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 Post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons innervating sweat glands release acetylcholine

(exception to rule)
 Lung functions: Gas exchange, regulation of blood pH, and (tricky) production of
angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) which eventually results in an increase in BP and
release of aldosterone for [Na+] up and [K+] down regulation
 Type II alveolar cells produce surfactant, type I alveolar cells make up the alveolar wall
 PTH (released by parathyroid glands) causes bone resorption and acts on the kidney to
decrease calcium excretion and increase phosphate excretion. Calcitriol (hormonally active
metabolite of vitamin D, 3 –OH groups, determined by kidney) is similar; causes increased
absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestine and some bone resorption. Increased
PTH causes increased calcitriol. Calcitonin (released by thyroid C cells) is opposite of PTH.
o Calcitonin-in; parathyroid-rid. Explains which hormone puts calcium into bone and
which gets rid of it.
 Sweat (sudoriferous) glands originate in the dermis
 Keratinocytes, melanocytes, and dead cells are found in the epidermis; blood vessels are in
the dermis
 Bottom layer of the epidermis is the stratum basale, from which cells of the skin form
 Raises BP: aldosterone, renin/angiotensin; Lowers BP: ANP
 Induction: one type of cell is transplanted and then becomes more like its surrounding cells
(stem cell destined to become a heart cell gets transplanted to another location where cells
become bone cells)
 Rough ER and Golgi apparatus play a role in glycosylation
 Thyroxine is a peptide hormone that enters the cell and binds to a receptor in the
cytoplasm (exception)
 tRNA has unique bases like inosine; rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus
 Ester hydrolysis involves elimination (addition-elimination) in the reformation of the
 Type 1 diabetes (juvenile-onset): less common, the body’s immune system destroys the
cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating insulin production from the body. Without
insulin, cells cannot absorb glucose.
 Type 2 diabetes (adult-onset): most common, the body isn’t able to use insulin the right
way (insulin-resistance). As it gets worse, the pancreas may make less and less insulin 
insulin deficiency.
 Alpha glycosidic linkage – anomeric carbon down, beta glycosidic linkage – up
 Reducing end – part of a sugar capable of acting as a reducing agent because it has a free
aldehyde group of a free ketone. All monosaccharides are reducing sugars
 When cone cells are not exposed to light and are thus not processing the visual stimuli of
color, they are depolarized and release glutamate to inhibit bipolar neurons. When they are
perceiving color, they are hyperpolarized, and bipolar neurons are no longer inhibited and
can transmit signal.
 Endergonic and exergonic refer to ΔG.
 DNA gyrase is only found in prokaryotes to supercoil DNA.
 Fat-soluble vitamins are ADEK.
 The availability heuristic is a problem-solving strategy whereby the most salient
information seemingly applicable to a problem is selected to produce a solution; the
representativeness heuristic is a strategy whereby a person chooses an option that appears
most typical, or representative, of the solution.
 Diamagnetic atoms are repelled by an externally produced magnetic field; paramagnetic
atoms are attracted.
 In series, you can add resistors to get total resistance; in parallel, you must add 1/RTot = 1/R1
+ 1/R2 + 1/R3 + …...
 In parallel, you can add capacitors to get total capacitance; in series, you must add 1/CTOT =
1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 + …….
 In a series circuit, the current through each component is the same, and the voltage is the
sum of the voltages across each component. In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each of
the components is the same, and the total current is the sum of the currents through each
 Forming bonds involves a release of energy (negative ΔH, exothermic), and breaking bonds
involves an input of energy (positive ΔH, endothermic).
 A phase change and a temperature change cannot occur at the same time.
 Glucagon is secreted by alpha cells in the pancreas and acts to elevate plasma glucose if it
falls too low; insulin is secreted by beta cells in the pancreas and acts to lower plasma
glucose if it is too high.
 A real gas is most similar to an ideal gas at low pressure and high temperature. At high
pressure/low temperature, molecular volumes and intermolecular forces become
 Oxidation occurs at the anode and reduction occurs at the cathode in both electrolytic and
galvanic cells. The difference is that in a galvanic cell, the anode is negative and the
cathode is positive. On the other hand, in an electrolytic cell, the anode is positive and the
cathode is negative.
 Increased collecting duct permeability to water results in more concentrated urine.