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# Holy Angel University

## Module 6 – Torsion School of Engineering and Architecture

Department of Civil Engineering

Torsion

## Objective At the end of this module, students will have

 An profound understanding in the stress and strain
behavior of an engineering material under the effects of

## Content This lecture is focuses to the effects of torsion; topics covered

focuses on the following
 Torsional Deformation of Circular Shafts
 Torsion Formula
 Power Transmission
 Angle of Twist
 Statically Indeterminate Problems
 *Closed Thin-walled Tubes

Activities During the module, students will perform the graded activities to
measure their progress during the course. Quizzes, seatwork,
assignment, problem set computations, recitation, and research
work are the examples of such graded activities.

## Readings R.C. Hibbeler, 2011. Mechanics of Materials (8th Edition)

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA : Pearson Prentice Hall

## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 1 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

## 6.1 TORSIONAL DEFORMATION OF A CIRCULAR SHAFT

In many engineering applications, members are required to carry torsional loads. In this chapter, we consider
the torsion of circular shafts. Because a circular cross section is an efficient shape for resisting torsional loads,
circular shafts are commonly used to transmit power in rotating machinery. We also discuss another important
application—torsion of thin-walled tubes.

Torque is a moment that tends to twist a member about its longitudinal axis. Its effect is of primary concern in
the design of axles or drive shafts used in vehicles and machinery. We can illustrate physically what happens
when a torque is applied to a circular shaft by considering the shaft to be made of a highly deformable material
such as rubber, Fig 6.1(a). When the torque is applied, the circles and longitudinal grid lines originally marked
on the shaft tend to distort into the pattern shown in Fig. 6.1(b). Note that twisting causes the circles to remain
circles, and each longitudinal grid line deforms into a helix that intersects the circles at equal angles.

Fig. 6.1 – Torque in a rubber circular shaft. Fig. 6.2 – Torque in a fixed rubber circular shaft.

If the shaft is fixed at one end and a torque is applied to its other end, the dark green shaded plane in Fig. 6.2
will distort into a skewed form as shown. Here a radial line located on the cross section at a distance 𝑥 from the
fixed end of the shaft will rotate through an angle 𝜙(𝑥). The angle 𝜙(𝑥), so defined, is called the angle of twist.
It depends on the position 𝑥 and will vary along the shaft as shown.

To understand how this distortion strains the material, we will now isolate a small element located at a radial
distance (rho) 𝜌 from the axis of the shaft, Fig. 6.3. Due to the deformation as noted in Fig. 6.2, the front and
rear faces of the element will undergo a rotation—the back face by 𝜙(𝑥), and the front face by 𝜙(𝑥) + Δ𝜙. As
a result, the difference in these rotations, causes the element to be subjected to a shear strain. To calculate this
strain, note that before deformation the angle between the edges AB and AC is 90°; after deformation, however,
the edges of the element are AD and AC and the angle between them is 𝜃′. From the definition of shear strain,
we have

## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 2 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

## This angle 𝛾, is indicated on the element. It

can be related to the length Δ𝑥 of the
element and the angle Δ𝜙 between the
shaded planes by considering the length of
arc BD, that is
𝐵𝐷 = 𝜌Δ𝜙 = Δ𝑥𝛾
If we let Δ𝜙 → 𝑑𝜙 and Δ𝑥 → 𝑑𝑥

𝜌𝑑𝜙
𝛾=
𝑑𝑥
Fig. 6.4

Since 𝑑𝑥 and 𝑑𝜙 are the same for all elements located at points on
the cross section at 𝑥, then is constant over the cross section, and
states that the magnitude of the shear strain for any of these
elements varies only with its radial distance 𝜌, from the axis of the
shaft. In other words, the shear strain within the shaft varies linearly
along any radial line, from zero at the axis of the shaft to a
maximum at its outer boundary (Fig 6.4).
Since 𝑑𝜙/𝑑𝑥 = 𝛾/𝜌 = 𝛾max /𝑐 Fig. 6.3 – Torsional deformation.

𝜌
𝛾=( )𝛾
𝑐 max

## 6.2 TORSION FORMULA

When an external torque is applied to a shaft it creates a corresponding internal torque within the shaft. If the
material is linear-elastic, then Hooke’s law applies, 𝜏 = 𝐺𝛾, and consequently a linear variation in shear strain,
leads to a corresponding linear variation in shear stress along any radial line on the cross section. Hence, 𝜏 will
vary from zero at the shaft’s longitudinal axis to a maximum value, 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 , at its outer surface.

This variation is shown in Fig. 6.4 on the front faces of a selected number of elements, located at an intermediate
radial position 𝜌 and at the outer radius 𝑐. Using Hooke’s law, we can write

𝜌
𝜏=( )𝜏
𝑐 max

This equation expresses the shear-stress distribution over the cross section in terms of the radial position of the
element. Using it, we can now apply the condition that requires the torque produced by the stress distribution
over the entire cross section to be equivalent to the resultant internal torque 𝑇 at the section, which holds the
shaft in equilibrium.

## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 3 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

Specifically, each element of area 𝑑𝐴, located at 𝜌 is subjected to a force, due to shear stress, of 𝑑𝐹 = 𝜏𝑑𝐴.
From mechanics, the torque produced by this force is

𝑇 = 𝐹𝑑 → 𝑑𝑇 = 𝑑𝐹𝜌
𝜌
𝑇 = ∫ 𝜌𝑑𝐹 = ∫ 𝜌(𝜏𝑑𝐴) = ∫ 𝜌 ( )𝜏 𝑑𝐴
𝐴 𝐴 𝐴 𝑐 max

𝜏max
𝑇 = ∫ 𝜌2 𝑑𝐴
𝑐 𝐴

The integral depends only on the geometry of the shaft. It represents the polar moment of inertia of the shaft’s
cross-sectional area about the shaft’s longitudinal axis. We will symbolize its value as 𝐽, and therefore the above
equation can be rearranged and written in a more compact form to determine the maximum shear stress from

𝑇𝑐
𝜏max =
𝐽

Where 𝜏max the maximum shear stress in the shaft, which occurs at the outer surface
𝑇 the resultant internal torque acting at the cross section
𝑐 the maximum radial distance from the center, outer radius of the shaft
𝐽 the polar moment of inertia of the cross section

The shear stress at the intermediate radial distance 𝜌 can be determined from combining

𝜌 𝑇𝑐 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝑇𝜌
𝜏=( )𝜏 ; 𝜏max = → 𝜏=
𝑐 max 𝐽 𝐽

Either of the above two equations is often referred to as the torsion formula. Recall that it is used only if the
shaft is circular and the material is homogeneous and behaves in a linear elastic manner, since the derivation is
based on Hooke’s law.

Polar Moment of Inertia. In Engineering Mechanics – Statics of Rigid Bodies, the polar moment of inertia is the
moment of inertia acting at its pole, z-axis, and it is defined as the sum of the centroidal moment of inertia of
the two axes, x and y.
To have simplified solution, we will all express the cross section in terms of radius, since the torsion formula was
derived in this constant.
𝜋
For solid circular shafts 𝐽= 𝑟4
2
𝜋
For solid circular shafts 𝐽= (𝑟𝑜4 − 𝑟𝑖4 )
2

## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 4 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1

## The solid circular shaft is subjected to an internal torque of

T = 5 kN m. Determine the shear stress developed at points
A and B.
Ans. A = 49.7 MPa ; B = 37.3 MPa

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SAMPLE PROBLEM 2

## The shaft is hollow from A to B and solid from B to C.

Determine the maximum shear stress developed in the shaft.
The shaft has an outer diameter of 80 mm, and the thickness
of the wall of the hollow segment is 10 mm.
Ans. 59.7 MPa

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 5 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 3

## The copper pipe has an outer diameter of 40 mm and an

inner diameter of 37 mm. If it is tightly secured to the wall at
A and three torques are applied to it as shown, determine
the maximum shear stress developed in the pipe.
Ans. 26.7 MPa

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SAMPLE PROBLEM 4

## A shaft is made of a steel alloy having an allowable shear

stress of 12 ksi. If the diameter of the shaft is 1.5 in.,
(a) Determine the maximum torque T that can be
transmitted.
(b) What would be the maximum torque if a 1-in.-diameter
hole is bored through the shaft?
Ans. 7.95 kip-in ; 8.00 ksi

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 6 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

## 6.3 POWER TRANSMISSION

Shafts and tubes having circular cross sections are often used to transmit power developed by a machine. When
used for this purpose, they are subjected to a torque that depends on the power generated by the machine and
the angular speed of the shaft. Power is defined as the work performed per unit of time. Also, the work transmitted
by a rotating shaft equals the torque applied times the angle of rotation. Therefore, if during an instant of time 𝑑𝑡
an applied torque 𝑇 causes the shaft to rotate 𝑑𝜃, then the instantaneous power is 𝑃 = 𝑇𝑑𝜃/𝑑𝑡. Since the angular
velocity is 𝜔 = 𝑑𝜃/𝑑𝑡, we can express power as

𝑃 = 𝑇𝜔

In the SI system, power is expressed in watts when torque is measured in newton-meters and angular velocity is in
radians per second. In the FPS system, the basic units of power are foot-pounds per second: however, horsepower
(hp) is often used in engineering practice is 1 hp = 550 ft ∙ lb/s.

For machinery, the frequency of a shaft’s rotation, 𝑓, is often reported. This is a measure of the number of
revolutions or cycles the shaft makes per second and is expressed in hertz, 1 Hz = 1 cycle/s. Since 1 cycle =
2π rad, then 𝜔 = 2𝜋𝑓 and so the above equation for power becomes

𝑃 = 2𝜋𝑓𝑇

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5

## The pump operates using the motor that has a power of 85

W. If the impeller at B is turning at 150 rpm, determine the
maximum shear stress developed in the 20-mm-diameter
transmission shaft at A.
Ans. 3.44 MPa

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 7 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 6

## The drive shaft of the motor is made of a material having an

allowable shear stress of 75 MPa. If the outer diameter of the
tubular shaft is 20 mm and the wall thickness is 2.5 mm,
determine the maximum allowable power that can be
supplied to the motor when the shaft is operating at an
angular velocity of 1500 rpm.
Ans. 12.65 kW

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SAMPLE PROBLEM 7

The gear motor can develop 2 hp when it turns at 450 rpm. If the shaft has a diameter of 1 in., determine the
maximum shear stress developed in the shaft.
Ans. 1.427 ksi

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 8 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 8

## The solid steel shaft DF has a diameter of 25 mm and is

supported by smooth bearings at D and E. It is coupled
to a motor at F, which delivers 12 kW of power to the
shaft while it is turning at 50 rev/s. If gears A, B, and C
remove 3 kW, 4 kW, and 5 kW respectively, determine
the maximum shear stress developed in the shaft. The
shaft is free to turn in its support bearings D and E.
Ans. 12.50 MPa

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 9 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

## Design of a shaft depends on the amount of rotation or twist that

may occur when the shaft is subjected to a torque. Furthermore,
being able to compute the angle of twist for a shaft is important when
analyzing the reactions on statically indeterminate shafts.
We will develop a formula for determining the angle of twist (phi) of
one end of a shaft with respect to its other end. The shaft is assumed
to have a circular cross section that can gradually vary along its
length. Also, the material is assumed to be homogeneous and to
behave in a linear-elastic manner when the torque is applied. Like
the case of an axially loaded bar, we will neglect the localized
deformations that occur at points of application of the torques and
where the cross section changes abruptly. By Saint-Venant’s
principle, these effects occur within small regions of the shaft’s length
and generally they will have only a slight effect on the result.

## Using the method of sections, a differential disk of thickness 𝑑𝑥,

located at position 𝑥, is isolated from the shaft. The internal resultant
torque is 𝑇(𝑥), since the external loading may cause it to vary along
the axis of the shaft. Due to 𝑇(𝑥), the disk will twist, such that the
relative rotation of one of its faces with respect to the other face
is 𝑑𝜙. As a result an element of material located at an arbitrary radius
𝜌 within the disk will undergo a shear strain 𝛾.
𝑑𝜙 𝛾 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑥
= → 𝜌 = 𝛾
𝑑𝑥 𝜌 𝑑𝜙
Combining this equation to the torsion formula, Hooke’s law applies.
𝑇(𝑥)𝜌 𝑇(𝑥)𝛾𝑑𝑥 𝑇(𝑥)𝛾𝑑𝑥
𝜏= → 𝜏= → 𝐺𝛾 =
𝐽(𝑥) 𝐽(𝑥)𝑑𝜙 𝐽(𝑥)𝑑𝜙
Simplifying the equation, we have

𝐿
𝑇(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 𝑇(𝑥)𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝜙 = → 𝜙= ∫
𝐽(𝑥)𝐺 0 𝐽(𝑥)𝐺

## Where 𝜙 angle of twist; measured in radians

𝑇(𝑥) Internal torque at arbitrary distance 𝑥; measured in Newton-millimeters
𝐽(𝑥) Shaft’s polar moment of inertia expressed as a function of 𝑥; measured in mm4
𝐺 Shear modulus of elasticity of a material; measured in megapascals
𝐿 Length of the shaft; measured in millimeters

## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 10 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

Constant Torque and Constant Area. Usually in engineering practice the material is homogeneous so that 𝐺 is
constant. Also, the shaft’s cross-sectional area and the external torque are constant along the length of the
shaft. If this is the case, the internal torque the polar moment of inertia and can be integrated, which gives

𝐿
𝑇𝑑𝑥 𝑇𝐿
𝜙= ∫ → 𝜙=
0 𝐽𝐺 𝐽𝐺

The similarities between the above two equations and those for an axially loaded bar 𝛿 = ∫ 𝑃(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 /𝐴(𝑥)𝐸
and 𝛿 = 𝑃𝐿/𝐴𝐸 should be noted.

Sign Convention. To apply the equation, we must develop a sign convention for both the internal torque and
the angle of twist of one end of the shaft with respect to the other end. To do this, we will use the right-hand
rule, whereby both the torque and angle will be positive, provided the thumb is directed outward from the shaft
when the fingers curl to give the tendency for rotation. This means, using method of sections, if your right thumb
is directed outward from the cross sectional area, this is a positive internal torque and angle of twist.

SAMPLE PROBLEM 9

## The 60-mm-diameter A-36 steel shaft is subjected to the

torques shown. Determine the angle of twist of end A with
respect to C. Use G = 75 GPa.
Ans. 0.480o

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 11 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 10

## A series of gears are mounted on the 40-mm diameter A36

steel shaft. Determine the angle of twist of gear B relative to
gear A.
Ans. 0.608o

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SAMPLE PROBLEM 11

The propellers of a ship are connected to a A-36 steel shaft that is 60 m long and has an outer diameter of 340
mm and inner diameter of 260 mm. If the power output is 4.5 MW when the shaft rotates at 20 rad/s, determine
the maximum torsional stress in the shaft and its angle of twist.
Ans. 44.30 MPa ; 11.9o

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 12 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 12

The two shafts are made of A-36 steel. Each has a diameter
of 1 in., and they are supported by bearings at A, B, and C,
which allow free rotation. If the support at D is fixed,
determine the angle of twist of end A when the torques are
applied to the assembly as shown. Use G = 11 GPa.

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 13 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

## Class No. – Student No. : __________________________________ RATING : ______________________

Section – Schedule : __________________________________ Submission Date : ______________________

## ACTIVITY 11 LIBRARY WORK – TORSION

INSTRUCTIONS From the available resources in the library about the course, search thirty problems about statically
determinate members. Ten of each about torsion formula, power transmission, and angle of twist.
Provide necessary solutions and free-body diagrams for each. There must be no similar problems
in each group; if there is, it will not be considered.
Create an organized computation that is easy to follow; shortcuts are not allowed. Use colored
pens to emphasize your free-body diagram. Erasures are strictly discouraged; no erasures will be
allowed. Strictly use one template each problem.
A copy of the receipt, a proof of using books, journals or references, must be attached to the
submittal.
MATERIALS Black pen, colored pens, ruler

## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 14 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

## 6.5 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE TORQUE-LOADED MEMBERS

A torsionally loaded shaft may be classified as statically indeterminate if the moment equation of equilibrium,
applied about the axis of the shaft, is not adequate to determine the unknown torques acting on the shaft.
An example of this situation is shown. As shown on the free-body
diagram, the reactive torques at the supports A and B are unknown.
We have
(∑ M = 0) 𝑇 − 𝑇𝐴 − 𝑇𝐵 = 0 EQUATION 1

## To obtain a solution, we will use the method of analysis discussed

in Module 5: Force Method Analysis. The necessary condition of
compatibility, or the kinematic condition, requires the angle of twist
of one end of the shaft with respect to the other end to be equal
to zero, since the end supports are fixed. Therefore
𝜙𝐴/𝐵 = 0

## Setting B as the redundant member, we have

𝑇𝐿𝐴𝐶 𝑇𝐵 𝐿𝐶𝐵
𝜙𝐴/𝐵 = + − =0 EQUATION 2
𝐽𝐺 𝐽𝐺

## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 15 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 13

## The A-36 steel shaft has a diameter of 60 mm and is fixed at

its ends A and B. If it is subjected to the torque shown,
determine the maximum shear stress in the shaft.
Ans. 9.77 MPa

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 16 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 14

## If the shaft is subjected to a uniform distributed torque of

t = 20 kN-m/m, determine the maximum shear stress
developed in the shaft. The shaft is made of 2014-T6
aluminum alloy and is fixed at A and C. Use G = 11 GPa.
Ans. 93.1 MPa

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 17 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 15

## The shaft is made from a solid steel section AB and a tubular

portion made of steel and having a brass core. If it is fixed to a
rigid support at A, and a torque of T = 50 lb∙ft is applied to it at
C, determine the angle of twist that occurs at C and compute the
maximum shear strain in the brass and steel. Take Gst = 11,500 ksi,
Gbr = 5600 ksi.
Ans. 0.116o ; St = 343(10)-6 , Br = 17.2(10)-6

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 18 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

## Class No. – Student No. : __________________________________ RATING : ______________________

Section – Schedule : __________________________________ Submission Date : ______________________

## ACTIVITY 12 STRAIN – PROBLEM SET

INSTRUCTIONS Carefully solve each situation. Strictly No FBD, No Points. Show your complete solution and create
an organized computation that is easy to follow; shortcuts are not allowed. Use colored pens to
emphasize your free-body diagram. Erasures are strictly discouraged; your maximum limit of
erasure is three. Strictly use one template each problem.
Rewrite all and draw the figure.
MATERIALS Black pen, colored pens, ruler
SITUATION Problem A. (RE001) A hollow steel shaft ACB of outside diameter 50 mm and inside diameter 40
mm is held against rotation at ends A and B. Horizontal forces P are applied at the ends of a
vertical arm that is welded to the shaft at point C. Determine the allowable value of the forces P
if the maximum permissible shear stress in the shaft is 45 MPa.
Problem B. (RE002) A circular bar AB with ends fixed against rotation has a hole extending for
half of its length. The outer diameter of the bar is d2 =3.0 in. and the diameter of the hole is d1
= 2.4 in. The total length of the bar is L = 50 in. At what distance x from the left-hand end of the
bar should a torque be applied so that the reactive torques at the supports will be equal?
Problem C. (RE003) A steel shaft (Gs = 80 GPa) of total length L = 4.0 m is encased for one-half
of its length by a brass sleeve (Gb = 40 GPa) that is securely bonded to the steel. The outer
diameters of the shaft and sleeve are d1 = 70 mm and d2 = 90 mm, respectively. (a) Determine
the allowable torque that may be applied to the ends of the shaft if the angle of twist f between
the ends is limited to 8.0°, (b) Determine the allowable torque if the shear stress in the brass is
limited to τ_b= 70 MPa, (c) Determine the allowable torque if the shear stress in the steel is
limited to τ_s = 110 MPa, (d) What is the maximum allowable torque Tmax if all three of the
preceding conditions must be satisfied?

RE002

RE001

RE003

## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 19 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

## 6.6 TORSION ON CLOSED THIN-WALLED TUBES

Thin-walled tubes of noncircular cross section are often used to construct light-weight frameworks such as those
used in aircraft. In some applications, they may be subjected to a torsional loading. Assumption of the effects of
applying a torque to a thin-walled tube having a closed cross section, that is, a tube that does not have any breaks
or slits along its length. Such a tube, having a constant yet arbitrary cross-sectional shape, and variable thickness 𝑡.
Since the walls are thin, we will obtain the average shear stress by assuming that this stress is uniformly distributed
across the thickness of the tube at any given point.
The product of the average shear stress times the thickness of the tube is the same at each point on the tube’s cross-
sectional area, this product is called shear flow,* 𝑞, and in general terms we can express it as

𝑞 = 𝜏𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝑡

Since 𝑞 is constant over the cross section, the largest average shear stress must occur where the tube’s thickness is
the smallest. The shear flow measures the force per unit length along the tube’s cross-sectional area. The shear flow
and the average stress to always be directed tangent to the wall of the tube, such that it contributes to the resultant
internal torque.

Average Shear Stress. The average shear stress can be related to the torque 𝑇 by considering the torque produced
by this shear stress about a selected point 𝑂 within the tube’s boundary. As shown, the shear stress develops a
force on an element of the tube.

𝑇 = ∮ ℎ𝜏𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝑡 𝑑𝑠 → 𝑇 = 𝜏𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝑡 ∮ ℎ 𝑑𝑠

Here the “line integral” indicates that integration must be performed around the entire boundary of the area. A
graphical simplification can be made for evaluating the integral by noting that the mean area.

𝑇 = 2𝜏𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝑡 𝐴𝑚

## Where 𝑇 Resultant internal torque of the section; in Newton-millimeters

𝜏𝑎𝑣𝑔 Average shear stress acting over a thickness of the tube; in Megapascals
𝑡 Thickness of the tube where 𝜏𝑎𝑣𝑔 is to be determined; in millimeters
𝐴𝑚 Mean area enclosed within the boundary of the centerline of the tube’s thickness; in mm2

Angle of Twist. The angle of twist of a thin-walled tube of length 𝐿 can be determined using energy methods, which
is not covered in this lecture. If the material behaves in a linear elastic manner and 𝐺 is the shear modulus, then this
angle given in radians, can be expressed as

𝑇𝐿 𝑑𝑠
𝜙= 2 ∮
4𝐴𝑚 𝐺 𝑡

## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 20 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 16

## For a given average shear stress, determine the factor by

which the torque-carrying capacity is increased if the half-
circular sections are reversed from the dashed-line positions
to the section shown. The tube is 0.1 in. thick.
Ans. 2.85

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SAMPLE PROBLEM 17

The tube is subjected to a torque of 750 N-m. Determine the average shear stress
in the tube at points A and B. Points are in the center of each thickness.
Ans. A = 15.6 MPa ; B = 10.4 MPa

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 21 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

SAMPLE PROBLEM 18

The mean dimensions of the cross section of the leading edge and
torsion box of an airplane wing can be approximated as shown. If
the wing is made of 2014-T6 aluminum alloy having an allowable
shear stress of 125 MPa and the wall thickness is 10 mm, determine
the maximum allowable torque and the corresponding angle of
twist per meter length of the wing.
Ans. 4.73 MN-m , 0.428o/m

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## Instructor : Engr. Mark Kenneth M. Tuazon Page 22 of 23`

Module 6 – Torsion

## 1. What is torsion? What is its effect on an engineering material?

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## 2. Define and describe the term torsional rigidity.

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3. Site the maximum allowable angle of twist, in real life situation, of a simple transmission shaft.
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4. What is the scientific reason why we use circular transmission shafts instead of other shapes?
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