
microscopes.

c Factors affecting the Interpret data showing how 2 Developing ideas and using models Investigate the effect of light Rate:
rate of photosynthesis factors affect the rate of Computer simulation to investigate intensity or temperature on the Elodea/Cabomba,
– temperature, CO2 photosynthesis. factors that affect the rate of rate of photosynthesis and plot funnel, large
concentration, light Describe factors that affect the photosynthesis. data. beaker, gas syringe,
intensity. rate of photosynthesis. Use sensors to measure lamp, thermometer,
Describe factors that affect the rate of
d Limiting factors and oxygen, light, temperature and sodium hydrogen
Explain how conditions in photosynthesis.
the rate of carbon dioxide levels. carbonate.
greenhouses can be controlled Interpret graphs and explain limiting
photosynthesis. to optimise the growth of Sensors for use
factors.
plants. with any of the
Applications and implications Selecting and managing
experiments.
Evaluate the benefits of variables
Can we feed a city of people on the Useful information
artificially manipulating the Investigate growth of tomatoes
moon? can be found on the
environment in which plants
Design a greenhouse to maintain BBC GCSE Bitesize

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are grown. optimum growth of plants on the moon. in greenhouse, lab and outside. at
Explain all its design features. www.bbc.co.uk/scho
Can anyone be ‘green fingers’ in the ols/gcsebitesize
garden? Further information
Use horticultural/ gardening magazines can be found at
or catalogues to design a garden which www.s-cool.co.uk
will grow plants in light, dark and semi Tomato plants, pots,
shade. Use BBC and Channel 4 compost, fertiliser,
websites. sensors and
Create opportunities for pupils to balance.
research and critically analyse data http://www.bbc.co.u
related to the interplay of limiting k/gardening/design/
factors in photosynthetic productivity
and the implications for world food
production. http://www.channel
4.com/4homes/roo
ms/outdoors

e Glucose can be stored Recognise ways in which 1-2 Communication for audience and Selecting and managing Exhibition of plant
as starch and used in glucose is used by a plant. purpose variables products – sugar,
respiration. Discuss uses of glucose and produce a Obtaining and presenting starchy food,
mind map or poster to demonstrate primary evidence protein rich food,

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f Glucose is also used Describe functions of fats, oils, your ideas to the class. Do plants need to take in plant oils, paper,
to produce fats and cellulose, starch and proteins in Produce diagrams to illustrate the flow protein to survive? cocoa, coffee,
oils for storage, a plant. of carbon dioxide and oxygen in and out cotton, rubber,
cellulose to of a plant in bright light, dim light and flour, nuts, drugs
Investigate the effect of mineral etc.
strengthen cell walls Explain how plants obtain darkness.
salts on plant growth.
and proteins. nitrate ions and what they are Reaching agreement on scientific Video clips on
Planning and approach photosynthesis and
g To produce proteins, needed for. explanations
plants also use nitrate Can plants photosynthesise plant growth can be
Interpret data from the results What is the link between
under water? found on the BBC
ions that are of bicarbonate indicator photosynthesis and respiration?
Do plants drown? website at
absorbed from the experiment. Explain the equations for
Students carry out elodea www.bbc.co.uk/lear
soil. photosynthesis and respiration – use ningzone/clips by
cards previously made for investigation to explain
searching for clips
photosynthesis and rearrange to show photosynthesis in aquatic
plants, vary carbon dioxide ‘212’ and ‘213’.
respiration.
concentration using sodium
Applications, implications and cultural
hydrogen carbonate.
understanding
Does it matter where you get your
carbon from? Indicator:
Bicarbonate
Explain the benefits and drawbacks, indicator solution,
including ethical, moral, social and acid, alkali, straw,
political aspects, of some applications boiling tubes,
and implications of science bungs, black paper,

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photosynthesis, eg use of pesticides, Cabomba, small


destruction of rainforests. invertebrates, gauze
and lamp.
Can you really grow plants without soil? Minerals: Tomato
Research hydroponics and produce a plants, pots,
report or PowerPoint presentation. compost. Grow
cultures in solutions
with and without
minerals, eg
magnesium and
nitrates.

Powerpoint B2.3
Photosynthesis
questions

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B2.4 Organisms and their environment


Living organisms form communities, and we need to understand the relationships within and between these communities. These relationships are affected by external
influences. Students will be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding to:

 suggest reasons for the distribution of living organisms in a particular habitat


 evaluate methods used to collect environmental data, and consider the validity of the method and the reproducibility of the data as evidence for environmental
change.
NB Students should understand the terms mean, median and mode and that sample size is related to both validity and reproducibility

B2.4.1 Distribution of organisms

a Physical factors that Explain distribution of 2-3 Working critically with primary and Obtaining and presenting
may affect organisms organisms in a habitat. secondary evidence primary evidence Using a quadrat can
– temperature, Evaluate methods used to Discuss factors that may affect the Know that sample size is be found at
nutrients, light, water, collect environmental data and distribution of organisms. Use important in terms of reliability www.skoool.co.uk
oxygen and carbon consider the validity and interactive modelling to change and validity eg Appropriately sized

dioxide. reliability as evidence of environment quadrats,
look at distribution of alga
Quantitative data can environmental change. Explain how these factors could affect Pleurococcus on walls, clipboards, sensors

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b be obtained by Name and explain how different the distribution of organisms fences, trees Transect: String,
sampling with factors can affect the  select an environment such as identification charts.
quadrats and along a  Estimate cover using
distribution of organisms in a seashore/ school fields/ woodland
transect. habitat. diagrams/ photographs and
Environmental data:
Investigate methods of  use a range of examples to explore cover slips as ‘mini
Sensors,
measuring abiotic factors. the impact of external and internal quadrats’ dataloggers,
factors on the interdependence of thermometers and
Describe how to carry out organisms, e.g. poisons, disease, Use transect lines and quadrats
random sampling of organisms calculators.
food shortages to collect data.
using a quadrat.
Evaluate data gathered by using Questions on Ppt
a transect line Evaluate how environmental data can B2.4
Analyse ecological data
Calculate mean, median, mode be collected efficiently –use prior
Interpret various types of
and range. knowledge.
diagrams that illustrate the
Developing argument distribution of organisms in a
Explore with pupils how diagrams in habitat (Links with B1.4.1,
different textbooks show the same B1.4.2 and B3.4.1).
concept but could lead to
misconceptions, e.g. scales used in
diagrams such as pyramids of numbers
and biomass or directional arrows on
food webs.

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B2.5 Proteins – their functions and uses


Proteins have many functions, both inside and outside the cells of living organisms. Proteins, as enzymes, are now used widely in the home and in industry.
Students will be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using enzymes in the home and in industry.
B2.5.1 Proteins

a Proteins are long Describe the structure of 1 Developing explanations using ideas Working with primary and
chains of amino acids protein molecules. and models secondary evidence
folded to produce a Explain the function of some Watch a computer simulation of protein Make 3D models of proteins
specific shape that protein molecules are found structure eg using APP on mobile using
accommodates other inside living organisms. phone. • Plasticine
molecules. Proteins
Define the terms ‘catalyst’ and Reaching agreement on scientific • Different coloured and
act as structural
‘enzyme’. explanations shaped beads or card for amino
components,
hormones, antibodies Students describe how bias or lack of acids
and catalysts. evidence can cause/ give incorrect Compare to research into
theories. protein structure (secondary
Catalysts increase the
b rate of chemical Students can explain and justify why a evidence).
scientific claim can be justified by use of
reactions. Biological
validated evidence eg structure of
catalysts are called
insulin.
enzymes; these are

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proteins. Research project to include the Demonstration


structure of proteins and names and Students describe action of an
functions of some proteins in the body. inorganic catalyst and catalase
Produce a poster, PowerPoint
on the breakdown of hydrogen
presentation or mind map.
peroxide.
Revise chemical bonding so that
students can explain 3D structure of
protein and binding sites.

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B2.5.2 Enzymes

a The shape of an Explain why enzymes are 1 Using models Demo: Manganese dioxide, Enzyme action video
enzyme is vital for the specific in their action. Watch video to help to describe how liver, boiled liver, celery, apple http://www.bbc.co.u
enzyme’s function. Explain why enzymes are enzymes work or potato, hydrogen peroxide, k/learningzone/clips/
High temperatures denatured by high test tubes and goggles. enzymes/13505.ht
Make models or cut-outs to
change the shape temperatures. demonstrate the shape of the active Further information can be ml
site of an enzyme and the shape of the found at www.skoool.co.uk
substrate(s). Enzyme simulations
Computer simulation to show shape of can be found at
enzymes and substrates and effect of http://mhhe.com/bio
temperature on the shape of an sci/genbio/virtual_la
enzyme molecule. bs/BL_11/BL_11.ht
ml

An enzyme
animation can be
found at
www.youtube.com
by searching for
‘CZD5xs OKres’.

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b Different enzymes Describe and explain the effect 1 Model Selecting and managing pH: Pepsin solution,
work best at different of different pH values on the Computer simulation to show shape of variables trypsin solution,
pH values activity of different enzymes. enzymes and substrates and effect of Investigate the optimum pH buffer solutions at
pH on the shape of an enzyme values for pepsin and trypsin different pH values,
molecule. enzymes. UI strips, egg white
suspension, test
. tubes, timers and
goggles.

C Some enzymes work Explain why food molecules 2 Recap work done in B2.2.1 on the Amylase: Saliva or
outside body cells, eg need to be digested. digestive system. amylase solution,
digestive enzymes Recognise the names of Describe digestive system and include starch solution, test
catalyse the digestive enzymes, and identify labels to diagram of digestive system tubes, water baths
breakdown of large the organs which produce giving names of enzymes produced. at different
molecules into them, substrates they act on temperatures, glass
Present evidence Planning, selecting variables,
smaller ones in the and products of digestion. rods, spotting tiles,
gut. Produce table giving names of assessing risk, obtaining iodine solution and
Plot a line graph and interpret enzymes, substrates and products. evidence
d Amylase is produced timers.
results of effect of temperature
in the salivary glands, Research: Research Alexis St Martin Investigate the effect of The digestive
on amylase activity. story. temperature on amylase
pancreas and small system in
intestine. It catalyses Modelling: Use computer simulations to activity – measure time taken www.science.jrank.o
the breakdown of model effect of temperature, pH and for starch to disappear. rg

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starch into sugars. concentration on enzyme activity (Links Different groups do different
with B3.1.1). temperatures and share
Applications and implications of science results. Could be done using a
e and developing argument computer simulation instead.
Protease enzymes are Plot results and find optimum
produced by the Design an investigation to find the
temperature for amylase.
stomach, pancreas optimum temperature for biological and
non-biological washing powders to Use small pieces of cooked
and small intestine.
remove stains and other materials. sausage, use 2% pepsin and
They catalyse the
Produce a report for large supermarket 0.01M HCl in water baths at
breakdown of
chain to promote both. different temperatures to
proteins into amino
estimate the rate of digestion.
acids.
f This can also be carried out Two tubes, milk,
Lipase enzymes are with 2% trypsin and 0.1M sodium carbonate
produced by the NaOH. The concentration of solution,
pancreas and small both enzymes can be varied.
intestine. They phenolphthalein
Developing argument solution, lipase
catalyse the
breakdown of lipids Demonstrate: Effect of bile salts solution, +/-
(fats and oils) into on rate of digestion of milk. washing up liquid
fatty acids and Students discuss outcomes. and timer.
glycerol.
g The stomach
produces hydrochloric

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acid to provide the


right conditions for
stomach enzymes to
work effectively.

h The liver produces


bile, which is stored in
the gall bladder. Bile
neutralises the acid Further information can be
added to food in the found at www.skoool.co.uk
stomach and provides
alkaline conditions in
the small intestine for
the enzymes there to
work effectively.

i Microorganisms Explain that microorganisms 2 Presenting and writing descriptions and


produce enzymes that produce enzymes that we use explanations Information and test questions Exhibition: Biological
pass out of cells. in the home and in industry. Students review an exhibition to for enzymes in industry can be and non-biological
These have many For example, biological illustrate uses of enzymes in the home found at detergents, baby
uses in the home and detergents, baby foods, sugar and industry. www.absorblearning.com food, sugar syrup
industry. syrup and fructose syrup.

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Describe examples of enzymes Activity: Could taste glucose and and slimming foods
j Enzymes in industry used in industry – proteases, fructose solutions. containing fructose.
Selecting and managing
bring about reactions carbohydrases and isomerase. Make a table to show names of variables
at normal Explain why biological enzymes used in home and industry Detergents: Liquid
Investigate the effect of
temperature and detergents work better than and what they are used for. detergents, white
temperature on stain removal
pressure that would non-biological detergents at cotton stained with
Evaluate the advantages and using biological and non-
otherwise need removing protein and fat stains. fat and protein,
disadvantages of using enzymes in the biological detergents.
expensive, energy kettle, beakers,
Explain the advantages and home and industry. Or
expending equipment. cylinders, stirring
disadvantages of biological and Presenting and writing arguments
Most enzymes are Simplify to investigate which rods, thermometers
non-biological detergents. type of detergent removes fat
denatured at high Watch a video about uses of enzymes and white tiles.
Explain the advantages and in industry. and protein stains best at
temperatures and are disadvantages of enzymes in 40 °C. Candidates can stain the
Produce a table to show the
costly to produce. industry. cotton for homework or in a Powerpoint B2.5
advantages and disadvantages of using
Use a line graph to describe the previous lesson or test on Proteins – their
enzymes in industry. different types of stains. functions and uses
effect of increasing temperature
on the time taken by a
detergent to remove a stain.

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B2.6 Aerobic and anaerobic respiration


Respiration in cells can take place aerobically or anaerobically. The energy released is used in a variety of ways. The human body needs to react to the increased demand for
energy during exercise. Students will be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding to interpret the data relating to the effects of exercise on the human body.
B2.6.1 Aerobic respiration

a Chemical reactions in Describe the word equation for 1-2 Developing argument Obtaining and presenting Be able to complete
the body are aerobic respiration. Do all living things respire? primary evidence a word equation for
controlled by Assessing risk and working aerobic respiration
Ask what substance the body uses to
enzymes. safely Bottle of Lucozade,
release energy from and build up the
b During aerobic Define the term ‘aerobic’. word equation for aerobic respiration; Investigate respiration in living glucose tablets and
respiration glucose organisms –series of boiling a plant.
Explain what does aerobic mean?
and oxygen react to tubes containing 1.sodium
release energy. Show energy drink and glucose tablets
hydroxide 2. Limewater 3.
and ask students to explain what they
e Word equation for Organism 4. Limewater and
are used for.
aerobic respiration. connected by tubes
Lead in to discussion on the uses of
f Energy released Describe some uses of energy
energy in animals and plants; explain all Peas: Soaked peas,
during respiration is in animals and in plants.
the reactions involved are controlled by boiled and cooled
used to build
enzymes. peas and thermos
molecules, enable
muscle contraction, Describe uses of energy in plants and flasks with
maintain a steady animals. Show heat production from temperature
body temperature germinating peas. probes.

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and build up proteins. Explain why respiration has to Explain need for energy even when
c Aerobic respiration occur continually in plant and asleep or the need for a glucose drip if Information and
occurs continuously animal cells. in a coma. images on
in plants and Where does aerobic respiration occur? mitochondria can be
animals. State the site of aerobic found at
Show EM images of mitochondria in
d Most of the reactions respiration and be able to give cell. Compare number of mitochondria www.Biology4kids.c
in aerobic respiration examples of cells that contain a in muscle and skin cells. om
take place inside lot of mitochondria.
Why are there so many in muscle
mitochondria. Describe the test for carbon cells? What other cells will have a lot of
dioxide. mitochondria?
Show EM images and include
mitochondria in plant cells (links with
Exhaled air: carbon
B2.1.1).
dioxide in inhaled
Communication for audience and and exhaled air
purpose apparatus,
Working with primary evidence
Research composition of inhaled and Investigate, describe and limewater, mirrors,
exhaled air and display as pie charts or cobalt chloride
explain the composition of
bar charts. paper and
exhaled air.
thermometers.

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e Word equation for State that all animals and 1 Developing argument Working with primary evidence Demo: Two bell jars
aerobic respiration. plants produce carbon dioxide Why don’t you explode when you eat a Interpret results from connected to two
all the time as a by-product of bar of chocolate? germinating pea demo. containers of
aerobic respiration. limewater that air is
Do plants breathe? Demo: Animal in a bell jar
Describe the test for carbon experiment to show it produces passing through via
Gather evidence to discuss these
dioxide. carbon dioxide. tubes, first
questions. Structured groups with
prompts to support argument Demo: Plant in a bell jar (no container fitted with
P E E Point; Evidence; Explanation light) – results following lesson. thistle funnel
Investigate the rate of containing soda
respiration in yeast using lime, pump to draw
carbon dioxide sensors and air through system,
data loggers small animal, plant
Discuss: Discuss the set up of and black paper.
the apparatus – soda lime,
limewater in both containers

g During exercise the Design an investigation to find 1-2 Communication for audience and Planning an approach Timer, pulse sensor
heart rate, breathing out the effect of exercise on purpose/ Modelling Investigate the effect of and spirometer if
rate and depth of heart and breathing rates. Video: Effect of exercise on the body. exercise on heart rate, available.
breathing increase. Plot the results in a graph. breathing rate and depth of Website for practical
Explain the advantages to the body of
the breathing rate being much higher breathing. sheets

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h These changes Explain why heart rate and when running than walking. http://www.biology-
increase blood flow to breathing rate increase during Video: Use of spirometer in ‘Respiration Interpret line graphs and resources.com/biolo
muscles and so exercise. in Humans’ . spirometer tracings to compare gy-
experiments2.html
increase the supply of Interpret data relating to the rate of breathing before, during
#germination
sugar and oxygen and effects of exercise on the body, and after exercise.
removal of carbon Useful videos
eg spirometer tracings. Discuss: Discuss the sources of glucose Use spirometer tracing to
dioxide. calculate breathing rate and  Screaming
Write equations and explain the during exercise and link to storage and
Muscles store glucose depth of breathing. jellybaby
i conversion between glucose conversion of glycogen in liver and
as glycogen, which http://www.bbc.co.u
and glycogen in liver and muscles back into glucose (links with
can be converted k/learningzone/clips/
muscle cells. B3.1.2 and B3.3.3). aerobic-
back to glucose for
respiration/13518.h
use during exercise. tml
 Respiration in
humans
http://www.bbc.co.u
k/learningzone/clips/
respiration-in-
humans/113.html

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B2.6.2 Anaerobic respiration

a During exercise, if Write the equation for 1-2 Do mammals breathe under water? Planning an approach Timers, masses
insufficient oxygen is anaerobic respiration in animal Describe equation for anaerobic Do we need oxygen to give us Force meters
reaching the muscles cells. respiration energy? Be able to
they use anaerobic Explain the effect of lactic acid Explain why muscles become fatigued Investigate how long it takes understand that the
respiration to obtain build up on muscle activity. during exercise. muscles to fatigue – repetitive build up of lactic
energy.
Communication for audience and actions, eg step ups or holding acid leads to oxygen
b Anaerobic respiration masses at arm’s length. debt.
purpose
is the incomplete
breakdown of glucose Investigate effect of muscle fatigue on
and produces lactic muscle strength and produce an article Powerpoint B2.6
acid. for a fitness magazine. Aerobic and
HT only Discuss: Discuss causes and effects of anaerobic
c Anaerobic respiration muscle fatigue; relate to lactic acid build respiration
releases less energy up.
HT only
than aerobic Explain why anaerobic Write the word equation for anaerobic
respiration; it results respiration is less efficient than respiration in animal cells.
in an oxygen debt aerobic respiration. Video: Watch a video showing sprinters
that is repaid in order and discuss how the body reacts at the
Define the term oxygen debt.
to oxidise lactic acid end of the race – paying back the
to carbon dioxide and Write the equation for the
oxygen debt.

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water. Breakdown of lactic acid into HT only


d Muscles can become carbon dioxide and water. Describe and explain equation for the
fatigued and stop breakdown of lactic acid.
contracting efficiently;
lactic acid can build
up which is removed
by the blood.

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B2.7 Cell division and inheritance


Characteristics are passed on from one generation to the next in both plants and animals. Simple genetic diagrams can be used to show this. There are ethical considerations
in treating genetic disorders.
All students will be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding to:
 explain why Mendel proposed the idea of separately inherited factors and why the importance of this discovery was not recognised until after his death
 interpret genetic diagrams, including family trees
 predict and/or explain the outcome of crosses between individuals for each possible combination of dominant and recessive alleles of the same gene
 make informed judgements about the social and ethical issues concerning the use of stem cells from embryos in medical research and treatments
 make informed judgements about the economic, social and ethical issues concerning embryo screening.
NB Data may be given in unfamiliar contexts

In addition to the above, Higher Tier students only will


 construct genetic diagrams of monohybrid crosses and predict the outcomes of monohybrid crosses and be able to use the terms homozygous, heterozygous,
phenotype and genotype
B2.7.1 Cell division
Throughout section 2.7 students will develop an understanding of the relationship from the molecular level upwards between genes, chromosomes, nuclei
and cells and to relate these to tissues, organs and systems (2.2 and 2.3).
a Chromosomes are NB Knowledge and 1 Presenting and writing descriptions and Using primary and secondary Bioviewers,
found in pairs in body understanding of the stages in explanations evidence microscopes, slides,
cells; body cells divide mitosis and meiosis is not Is cell division the same in all living coverslips and
by mitosis. required germinating pea

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b Chromosomes Recognise from photos of things? Use bioviewers, root tip seeds.
contain the genetic karyotypes that chromosomes Can the human race survive without squashes or a video clip to Useful information
information. are found in pairs in body cells. cell division? show chromosomes and can be found at
mitosis. Produce a simple www.science3-
c During mitosis copies Explain that the genetic Activity: Recap work covered in B1.7.1
summary 18.org by searching
of the genetic information is carried as genes – genes, chromosomes, nuclei, cells;
material are made on chromosomes. look at photos of male and female Or make a simple animation of ‘Investigating cell
then the cell divides karyotypes. Produce a revision guide or root tip cells dividing. division’
Describe simply how the body
once to form two cells divide by mitosis.(detail not mind map to describe and summarise A useful animation
genetically identical required) Discuss: Discuss how organisms grow . on mitosis can be
body cells. and relate this to cell division. found at
Draw simple diagrams to
d Mitosis occurs during www.cellsalive.com
describe mitosis. Modelling
growth or to produce by searching
Use plasticine, pipe cleaners, beads etc ‘mitosis’.
replacement cells.
Explain that offspring produced to make a simple model of mitosis.
n Cells of the offspring A video clip on cell
by asexual reproduction are Describe using simple diagrams and division by mitosis
produced by asexual
produced by mitosis so contain explain mitosis in terms of copies of can be found on the
reproduction are genetic information being made and cell
all the same alleles as the BBC website at
produced by mitosis division to produce two identical
parent cell. www.bbc.co.uk/lear
from the parental daughter cells. ningzone/clips by
cells. They contain searching for clip
the same alleles as ‘4189’.
the parents.

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Use Science and


Plants for Schools
(SAPS) and Scottish
Schools Equipment
Research Centre
(SSERC) sites for
images, activities
etc.

e Sex cells (gametes) Explain that sex cells are called 1 Developing explanations using ideas Lots of class clips
have only one set of gametes and are produced and models Use bioviewers, video clips or can be found on the
chromosomes. when cells in the sex organs  Consider fusion of sex cells at images to show chromosomes BBC website at
f Cells in testes and divide by meiosis; sex cells have fertilisation and explain why and meiosis. www.bbc.co.uk/lear
ovaries divide to form only one set of chromosomes. ningzone/clips
gametes have only one set of
gametes. For Foundation Tier, knowledge chromosomes – use models or A video clip on cell
g Cell division to form of meiosis is restricted to where diagrams division by mitosis
gametes is called the process occurs and that and meiosis can be
meiosis. gametes are produced by  Make models to show what found on the BBC
meiosis. happens during fertilisation website at
Explain why gametes only have www.bbc.co.uk/lear
one set of chromosomes.  Make models or draw ningzone/clips by
searching for clip

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Explain why sexual reproduction diagrams to show how ‘6022’.


results in variety. gametes are formed during Note:
HT only meiosis Knowledge and
h HT only
Draw diagrams to explain how understanding of
During meiosis copies  Produce a poster to compare
of the genetic gametes are formed in meiosis. the stages in
mitosis and meiosis
information are Compare mitosis and meiosis. meiosis are not
made, then the cell  Use genetic diagrams required.
divides twice to form
(biological models) to predict
four gametes, each
the outcome of crosses
with a single set of
chromosomes.
i When gametes join at
Developing argument
fertilisation, a single
body cell with new Involve pupils in identifying and
pairs of chromosomes presenting scientific arguments for a
specific audience around a controversial
is formed. A new
issue, eg ‘Should conjoined twins be
individual then separated?’, ‘Should there be an age
develops by this cell limit for in vitro fertilisation (IVF)
repeatedly dividing by treatment?’, ‘Should all people have the
mitosis. right to be a parent?’

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Presenting and writing descriptions,


explanations and arguments
What determines gender?
Do we need males?
Students work in groups to research
and prepare for debate
Involve pupils in discussing the role of
science in solving problems and the
range of issues that can arise as a
result, eg increasing crop production
through GM crops or cloning.
J Most animal cells Identify the sources of stem 2 Applications, implications and cultural Information on
differentiate at an cells in humans. understanding stem cells can be
early stage whereas Describe cell differentiation in Why are stem cells so valuable? found at
Note: Stem cell techniques are
many plant cells plants and animals. www.eurostemcell.o
Do we need males? not required
retain the ability to rg and
Explain the function of stem Should embryonic stem cells be used
differentiate www.stemcells.nih.g
cells. for research into cures for human
throughout life. In ov
mature animals, cell disease?
Video clips on
division is mainly Video: Watch a video clip showing cell embryo stem cells
restricted to repair differentiation in plants and animals. and stem cell
and replacement. Video: Watch the stem cell story at research can be

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k Stem cells from Explain how stem cells could be Euro Stem Cell site. found on the BBC
human embryos and used to help treat some medical Create opportunities for pupils to devise website at
adult bone marrow conditions. criteria to evaluate claims made in www.bbc.co.uk/lear
can be made to newspapers or scientific articles, eg ningzone/clips by
Make informed judgements
about stem-cell research. searching for clips
differentiate into about the social and ethical
many types of cells. Provide students with a help sheet to ‘6581’ and ‘6013’.
issues concerning the use of
l Human stem cells can direct them in researching stem cells – Useful information
stem cells from embryos in
develop into any type where they are produced in humans; can be found at
medical research and
of human cell. their uses; how they could be used to www.christopherree
treatments. treat some medical conditions; pros and
m Treatment with stem ve.org and
cons of stem cell research. www.ukscf.org
cells may be able to
help conditions such Use research to produce a poster, carry
as paralysis. out role play or a debate about stem
cell research (links with B3.3).

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B2.7.2 Genetic variation


Additional guidance for this section Students should be familiar with principles used by Mendel in investigating monohybrid inheritance in peas. They should understand that
Mendel’s work preceded the work by other scientists which linked Mendel’s ‘inherited factors’ with chromosomes.

f Chromosomes are Describe the structure of 1 Using models Assessing risk and working Note: The names of
made up of large chromosomes and DNA. Video: Watch a video about Watson and safely the four bases are
molecules of DNA Crick – discovery of the structure of Extract DNA from fruits such as not required.
which has a double DNA. kiwi fruit or strawberry Further information
helix structure. on Watson and
Describe DNA using a model eg using
g A gene is a small Explain that a gene is a small Crick can be found
sweets
section of DNA. section of DNA. at www.bbc.co.uk by
searching ‘historic
h HT only HT only
figures Watson and
Each gene codes for a State that each gene codes for
Crick’.
particular a particular sequence of amino
How to extract DNA
combination of amino acids to make a specific protein.
from fruits can be
acids which makes a
found at
specific protein. www.funsci.com/fun
3_en/dna/dna.htm
A video clip on DNA
and the Human
Genome Project can

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be found on the
BBC website at
www.bbc.co.uk/lear
ningzone/clip by
searching for clip
‘6015’.
Useful information
on the DNA timeline
can be found at
www.timelineindex.c
om by searching
‘DNA’.

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a Sexual reproduction Explain using a Punnett square 1 Writing for audience and purpose Use a computer simulation or Be able to use a
gives rise to variation and genetic diagram how sex is How do we express our genes? make a model to show the punnette square to
because one of each determined in humans. separation and mixing of show the
Produce a presentation using media of
pair of alleles comes chromosomes in gamete inheritance of sex. A
student choice to describe the journey
from each parent. formation and fertilisation. video clip on
of a gene carried in a sperm or egg.
In human body cells Link to variation caused by dominant and
Explain how characteristics are sexual reproduction (links with recessive
b one of the 23 pairs of
expressed. B1.7.1). characteristics can
chromosomes carries
be found on the
the genes that
Developing argument BBC website at
determine sex; the
Create opportunities for pupils to devise www.bbc.co.uk/lear
sex chromosomes in ningzone/clip by
criteria and evaluate claims made in the
females are XX and in searching for clip
media and scientific articles, eg about
males are XY. allowing pregnancies of ‘designer ‘4197’.
siblings’ to provide organs or tissues for
transplantation. Animations
Involve pupils in discussing the role of produced by
science in solving problems and the Wellcome Trust can
range of issues that can arise as a
be found on
result, eg human embryology and
fertilisation issues. National Stem
Centre website

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Modelling
 Look at male and female
karyotypes and identify the number
of pairs of chromosomes and each
pair of sex chromosomes

 Use a Punnett square and a


genetic cross diagram to illustrate
the inheritance of sex; evaluate the
chance of producing a male or
female

c Some characteristics Describe some of the 2 Modelling A video clip on


are controlled by a experiments carried out by Video: Watch a video/computer dominant and
single gene; each Mendel using pea plants. simulation of Mendel’s experiments. recessive
gene may have Explain why Mendel proposed characteristics can
different forms called the idea of separately inherited be found on the
alleles. factors and why the importance BBC website at
d A dominant allele of this discovery was not www.bbc.co.uk/lear
controls the recognised until after his death. ningzone/clip by
development of a searching for clip
characteristic when ‘4197’.
Predict and explain the

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present on only one outcome of crosses using Variety of pea seed,


of the chromosomes. genetic diagrams based on plants and pods or
A recessive allele Mendel’s experiments and using diagrams of them.
e
controls the unfamiliar information.
.
development of a HT only
Define the terms homozygous, Activity: HT only
characteristic only if
Draw and label genetic diagrams to
the dominant allele is heterozygous, phenotype and
explain Mendel’s experiments.
not present. genotype.
Interpret genetic diagrams of Mendel’s
experiments.

i Each person, apart Define the term ‘DNA 1 Video: Watch a video clip using DNA A video clip on DNA finger Note: Knowledge
from identical twins, fingerprinting’.(techniques not fingerprinting to help solve a crime. printing can be found at and understanding
has unique DNA. required) Activity: Use DNA fingerprints to find www.engineering.com by of genetic
This can be used to Identify individuals from their the person who committed the crime; searching ‘DNA fingerprinting’. fingerprint
identify individuals DNA fingerprints. match DNA fingerprints to people; Crime scene, DNA fingerprints techniques is not
using DNA identify the twins. and DNA profile from crime needed.
fingerprinting. scene.

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B2.7.3 Genetic disorders

a Some disorders are Explain what polydactyly is 1 Using models Past BLY2 exam questions. A video clip on gene
inherited. (extra fingers or toes). Show images or video clips to show therapy and cystic
b Polydactyly, having Draw/interpret genetic polydactyly. Interpret family trees to fibrosis can be
extra fingers or toes, diagrams to show how determine chance of inheriting found on the BBC
is caused by a polydactyly is inherited. disorders. website at
dominant allele. Video: Watch a video to explain what www.bbc.co.uk/lear
c Cystic fibrosis, a cystic fibrosis is, how it is inherited and ningzone/clips by
disorder of cell Explain what cystic fibrosis is to illustrate the severity of the disorder. searching for clip
membranes, is and why it can be inherited Activity: Produce notes and draw ‘6014’.
caused by a recessive from two healthy parents. genetic diagrams to explain how
allele. Draw/interpret genetic polydactyly and cystic fibrosis are
diagrams to show how cystic inherited.
fibrosis is inherited. Interpret genetic diagrams relating to
these disorders.

d Embryos can be Make informed judgements 1 Role play – choices for parents of a Be able to suggest
screened for the about the economic, social and cystic fibrosis sufferer who would like one reason why
alleles that cause ethical issues concerning another child. To involve experts people support and
genetic disorders. embryo screening. explaining cystic fibrosis and the one reason why
screening procedure; the child with the people are against
disorder; parents to discuss what they
the screening of

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would do if the foetus had the disorder. embryos for the


Or cystic fibrosis allele.
Watch a video of the process and
describe issues to be considered re
embryo screening.
Reaching agreement on scientific
explanations
Plan structured whole-class discussion
on some of the sex-linked diseases, eg
haemophilia, and suggest why scientists
have not been able to eliminate these.

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B2.8 Speciation
Changes in the environment of plants and animals may cause them to die out. The fossil record shows that new organisms arise, flourish, and after a time become extinct.
The record also shows changes that lead to the formation of new species. Students will be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding to:
suggest reasons why scientists cannot be certain about how life began on Earth.
NB The uncertainty arises from the lack of enough valid and reliable evidence.
B2.8.1 Old and new species

a Evidence for early Explain what a fossil is. 1-2 Presenting and writing descriptions and Working critically with primary Objects to make
forms of life comes explanations evidence imprints in sand,
from fossils. Research: Research different ways in Observe an exhibition of fossils plasticine, plaster of
b Fossils are the Describe ways in which fossils which fossils are formed and produce a or fossil pictures and guess Paris.
‘remains’ of are formed – from hard parts report with illustrations – complete for how they were formed and A video clip on DNA
organisms from many that do not decay easily; when homework. what they are fossils of. and prehistoric
years ago, which are conditions for decay are absent; Explain formation of fossils using Modelling animals can be
found in rocks. They when parts are replaced by evidence from videos- use scaffold found on the BBC
Make imprints of leaves, shells,
can be formed in other materials as they decay; sheet to collect evidence eg Learning website at
bones etc. as models of fossils
various ways. as preserved imprints. Skills for Science. www.bbc.co.uk/lear
UPD8 activity: Candidates look ningzone/clips by
c Many early forms of Explain why fossils are useful to Developing argument at fossil evidence to explain searching for clip
life were soft bodied us today – to provide evidence
Are mummies fossils? how living things once lived. ‘5890’.
so left few traces of how life has developed; to
behind; these traces help us understand evolutionary Why can scientists not be totally certain Interesting
have been mainly relationships. about how life began on Earth? information on a
destroyed by Suggest reasons why scientists Explain how the fossil record is huge fossilized skull
geological activity. cannot be certain how life incomplete because many fossils have found in Argentina

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d began on Earth. been destroyed by geological activity. can be found at


We can learn from Discuss how life on earth might have www.UPD8.org.uk
fossils how much or begun and discuss why we cannot be by searching
how little organisms certain how life began (links with ‘Godzilla is real’
have changed as life B1.8.1).
developed on Earth.

e Causes of extinction - Define the term ‘extinction’. 1 Working with secondary evidence Be able to give two
changes to the Explain how extinction may be Give a list of extinct organisms and ask reasons why some
environment over caused. students to print off images; suggest organisms are in
geological time, new reasons to explain why they died out. danger of extinction.
Explain that organisms become
predators, new extinct because something Produce a poster of pictures of extinct
diseases, new changes and the species cannot organisms; discuss the evidence we
competitors, a adapt quickly enough to the have that they looked like this.
catastrophic event, new circumstances. Explain why some organisms are
through the cyclical endangered. Give examples. Give
nature of speciation. reasons why it is important to prevent
species from becoming extinct.

Research: Research causes of extinction


eg climate change, disease, predators
and write a report/PowerPoint

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presentation to present to the class.

f New species arise as Define the term ‘species’. 1 Presenting and writing descriptions and Understand that it
a result of isolation Explain how new species arise explanations takes millions of
(HT only – genetic using the terms Describe what a species is and write a years for a new

variation, natural definition. species to form
‘isolation’
selection and  Genetic variation Explain how new species arise
speciation).

Using models
Natural selection
Use a model to explain one of the
 speciation
following and present to class Catalyst magazine
HT only isolation – two populations of a species on National Stem
Include, explain and use the become separated, eg geographically Centre website has
terms ‘genetic variation’, an article on The
‘natural selection’ and genetic variation – each population has
Socotra archipelago
a wide range of alleles that control their
‘speciation’ – regarded as
characteristics
modern day
natural selection – in each population, Galapagos.
the alleles that control the
characteristics which help the organism
to survive are selected

speciation – the populations become so


different that successful interbreeding is
no longer possible.

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Discuss organisms that are only found


in or are endemic to eg Australia,
Madagascar and ask why this is;
support with projected images or video
clips.
Produce a flow diagram or cut-out to
illustrate how new species arise (links
with B1.8.1).

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