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Lecture by
Dept. of ECE
S.A.Engineering College

Mr.S.Dhilipkumar,AP, SAEC, Chennai 2

• The type of communication system needed for given signal depends on the band
of frequencies which is considered essential for the communication process.

• For the speech signals, frequency range 300Hz to 3100 Hz is considered


• Therefore the speech signal requires a bandwidth of 2800 Hz (3100Hz-300Hz)

for commercial telephonic communication.

• To transmit music, an appropriate bandwidth of 20 KHz is required because of

the high frequencies produced by the musical instruments.

• The audible range of frequencies extends from 20 Hz to 20 KHz.

• Video signals for transmission of pictures require about 4.2 MHz of bandwidth.

• A TV signal contains both voice and picture is usually allocated 6MHz of

bandwidth for transmission.

Mr.S.Dhilipkumar,AP, SAEC, Chennai 3

Mr.S.Dhilipkumar,AP, SAEC, Chennai 4
Classification Band Initials Frequency Range Characteristics
Extremely low ELF < 300 Hz
Infra low ILF 300 Hz - 3 kHz Ground wave
Very low VLF 3 kHz - 30 kHz
Low LF 30 kHz - 300 kHz
Medium MF 300 kHz - 3 MHz Ground/Sky wave
High HF 3 MHz - 30 MHz Sky wave
Very high VHF 30 MHz - 300 MHz
Ultra high UHF 300 MHz - 3 GHz
Super high SHF 3 GHz - 30 GHz Space wave
Extremely high EHF 30 GHz - 300 GHz
Tremendously high THF 300 GHz - 3000 GHz

Mr.S.Dhilipkumar,AP, SAEC, Chennai 5


• The number of cycles per second is known as frequency.

• The standard unit of frequency is the hertz, abbreviated Hz. If a current

completes one cycle per second, then the frequency is 1 Hz; 60 cycles
per second equals 60 Hz

f  1/ T

Mr.S.Dhilipkumar,AP, SAEC, Chennai 6


Wavelength is defined as the distance between two nearest points of the

adjacent c crest or trough. This is the distance between the wave cycles
which are propagated in space. It is a length so it is measured in terms of
units of length like meters or centimeters or millimeters or Nano-meters
(10-9meter) or Angstrom units (10-10 meter).

  v/ f

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• FDD-Frequency division duplexing

• TDD-Time division duplexing

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Simplex Communication

Simplex communication is a communication channel that sends information in one

direction only. (One way signaling at a time)

Example: TV and radio broadcasting, information flows only from the transmitter
site to receivers.

Mr.S.Dhilipkumar,AP, SAEC, Chennai 10

Duplex Communication:

• A "duplex" communication channel requires two simplex channels operating in

opposite directions.

• An RS 232 interface between a computer terminal and a modem is made up of

multiple simplex control and data circuits, but information can flow both ways since

channels are provided both to and from the terminal.

Mr.S.Dhilipkumar,AP, SAEC, Chennai 11


• In a half-duplex system, there are still two clearly defined paths/channels, and
each party can communicate with the other but not simultaneously; the
communication is one direction at a time.

• An example of a half-duplex device is a walkie-talkie two-way radio that has

a "push-to-talk" button; when the local user wants to speak to the remote
person they push this button, which turns on the transmitter but turns off the
receiver, so they cannot hear the remote person. To listen to the other person
they release the button, which turns on the receiver but turns off the

Mr.S.Dhilipkumar,AP, SAEC, Chennai 12


• In a full duplex system, both parties can communicate with each other

• An example of a full-duplex device is a telephone; the parties at both ends of a

call can speak and be heard by the other party simultaneously.

• The earphone reproduces the speech of the remote party as the microphone
transmits the speech of the local party, because there is a two-way
communication channel between them, or more strictly speaking, because there
are two communication paths/channels between them.

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Narrowband systems

Wideband systems

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Multiple Access

• Multiple Access schemes are used to allow many mobile users to

share simultaneously a finite number of radio spectrum.

• The sharing of spectrum is required to achieve high capacity by

simultaneously allocating the available bandwidth to multiple users.

• For high quality communications, this must be done without severe

degradation in the performance of the system.

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• FDMA- Frequency Division Multiple Access

• TDMA- Time Division Multiple Access

• CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access

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Advantages of FDMA

• If channel is not in use, it sits idle

• Channel bandwidth is relatively narrow (30kHz)
• Simple algorithmically, and from a hardware standpoint
• Fairly efficient when the number of stations is small and the
traffic is uniformly constant
• Capacity increase can be obtained by reducing the
information bit rate and using efficient digital code
• No need for network timing
• No restriction regarding the type of baseband or type of
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FDMA Operation

Number of FDMA Channels

 f  2   guard
 f - total spectrum
 guard - guard band
c - channel bandwidth

In the U.S. each cellular carrier is allocated 416 channels where:

 f  12.5MHz
 guard  10kHz
c  30kHz
12.5MHz  2 10kHz
N  416
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General Specification of FDMA

• Rx: 869-894MHz Tx: 824-849MHz

• 832 Channels spaced 30kHz apart
(3 users/channel)
• DQPSK modulation scheme
• 48.6kbps bit rate
• Used in analog cellular phone systems (i.e. AMPS)
• Uses Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)
• ISI (Intersymbol Interference) is low
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Disadvantages to using FDMA

• The presence of guard bands

• Requires right RF filtering to minimize adjacent
channel interference
• Maximum bit rate per channel is fixed
• Small inhibiting flexibility in bit rate capability
• Does not differ significantly from analog system

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GSM Architecture

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Cell Splitting Example

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