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III BRAZILIAN CONGRESS OF METROLOGY

In

RECIFE PALACE HOTEL

On

SEPTEMBER 1-5, 2003

“AN OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICE

FOR LARGE VOLUME GAS FLOW MEASUREMENT”

ON THE 2ND SEPTEMBER, 2003

BY

DR R.J.W. PETERS

(McCROMETER)

1
“AN OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICE

FOR LARGE VOLUME GAS FLOW MEASUREMENT”

by

Dr R.J.W.Peters

SYNOPSIS : This paper will discuss Gas Flow Metering using Orifice, Turbine, Ultrasonic, Venturi, Vortex,
Coriolis, or V-Cone Meters. The paper will highlight the current developments in metering technology to
overcome problems when using these devices. The present position in the International Standards for these
meters will be addressed.

The ability to measure Energy Flow for Gas will also be presented.

2
3
1. INTRODUCTION

In this paper we will look at the most common metering devices currently used for large Volume Gas Flow Metering.
These devices are generally Orifice Meters, Gas Turbine Meters and Ultrasonic Meters but in addition there has been
an increasing interest in Venturi Meters in the last few years along with Coriolis and V-Cone meters and at the same
time an apparent decrease in Vortex meters for Gas Metering. The problems associated with these meters and some
recent amendments to the Orifice Standard will be examined. The paper will discuss the introduction of a new API
Standard, Chapter 5.7 “ A Testing Protocol for Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices”.

The use of Flow Conditioners will be addressed

2. ORIFICE METERING

2.1 Introduction

As we all know this has been the most widespread Flow Metering device in general use. Differential Pressure
Devices date back to Pitot Tubes in 1732 and Venturi in 1797. The Orifice has been in Commercial Use since the
early 1900’s.

Traditionally the Orifice has been the device used for large volume gas measurement throughout the world but has
been exposed to increasing competition over the last 20years. What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of an
Orifice Meter and why is it no longer the first choice for gas measurement?

2.2 Advantages of the Orifice Meter:

1. Has been exposed to extensive Testing since the early 1900’s, which has resulted in well documented
Standards e.g. : ISO 5167-1 and AGA 3 ( API 14.3)

2. Enjoys wide acceptance by the Gas Industry resulting in Personnel who are knowledgeable about the
requirements for the use and maintenance of the device.

3. Relatively low cost to Purchase and install

4. No moving parts in the flow stream

5. Does not normally require Flow Calibration

6. It is rugged and stands abusive flow conditions relatively well - it is inexpensive to replace damaged parts

7. With current computer technology it is possible to have flow data computed and transmitted easily.

2.3 Disadvantages of the Orifice Meter :

1. Rangeability is 3:1 for a single D.P. Transmitter but can be extended with stacked D.P.’s and with different
ratio Orifice Plates

2. Relatively high pressure loss for a given flow rate, particularly with lower β ratios.

3. More sensitive to flow disturbance at higher β ratios than some meters

4. Requires relatively very long Upstream lengths of metering pipework

4
2.4 Problems Associated with Orifice Metering

It is essential that Orifice Metering Systems are carefully designed to ensure that the required uncertainties can be
achieved. From ISO 5167-1 the Uncertainty in the current Revision for the Discharge Coefficient is 0.6%. There are
a number of problems which can increase the Uncertainty significantly such as : discharge coefficient data, swirl,
distorted flow profile, dirt on the plate and other deviations from the Standard. The International community has
conducted extensive Testing, over the last 15 years, to establish the requirements for the Discharge Coefficient,
Upstream Conditions for Orifice Metering etc and the outcome of this work has resulted in an amendment to the
Discharge Coefficient Equation, which is included in the new Revision of ISO 5167 and in the latest edition of API
14.3. This new Discharge Coefficient has an Uncertainty of 0.5/0.55% and the API 14.3 Version has an Uncertainty
which varies with β ratio and can be as low as 0.44% at 0.6 β ratio.

Unfortunately there are still differences between the API Standard and the ISO Standard including the Discharge
Coefficient and the Expansibility Equation

2.4.1 Amendment to the Discharge Coefficient Equation

The Amendment to the Discharge Coefficient Equation was published as an amendment in June 1998. The Revised
Equation is given in Appendix 1.

It can be seen that there is a break in the equation at 71.12mm(2.8"). This is due to the fact that the experimental
results, on which the equation was based, showed a break in this area. Physically this does not seem to be realistic
but may be based on the fact that with small sizes slight variations in edge sharpness or concentricity have an
aggravated effect on the Coefficient.

2.4.2. Effect of Flow Conditioner/Straightener on Flow Profile and Discharge Coefficient

The previous Revision of ISO 5167-1 militated against Flow Straighteners.

In effect it resulted in potentially poor metering layouts for the North Sea. In fact Total presented their findings at the
1991 North Sea Workshops where they showed from dirt on the Orifice Plate that there was swirl despite the fact that
the Metering Tubes were designed in accordance with the Standard but had not used Flow Conditioners.

Total decided to fit the K-Lab Conditioner and established that there was a significant improvement in Flow
Measurement of the order of 1.5 to2%

The currently ISO 5167 encourages the use of Flow Conditioners, particularly following a Header, if the Lowest
Uncertainty in Flow Measurement is to be achieved.

The following Conditioners are examples of ones which have resulted in significant improvements in Flow
Disturbances :

5
Plate Thickness = 0.123D

d3 d1 = 0.195D dia hole


d2 = 0.185D dia holes x 0.461D pcd
d2
d3 = 0.154D dia holes x 0.823D pcd

d1 All holes to have a 45¢x 2mm


D
chamfer on upstream side of the holes

Figure 1 - Laws’ Flow Conditioner (patented in USA and UK

Plate Thickness = 0.12D

d3 d1 = 0.10D dia holes x 0.18D pcd


d2
d2 = 0.16D dia holes x 0.48D pcd
d1 d3 = 0.12D dia holes x 0.86D pcd
D

Figure 2: The NEL (Spearman) Flow Conditioner

6
Plate Thickness = 0.357D
The data are nondimensionalised with respect to the
internal pipe diameter D

1 d and a represent the pitch circle diameter and the hole


2 diameter, respectively
3
4
Ring no Pitch circle no. of Hole diam.
5
D diam. (d/D) holes diam. (a/D)

1 0.9143 32 0.0707

2 0.7342 21 0.0857

3 0.5214 14 0.0936

4 0.2857 7 0.1043

5 0.0000 1 0.1164

Figure 3: K Lab Mark 5 Flow Conditioner

Figure 4 : Zanker Conditioning Plate

7
Figure 5 : The Gallagher Flow Conditioner

Anti-swirl Setting Chamber Profile


Device Device

0. 5D 0.12D
4D

Any Pipe Fitting Tube Bundle Any Pipe Fitting


Perforated
Plate
Flow
{

Primary
L1 Device
4D 4D 10D 3D
S1 0.12D S2 S3

The Gallagher Flow Conditioner

2.4.3 Damaged or Dirt on Orifice Plates

The most common problems with Orifice Plates are a) They are inserted back-to-front b) They are subjected to a
large pressure differential during start-up and become bowed or c) they have dirt and grease on the face of the plate.
The possible effect of these deviations is examined in ISO xxxx

To deal with a) The operator should always have it stressed that the Standard is for a "Square Edged Plate" and
consequently the right angle should be directed to the flow.

b. A retractable Orifice Fitting can help to avoid this problem. If the plate is kept out of the line during the
initial phase of pressurising the line then the Orifice Plate can be inserted when the line is under pressure.

a. In potentially dirty lines or lines where the Valves are being heavily greased to overcome leaks the Orifice
Plates should be examined regularly to establish if cleaning is required. Again a Dual Chamber Orifice
Fitting allows the plate to be removed without having to close down the line.

Recently in a very large on-shore Metering Station it was reported that even with dirt on the face of the plates they
were achieving a 1.6% comparison with the Off-shore Meters. Could this simply have been by chance!!

8
2.4.4 Ancillary Instrumentation

In the case of Differential Pressure measurement it is essential that the highest quality Pressure, Differential
Pressure, Temperature and Density Measurement are available. The kind of Uncertainty currently required for these
measurements are: Pressure and Differential Pressure Transducer - 0.075% of calibrated span : Temperature
Transducer - 0.10 C : Density Transducer - 0.15% of reading.

In the case of Pressure and Differential Pressure Measurement there have been marked improvement with regard to
Temperature Stability, Long Term Repeatability and defined effect of Pressure on Differential Pressure with
increasing Pressure.

The question of Density will be discussed further in this paper.

Enron

FIGURE 6 Enron Skid

9
Troll

FIGURE 7 Troll Skid

3. GAS TURBINE METERING

3.1 Introduction

These meters have been used extensively in the Gas Distribution network for many years in certain countries and are
also widely used in Refinery Plants. Gradually they have been accepted in some National Transmission Lines for
Custody Transfer, notably in The Netherlands. However for transfer in other Nations, they are generally required to
be situated in Series with an alternative meter, such as an Orifice or recently an Ultrasonic Meter.

The principle attraction for the Gas Turbine Meters over the orifice Meter is that they have a significantly better turn-
down ratio e.g. approximately a 10 :1 ratio can be achieved at atmospheric pressure rising to a 100 : 1 on gas with
pressures over 1000psia ( 68.95Bar).

The principle problem for these meters is that they require to be calibrated in a Flow Laboratory and they can have a
calibration shift with Pressure. In recent years these meters have developed significantly and for certain applications
have proved to be very stable and reliable.

It is essential that the country that chooses to use Gas Turbine Meters has access to a high quality gas flow laboratory

3.2 Advantages of Turbine Meters :

1. Excellent rangeability on gas at high pressure

2. Low Uncertainty over the full linear range of the meter (uncertainty given as per cent of flow rate, not per
cent of full scale)

3. Electronic output is generally available at high resolution rates which permits proving in a short time period.

4. Has temperature and pressure limits, but can handle normal flow conditions very well.

10
5. The meter cost is medium priced but total meter station cost can be low-to-medium cost because of high
flow rate for a given line size.

3.3 Disadvantages of Turbine Meters :

1. Require to be proved for accurate metering.

2. Rangeability at low pressures is about the same as other Gas Meters.

3. Requires swirl free flow into the meter,( unless the meter has been specially designed). Straightening Vanes
or long lengths of pipe are normally required prior to the meter is there is swirl present in the gas.

4. They can be easily damaged if any foreign body lands on the blade

3.4 Problems Associated with Turbine Meters.

Gas Turbine Meters have been very susceptible to flow disturbances and consequently a perturbation Test has been
developed to ensure that the meters will perform in a very disturbed Flow regime. Most meters have great difficulty
meeting the requirements of the Test but recent developments by the meter manufacturers have improved the units by
installing Flow Straightening Devices within the Meter - Appendix 2. The pipework for the perturbation tests is
shown in Appendix 3.

The gas Turbine Meter can also be subject to variations in calibration with pressure and it is essential that the Meter
is calibrated at as close to the Operating Pressure as is possible. Some meter manufacturers achieve better results
than others with variations in Pressure.

Appendix 4 and 5 show examples of Calibration Curves for Turbine Meters

The meter is susceptible to foreign bodies landing on the Rotor Blades as they are generally light and well balanced
and if a foreign body gets attached to a blade it can unbalance the meter with catastrophic results. The type of
material, which can cause such a problem is a large particle of grease from a valve. The meters are not good in wet
gas.

Gas Turbine Meters have generally improved significantly and would have achieved further improvements if the Gas
Industry had not been so slow in accepting meters without Mechanical read-outs.

4. ULTRASONIC GAS METERS

Ultrasonic Transit Time Meters with a number of different paths varying from 1 to 5+ are gradually being accepted
by the Gas Industry. The major step forward in this area was achieved when British Gas developed a 4 path meter
some 12/15 years ago. A major attraction of this meter is that there is nothing inserted into the pipeline and
consequently there is no perceptible Pressure Drop through the Meter. This is a very attractive feature for large Gas
Volume Transmission lines where Pumping Capacity can be a limiting factor. It is also attractive offshore where
again the cost of Compressors can be exacerbated by the additional weight added to the platform.

Another Ultrasonic Meter feature is that when a multi-path device is used it offers a means to do diagnostic analysis
of what is taking place in the flow. In the two previous meters discussed there is simply 1 reading of flow from the
meter and this is an averaged value at the point of measurement. In a multi-path meter there may be many flow and
velocity of sound readings, which can be analysed to determine if there is anything untoward, taking place within the
meter.

11
The Gas Companies for Fiscal Quality metering currently require Flow Calibration of all the meters.

TYPICAL MULTI-PATH ULTRASONIC METER SPECIFICATION (See Appendix VI)

• 0.5% Flow Calibration Accuracy

• 0.2% Repeatability

• Negligible Pressure Drop

• 3 Second Response Time

• 1-30 m/s Velocity Range

• 40 to 155 0 C Temperature Range

EXTENDED APPLICATIONS

• Offshore Applications

• Pressures up to 300 bar

• Temperature up to 155 0 C

4.2 Advantages of Ultrasonic Meters :

1. No significant pressure drop since the meters are the same diameter as the adjacent pipework

2. High rangeability - 30 :1

3. No moving Parts

4. Simple Metrology and Timing Check to calibrate the Meter

5. Simple Installation - Short meter lengths - 10D Upstream and 3D Downstream

6. Extensive Diagnostic facility from multi-path meter

7. Can derive Velocity of Sound from the Meter which in theory could result in a Density Value.

8. There is built-in redundancy in a multi-path meter.

4.3 Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Meters :

1. Still has to achieve Industry wide acceptance

2. Can be adversely affected by valve noise

3. Currently has to be calibrated for Fiscal Standard Measurement

4. Flow profile should be fully developed, particularly for meters with few paths. Multi-path meters tend to

12
average out the differences in Flow Profiles.

4.4 Problems Associated with Ultrasonic Meters

There is still a learning curve associated with Ultrasonic Meters and over the last 15 years there has been very
marked improvements in the performance of the meters. Problems associated with the Signal processing of the
Ultrasound signals have been largely overcome by moving to Digital Processing of the Signal.

The quality of the transducers are being continuously improved and are meeting increasingly onerous demands of
Pressure and Temperature.

Noise in the pipeline can have catastrophic effects but this too has been addressed by improving the quality of the
signal processing and if necessary by isolating the meter from the noise source. As with all types of meters, care must
be exercised in the positioning of meters to achieve optimum results.

The transducers can be damaged by the products associated with the gas and by rapid changes in line pressure

4.5 Future Developments with the Ultrasonic Meter

As this is a relatively new device the potential for further progress with this meter is only slowly being appreciated.
The following are some areas where significant Flow Measurement Advances can be anticipated. :

1. Improved Diagnostic Techniques to monitor the process and the condition of the meter.

2. Further use of the Velocity of Sound Measurement to establish the properties of the Gas and to compare this
output with other measurement devices such as a Densitometer or a Chromatograph.

3. More intelligence built into the meter to improve communications and to reduce the possibility of
transmission errors.

4. Extend the scope of these meters to cover Wet Gas Metering and more adverse conditions including sub-sea
metering

5. Extended the Scope to operate at higher pressure, temperature, H2S and CO2 content.

6. Possible clamp-on Ultrasonic Meters

5. VORTEX METERS

5.1 Introduction

Some 5 to 15 years ago these meters were being considered as possible meters for high volume Gas Metering. They
have been developed and are extensively used for steam measurement and in Processing Applications but their use in
High Quality Gas Applications has not developed in the manner previously envisaged (See Appendix VII)

13
5.2 Advantages of Vortex Meters

1. Relatively wide rangeability with linear output

2. Installation is reasonably simple and relatively cheap

3. No moving parts

4. Minimal temperature and pressure effects at medium to high Reynolds Number

5.3 Disadvantages of Vortex Meters

1. Flow into the Meter must be swirl free which requires straightening vanes or long straight lengths of pipe

2. Output may be erratic (frequency instability) in certain areas of operation

3. They require to be calibrated

4. Subject to range limitations at lower Reynolds Numbers

5. The uncertainty for the Meter in Gas Applications is at best +/- 1%

6. Limited to 8" maximum size. As the size increases, the frequency reduces.

7. Significant pressure drop - less than orifice but greater than turbine and ultrasonic meters

5.4 Problems associated with Vortex Meters

It has been reported that the Meters are very susceptible to swirl and to vibrations from adjacent pipework. However
the latest meters can address the question of spurious vibrations by electronic means. The question of swirl has got to
be addressed with these meters since it appears to be well established that the meters will simply not Shed some
Vortices under these conditions and consequently give very erroneous results.

There can be problems with the Vortex meters in Wet Gas.

It is conceivable that with improved sensors and with clearly defined Specifications for the piping layouts these
meters could have a part to play for lower flow rates in the future.

14
6. VENTURI METERS

6.1 Introduction

These Differential Pressure Meters have enjoyed a resurgence over the last few years for Gas Metering. ( See
Appendix VIII). Because they are relatively expensive compared to an Orifice Plate and also as they have a higher
Uncertainty they were not generally used for gas Applications. It should also be noted that the data used for ISO
5167 was based on Liquid Metering Experiments and the latest Revision gives a warning that for large volume gas
metering the Venturi requires flow caloibration

However for Wet and Dirty gas Applications these Meters have a potential advantage. In addition the meters have
shorter upstream lengths specified in the Standard and this was perceived as a significant advantage in certain
applications. It is the case that following Calibration of Venturi’s in gas these meters are being used in Wet Gas
Applications.

6.2 Advantages of Venturi Meters

1. Low permanent Pressure Loss

2. Can be used in Wet Gas

3. Relatively short Upstream Length and less susceptible to Swirl

6.3 Disadvantage of Venturi Meters

1. For Gas Applications they should be calibrated. Recent experience is that very peculiar Discharge
Coefficient Results can be produced at high Gas Velocities.

2. The meter has limited rangeability

3. The units are relatively large and very expensive

4. Higher Uncertainty than other Gas meters - this may be due to the limited amount of data compared to an
orifice.

5. More susceptible to errors due to burrs or deposits round the Tap Holes, also high velocity past the tap
holes

6.4 Problems Associated with Venturi Meters

The Venturi Meters in High Mach Gas can give peculiar Discharge Coefficient Results. Provided the Meters are
calibrated this does not appear to be a problem. It is postulated that the cause of this is associated with the Flow of
the Gas across the Pressure Tap hole.

It has also got the problem that once they have been produced it is not possible to change the β ratio. This means that
the designer has to know the flow parameters precisely before the meter is manufactured.

Careful choice of materials must be made to avoid corrosion, which could alter the calibration of the Meter.

can be developed to increase its use.

15
7. V-CONE METERS

7.1 Introduction

This Meter has been available for about 16 years and has been marketed as being significantly less susceptible to
adverse flowing conditions than other Gas meters. These claims have been supported by extensive testing in gas and
in liquid. As the meter is a patented device its growth into fiscal metering has been relatively slow but it is now well
accepted into the International gas industry and the use has increased significantly. The great value of this meter is
that the design incorporating a cone into the central zone of the pipe means that the flow in conditioned and also
there is no blockage on the pipe wall which allows liquid and debris to be carried past the meter. This results in the
meter being inserted in very short lengths of pipework.

The other advantage is that the meter is a Differential Pressure device and consequently there is not a large learning
curve for Instrument Engineers familiar with Orifice or Venturi metering when introducing the V-Cone.

There is still no standard for this particular device although the new API 5.7 Testing Standard means that the meter
will be tested against this standard and industry will be able to see the results.. (See Appendix IX)

7.2 Advantages of the V-Cone Meter

1. It can be installed in difficult metering installations as it requires only 1 to 3D Upstream and 1D


Downstream of the meter.

2. Due to the shape of the cone it has a relatively large turn-down ratio for a Differential Pressure Meter. It can
be as much as 10:1. The DP signal has a relatively low amplitude and a high frequency

3. It is being developed as a Wet Gas Meter. Algorithms have been developed to correct fror the presence of
liquid in gas and this is a significant growth area for the meter

4. Has a lower Pressure drop than an orifice Meter.

5. Low pressure tap in separated flow.

6. Is excellent in dirty fluids and can cover a wide range of temperature and corrosive fluids

7.3 Disadvantages of a V-Cone Meter

1. There is no Standard for the Meter as it is a patented device.

2. Like the Venturi, the Turbine and the Ultrasonic Meter it requires to be calibrated.

3. Could there be distortion of the flow from the Upstream Support? Yes but this is included in the calibration

7.4 Problems Associated with V-Cone Meter

The V-Cone being a new meter has to overcome the natural resistance of the flow measurement industry. This
is gradually being achieved and they are being used increasingly in difficult environments where there is
limited space and dirty fluids. Brazil have used them for a number of sub-sea applications

16
17
8. CORIOLIS METERS

8.1 Introduction

Coriolis meters are a relatively new form of meter for Gas but they have become very popular owing to their direct
determination of mass flowrate. This reduces the instrumentation required (densitometers or temperature/pressure
devices) to calculate density in order to obtain the mass flowrate from volumetric flowrate measurements.

The meter utilises the Coriolis force principle, first reported by Gustav Coriolis in 1835.

In a Coriolis meter, the Coriolis force is produced by flow tubes in the meter, being vibrated. Appendix X shows the
Yokogawa Coriolis meter. The mass flowrate in the two tube meter is determined by the phase difference between
the amplitude of the vibration signal from the two tubes. The phase difference increases as the mass flowrate
increases. The meter tube(s) being vibrated at the natural resonant frequency has two advantages. Firstly the
minimum energy is required to cause the meter tube(s) to vibrate and secondly the resonant frequency is dependent
on the mass of fluid, which allows the density to be derived from the meter dimensions. Therefore measurement of
the signal wavelength from either of the tubes is an indicator of the density

The meter was originally designed for liquids and has proved very effective in the oil and petrochemical industry.
However a number of manufacturers now offer meters that can be used to measure the mass flow in gases quite
accurately.

8.2 Advantages of the Gas Coriolis Meter

1. Direct measurement of mass flowrate

2. Good temperature and pressure range (-50 to 200oC and up to 400 bar)

3. Good performance; manufacturers claiming repeatability of ≤ 0.1%

4. Good turndown with 20:1 minimum, although some manufacturers are claiming 1000:1

8.3 Disadvantages of the Coriolis Meter

1. Meter size is the main disadvantage. Maximum meter size is 150mm with 75mm being the most popular
size

2. Significant pressure drop

3. While they do not have moving parts, to the same degree as a turbine meter, it has been known for flow
tubes to break from fatigue, with the constant vibration at resonant frequency, although this is not very
common.

4. Small amounts of liquid in the gas flows can cause significant metering error

5. The meters used to be susceptible to installation effects but this seems to be less of a problem now, if the
manufacturer's instructions are carefully followed

The standard applicable for Coriolis meters is the standard ISO 10790.

18
8. ANCILLIARY DEVICES

9.1 Introduction

All Gas Meters, mentioned above, require Temperature, and Pressure devices to permit the Measured Gas to be
converted to Standard conditions. In the case of Differential Devices it is also necessary to establish the Density of
the gas. This is also required if the volume measured has to be converted to Mass units.

In addition to these requirement means of Calculating the Flow and converting to specific conditions is now
generally computed in a Flow Computer. The Norwegian N.P.D. for example are very specific about the uncertainty
required from the computational aspect of Flow Measurement.

9.2 Energy Measurement

To measure Energy the Calorific Value of the gas must be established. One of the Major Breakthroughs in Energy
Measurement over the last 10 years has been the development of an in-line Gas Chromatograph (See Appendix XI)
which is capable of :

A repeatability on a natural gas of 38 MJ/m3 is within +/- 0.05% on Calorific Value, over the ambient temperature
range of - 18 0C to + 55 0C for a gas with a C1 to C6+ with N2 and CO2, analysis,

In a relatively stable ambient temperature, which is a more typical situation, the calorific value can be within +/-
0.002%

However, when the uncertainty for the Calibration Gas Analysis ISO 6976 - 1995 ; the analysis results are all taken
into account, then the calorific value can be within +/- 0.030 % and the density within +/- 0.033%.

There are continual upgrades taking place on these units and recent improvements permit the analysis of C9 + gases
whereas previously there has been a limitation to C6+ Gases.

Gas Chromatographs offer very exciting possibilities for High Quality Gas Measurement. Due to the possibility of
deriving Physical Properties in addition to the Chemical Analysis, it can be envisaged that an extremely secure
metering package for Flow and Energy measurement could be achieved by implementing the following methodology:

19
10.CONCLUSIONS

1. This is a very productive period in the Measurement of Gas Flow and Energy Rates and the paper described
what is taking place currently

2. The paper has highlighted some of the Flow Measurement problems, which have been addressed and in
some case solutions.

3. It has tried to address Areas where improvements can be anticipated in the future.

20
LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX I Discharge Coefficient

APPENDIX II Gas Turbine Meter

APPENDIX III Piping Configuration for Testing Gas Turbine Meters

APPENDIX IV Calibration Curve for 4" Gas Turbine Meter in Air

APPENDIX V Calibration Curve for 4" Gas Turbine Meter at Different Pressures

APPENDIX VI Ultrasonic Meter

APPENDIX VII Vortex Shedding

APPENDIX VIII Classical Venturi

APPENDIX IX V-Cone Differential Pressure Meter

APPENDIX X Coriolis Meter

APPENDIX XI Gas Chromatograph

21
APPENDIX I Discharge Coefficient

Discharge coefficient, C

The discharge coefficient, C, is given by the Reader-Harris/Gallagher equation:

C = 0,5961 + 0,0261β 2 − 0,216β 8

0, 7 0 ,3
 106 β  3,5  106 
+0,000521  + (0,0188 + 0,0063 A) β  
 ReD   ReD 

β4
+ (0,043 + 0,080e −10 L1 − 0,123e −7 L1 )(1 − 0,11 A)
1− β4

−0,031( M'2 −0,8 M'2 1,1 ) β 1,3 .

Where D < 71,12mm (2,8 inch) the following term should be added to the above equation :

 D 
+0,011(0,75 − β ) 2,8 − . (D : mm)
 25,4 

β = d/D is the diameter ratio;

ReD is the Reynolds number related to D;

L1 = l1/D is the quotient of the distance of the upstream tapping from the upstream face of
the plate and the pipe diameter;

22
L'2 = l'2 /D is the quotient of the distance of the downstream tapping from the downstream
face of the plate, and the pipe diameter (L'2 denotes the reference of the
downstream spacing from the downstream face, while L2 would denote the
reference of the downstream spacing from the upstream face);

2 L'2
M'2 = ;
1− β

0,8
 19 000β 
A=  .
 Re D 

The values of L1 and L'2 to be used in this equation, when the spacings are in accordance with the
requirements of 8.2.1.2, 8.2.1.3. or 8.2.2, are as follows:

- for corner tappings:

L1 = L'2 = 0

- for D and D/2 tappings:

L1 = 1

L'2 = 0,47

- for flange tappings:

25,4
L1 = L'2 =
D

23
where D is expressed in millimetres.

24
APPENDIX II Gas Turbine Meter

Gas Turbine Meter


8 digit mechanical index
HF sensor

turbine
wheel metering
bearing
block cartridge

straightening
vane

housing
pressure tapping
lubrication
system

25
APPENDIX III Piping Configuration for Testing Gas Turbine Meters

ISO 9951 : 1993 (E)

Flow
OD
5D1
5D 1

2D
OD1
Flow

Flow
a) b) c)
OD1
Piping configurations for tests at low level perturbation

OD 1

Flow
26
Location of half-area opening for tests at high level perturbation
APPENDIX IV Calibration Curve for 4" Gas Turbine Meter in Air

C a lib ra tio n C u rv e fo r a 4 " G a s tu rb in e m e te r in a ir


4
Deviation from master met

-1

-2

-3

-4

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Q /Q m a x %
27
APPENDIX V Calibration Curve for 4" Gas Turbine Meter at Different Pressures

Calibration curve fora 4"gas turbine atdifferentpressures

3
Deviation from master

-1

-2

-3
28
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Flowrate,Q
APPENDIX VI Ultrasonic Metert

Daniel SeniorSonic™

29
APPENDIX VII Vortex Shedding

30
APPENDIX VIII Classical Venturi

Classical venturi meter design


High pressure connection Low pressure connection
D/2 d/2

Li Flow
ne (D)
l.D

d
15Þ Standard
7Þ Long form
Overall length

31
Note I.D. is the inside diameter
APPENDIX IX V-Cone Differential Pressure Meter

32
APPENDIX X Coriolis Meter

33
APPENDIX XI Gas Chromatograph

Appendix XII International Standards and other


publications by ISO/TC 30 - Fluid flow in closed
conduits

34
ISO 2186:1973
Fluid flow in closed conduits -- Connections for pressure signal
transmissions between primary
and secondary elements
ISO 2975-1:1974
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Tracer methods -- Part
1: General
ISO 2975-2:1975
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Tracer methods -- Part
2: Constant rate injection
method using non-radioactive tracers
ISO 2975-3:1976
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Tracer methods -- Part
3: Constant rate injection
method using radioactive tracers
ISO 2975-6:1977
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Tracer methods -- Part
6: Transit time method
using non-radioactive tracers
ISO 2975-7:1977
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Tracer methods -- Part
7: Transit time method
using radioactive tracers
ISO/TR 3313:1998
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits -- Guidelines on the
effects of flow pulsations on flowmeasurement
instruments
ISO 3354:1988
Measurement of clean water flow in closed conduits -- Velocity-area
method using current-meters
in full conduits and under regular flow conditions
ISO 3966:1977
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits -- Velocity area method
using Pitot static tubes

35
ISO 4006:1991
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits -- Vocabulary and symbols
ISO 4053-1:1977
Measurement of gas flow in conduits -- Tracer methods -- Part 1:
General
ISO 4053-4:1978
Measurement of gas flow in conduits -- Tracer methods -- Part 4:
Transit time method using
radioactive tracers
ISO 4064-1:1993
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Meters for cold
potable water -- Part 1:
Specifications

ISO 4064-2:1978
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Meters for cold
potable water -- Part 2:
Installation requirements
ISO 4064-2:1978/ Add 1:1983
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Meters for cold
potable water -- Part 2:
Installation requirements Addendum 1: Parallel and multiple meter
operation
ISO 4064-3:1983
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Meters for cold
potable water -- Part 3: Test
methods and equipment
ISO 4185:1980
Measurement of liquid flow in closed conduits -- Weighing method
ISO 4185:1980/Cor 1:1993
Measurement of liquid flow in closed conduits -- Weighing method
Technical Corrigendum 1

36
ISO 5167-1:2003
Measurement of fluid flow in circular cross-section conduits running
full using pressure differential
devices - Part 1: General.
ISO 5167-2:2003
Measurement of fluid flow in circular cross-section conduits running
full using pressure differential
devices - Part 2: Orifice plates.
ISO 5167-3:2003
Measurement of fluid flow in circular cross-section conduits running
full using pressure differential
devices - Part 3: Nozzles and Venturi nozzles.
ISO 5167-4:2003
Measurement of fluid flow in circular cross-section conduits running
full using pressure differential
devices - Part 4: Venturi tubes
ISO/TR 5168:1998
Measurement of fluid flow -- Evaluation of uncertainties
ISO 6817:1992
Measurement of conductive liquid flow in closed conduits -- Method
using electromagnetic
flowmeters
ISO/TR 7066-1:1997
Assessment of uncertainty in calibration and use of flow measurement
devices -- Part 1: Linear
calibration relationships
ISO 7066-2:1988
Assessment of uncertainty in the calibration and use of flow
measurement devices -- Part 2: Nonlinear
calibration relationships
ISO 7145:1982
Determination of flowrate of fluids in closed conduits of circular
cross-section -- Method of velocity measurement at one point of the
cross-section

37
ISO 7194:1983
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits -- Velocity-area methods
of flow measurement in
swirling or asymmetric flow conditions in circular ducts by means of
current-meters or Pitot static
tubes
ISO 7858-1:1998
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Combination meters for
cold potable water -- Part
1: Specifications
ISO 7858-2: 2000
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Meters for cold
potable water -- Combination
meters -- Part 2: Installation requirements
ISO 7858-3:1992
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits -- Meters for cold
potable water -- Combination
meters -- Part 3: Test methods
ISO 8316:1987
Measurement of liquid flow in closed conduits -- Method by collection
of the liquid in a volumetric
tank
ISO 9104:1991
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits -- Methods of evaluating
the performance of
electromagnetic flow-meters for liquids
ISO 9300:1990
Measurement of gas flow by means of critical flow Venturi nozzles
ISO 9368-1:1990
Measurement of liquid flow in closed conduits by the weighing method -

38
- Procedures for checking
installations -- Part 1: Static weighing systems
ISO/TR 9464:1998
Guidelines for the use of ISO 5167-1:1991
ISO 9951:1993
Measurement of gas flow in closed conduits -- Turbine meters
ISO 9951:1993/Cor 1:1994
Measurement of gas flow in closed conduits -- Turbine meters Technical
Corrigendum 1
ISO 10790:1999
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits -- Coriolis mass
flowmeters
ISO 11631:1998
Measurement of fluid flow -- Methods of specifying flowmeter
performance
ISO/TR 12764:1997
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits -- Flowrate measurement
by means of vortex
shedding flowmeters inserted in circular cross-section conduits
running full
ISO/TR 12765:1998
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits -- Methods using transit-
time ultrasonic flowmeters

ISO/TR 12767:1998
Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressure-differential devices --
Guidelines to the effect of departure from the specifications and
operating conditions given in ISO 5167-1
ISO 13359:1998
Measurement of conductive liquid flow in closed conduits -- Flanged
electromagnetic flowmeters --
Overall length
ISO/TR 15377:1998

39
Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressure-differential devices --
Guide for the specification
of nozzles and orifice plates beyond the scope of ISO 5167-1
ISO 10385-1
Measurement of water flow in closed conduits - Meters for hot water -
Part 1: Specifications.

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