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GEOLOGY AND STRUCTURE OF URU-UGWORJI DIORITE

LOKPANUKWU, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

BY

NWOSU VICTOR OBINNAYA C.


20021189285

A THESIS PRESENTED TO

THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOSCIENCES


SCHOOL OF SCIENCES

FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI


IMO STATE

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF


BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (B.Tech) DEGREE IN GEOLOGY
(GEOPHYSICS OPTION)

NOVEMBER, 2007
CERTIFICATION

I, NWOSU VICTOR OBINNAYA C., do hereby declare that

apart from references made from other people’s work which

have tremendously been acknowledged, this work is a result of

my own presented for any other award in any institution apart

from that of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo

State.

NWOSU VICTOR O.C. DATE


(Student)

Dr. K.K. IBE DATE


(Project Supervisor)

Dr. A. SELEMO DATE


(Head of Department)

EXTERNAL SUPERVISOR DATE


DEDICATION

I dedicate this work to the Almighty God for his grace and

goodness, which have greatly been bestowed on me.

I also want to dedicate this project to my parents, especially

my mother for her assistance reading through this work.

This project is also dedicated to my Late Grandfather, Pa

Emeka of Blessed Memory. May his gentle soul rest in the

bosom of our Lord Jesus Christ, Amen.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I thank the Almighty God, the author

of life, who gives life and sustenance to al.

I wish to acknowledge the unrelenting efforts of my

supervisor, Dr. K.K. Ibe for his assistance throughout the

course of this work. Also, I will not fail to thank the staff of

Consolidated Construction Company at Uru Quarry near

Lopkaukwu for their assistance.

This work would not be complete without mentioning the

efforts put by all lecturers in Geosciences Department

throughout my stay in FUTO. Finally, I thank my project

crew, Desmond Mmeka, Obinna Ahunnaya, Henry Akano,

Uche Omeni, my friends and Siblings, I say “thank you all”.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Plates
List of Appendices
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 General Introduction
1.2 Location, Extent and Accessibility
1.3 Aims and Objective of Study
1.4 Topography and Relief
1.5 Climate and Vegetation
1.6 Activities, Settlement and People of the Area
1.7 Literature Review
1.8 Method of Study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 General Geology and Geology of the Area
2.1 Geological Settling
2.2 Geological Study of the Study Area
2.2.1 Asu River Formation
2.2.1.1 Lokpaukwu Snale
2.2.1.2 Obichioke Sandstone
2.2.1.3 Uru Diorite
2.3 Core Data
2.4 Geological Structure
2.5 Structures Associated with Diorite Intrusion
2.5.1 Fault (i.e. Obiochioke fault)
**
2.6 Discussion

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Petrology of the Diorite
3.1 Igneous Rock Study of Uru Diorite
3.2 Classification of Uru Diorite
3.3 Structures of Uru Diorite
3.4 Composition and Texture of Uru Diorite
3.5 Occurrence of Igneous Rock (i.e. Diorite) in the Study
Area

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Geophysical Study
4.1 Resistivity Survey
4.2 General Principles
4.3 Theoretical Framework
4.4 Measurement of Resistivity
4.4.1 Concept of Apparent Resistivity
4.5 Electrode Configuration
4.6 Field Data Acquisition
4.7 Precautions Taken
4.8 Data Reduction, Presentation and Interpretation
4.8.1 Data Reduction
4.8.2 Data Presentation
4.8.3 Data Interpretation
4.8.3.1 Qualitative Interpretation
4.8.3.2 Quantitative Interpretation
4.9 Discussion of Results

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Quarrying Techniques
5.1 Prospecting, Drilling and Processing
5.2 Types of Quarries
5.3 Quarrying as a Form of Mining
5.4 Quarrying Method of Diorite in the Study Area
5.4.1 Overburden Removal
5.4.2 Machines and Power-driven tool used in Quarrying
5.4.3 Quarry Method

CHAPTER SIX
6.0 Results
6.1 Geological Result
6.1.1 Geological Mapping Result
6.1.2 Coring Result
6.2 Geophysical Results
6.2.1 Geoelectric Section
6.2.2 Structure based on Geophysics
6.3 Correlation between Geology and Geophysical Results

CHAPTER SEVEN
7.0 Summary, Conclusion and Suggestions for further Work
7.1 Summary
7.2 Conclusion
7.3 Suggestions for further Work
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1.0 Geology of Eziator Hill region showing the Study


Area

Fig. 1.1 Sketch Map of the Study Area

Fig. 2.0 Geological Map of Uru Ugwuorji Area, South


Eastern Nigeria, showing Geologic Sections at any
X-X’ and Y-Y’, Electrical Sounding Profiles and
Points

Fig. 2.1 Tectonic Map of South-Eastern Nigeria during


Albian to Lower Santonian

Fig. 2.2 Tectonic Map of South-Eastern Nigeria during the


Campaman to Eocerie

Fig. 2.3 Core Sections of VES 36 ( 36) and VES 4 (( 4)

Fig. 2.4 Lithologic Sections of Obichioke Area

Fig. 4.1 Arrangement of Current (A and B) and Potential (P1


and P2) Electrodes

Fig. 4.2 Electric Field Lines and Equipotential Surfaces


around a single Electrode at the Surface of a
Uniform Half-Space

Fig. 4.2a Hemisphere Equipotential Surface

Fig. 4.2b Radially Field Lines around a Sinks

Fig. 4.3a Lines of Current Flow between Electrodes A and B


in Two-Layered Earth with Higher Conductivity in
Deep Layer

Fig. 4.3b The Variation of Apparent Resistivity as the Current


Electrode Spacing is varied for P1>P2

Fig. 4.4 Special Geometry of Current and Potential


Electrodes for Schlumberger Configuration
Fig 4.5 Geoelectric Sections along Interpreted Profiles X-X’,
Y-Y’ and Z-Z’

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Stratigraphic Succession and Relationship between


Formation in the Study Area
LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1 Diorite and other Rock Types at the Study Area
Plate 2 Rock Masses found at the Obiochioke Fault Area
Plate 3 Two Crew Members taking Photographs with a huge
rock mass at the Obiochioke Fault Area
Plate 4 A Rock Mass at the Obichioke Fault
Plate 5 Crew Members and Supervisor near the Rocks at
Obichioke Fault
Plate 6 Crew Members set for Geophysical Survey of the
Study Area
Plate 7 A Crew Member touching a Rock Mass at the Study
Area
Plate 8 A Crew Member sitting on one of the Rock Masses
at the Obichioke Fault Area
Plate 9 The Weather Condition, Vegetation and Road that
leads into and away from the Study Area
Plate 10 The Vegetation and Weather Condition of the Study
Area
Plate 11 A Crew Member bringing the Equipment from the
Car
Plate 12 Two Crew Members hammering Electrodes into the
Ground to take Resistivity Sounding of the Area
Plate 13 A Crew Member taking Readings from the
Te**ameter during Geophysical Survey
Plate 14 Two Crew Members climbing up the Uru Quarry
Sites
Plate 15 The Overburden Extent of Uru Quarry Site with
Rocks below it
Plate 16 A Crew Member picking Rock Samples at the
Quarry Site
Plate 17 A Rock Mass found at the Uru Quarry Site
Plate 18 Mining Machines Working at the Uru Site
Plate 19 A Pool of Water at the Base of the Uru Quarry Site
Plate 20 A Truck carrying Quarried Rocks from the Site
Plate 21 Quarrying Machines at Work
LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 Sixty-four (64) Vertical Electric Soundings


Field Curves for Uru Ugworji Area, South
Eastern Nigeria
ABSTRACT
Geological, Geophysical and Core analyses were carried out in
Uru Quarry site, Lokpaukwu located between latitudes
5056.149’N and 5056.193’N and between 7028.312’E and
7028.356’E. Geologic formations that underlie the study area
are the Asu River Group and Eze-Aku Formation. Five rock
units are found in the area; siltstone found in the eastern
portion of the study area and also occurs as a “CAP” on the
shale. The central portion of the study area is underlain by
shale and it occupies one-half of the study area. Calcareous
sandstone occupies the Western portion of the area. The
Eastern portion is Dolerite which is the basic rock matter that
cuts across siltstone and shale. Iron is found with the basic
rock matter in the area.
Geological studies on the study area indicate the five rock
units and their outcrops; 2 geological sections were
interpreted. Geophysical methods using the Electrical
Resistivity Sounding of Schlumberger indicates the West,
North Western and Central portions of the area have thick
sedimentary sequence and the Eastern portion of the study
area is made up of igneous body which is the main part of this
project; the basic rock having a high resistivity value, followed
by sandstone, siltstone and shale with moderate to low
resistivity.
Core analysis carried on eleven core samples obtained at the
Eastern portion of the study area shows that the core samples
consist of the rock unit found in the area. In the Obichioke
area were nine core samples consisting of rock units too. Core
data analysis of the study area indicates the location and kind
of rocks found in the study area; mineral present and the
strength of the rock units found in Lokpaukwu area.
Geologic mapping shows that a major fault occur in the area
separating the viable Uru end from the non-viable Obichioke
lot. The fault trace shows primarily recrystallization (alcitic
matter). Thus, it is suggested that similar studies be made
before the establishment of quarries whenever igneous (basic)
units occur.
CHAPTER ONE

1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Mining is the removal of minerals and other materials


from the earth surface, which can be surface or underground
mining. Two forms of surface mining are strip mining used for
mining some of beds of outcrop which are found in Uru
Quarrying site and open-pit mining, in which the rock unit is
exposed in a large excavation.

Metallic minerals are the sources of iron, copper, lead,


zinc and other metals. The useful non-metallic minerals
include salt, sulphur, gypsum, borates and many others.
Sand, gravel, stone and diorite which is quarried in the study
area are used in the construction industry which are also
useful non-metallic materials.

The mining of these minerals and materials is


fundamental to the manufacture, transportation and
distribution of goods and services in the community area
which aid in the annual per capita consumption of all mining
products in the study area where Lokpaukwu Community is
found. For mining to be feasible, the prospector must find
deposits where geological processes have created higher than
average concentration of deposits physical exploration is the
process of closely examining the deposit to determine its size,
shape, mineral content and other characteristics.
Modern exploration often starts with investigation of a
region such as the Uru Quarrying Site which covers a portion
in Lakpaukwu area. In a sequence of exploratory stages, the
region is checked for small target areas that are considered
highly favourable for occurrence of deposits. Exploration
Techniques include geological inference, geophysical methods
such as electrical method which was used to measure slight
changes in physical properties of rocks in the study area and
coring process using drilling which is used to determine
depth, size and shape by studying and analyzing the cores
and cuttings.

Also, exploration provides the information necessary for


the establishment of a mine and selection of mining method
that is technically feasible and will result in the lowest
possible cost in the recovery of mineral or materials. Factors
affecting the establishment of mine and selection of mining
method include the size, shape, orientation and depth of
deposit and the surrounding rock; the presence and absence
of groundwater, economic and environmental considerations.
For deposits at or near the surface, one of several surface
methods may be used such as open-pit which the Uru Quarry
Site falls in.

The major part of the deposit is at an appreciable depth,


one of the many underground mining is likely to be for
selected area. Because mining is capital intensive, it is
necessary the target be modeled to a great extent so that the
capital is not wasted. This is the source of success story for
the Uru diorite quarry.
1.2 LOCATION, EXTENT AND ACCESSIBLITY

Uru Quarry site, Uru Ugworji Lokpankwu, South Eastern


Nigeria is located between latitude 5056.149’N and 5056.139’N
and longitude 7028.312’E and 7028.356’E (Fig. 1.0).

The Uru Quarry area trend NE-SW, it is bounded on the


West by the Enugu-Port Harcourt expressway and the Enugu
Escarpment on the area is Ishiagu, to the South is Ihube and
Leru while to the North is Awgu and Isuochi.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The aims and objectives of the study area:

a. To map out outcrops of rock units.

b. To produce a geological map showing the rock units


identified in the study area.

c. To know the type of quarrying method used in quarrying


the rocks found in the study area.

d. To know the type of rocks (i.e Diorite) classification,


structure, composition and occurrence of Diorite in the study
area.

e. To carry out Vertical Electrical resistivity sounding


profile to determine the sub-surface trends of the rock units
based on surface trends of the rock ***.

f. To aid core studies from the core data obtained from the
study area.
1.4 TOPOGRAPHY AND RELIEF

The area has a rugged topography with aggregates and


clippings everywhere. The Enugu escarpment which is a
product of Nkporo formation. The trending of the nearly flat
and relatively undulating terrain divides the area into 3 parts:

a. The North-South trends that consist of rugged basin with


outcrops of rock units such as shales, silt stone and basic
rock.

b. North Eastern – South Western trends of the study area


of rock units consist of the Uru Quarrying area.

c. North Western – South Eastern trend of the study area of


rock units which run from the Obichioke lot, extending
towards the Enugu – Port Harcourt expressway.

During our geophysical survey, the Western side of the


quarry area had an elevation of about 295ft above sea level
and was found on latitude 5056.149’N and longitude
7028.312’E with a directional profile of N3000W and the
Eastern side of the quarry area also had an elevation of about
310ft above sea level and was found on latitude 5056.139’N
and longitude 7028.356’E with a directional profile of N2800W.
Ridges found in the area are continuous in some places and
isolated in other places covered with vegetation. A pool was
found at the excavation site with crushed aggregates
everywhere in the area. The Uru and Obichioke lot found at
the South Eastern part of the Study area.
1.5 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION

The study area falls under the tropical climate. It is hot


and humid. Rainy season last between the month of April and
November, while dry months are December to March. It is
found within the Guinea Savanna with grasses and scattered
trees found around the study area. The vegetation of the area
is generally equatorial rainforest since thick vegetation covers
the area and it is of typical rain forest with trees, tall grasses
and shrubs.

1.6 ACTIVITIES, SETTLEMENT AND PEOPLE OF THE


AREA

Farming, trading and furniture making are the major


occupations in the Community, major produce are pepper,
fruits, cashew, palm and cassava produce. The settlements in
the area are nuclear and inhabitants are mainly Igbo-speaking
people. There are some schools, churches and local eatery
centres were observed in the area, while there were no
hospitals but the area has a quarrying site which is some
kilometers from the area.

1.7 LITERATURE REVIEW

Previous geophysical works carried on the study area in


January 2003 were less detailed works. In all of these, the
reports have always shown a trend in parts of Uru Ugworji
that the area is a quarrying site.

Ibe (2003), carried out a geophysical sounding survey of


the Uru area, South Eastern Nigeria which deposits the
correlation between geological and geoelectric section of the
study area.

Shell B.P. in their search for hydrocarbon carried out


both geophysical and geological survey of the South Eastern
Nigeria between 1950 and 1960. They were able through the
survey to name stratigraphic units which are still in use
today. They produced a generalized geologic map of the South
Eastern part of Nigeria.

Reyment (1965) on the marine Albian of Nigeria


constitute a separate entity isolated from the Sahara “Sea”
where the lower cretaceous is entirely continental origin and
rich in amenities.,

Morat (1970), attempted a paleographic description of


the cretaceous and lower. Tertiary in South Nigeria based on
major depositional cycles resulting from three main tectonic
episodes.

Kogbe (1972), described the stratigraphy and


paleography of individual or part of different basin found in
South Eastern Nigeria.
1.8 METHOD OF STUDY

The work was carried out at Uru quarrying site, Ugworji


Lokpaukwu South Eastern Nigeria. Base map was prepared
from a topographical map of the area.

Vertical Electrical Sounding was then carried out using


ABEM TERRAMETER SAS and the evaluation was made using
Schlumberger configuration.

The Geological and Geophysical interpretations were


made based on the results obtained from the investigation in
connection with the geology of the study area.
CHAPTER TWO

GENERAL GEOLOGY AND GEOLOGY OF THE AREA

2.1 GEOLOGICAL SETTING

Geologic sections of the various rock units and


formations found in the study area were studied. One
geological formation was found in the area and it is the Asu
River Group which is of Albian age and another which is the
Eze Aku Formation.

The geological formations in the South Eastern Nigeria


consist of sediments ranging from Albian times to Miocene
times. The oldest sedimentary formation in the Abakaliki
basin is the “ASU RIVER GROUP”, which is Albian in age. It
consists of shale, sandstone, silt stone and limestone. It also
contains salt and water which is due to ocean transgression
whereby salt was deposited and the sediments were folded in
the NE-SW trend and it is a marine formation (Ibe, K.K. Note
2004/2005).

Sedimentary formation of the Turonian age consists of


limestone, shale, silt stone and sandstone which are found in
Eze-Aku. The name “Eze-Aku” was derived from the Ake-Eze
River in Ebonyi State, South Eastern Nigeria. The Agwu shale
consists of bluish grey shales, well-bedded with intercalations
of fine grained pale yellow, calcareous sandstone and
limestone indicating the Santonian stage.

As mentioned earlier from the first paragraph of this


Chapter, the project study area consists of the Asu River
Group and also the Eze-Aku formation.

2.2 GEOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE AREA

A reconnaissance tripet the study area in June, 2007


showed the various rock units such as calcareous sandstone,
shale, dolerite, iron stone and sandstone and the formations
associated with them such as the Asu River Group and Eze-
Aku formation trend N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE varying degree
of trend. The study of the particular trend in the study area
was to help in planning the geophysical and geological
transverses. Geological transverses were carried out along
these lines for rock outcrops. The quarrying site was visited
and studied to know the extent of overburden, particular
trend and size of site.

Also, mapping out of outcrops and rock units, collection


of rock samples found in the study area for close studies and
production of geological map showing the various geological
rock units with data record on field maps.

2.2.1 ASU RIVER FORMATION


The oldest sedimentary rocks in Southern Nigeria are
around Abakaliki in South Eastern Nigeria. These sediments
consist of non-fossil ferrous, arkosic gaverly, poorly-sorted
commonly cross bedded sandstones which are
undifferentiated. They constitute the “Asu River Group”. The
type area of the group is along the Asu River (Reyment, 1965).

The Asu River formation is made up of dark shales which


are found in the study area, limestones, mudstones, fine
grained and calcareous sandstones which are rich in
ammonite fauna indicating Albian age. The shales is known
as the Lokpaukwu shale, sandstone also known as the
Obichioke sandstone and the formation which is mostly
shales with major and minor intermediate rocks like diorite
which is known as uni-diorite in the study area. The shale
here must have been deposited under low wave energy
condition and marine environment (Tucker, 1986).

The Asu River formation originates from the earliest


documented marine transgression in Nigeria occurred during
the middle Albian and was limited to the Benue valley and
South eastern Nigeria where the shales found in the study
area were deposited in moderately deep marine waters. In the
Benue valley, the base of the Bima sandstone is probably
middle Albian in age. The Lokpaukwu shales are deeply
weathered and contain Radiolara, Echinoids, Foraminifera
and Pollens.

The end of the Albian witnessed the beginning of the


regressive phase which continued into the Cenomanian age.
Beds of Cenomanian age are restricted to the South Eastern
portion of the basin around the Calabar. These beds have
been assigned to Odukpani formation and they have been
dated as Cenomanian to lower Turonian age. The deposits
consist of arkose, sandstone, limestone and alternating,
limestone and shales which become gradually more
predominantly shabby in its uppermost parts (Reyment, 1956,
p. 589).

The Turonian deposits mainly belong to the Eze-Aku


formation (Eze-Aku shale, Simpson 1955 p. 10) which is
found in Eze-Aku river valley and Lokpaukwu area in South
Eastern Nigeria. The formation comprises hard grey to black
shales and siltstones with frequent facies changes to
sandstones or sandy shales. The thickness varies, but may
attain 1000metres in places (Reyment 1964, p.64).

Locally, at Lokpaukwu, the Eze-Aku consist of five rock


units; shale, silt stone, calcareous sandstone, iron stone and
diorite. The Eze-Aku formation represents a shallow water
deposit and consists of fossils mainly vascoceratids
pelecypods, fish teeth, etc, which indicates Turonian age.

The Coniacian sediments are generally less thick than


the Turonian and they tend to give an impression of rather
quick lateral changes in facies. These sediments have been
assigned to the Awgu Shale formation found at the Northern
part of the study area (Awgu Shale of Ryment, 1965). The
formation is about 800 metre thick and consists of bluish
grey, well-bedded shales with occasional intercalcition of fine-
grained sandstone and thin often marly shelly limestone. The
beds are rich in ammonites and other mollusks.

The Santonian is a regressive substage in Nigeria and


sediments of this age have not been found in Southern
Nigeria, a doubtful Santonian locality in the Awgu Shale. The
total thickness of sediments of Albian to Coniacian age in the
eastern portion of South Nigeria basin is about 3,300 metres.

The Ajalli formation found at the North of the Oji River


on the higher slopes of the Enugu escarpment which is found
at the Western part of Uru Quarry site. The formation here
has a thickness of about 450 metres. Good exposures of the
sandstones occur in the deep gullies incised along the higher
slope of the scarp.

2.2.1.1 LOKPAUKWU SHALE (EZE-AKU “SHALE”


FORMATION)

Lokapukwu shale is the rock unit which is found in the


study area which is at the central portion. It is a dark,
fissible, hard shale. The thickness of shale in the study area
is about 10-15m, but may attain 1000metres in some areas.
The shale is baked due to heat from an intruding basic rock
mass, weathered contains Radiolaria, Pelecypods, Echinads
and Gastropods.

2.2.1.2 OBICHIOKE SANDSTONE (ASU RIVER GROUP)

Obichioke sandstone is also a rock unit which is found


in the study area which occupies at the Western part of the
area. It is fine-grained, with grains of calcite sandstone which
is rich in ammonite fauna. The sandstone thickness in the
study area is about 5-10m. This particular rock unit is
outcropping more often in the area.

2.2.1.3 URU DIORITE (EZE-AKU FORMATION)

Uru diorite is the basic rock mass which intrudes its way
through the siltstone forming an igneous dyke intrusion. The
Uru diorite is a rock unit formed at considerable depths below
the surface of the area. The diorite in the study area occurs
as a Dyke which are colimar bodiesef igneous rocks formed by
intrusion of magma into strata of the silt stone in the study
area.

Uru diorite is used mostly for road construction with the


hard siltstone which is used in filling up bad roads in the
area.

2.3 CORE DATA

The core data obtained from two core holes: VES 36 and
VES 4 are cores of diorite obtained from shale rock matter in
the study area. For VES 36, the core hole diameter varies
between greater than 1cm and less than 10cm (8cm diameter)
and a core depth of 40m, below the study area surface. The
core data here is denoted as CPR1.

For VES 4, which is CPR2, the core diameter varies below


2.5cm to over 7cm and has a core depth that varies above 20
to 30cm below the surface and contains weathered diorite in
the core section, which is denoted as CPR2. Both core section
of diorite are found intruding through shale matter.

Also, the lithologic sections for CPR1 at Uru in


September, 2003, which consists of 11 core samples from 11
core holes near VES 36, each of them at a depth of 40metres.
The first core is made of shale, the second is made of a
combination of weathered diorite and shale, the third with a
combination of weathered diorite, diorite and shale, the fourth
consists of weathered diorite and diorite, the fifth, sixth and
seventh consist of diorite. The eight consists of weathered
diorite and diorite, the ninth consists of weathered diorite,
diorite and shale. Finally, the tenth and eleventh cores
consist of shale.

Finally, at Obichioke area which nine core samples from


9 core holes, each of them at a depth less than 10 metres.
The first two cores are made of siltstone, third consists of
siltstone and diorite. The fourth and fifth cores consist of
diorite, the sixth core consists of diorite and shale. Seventh,
eight and ninth cores are made up of silt stone and shale.

2.4 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE

Geological structure is the study of the permanent


deformation and rock formation failure created by changes in
stress through geologic time. It is by far the most important
aspect of geology for the mining engineer to comprehend.
Tectonic processes are responsible for many discontinuity
planes such as fractures, faults and joints that permeate rock
masses controlling their strength, stress-strain characteristics
and the transmission and storage of fluids.

Consequently, geological structures are produced when


rocks or a rock unit in a particular area breaks or bends due
to applied stresses within the Earth. They are said to deform.
Plate tectonic processes which lead to deformation of rocks.
Geologic structures may be conveniently subdivided into two
groups:

a. Brittle Structures. Recording the brittle elastic failure


of rocks in the past. Faults and joints fall in this broad
category.

b. Ductile Structures. Preserving the permanent


viscoplastic deformation of rock throughout geologic time.
Folds and metamorphic foliations are the expression of this
type of structure.

The Obiochioke fault which is found in the study area falls


under the brittle structures due to rock failure or breaks along
which earth movement has occurred in the past, the brittle
elastic failure of the rock unit in the study area made it
possible for the occurrence of the fault. The most striking
features of rocks such as diorite as engineering materials is
that they are not simple, isotropic, elastic and continuous but
very complex, strongly anisotropic and an elastic
discontinuous.
2.5 STRUCTURES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DIORITE
INTRUSION

The uni diorite found in the study area occurs in form of


an intruding body which have been injected into the strata
without being influenced by their structural disposition and
oblique to the bedding plane of the study area. The important
type of discordant intrusions found in the study area are
dykes.

The Uru diorite occurs mostly in form of dykes which are


columnar bodies of igneous rock that cut across the bedding
plane of the study area. Generally, the dykes are formed by
the intrusion of magma into pre-existing fractures in the rock
units found in the area which depends on the nature of
magma and the character of the invaded rock; that is shale
which the magma intrudes in the study area forming baked
shales.

Dykes in the study area show great variations in their


thickness, length, texture and composition. In the Uru area,
they may be anything between a few metres to many
kilometers.

Also, the type of dyke found in the Uru Quarry area is


the simple dyke which transverse across to the bedding plane
of the study area. Uru Dykes found in the study area
originates from the widening of cracks which have been
caused by the intrusion of magma into pre-existing fractions
present in the rock units of the area. The widening is due to
hydrostatic pressure of magmatic injection. In case where
magmatic pressure happens to be less than the lithostatic
(that due to overlying rocks) only the space made available by
original fractures is filled by the magma and determines the
dimension of the Uru diorite dyke.

2.5.1 OBIOCHIOKE FAULT

The Obiochioke fault is the fault between the Uru lot and
Obiochioke lot, which is found at the south eastern part of the
study area, the fault is due to stress caused by movement
parallel but in opposite directions to each other at the stress
zone found in the study area. The Obiochioke fault is located
where a basic rock igneous intrusion through a silt stone
matter. The fault is also a few metres away from the Uru
quarrying site because the area in which the fault is cannot be
quarried because of the hazards involved in quarrying in a
faulted area. The Obiochioke fault is a Dip-slip fault which is
a fault due to the angle of the fault with respect to the surface
and direction of slip along the fault plane or they are faults
which move along the direction of the dip plane of beds in the
study area.

FEATURES OF OBICHIOKE FAULT IN TERMS OF CALCITE


AND IRON ORE

a. Calcite. Calcite is a mineral CaCO3, hexagonal,


rhombohedral, trimorphous with a ragonite and vaterite; one
of the most common minerals; the principal constituent of
limestone and also calcareous sandstone found in the study
area which the percentage of calcite is between 10 and 50,
and the percentage of calcite is 50 and 90 respectively.

Vein-calcite-dominated rocks found in several locations


in the study area show evidence of intense intracrystalline
plasticity and interface mobility, leading to dynamic
recrystallization of calcite at temperatures (1500-2500C)
significantly below those at which these features are
commonly anticipated. These observations require a
reappraisal of calcite deformation at low temperature,
particularly the capability for dynamic recrystallization in the
apparent absence of significant, thermally activated recovery
process.

The cyclic introduction of coarse-grained calcite vein is


observed to be essential for the initiation of intracrystalline
deformation and associated dynamic recrystallization. The
introduction of veins generates an essentially monomineralic
rock of a grain size in the introduced secondary calcite. The
recognition that normal high-temperature creep processes and
associated microstructures can occur outside their expected
temperature range has implications for fault strength,
permeability and porosity.

b. Iron Ore. An or is an aggregate of minerals, more or less


mixed with a gangue, which from the standpoint of a miner
can be won at a profit or from the standpoint of the
metallurgist can be treated at a profit. Iron ore is a mineral
from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The
ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from
dark grey to rusty red. The iron tone found in the study area
is due to the formation of iron or with rock cooled down
forming into rock. The iron itself is usually found in the form
of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), limonite and siderite.

Hematite ore is also known as “natural ore”. The name


refers to the early years of mining, when certain hematite ores
contained 66% iron and could be fed directly into iron making
blast furnaces. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig
iron which is one of the main raw materials to make steel.

Recrystallisation of iron ore is the format ion of new iron


mineral grains in a rock due to intracrystallinity (plasticity)
and interface (twin and grain boundary) mobility while in the
solid state. The new iron mineral grains may have the same
chemical and mineralogical composition as in the original
mineral or rocky as when an ore which has fine-grained iron
minerals composed of hematite recrystallizes to a coarse-
grained composed of hematite. On the other hand, entirely
new minerals may be found; some prefer to call this process
“NEOMINERALIZATION”.

c. Underground Water Movement. Groundwater is water


lying below the water table. The subsurface is one reservoir
for water in the hydrologic cycle. Most ground water comes
from infiltrated precipitation. Ground water eventually
returns to the surface by flowing into lakes, streams or the
ocean.

Groundwater may originate from several sources. It


could originate from meteoric water, connate water, juvenile
water or mixed water. In the study area, the origin is meteoric
that is water derived through precipitation of rainfall which
percolates into the ground to form the ground water system.

Ground water generally moves very slowly because it


must travel through the pore spaces of rock unit. Average
groundwater velocities are a few cm/day. Groundwater is
replenished through both natural processes and artificial
methods. The amount and availability of groundwater
depends on porosity, void and permeability.

Darcy’s law expresses the velocity of water movement


through subsurface materials. V=k(h.g) velocity depends upon
the permeability of the material (k is hydraulic conductivity,
measured in unit of ft/day or m/day) and the hydraulic
gradient (h.g) or slopes of the water table. For homogenous
material, velocity increases as the hydraulic gradient
increases water moves from areas of high hydraulic gradient
increases water moves from areas of high hydraulic head (high
elevation) to areas of low hydraulic head (low elevation) under
the influence of gravity. Flow path is as downward-curved
arcs, not directly down the water table surface.

2.6 DISCUSSION

The Southern Eastern Nigeria sedimentary basin which


is also known as the Anambra basin is partially divided into
Western and eastern portion by the “Okitipupa Ridge”
(Adegoke, 1969). There is evidence of transgression with
variations in the sea level at the deposition period. Black
shale deposits show a reverse trend with a return to shallow
marine condition. About the Albian and Turonian time, the
regression culminated in the deposition of the ASU River
Group and Eze-Aku formation in afluvio-continental
environment.

The project area has various rock units in which shale


found in the study area are the Asu River Group and Eze-Aku
formation, Geological and Geophysical studies were carried
out in the area.

The Asu river group was formed from the earliest


documented marine transgression in Nigeria occurred during
the middle Albian and was limited to the Benue valley and
south eastern Nigeria where the Asu River Group sediments
as well as Abakaliki shales were deposited in moderately deep
marine water.

Lokpaukwu shale is found in the area at the central


portion which contains gastropods. The Obichioke sandstone
is found also at the Western part of the study area, fine-
grained, traces of calcite and contains ammonite fauna. The
Uru diorite is the basic igneous matter formed at considerable
depth below the earth surface of the area forming and
intruding igneous body.

The core data obtained at various points in the study


area indicates rock units such as Diorite, Weathered diorite,
silt stone and shale. The geological structure of the area is
the permanent deformation due to faulting caused by rock
failure created by stress. The Obiochioke fault is an example
of a geological structure due to brittle-elastic failure which
was found in the study area.

Recrystallization of calcite which was found in visible


traces present in sandstone matter in particular VES points is
the formation of a new rock in which the calcite is still intact
in solid state which in the same process in iron ore at higher
temperatures.

Groundwater movement in an area moves at a very slow


pace which is due to the fact that the water must pass
through pore space of rock units. Rock units such as
sandstone found in the study area can act as an artificial
acquifer that collects, stores and transmits water from one
point to another. This explains why a waterpool was found at
the base of the quarrying site.

The geologic sections of the study area are interpreted


along profiles X-X’ and Y-Y’ shown on the geologic map of the
area delineates five rock units; calcareous sandstone, shale,
dolerites, ironstone and silt stone respectively.
CHAPTER THREE

PETROLOGY OF THE DIORITE

3.1 IGNEOUS ROCK STUDY OF URU DIORITE

The Uru diorite is an intermediate type of igneous rock


formed at considerate depth below the earth surface. The
diorite found in the study area is of plutonic origin and also
coarse grained due to very slow rate of cooling at a
considerable depth. These rocks get exposed on the surface of
the earth due to erosion, the silica percentage generally lying
between 52-66 percent. Diorite is an intermediate rock
because its chemical content lies between that of felsic and
matri rocks.

3.2 CLASSIFICATION OF URU DIORITE

The subject of classification of igneous rock is perhaps


one of the most thoroughly discussed problem of petrology
and yet without any universally accepted solution. At the
same time, a few methods are known but we are going to use
classification based on textural characteristics to successfully
classify these rocks. Differing textures result depending on
conditions at the time of formation and crystallization. If the
rock solidifies at depth, then larger mineral grains, termed
phenocyst, will result. It has been used for classifying rocks
into four divisions common rock textures are defined below.
a. Glassy. A smooth, glass-looking texture in which no
mineral phenocyst occur. The resulting rock is accurately
amorphous or without a crystalline form or structure.

b. Vesicular. Vesicles or holes are obvious creating a


sponge-like appearance to the volcanic rock. This term is also
applied to igneous rock without a crystalline form or structure
or amorphous material such as pumice or scoria.

c. Aphantic. A dense texture where mineral grains and


visible to the unaided eye.

d. Phaneritic. An even-granular, holocrystalline texture


with mineral phenocyst visible to the unaided eye.

The Uru diorite in the study area belong to the


holocrystalline and also coarse to medium grained. The rock
also shows quite close resemblance to granites and other
plutonic rocks. The constituents minerals are megascopically
in the Uru dioritic Rock.

3.3 STRUCTURES OF URU DIORITE

Structural features in igneous rock may aid in


identification as they may reveal rock mode formation.
Vesicular is a structural term that refers to a rock with
numerous cavities, this structure formed when the rock
quench cools and the former gas filled cavities simply solidify.
Igneous rock displaying structure includes scoria and pumice.
The Uru diorite has an orbicular structure when the minerals
found in Diorite are roughly spherical or subspherical
concentric shells of different composition which can also be
found in felsic rocks. Also, the orbicular structure is a rare
type of structure of igneous rock which is composed of ball-
like aggregations. The Uru diorite has a developed structure
due to mobility of magma or lava during volcanic eruption.

3.4 COMPOSITION AND TEXTURE OF URU DIORITE

The Uru diorite is typically in feldspar plagioclase of


sodic group (e.g. Albite). Besides plagloclase and alkali
feldspars, the diorite also contain accessory minerals like horn
blende, biotite and some pyroxenes. Quartz is not common,
but is present in the dioritic rocks found in Uru area that are
then specially named as quartz-diorites.

In texture, the Uru diorite exhibit equigranular texture,


which majority of constituent crystals of a rock are broadly
equal in size, coarse to medium grianed and holocrystalline,
that is all the constituent minerals found in the diorite are
distinctively crystallized. The Uru diorite also depicts a close
resemblance with granite.

3.5 OCCURRENCE OF IGNEOUS ROCK (i.e DIORITE) IN


THE STUDY AREA

The occurrence of diorite in the study area is found as


Dykes which are columnar bodies of igneous rocks that cuts
across the bedding plane of the rock units in the study area.
The dykes found in Uru area fractures of rocks. Dyke
intrusions which are classified as simple Dyke occur in the
Uru area which is found crossing the Izugorgi River.

The Uru diorite dyke shows a great variation on its


thickness and length which can be a few centimeters to many
kilomeres thick and also length. They also can get formed at
the margins of bigger igneous masses.
CHAPTER FOUR

GEOPHYSICAL STUDY

4.1 RESISTIVITY SURVEY

Resistivity survey is based essentially on the same


principle as the equipotential-line method, but it is much
more powerful in that it provides a quantitative measurement
of the conducting properties of the subsurface under
favourable conditions. This technique can be used to find the
depth of layers in the Earth having anomalously high or low
conductivities and to determine the depth and approximate
shape of discrete ore bodies with anomalous resistivity. The
basic procedures to measure the potential gradient of the
surface associated with a known current which flows in the
earth. Irregularities in the conductivity below the surface
affects the relation between the current and the potential drop
at the surface.

Resistivity techniques seem to be the best method than


other electrical methods, since quantitative results are
obtained by using a controlled source of specific dimensions.

4.2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES

The general principle involves passing current into the


subsurface using two electrodes. The lines of current flow
adapt to the subsurface resistivity pattern so that potential
difference between equipotential surfaces can be measured
where they intersect the ground surface.

Rock resistivities are strongly influenced by the presence


of underground water which acts like a conducting electrolyte
which is important in porous sediment, fractured basement
complex and sedimentary rocks. To illustrate this principle, ℓ
let us consider a semi infinite solid with uniform resistivity,
assume that a current, I, is introduced into this material
through electrodes at position A and B, respectively on its
surface. Assume also that the potential gradient associated
with this current is measured across the other electrodes at
position P1 and P2 on the same surface. The potential at
electrode P1 will be:

VP1 = …

(1)

Here, r1 is the distance from potential electrode P1 to


current electrode A and r2 its distance to current electrode B.
Similarly, the potential at electrode P2 will be:

VP2 = … (2)

Here R1 is the distance from P2 to A and R2 is the


distance from P2 to B. The potential difference ΔV measured
by potentiometer across electrode, P1 and P2 is simply VP1 –
VP2 = ΔV.
Subtracting equation (2) and (1) and solving for ℓ, we
have:

ℓ= … (3)

This value is independent on the positions of the


electrodes and it is not affected when the current and
potential electrodes interchange.

I
Potential electrodes

Current electrodes
r1 r2
V

A P1 P2 B
Ground level
R2 R1

Fig. 4.1 Arrangement of Current (A and B) and Potential


(P1 and P2) electrodes

When the resistivity is not constant throughout the


medium. The effective resistivity as computed from equation
(3) varies with the position of the electrodes. If the electrodes
are laid out along alone and the separation increased in a
systematic manner, the change in ℓ with electrodes spacing
makes it possible in many cases to determine the variation of
resistivity with depth.
4.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Consider the flow of current around an electrode that


introduces a current I at the surface of a uniform half-space
(Fig. 4.2a). The point of contact acts as a current source from
which the current disperses outward. The electric field lines
are parallel to the current flow and normal to the equipotential
surfaces, which are hemispherical in shape. The current
density J is equal to I divided by the surface area which is 2r2
for a hemisphere of radius r. The electric field E at distance r
from the input electrode is obtained from Ohm’s law.

Input
current
Input
I
electrode

surface

Hemisphere
Area 2 r2
equipotental
surface

Fig. 4.2a Hemisphere Equipotential Surface


Fig. 4.2b Radially Outward Field Lines around a Source

Fig. 4.2c Radially Field Line around a Sink

Fig. 4.2 Electric Field Lines and Equipotential Surfaces


around a Single Electrode at the Surface of a Uniform Half
Space

E = PJ =

… (1)

The electrode potential at r is the potential energy of the


unit charge at r. We will denote it U. The units of U are
energy per unit charge, i.e. Joules/Coulomb. If we move a
distance dr against the field E, the potential changes by an
amount, dU equal to the work done against E, which is (-Edr)

i.e., dU = -Edr …
(2)

E=- …

(3)

We can readily compute the electric potential U by integration;


U=- =- … (4)

Putting equation (3) into equation (1),

=- … (5)

…. (6)

Integrating both sides of equation (6), we get:

U= … (7)

If the ground is a uniform half-space, the electric field


line around a source electrode, which supplies current to the
ground are radially outward (Fig 4.2b). Around a sink
electrode, here current flows out of the ground, the field lines
are radially outward (Fig. 4.2c). The equipotential surfaces
around a source or sink electrode are hemisphere, if we regard
the electrode isolation. The potential around a source is
positive and diminishes as 1/r with increasing distance.

The sign of I is negative at a sink, where the current


flows out of the ground. Thus, around a sink potential is
negative and increases (becomes less negative) as 1/r with
increasing distance from the sink. We can use these
observations to calculate the potential difference between a
second pair of electrodes at known distances from source and
sink.
4.4 MEASUREMENT OF RESISTIVITY

The electrical resistivity of any material is defined as the


resistance in ohms, between faces of a unit cube of that
material. If the resistance of a conducting cylinder having a
length L and cross-sectional area S is R, the resistivity is
expressed by the formula:

ℓ= …

(1)

The units of resistivity in the metric system is the Ohm-


centimetre. The current, I, is related to the compressed
voltage, V and the resistance, R by ohm’s law:

I= …

(2)

The range of resistivities among rocks and rock materials


is enormous. It extends from 10-3 ohm-cm to 1017 ohm-cm.
Rocks and minerals with resistivities from 10-3 to 10 ohm-cm
are considered good conductors from 100 to 109 ohm-cm are
poor conductors.

It is observed that there is no consistent difference


between resistivities of Igneous, sedimentary and
metamorphic rocks. Certain materials however, tend to have
anomalously low resistivities with respect to surrounding
rocks. This makes it possible to locate them by resistivity
measurement on the surface.

4.4.1 CONCEPT OF APPARENT RESISTIVITY

To illustrate how the concept is applied, let us assume


that the subsurface consists of two layers, the upper layer
having a resistivity ℓ2, which is less than ℓ1. The current
between electrodes A and B will not flow along circular arcs as
it would with homogeneous earth. The lines of flow are
distorted downwards because the higher conductivity below
the interface results in an easier path for the current is
greater than it would be if the upper material were to extend
downward to infinity. Moreover, the deeper the interface, the
smaller the increase in current flow white the greater the
electrode separation in proportion to the depth of the
interface. The greater the effect of the low-resistivity
substratum on the current that flows between the electrodes.

It is easy to see that the apparent resistivity would be


virtually the same as resistivity ℓ2 of the upper medium when
the electrode separation is very small compared with
thickness, h, of the upper medium. This is because very little
of the current would penetrate to the substratum below the
interface. At spacing which are very large compared with h,
the apparent resistivity approaches ℓ2 because the portion of
the current confined to the surface layer becomes negligible.
Figure 4.3(a) - Lines of current flow between electrodes A and
B in two-layered earth with higher conductivity in deep layer.

Fig. 4.3(b) – The variation of apparent resistivity as the current


electrode spacing is varied form ℓ1 > ℓ2

4.5 ELECTRODE CONFIGURATION

In actual practice, a number of different surface


configurations such as Wenner, Schlumberger and dipole-
dipole arrangements are used for the current and potential
electrodes. Both sets of electrodes are laid out along a line for
all of these arrangements. The current electrodes generally
but not always placed on the outside the potential electrodes
although the opposite layout theoretically equivalent. We are
going to narrow our surface configuration to only the
Schlumberger spread since it was used in the study area.

For Schlumberger spread, the current electrodes are


placed much further apart than the potential electrode;
observed values of potential are adjusted by extrapolation to
fit the assumption.

AB = 2a ; a = AB/2 … (1)

P1P2 = b … (2)

ℓa(s) = R … (3)

Fig. 4.4 – Special geometry of current and potential


electrodes for Schlumberger Configuration

4.6 FIELD DATA ACQUISATION

The field data used in this study were acquired using


vertical electrical resisitivity sounding of the Schlumberger
array. Altogether, a total of 64 sounding points were acquired.
The instrument used for the suvery is the ABEM
TERRAMETER SAS 300C.
The ABEM TERRAMETER SAS 300C is a basic unit that
can be used for potential survey as well as resistivity surveys.
It contains three main units, all housed in a single casing: the
transmitter, receiver and microprocessor. The electrically
isolated transmitter sends out well defined and regulated
signal currents. The receiver discriminates noise and
measures voltage correlated by microprocessor’s monitor and
controls operations and calculated results.

The SAS meaning signal average system is a method


whereby consecutive readings are taken automatically and the
results are averaged continuously. The continuously updated
running average is presented automatically on the display.
This continues until the operator is satisfied with the stability
of the results. In order to obtain accurate and reliable data
the current and potential electrodes were made of non-
polarisable copper electrodes which are driven deep into the
ground to exclude spurious current.

The current and potential drums are connected to the


terminals of the ABEM TERRAMETER SAS 300C is placed at
the centre. The potential electrodes are fixed while the
current electrodes are moved out in logarithmic steps. This is
continued until the readings become erratic then the potential
electrode separation is increased; the reading for the potential
electrode at that point is repeated. At the end of each reading
at a point the instrument is put off.

The necessary instruments used for making resistivity


measurements include a power source, meters for measuring
current and voltage (which may be combined in one meter to
read resistance) electrodes, cables and reels. The power may
be either d.c. or low frequency a.c, preferably (< 60Hz).

The current is measured with a d.c milliammeter, whose


range should be from about 1 to 20A, depending on the
electrode spread, type of ground and power used. Potential is
normally measured with a d.c. voltmeter of high input
impedance (1 mega-ohm or greater) and 10mV to20V.

Other equipment include:

 Copper stakes and connecting wires


 Reels of wire and hammers
 Wooden survey peg (marked according to the list of
electrodes spacing chosen) and measuring tape
 Compass, salt and water (brine)
 Calculator, formulae, field computation sheets and log-
log paper.

4.7 PRECAUTIONS TAKEN

All the connections should be properly done before the


terrameter is on. The electrodes should be more than four in
case of any misplacement. Field reading are recorded
instantly on the recording sheet to prevent mishandling of
field data.

Insulated wires must be properly checked to make sure


that there were no current leakages. To prevent this, cellotape
is used to cover the area exposed.
4.8 DATA REDUCTION, PRESENTATION AND
INTERPRETATION

4.8.1DATA REDUCTION

The field readings in ohms were obtained using the


ABEM Terrameter SAS and Schlumberger’s configuration.
About 64 vertical electrical resistivity sounding points were
obtained and denoted as ↑ on the Geology map produced of
the study area. The Data obtained were reduced using the
Schlumberger array equation below:

ℓa(s) = R … (1)

4.8.2 DATA PRESENTATION

Field curves were plotted and presented manually on log-


log graphs to enable the structures of curves to be shown, the
field data were fed into Schlumberger software program to
produce a computer print out of the curves. The curves gave
different shapes of resistivity curves name, K, A,Q and H
curves respectively.

4.8.3 DATA INTERPRETATION

The data interpretation of the study area is divided into


two types: (a) Qualitative interpretation and, (b) Quantitative
interpretation.

a. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION

The apparent resistivity curve for a three-layer structure


generally has one of four typical shapes, determined by
vertical sequence of resistivities in the layers. The type K
curve rises to a maximum then decreases, indicating that the
intermediate layer has higher resistivity than the top and
bottom layers.

The type H curve show the opposite effect; it falls to a


minimum then increases again due to an intermediate layer.
That is a better conductor than the top and bottom layers.
The type A curve may show some changes of gradient but the
apparent resistivity generally increases continuously with
increasing electrode separation indicating that the true
resistivities increase with depth from layer to layer.

The type Q curves exhibits the opposite effect; it


decreases continuously along with a progressive decrease of
resistivity with depth. The type of curve that is exhibited in
the study area is the type Q curve since majority of the field
curves decrease with decrease of apparent resistivity with
depth.

Interpretation of VES 1-12

At VES 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 and 8, siltstone unit is exposed at


the surface. At VES 11 and 12, siltstone unit is also exposed
at the surface, VES 9 and 10 is shale unit exposed and VES 4
and 5 partly exhibit basic rock unit which is also exposed. All
VES except VES 12 exhibit type Q curve and VES 4 is a K-type
curve.

Interpretation of VES 13-21

At VES 13, 15 and 16, siltstone unit is exposed at the


surface, VES 14, 17 and 18 depict shale unit exposed. At VEs
19, 20 and 21 depicts calcareous sandstone. At this second
profile, all VES curves are Q-type curves.

Interpretation of VES 22-36

VES 22, 23 and 24 depict calcareous sandstone exposed


at the surface, VES 25, 26, 29, 30 and 31 depict shale unit
exposed, VES 27, 28, 32, 33 and 34 exhibit siltstone cap
outcrop while VES 35 and 36 depict basic rock mater exposed
on the surface. At this third profile, all VES curves except
VES 36 are Q-type curves. VES 36 exhibits a K-type curve.

Interpretation of VES 37-45

VES 37, 38, 39, 41, 42 and 43 depict shale unit exposed
at the surface. At VES 40, siltstone unit is exposed while at
VES 44 and 45, calcareous sandstone unit is exposed on the
surface. At this fourth profile, all VES curves are Q-type
curves.

Interpretation of VES 46-53

At VES 46 and 47, calcareous sandstone unit exposed at


the surface. VES 48, 49, 50, 51 and 52 depicts shale unit
outcropping on the surface while VES 53 depicts siltstone at
the surface.

Interpretation of VES 54-56

VES 54, 55 and 56 depict shale unit exposed at the


surface of the study area.

Interpretation of VES 57-64

VES 57, 58, 60 and 61 exhibit shale unit outcropping on


the surface of the study area, VES 59 depicts siltstone unit
while VES 62, 63 and 64 depict calcareous sandstone unit.
All VES curves in this profile are Q-type curves.

b. QUANTITATIVE INTERPRETATION

In the X – X’ section, four geoelectric sections have been


modelled along the X – X’ profile. The first layer is silty found
at VEs 13, 48 and 59. The fourth which is VES 36 is found on
the basic rock. The resistivity value of silty surface is 60-
452Ωm, while that of the basic rock is 800-2250Ωm. The dip
is northwestern direction.

The second layer is modeled as the shaly surface which


extends to over 35m in VES 13, 48 and 59. The resistivity
value for the shaly surface ranges from 9 to 55Ωm. The third
layer is the igneous dyke intrusion recorded at VES 4, VES 35
and VES 36.

Interpretation along Y – Y’

In the Y – Y’ section, four geoelectric layers are found. In


all the silty surfaces have the base at 8.5cm in VES 43, 9m in
VES 17 and 9.5m in VES 28; the structure similar as to the
one recorded along X – X’ section. However, the calcareous
sandstone to the west of the study area is less in thickness
shale underlies the study area as shown in Fig. 4.5. In the
eastern part of the study area, the basic rock or igneous dyke
intrusion again cuts across the shale and silty surface matter,
causing a baking effect on the shaly matter.
Also, VES 4 is the fourth geoelectric portion found in the
basic rock matter.

Interpretation along Z-Z’ (VES 8, 20 and 24)

In the Z – Z’, three geoelectric layers are found in the


study area. VES 8 and VES 24 were found on the silty
surface matter and VES 20 was found on the calcareous
sandstone. The shale in this section is closed to the surface
with the calcareous sandstone and siltstone unit.

4.9 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

The 64 vertical electrical sounding in which field curves


are obtained show that the type of curve obtained from the
study area is the type Q curves which is the major field curve
found except in VES 4, 17 and 36. The Q-type curve is mainly
found in this area because it is an area of thick sedimentary
sequence except for VES 36 and VEs 4 which exhibit K-type of
curve since they are particular areas of dyke and basic rock
intrusions.

The geoelectric section of the three interpreted profile X –


X’, Y – Y’ and Z – Z’ show that the lithologic unit of the study
area such as the siltstone appears to wedge out towards the
east and pinch out towards the western part of the study area.
The geoelectric section shows that in the western,
northwestern and central parts of the study area are
essentially thick sedimentary sequence and in the eastern
part which has similar features to the already studied URU
LOT is made up of a nearly trending basic igneous body.

Consequently, the calcareous sandstone which is found


in the western portion of the area is less in thickness. Shale
underlies the area and silty matter which occupies the eastern
part of the project area at the border with the first Uru lot. In
the central part of the area such as the siltstone which forms
a cap in the central shaly portion. The calcareous-sandstone
can also be an acquiferous unit in the area since a pool of
water was found at the base of the quarrying site. The central
area is underlain by shale which are highly conductive and
low in resistance while the basic igneous rock which cuts
across the shale and silty matter acts as a source of rock
chippings used for construction of roads in the community
near the study area.

CHAPTER FIVE

QUARRYING TECHNIQUES

5.1 PROSPECTING, DRILLING AND PROCESSING

The first step in quarrying in the study area is


prospecting. The normal procedure is to drill test holes with
core drills and to analyze the cuttings. Materials covering the
Uru diorite were removed with bulldozers. In drilling, vertical
blast holes were used in the Uru quarrying site. In general,
rotary drills were used in their full length/height in the study
area.

In processing, the rock chippings were hauled to the


primary crusher by truck. The main plant, where crushing
and screening occur, is found outside the Uru quarry.

The chief type of rock found at the Uru quarry in which


the consolidation construction company were quarrying is
diorite which is used primarily for road construction in the
community. Because it is hard, impervious and strong rock,
it is used for foundation in civil engineering projects such as
dams and reservoirs.

5.2 TYPES OF QUARRIES

Generally, there are two types of quarries which are


surface quarrying and underground quarrying. The surface
quarrying is the type of quarry that occurs in the Uru Quarry
which is the removal of rocks that are at or near the surface of
the study area and are large in all three dimensions since the
greatest tonnage of crushed rock comes from surface
quarrying, it means that the Uru quarry has the largest
tonnage of crushed diorite in the Lopkaukwu area.

5.3 QUARRYING AS A FORM OF MINING

Quarrying is a form of mining method which is called


surface mining. It is an operation that requires special and
expensive production procedures. In addition, the term
quarrying has been applied to the recovery of sand, gravel,
and crushed rock for the production of road base construction
and cement production.

However, since the practices followed in these operations


are similar to other forms of mining, the discussion of
quarrying here is limited to the excavation of rock debris from
the earth surface.

5.4 QUARRYING METHOD OF DIORITE IN THE STUDY


AREA

The quarrying method used for quarrying diorite within


the study area is the open-case quarrying which is used to
remove massive dioritic rocks that are at or near the earth
surface and in dimension, they are very large. This method
may be sued almost in any kind of terrain apart from Uru.
The Uru quary is an open cast quarrying site which has an
irregular bowl-like shape and also slightly oval in appearance.

5.4.1 OVERBURDEN REMOVAL

The overburden removal of the study area is


accomplished by using large bulldozers, pile loaders and rock
trucks. The bulldozers typically remove the top part of
overburden by pushing it away or into a block out. The pile
loader then loads the remaining part of overburden lying
directly above the diorite onto the rocks trucks and
transported away.
5.4.2 MACHINES AND POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS USED IN
QUARRING

The quarrying equipment used in Uru quarry area are


rotary drills which are the dominant drilling equipment used
in the study area. machines for loading Lokpaukwu diorites
at working faces include pile loaders and bulldozers.
Transporting dioritic rocks from quarrying site to main
haulage is done with the use of rock trucks.

5.4.3QUARRY METHOD

The quarry method that was used in Uru quarry is


surface mining or quarrying which is used for the extraction of
diorite near the surface of the Uru quarry site at Lokpaukwu.
The quarry method used in the study area can be due to type
of land surface, rock deposit type, structural features and
geological orientation of the target area in Uru quarry.

CHAPTER SIX

RESULTS

6.1 GEOLOGICAL RESULTS

The geological results of the study are shown in Fig 2.0


depicting the geologic section along X – X’ and Y – Y’ that
indicate the five rock units which trend northwest and
southeast and are identifiable on the earth surface. The rock
units are siltstone, shale, calcareous sandstone, dolerite and
ironstone.

6.1.1 GEOLOGICAL MAPPING RESULT

The geological mapping result of the study area shows


that siltstone occupies the eastern portion of the area and it is
also a caprock; shale occupies the central area which is
underlain by shale, baked at some portions due to hot basic
igneous dyke intrusion. Shale occupies one-half of the study
area.

Consequently, calcareous sandstone occupies the


western part of the study area where visible grains of calcite
are present, VES 22, 23, 21, 20, 19, 45, 44, 64, 63, 46 and 47
are points where this rock unit is outcropping. The general
dip varies from 250 to 400 from the western portion of the
area. Dolerite with also diorite is the basic rock matter that
occupies the eastern portion of the study area which cuts
across the silty matter and shale. VES 4 and 36 are points
having this rock unit outcropping. Ironstone is found within
the basic rock matter in the study area.

Also, the Obichioke fault is located at the south eastern


part of the area between Uru and Obichioke lot. The fault
trace shows recrystallization of calcite in the study area.

6.1.2 CORING RESULT


The coring result of the study area shows that two core
samples from VES 4 and VES 36 are diorite core samples
which are located at the southeastern part of the study area.
These diorite samples tend to contain a major mineral known
as quartzite.

Consequently, 11 core samples at Uru for CPR1 are


samples of diorite, weathered diorite and shale which diorite
has a high strength capacity and resistance than shale. At
the Obiochioke area, where the fault is located, nine (9) core
samples which consist of diorite, siltstone and shale which
diorite has a higher strength capacity and bearing capacity,
followed by siltstone and shale.

6.2 GEOPHYSICAL RESULTS

In the geophysical results of the study area, sixty-four


(64) vertical electrical resistivity sounding points in seven (7)
profiles were obtained and reduced to plot field curves to
enable the curve structures to be shown. The type of curve
that is shown in the Uru area is a type Q curve which is a
curve that indicates continuous thick sedimentary sequence
in the study area. The Q-type curve was the major curve in
the area except for areas of igneous intrusions where the K-
type curve was exhibited which were few.

6.2.1 GEOELECTRIC SECTION


In the geoelectric section of the study area, four rock
units are shown in Fig 4.5, which indicates that calcareous
sand stone has an apparent resistivity between 200-456Ωm,
shale has between 9-55Ωm, siltstone has between 60-451Ωm
and basic rock matter has between 800-2250Ωm. The basic
rock matter has the highest apparent resistivity in the study
area which implies that it has a very low conductivity, followed
by calcareous sandstone, siltstone and shale. The shale has
the lowest apparent resistivity in the study area which means
that it has a high conductivity value. The diorite in the study
area has a high apparent resistivity value which is indicated
in the geoelectric section since the geoelectric section deals
with indication of geological boundaries due to resistivity
contrast.

6.2.2 STRUCTURE BASED ON GEOPHYSICS

In the structure of the study area based on geophysics,


three profiles were selected for interpretation. These are X-X’,
Y-Y’ and Z-Z’ as shown in Fig. 4.5. These results depict that
the central, western and north western parts of the study area
are essentially having thick sedimentary sequence of shale,
calcareous sandstone and siltstone. The eastern portion of
the study area corresponds to the Uru lot, which is made up
of nearly N-S trending igneous rock mass which is the main
target of this study (i.e diorite).
6.3 CORRELATION BETWEEN GEOLOGICAL AND
GEOPHYSICAL RESULTS

As discovered after geological and geophysical study in


the Uru area, five geological rock units were recognized in the
study area by geological field mapping and four geological rock
units were found in the area by geophysical survey. There is a
general westward dipping in the geology and geolectric layer in
which calcareous sandstone in the study area at a general dip
of 350, shale has a general dip varying from 250 in the west to
350 near the calcareous sandstone area. The siltstone unit
that is found at the centre portion of the area is because it
occupies the eastern portion and also it appears to pinch out
towards the western part of the area (Fig. 2.0).

These geological features are consistent with the geologic


and geoelectric sections of the study area which makes it
almost 80% correlation between geological and geoelectric
sections.

CHAPTER SEVEN

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR


FURTHER WORK

7.1 SUMMARY

The study area is made up of the oldest sedimentary


formation in south eastern Nigeria – the Eze-Aku and Asu
River Formation were five rock units found in the study area.
through geological survey, the rock units include: shale,
siltstone, basic rock matter (diorite), calcareous sandstone
and iron stone matter which shale predominates nearly the
entire study area.

Geophysical study was also carried out in the study area


using the ABEM TERRAMETER 300 SAS to determine the true
resistivity of the subsurface formation of the study area and
the result were interpreted using a Schlumberger O’neil
Computer Software Program. Also, the data obtained from
study was used to plot field curves to guide further sounding
points based on surface geology.

Twenty-two core samples were collected from different


locations of the study area indicate the samples which consist
of rock units are analyzed for the presence of minerals and
strength of rock units. Core analysis is used to determine
physical properties of cores obtained from the area which the
cores are mainly diorite, weathered diorite, siltstone and
shale.

7.2 CONCLUSION

From the result obtained in the core analysis, the twenty


core samples which are obtained in the study area are similar
in such a way that the cores are mainly diorite, weathered
diorite, siltstone and shale.

From the geological data obtained, it is evident that the


basic igneous rock matter are located at the east of the study
area which some of the basic rock is found within the shaly
matter at the central part of the region.

Also, form the geophysical data obtained, it shows that


shale occupies the entire area which the study area is found
in the Eze-Aku formation which is called “Eze-Aku shale”.
The western portion of the area has no evidence of igneous
rock matter apart from the calcareous sandstone and
ironstones observed in the area. The western end has thicker
sedimentary sequence. Also, the Eze-Aku formation or
Lokpaukwu shale cannot serve as a good acquifer since it
cannot hold or transmit water and water found in such
acquifer will note fit for human consumption while the
Obichioke sandstone which occupies the western portion of
the study area can serve as a good acquifer and fit for human
consumption.

7.3 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER WORK

Gravity survey should be carried out in the study area to


determine the density of deep seated structures found in the
area.

Health hazards are high as posed by wind carrying dust


from the quarry area. However, environmental impact
assessment must be actualized to depict wind direction for the
health of workers and natives in the community.

Geological hazards such as land-surface damage and


pollution of air with groundwater are also high due to
quarrying operations which causes the study area to degrade
or undergo land destruction. Good engineering works are
needed to be done to conserve the area from undergoing
degradation.

Geotechnical study needs to be carried out in the study


area to be able to determine the engineering properties of
various rock units and delineating the stratigraphy of the
study area.

Spontaneous potential logging needs to be carried out to


be able to determine formation water, amount of shale or
shale volume calculation, indication of permeable beds and
facies.
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