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FLARES User’s Guide

Version 2.1.x

FLARES is a software for sizing industrial flares, for calculating flue


gas composition and for evaluating thermal and acoustic impacts

Prepared by: R. Bellasio


SUMMARY
1. Copyright ................................................................................................................. 4

2. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 5

3. System requirements ............................................................................................... 6

3.1 Installation .......................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Uninstallation ..................................................................................................... 6

3.2.1 Control Panel............................................................................................... 6

3.2.2 Start Menu ................................................................................................... 6

4. FLARES ordering information .................................................................................. 7

4.1 Permanent Software Key Delivery ..................................................................... 7

4.2 Credit Card Orders............................................................................................. 7

4.3 Other types of Orders ........................................................................................ 8

4.4 FLARES Pricing ................................................................................................. 8

5. Registration .............................................................................................................. 9

5.1 Evaluation key.................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Permanent key ................................................................................................. 10

6. Support, questions and warranty ............................................................................11

6.1 Technical warranty ............................................................................................11

7. TUTORIAL ............................................................................................................. 12

7.1 Menu and buttons ............................................................................................ 12

7.2 File ................................................................................................................... 13

7.2.1 File > Load ................................................................................................ 13

7.2.2 File > Save ................................................................................................ 14

7.2.3 File > Select printer ................................................................................... 14

7.2.4 File > Exit .................................................................................................. 14


FLARES User's Guide – Version 2015-10-12 – © 2011-2015 Enviroware srl

7.3 Map .................................................................................................................. 15

7.3.1 Map > Load ............................................................................................... 15

7.3.2 Map > Set coordinates .............................................................................. 15

7.3.3 Map > Stack position ................................................................................. 18

7.3.4 Map > Clear............................................................................................... 19

7.3.5 Map > Save ............................................................................................... 19

7.3.6 Map > Copy ............................................................................................... 19

7.3.7 Map > Print preview................................................................................... 20

7.3.8 Map > Print ................................................................................................ 20

7.4 Actions ............................................................................................................. 20

7.4.1 Actions > Options ...................................................................................... 20

7.4.2 Actions > Sizing ......................................................................................... 24

7.4.3 Actions > Thermal impact .......................................................................... 27

7.4.4 Actions > Acoustic impact.......................................................................... 31

7.4.5 Actions > Flue gas ..................................................................................... 35

7.5 Output .............................................................................................................. 37

7.5.1 Output > Sizing .......................................................................................... 37

7.5.2 Output > Thermal impact ........................................................................... 38

7.5.3 Output > Acoustic impact........................................................................... 41

7.6 Help ................................................................................................................. 42

8. Contacts................................................................................................................. 43

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1. COPYRIGHT
2015 © Enviroware srl
All rights reserved. No parts of this document may be reproduced in any form or by any
means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or
information storage and retrieval systems - without the written permission of Enviroware.
Products that are referred to in this help may be either trademarks and/or registered
trademarks of the respective owners. Enviroware makes no claim to these trademarks.
While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this document, Enviroware
assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use
of information contained in this document or from the use of programs and source code
that may accompany it. In no event shall Enviroware be liable for any loss of profit or any
other commercial damage caused or alleged to have been caused directly or indirectly
by this document.

Printed: 2015-10-12

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2. INTRODUCTION
FLARES is a Windows application for:
• sizing subsonic industrial flares,
• evaluating thermal and acoustic impact of both subsonic and sonic flares, and
• calculating the flue gas composition.
FLARES is based on the methodology described in the ANSI/API Standard 521, sixth
edition January 2014, and ISO 23251.
The main features of the software are:
• Sizing (i.e. calculation of height and diameter) of subsonic industrial flares
according to a specified allowable radiation;
• Include solar radiation contribution, or calculate it according to the geographical
position
• Calculation of thermal radiation of subsonic and sonic flares;
• Calculation of noise levels of subsonic and sonic flares;
• Flame tilting calculated with the Simple approach and with the Brzustowski and
Sommer approach;
• Calculation of the flue gas composition starting from the fuel gas composition;
• Calculation of the effective stack parameters needed for dispersion modelling;
• Works with SI (International Standard) and USC (United States Customary) units;
• Allows to load and georeferentiate a base map;
• Georeferentiation done automatically if the base map file has an associated world
file;
• Allows to position the stack over the base map;
• Thermal radiation levels and noise levels are shown at any point moving the mouse
over the base map;
• Plots radiation levels and noise levels over the base map;
• Base map and levels can be copied, saved and printed;
• Stack can be exported in KML format for Google Earth;
• Thermal radiation levels and noise levels can be exported in KML format for
Google Earth.

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3. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
FLARES is a Windows application that can be used both on 32 bit and 64 platforms.
FLARES has been tested by the developers under Windows XP, Windows Vista,
Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10. It has not been tested under older versions of
Windows.
It might not function correctly under any Windows emulator of Mac, Linux or Unix systems.

3.1 Installation

To install FLARES from the distribution setup package, simply double click over the setup
file. The Setup program will issue a number of prompts. Unless you have a reason to
override the defaults it is strongly recommended that you accept the installation default
settings (just press OK, Yes, or Next, as appropriate).

3.2 Uninstallation

There are two ways to uninstall FLARES, should you wish to do so.

3.2.1 Control Panel

Activate the Control Panel, double click Add/Remove Programs, and double click on the
FLARES list box entry.

3.2.2 Start Menu

From the Start menu, click Programs, then FLARES, and then Uninstall FLARES.

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4. FLARES ORDERING INFORMATION


All orders are subject to the FLARES License agreement. Enviroware srl is willing to
license the FLARES software only if you accept all of the terms in the license agreement.
Please read the terms carefully before you install the software, because by installing the
software you are agreeing to be bound by the terms of the agreement. If you do not agree
to the terms, Enviroware srl will not license the FLARES software to you, and in that case
you should immediately delete all copies of the software you have in any form.

4.1 Permanent Software Key Delivery

The permanent software key will be sent by email in no more than 2 working days after
the purchase. If the order is received during working days from 9 a.m to 6 p.m Italian time,
the permanent software key is sent in less than one hour.

4.2 Credit Card Orders

You can place secure credit card orders on the Internet using the order link on the
Enviroware web site (http://www.enviroware.com/portfolio/flares-2/).
Alternatively, you can use the BUY NOW link on the License Registration form which
automatically transmit your computer identification code needed to generate your license.

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4.3 Other types of Orders

Please contact Enviroware srl (info@enviroware.com) to know about the possibility of


other order types.

4.4 FLARES Pricing

Current price is indicated on the FLARES web page:


http://www.enviroware.com/portfolio/flares-2/.

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5. REGISTRATION
FLARES must be activated with an evaluation key or with a permanent key.

5.1 Evaluation key

If you want to evaluate FLARES click on the TRY NOW link on the License
Registration form represented in the following figure (you need an active internet
connection during this phase).

A web page of the Enviroware's internet site will appear, asking to insert optional
information (country and town) which will be used only for statistical purposes. You may
insert your email address if you want to be informed about new Enviroware products,
otherwise click the Proceed button and you will see a page containing an evaluation
license key. Copy the key, paste it in the License key field shown in the previous figure,

then click the registration button at the lower right corner of the form. At this point you
will be able to evaluate FLARES for a limited number of days.

The evaluation version has some limitations with respect to the full one:
• some watermarks are written on each plot,
• images cannot be copied,

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• images cannot be saved,


• check for updates does not work,
• stack position is randomly moved of about 50 m when exporting the KML files.

5.2 Permanent key

You obtain a permanent key only after purchasing FLARES. The permanent key is bound
to a single computer by means of the computer identifier that you must write exactly
during the payment procedure (if you use the BUY NOW link shown on the previous image,
the computer identifier is automatically communicated to the internet site for the
payment). The computer identifier is a code automatically generated by the software to
uniquely identify the PC where it is installed.
After receiving the payment we will send to the buyer:
• an email containing the instructions to download the full version of the software
and the permanent license;
• an email containing the invoice in PDF format.

Please note that:


• the software is not physically delivered on any type of support, it will be
downloaded from an internet address;
• the permanent license alone will not enable all the features of the software, the
buyer must download the full version of the software.

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6. SUPPORT, QUESTIONS AND WARRANTY


To check whether you have the most recent version of FLARES, please use the Check
for Updates menu item.
Please see the FLARES web page (http://www.enviroware.com/portfolio/flares-2/) for
answers to common questions.
The best way to report problems is to send an email to info@enviroware.com (you can
also use the feedback button on the software, which is represented by an envelope).
When reporting problems, please include at least the following information:
• Is the problem reproducible? If so, how? (Please include the input data).
• What version of Windows are you using?
• What version of FLARES are you running? (To see what version of FLARES you
have, choose the About button). Please include version number and date in your
problem report.
• If a dialogue box with an error message was displayed, please include the full text
of the dialogue box, including the text in the title bar.

6.1 Technical warranty

FLARES is covered by a technical warranty for a period of 6 (six) months after the
purchase date. During this period Enviroware will fix all the bugs that should arise.

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7. TUTORIAL
All the calculations carried out by FLARES are based on the API 521 Recommended
Practice, 6th Edition, January 2014 and ISO 23251.

7.1 Menu and buttons

The main form of the software FLARES is represented in the next figure.

There are five menu topics:


• File: allows to save a configuration file (i.e. a set of input data used for sizing the
flare and for calculating its impacts), to load an existing configuration file, to select
a printer and to exit the program.
• Map: allows to load a base map, to set its coordinates, to position the stack, to
copy, save and print the map
• Actions: used for applying the software options, for flare sizing (i.e. for calculating
stack height and diameter as function of the maximum allowable thermal

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radiation), for calculating thermal and acoustic impacts, and for calculating the flue
gas characteristics.
• Output: allows to view results as ASCII files, charts and maps.
• Help: allows to access the User’s Guide (this document), to send feedbacks and
to carry out other operations.
All the operations can be done more faster by means of the buttons placed within the
toolstrip just below the main menu, as schematically represented in the previous figure.

7.2 File

7.2.1 File > Load

The File > Load menu item allows to load FLARES configuration files previously
saved. The same result is obtained by clicking the button enclosed in a red rectangle.
The configuration files are XML files with the extension .flares.

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7.2.2 File > Save

The File > Save menu item allows to save FLARES configuration files. The same
result is obtained by clicking the button enclosed in a red rectangle.

7.2.3 File > Select printer

Allows to select the printer where the user wants to print the map.

7.2.4 File > Exit

Exits the program. The same effect is obtained by using the rightmost button placed on
the toolstrip just below the main menu.

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7.3 Map

7.3.1 Map > Load

The Map > Load menu item allows to load a graphic files to use as base map. The same
result is obtained by clicking the button enclosed in a red rectangle. FLARES allows to
load the following graphic file formats: PNG, JPG, BMP and GIF. Once loaded, the map
can be moved by clicking over it and dragging.

7.3.2 Map > Set coordinates

The Map > Set coordinates menu item allows to specify the actual coordinates of
two known points in order to establish a coordinate system for the map. The same result
is obtained by clicking the button enclosed in a red rectangle.

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This action opens the form shown in the next figure. It is possible to assign a coordinate
system to the map by following these steps:
• Click on the map to get the position of a point in pixel, then write its actual
coordinates;
• Repeat the same operation with the second point;
• Select the map units between meters, yards and feet;
• Click the green button.
The software will calculate a scale for the map. Scale and actual position of the mouse
cursor are shown on the status strip at the bottom of the main form.
Remember that
• the loaded image must have the same scale along the X and Y directions;
• the two known points cannot have the same X or Y coordinate;
• the two known points must not be very close one to the other.

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If the graphic image used as base map has an associated world file, this procedure is
carried out automatically by FLARES (the user will only specify the map units).
A world file is a plain text computer data file used by geographic information systems to
georeference raster map images. Small-scale rectangular raster image maps can have
an associated world file for GIS map software which describes the location, scale and
rotation of the map. A world file is composed by six records with the following information:
• Record 1: pixel size in the x-direction in map units/pixel
• Record 2: rotation about y-axis
• Record 3: rotation about x-axis
• Record 4: pixel size in the y-direction in map units, almost always negative
• Record 5: x-coordinate of the center of the upper left pixel
• Record 6: y-coordinate of the center of the upper left pixel
The base map in FLARES cannot be rotated, therefore records 2 and 3 will always be
0.0. Moreover the absolute values of records 1 and 4 must be the same, which means
that the map has the same scale along X and Y.

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An example of world file is represented in the following box. It indicates that the map has
a scale of 0.5 units per pixel, there is no rotation, and the upper left pixel has coordinates
(436165, 3292405).
0.5
0.00
0.00
-0.5
436165.0
3292405.0
The world file must be in the same folder of the graphic file used as base map, must have
the same name, and extension as illustrated in the following table.

Image file extension World file extension

PNG PGW

JPG JGW

BMP BPW

GIF GFW

7.3.3 Map > Stack position

The Map > Stack position menu item is activated after the map georeferentiation.
It allows to specify the actual position of the stack by clicking over the map. The same
result is obtained by clicking the button enclosed in a red rectangle.

This action opens the form shown in the next figure, which shows the stack position in
pixels and actual units while the user clicks over the map. It is also possible to specify a
colour and a size for a marker which will represent the stack position. The stack position
is stored when the user clicks on the green button.

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7.3.4 Map > Clear

The Map > Clear menu item allows to delete any drawing or marker present over the
base map. The same result is obtained by clicking the button enclosed in a red rectangle.

7.3.5 Map > Save

The Map > Save menu item allows to save the base map and any drawing on it. The
same result is obtained by clicking the button enclosed in a red rectangle.

7.3.6 Map > Copy

The Map > Copy menu item allows to copy the base map and any drawing on it. The
same result is obtained by clicking the button enclosed in a red rectangle.

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7.3.7 Map > Print preview

The Map > Print preview menu item allows to see a preview of the image that will
be printed.

7.3.8 Map > Print

The Map > Print menu item allows to print on the selected printer the base map and
any drawing on it. The same result is obtained by clicking the button enclosed in a red
rectangle.

7.4 Actions

7.4.1 Actions > Options

The Actions > Options menu item (or the button enclosed in a red rectangle) allows
to open a form with important working options of FLARES.

The temporary files folder is the folder where FLARES saves some working files.
It is specified by browsing the existing folders of the PC. The user must have the rights to
read from and write into the specified directory. FLARES automatically proposes to use
\Enviroware\Flares\ under the common application data folder, which depends on
the Windows version installed on the user's PC. For example, in Windows 7 the common
application data folder is C:\ProgramData\, while in Windows XP it is in
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application data\.

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The design criteria indicate where the maximum allowable thermal radiation is
calculated for determining the height and the diameter of the flare stack. Considering the
following figure, the option Maximum radiation directly under the flame
centre, means that the maximum radiation is determined at point A, while the option
Maximum radiation at a horizontal distance from the stack centre
means that the maximum radiation is calculated at point B.

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The maximum allowable radiation is the value used for sizing the flare stack, and
the distance of maximum radiation is used only when the second design criteria
is selected (it must be specified in any case).
By selecting the Include solar radiation check box it is possible to include a
specific value of solar radiation in the calculations. The user may directly write the solar
radiation value, or having the maximum solar radiation calculated by the software. In this
last case the user will insert longitude and latitude of the plant (longitude positive toward
East and latitude positive in the northern hemisphere), time zone and cloud cover in
tenths. The most conservative values will be obtained with a cloud cover equal to zero.
The Calculate button executes the calculations for a whole year and writes the
maximum value in field Maximum value of solar radiation. If the user selects
the Write output file checkbox, an output file named SolarRadiation.csv is
written it the temporary files folder. Such a file contains as many records as the hours of
the year, and each record has the following fields: date, Julian day, latitude, longitude,
Sun altitude, Sun azimuth, Sun zenith and solar radiation (expressed in kW/m2 or

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Btu/h/ft2 depending on the selected units of measure.


The solar radiation is subtracted from the maximum allowable radiation, therefore the
stack height will be higher when the solar radiation is considered.
The relative molecular mass of air should always be 29.
The units of measure can be SI (International System) or USC (United States
Customary). The units must be specified before inserting any number within the software
input mask, because the software does not carry out any units conversion. This means
that if the user starts to insert the values in SI units, then select USC units, the already
inserted values are not modified, and it is up to the user to modify them.
The variables used by FLARES and their units are summarised in the following table:

Variable SI USC
Distance m ft
Height m ft
Diameter m ft
Length m ft
Speed m/s ft/s
Mass flow rate kg/h lb/h
Temperature K R
Pressure kPa psi
Heat of combustion kJ/kg Btu/lb
Energy J Btu
Power kW Btu/h
Thermal radiation kW/m2 Btu/h/ft2
Noise dB dB
Direction deg deg
Relative humidity % %

The calculation method for flame tilting refers to one of the two methods illustrated in the
API 521 standard: the Simple approach or the Brzustowski and Sommer approach (which
will be indicated as B&S in the following). The main difference between the two methods
is the location of the flame centre. The selected calculation method is used both for sizing

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and for calculating the thermal radiation levels.


The options are saved when the user clicks on the green button.

7.4.2 Actions > Sizing

The Actions > Sizing menu item (or the button enclosed in a red rectangle) allow to
open a form for sizing a subsonic flare.

This menu item opens the form shown in the next figure (with SI units), which allows to
specify the input values needed for determining the flare stack height and diameter.
The calculations start when the user clicks on the green button. The input values needed
are slightly different for the two calculation methods (Simple or B&S); more specifically
the Simple approach does not need the air temperature and the lower explosive limit
concentration.
The input Mach number must be smaller than 1, since the approach is valid for subsonic
flares.

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The fraction of heat radiated, usually indicated with F, is a number smaller than 1
indicating that not all the heat released by a flame is transferred by radiation. A typical
value used for F is 0.3. However F depends on many factors and is up to the user to
specify the most correct value for his/her application. For few selected gases (hydrogen,
butane, methane and natural gas), FLARES determines the F value according to the
burner diameter (using the values suggested by the US Bureau of Mines). If liquid droplets
of hydrocarbons larger than 150 µm in size are present within the flame, the F values
indicated by FLARES must be somewhat increased. On the contrary, if the flame is not

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entirely smokeless, the F values indicated by FLARES must be somewhat decreased.


Important: When the Brzustowski and Sommer approach is used, the design wind
speed cannot be null.

After all the input values have been specified, the calculation procedure is activated
clicking the green button. At the end of the calculation a form similar to the following one
is shown, with a summary of the input values and the most important output values: stack
height, stack diameter, flame length, exit speed and heat liberated.

Note that when even a ground flare satisfies the user requirements concerning the

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allowable radiation, the stack height is always indicated as 0.1 m.

The buttons on the right part of the form allow these operations:

Copy the image

Save the image as PNG, JPG, BMP or GIF

Prints the image

Opens the plain text output file with a summary of the input values and the output
values

Closes the form

7.4.3 Actions > Thermal impact

The Actions > Thermal impact menu item allows to open a form for calculating the
thermal radiation levels for both subsonic and sonic flares. The same form can be
activated by clicking the button enclosed in a red rectangle.

This menu item opens the form shown in the next figure (with SI units), which allows to
specify the input values needed for determining the radiation levels at different horizontal
distances from the flare stack axis. The calculations start when the user clicks on the
green button. The input values needed are slightly different for the two calculation
methods (Simple or B&S); more specifically the Simple approach does not need the stack
diameter, the air temperature, the lower explosive limit, the flowing temperature and the
relative molecular mass.
Important: When the Brzustowski and Sommer approach is used, the wind speed
cannot be null.

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The thermal radiation levels are calculated at the specified calculation height
above the ground, at a number of calculation points defined by the number of steps,
distant one from the other of one calculation step, and starting from the initial
distance from the stack.

The buttons on the upper part of the form allow these operations:
Picks the input and the output values relative to the flare sizing phase and inserts
them in this form

Start the calculations

If checked, activates the calculation “on the fly” of the thermal radiation levels
while the user moves the mouse over the base map.

Opens the plain text output file with a summary of the input values and the output
values

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Opens a chart showing the thermal radiation levels at different downwind


distances from the flare stack centre.

Closes the form

An example of chart showing the thermal radiation levels at different downwind distances
from the flare stack centre is shown in the following figure. A context menu appears if the
user clicks over any point of the chart with the right mouse button. The context menu
allows some operations, such as copy, save and print the image, specify if the radiation
levels must be shown while the user moves the mouse over the curve, and carry out some
zoom undo. Any portion of the chart can be zoomed simply by clicking over a point and
dragging the mouse.

If the Fly checkbox is checked, the thermal radiation level at any point is shown while the
user moves the mouse pointer over the map. The following figure, for example, shows
that on the wall of tank number 2 (TNK2) at 131.8 m from the stack, represented by an
orange circle, the thermal radiation level is equal to 3.870 kW/m2.

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The next box shows an example of plain text thermal radiation output.

----------------------------------------------------
Flares is copyright Enviroware srl (2015)
http://www.enviroware.com
----------------------------------------------------

File created on 10/9/2015 8:17:02 AM

-----------------------
SUMMARY OF INPUT VALUES
-----------------------
Stack height: 120.97 m
Stack diameter: 0.91 m
Power liberated: 6300000.00 kW
Fraction of heat radiated: 0.3
Flame length: 140.42 m
Exit speed: 137.97 m/s
Wind speed: 8.90 m/s
Wind direction: 30.00 deg
Air temperature: 289.00 K
Lower explosive limit: 0.021
Flowing temperature: 422.00 K

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Relative molecular mass: 46.1


Assumed constant transmissivity
Transmissivity value: 1
Calculation height: 0.00 m

---------------
RADIATION POINT
---------------
Horizontal distance of the radiant point from the stack: 17.9 m
Vertical distance of the radiant point above the calculation height: 152.0 m
X coordinate of the radiant point: 436530.0 m
Y coordinate of the radiant point: 3292135.0 m

------------------------
THERMAL RADIATION VALUES
------------------------
Distance (m) Radiation (kW/m2)
0.00 6.421
5.00 6.463
10.00 6.492
15.00 6.508
20.00 6.509
25.00 6.496
30.00 6.469
35.00 6.429



485.00 0.623
490.00 0.612
495.00 0.600
500.00 0.589

7.4.4 Actions > Acoustic impact

The Actions > Acoustic impact menu item allows to open a form for calculating
the noise levels of the flare. The same form is also activated by clicking the button
enclosed in a red rectangle.

This menu item opens the form shown in the next figure (with SI units), which allows to
specify the input values needed for determining the noise levels at different horizontal
distances from the flare stack axis. The calculations start when the user clicks on the
green button. The noise levels are calculated at the specified calculation height
above the ground, at a number of calculation points defined by the number of steps,
distant one from the other of one calculation step, and starting from the initial
distance from the stack.

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The buttons on the right part of the form allow these operations:
Picks the input and the output values relative to the flare sizing phase and inserts
them in this form

Start the calculations

If checked, activates the calculation “on the fly” of the noise levels while the user
moves the mouse over the base map.

Opens the plain text output file with a summary of the input values and the output
values

Opens a chart showing the noise levels at different downwind distances from
the flare stack centre.

Closes the form

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An example of chart showing the noise levels at different distances from the flare stack
centre is shown in the following figure. A context menu appears if the user clicks over any
point of the chart with the right mouse button. The context menu allows some operations,
such as copy, save and print the image, specify if the noise levels must be shown while
the user moves the mouse over the curve, and carry out some zoom undo. Any portion
of the chart can be zoomed simply by clicking over a point and dragging the mouse.

If the Fly checkbox is checked, the noise level at any point is shown while the user moves
the mouse pointer over the map. The following figure, for example, shows that close to
building 2 (BLD2) at 173 m from the stack, represented by an orange circle, the noise
level is equal to 98.4 dB.

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The next box shows an example of plain text thermal radiation output.

----------------------------------------------------
Flares is copyright Enviroware srl (2015)
http://www.enviroware.com
----------------------------------------------------

File created on 10/9/2015 8:39:40 AM

-----------------------
SUMMARY OF INPUT VALUES
-----------------------
Stack height: 33.6 m
Flow rate: 52560.0 kg/h
Pressure ratio: 3
Flowing temperature: 311.0 K
Molecular weight: 29
Ratio of specific heats: 1.4

------
OUTPUT
------
Speed of sound: 353.4 m/s

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Noise at 30 m: 113.8 dB

-------------
NOISE VALUES
-------------
Distance (m) Noise (dB)
0.00 112.8
5.00 112.7
10.00 112.4
15.00 112.0
20.00 111.4
25.00 110.9
30.00 110.2
35.00 109.6



480.00 89.7
485.00 89.6
490.00 89.5
495.00 89.4
500.00 89.3

7.4.5 Actions > Flue gas

The Actions > Flue gas menu item allows to open a form for calculating the flue
gas composition as function of the fuel gas composition. The same form is activated by
clicking the button enclosed in a red rectangle in the next figure.

This menu item opens the form shown in the next figure (with SI units), which allows to
specify the composition (%vol) of the fuel gas, the composition (%vol) of the air, the fuel
gas flow rate and excess of air, and other parameters. Starting from these input values,
the software calculates some stream and flue gas parameters, such as:
• the molar weight of the fuel gas stream,
• the normal density of the fuel gas stream,
• the normal volume flow rate,
• the total heat released,
• the molar weight of the flue gas,
• the mass flow rate of the flue gas,
• the normal density of the flue gas,
• the normal volume flow rate of the flue gas,

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• the water content of the flue gas,


• the oxygen content of the flue gas,
• the concentration of SO2, NOX, VOC, CO and PM within the flue gas,
• the emission rate of SO2, NOX, VOC, CO.
The calculations start when the user clicks on the green button.

Moreover, FLARES calculates the effective stack parameters that must be used within
the atmospheric dispersion models (e.g. AERMOD, CALPUFF). The effective stack
parameters are calculated using two different methods: the US-EPA SCREEN3 method,

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and the TCEQ (Texas Commission on Environmental Quality) method. It is worth noting
that in the TCEQ method no additional plume height is considered for the length of the
flame, therefore the software will always indicate an additional stack height equal zero for
this method.
The emission rates of the SO2 is calculated starting from the sulphur contained within the
fuel gas stream. The emission rates of the other pollutants (NOX, CO, VOC and PM) are
calculated using the AP42 emission factors. The VOC emission rate can be alternatively
calculated indicating a destruction efficiency. For example, if the destruction efficiency is
98%, the 2% of the VOCs within the fuel gas stream will be emitted into the atmosphere.
It is observed that the air molar weight is automatically calculated while inserting the air
composition. The calculated value can be used for the other types of evaluations (e.g.
thermal impact) by selecting the Use everywhere checkbox.
The results of the calculations are presented as an ASCII text file by clicking on the blue
book button.
The buttons on the bottom of the form allow these operations:

Start the calculations

Opens the plain text output file with a summary of the input values and the output
values

Closes the form

7.5 Output

The Output menu item allows to view and save all the outputs of the sizing phase and
of the thermal and acoustic impacts.

7.5.1 Output > Sizing

The Output > Sizing menu item has two sub items.

Output > Sizing > ASCII file allows to view an ASCII (plain text) file containing
a summary of all the input values used during the sizing operation and the corresponding

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output values (stack height, stack diameter, flame length, etc.).

Output > Sizing > Export KML allows to export the flare stack as a 3D cylinder
with the calculated height and diameter. The user must specify, see the next figure, the
stack coordinates in longitude and latitude or in UTM coordinates, and a colour for the
stack. Once produced, the KML file can be viewed in Google Earth
(http://earth.google.com).

7.5.2 Output > Thermal impact

The Output > Thermal impact menu item has three sub items.

Output > Thermal impact > ASCII file allows to view an ASCII (plain text) file
containing a summary of all the input values used during the thermal impact calculations
and the corresponding output values (radiation levels at different distances).

Output > Thermal impact > Chart allows to view the thermal radiation charts
already described in paragraph 7.4.3 (Actions > Thermal impact).

Output > Thermal impact > Map allows to perform two operations: 1) to plot the
thermal radiation levels over the base map and 2) to export the radiation levels in KML
format for Google Earth. The radiation levels to plot are specified through the mask shown
in the next figure.
The three buttons allow, respectively from left to right, to add a new level, to

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remove a specified level, and to remove all the levels. If the Label checkbox is selected
for a specific level, a label is represented over the base map close to such level. If a
Caption is specified, it is used as label, otherwise the Level value is used. Labels are
plotted over the base map using the font family, size and colour specified. Moreover they
are drawn along the specified direction.

The buttons on the form allow these operations:

Exports the specified radiation levels as KML file for Google Earth

Draws the specified radiation levels on the base map

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Closes the form

An example of radiation levels represented over the base map is shown in the following
figure. Note that the circles are not centred over the stack because a wind blowing from
North East tilts the flame toward South West.

In order to export the radiation levels as KML for Google Earth, the stack position must
be specified in longitude latitude or UTM coordinates. It is also possible to specify a plot
title which will be represented at the top of the legend. An example of radiation levels
exported in KML format and loaded in Google Earth is represented in the next figure.

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7.5.3 Output > Acoustic impact

The Output > Acoustic impact menu item has three sub items.

Output > Acoustic impact > ASCII file allows to view an ASCII (plain text) file
containing a summary of all the input values used during the acoustic impact calculations
and the corresponding output values (noise levels at different distances).

Output > Acoustic impact > Chart allows to view the noise level charts already
described in paragraph 7.4.4 (Actions > Acoustic impact).

Output > Acoustic impact > Map allows two operations: 1) to plot the noise levels
over the base map and 2) to export the noise levels in KML format for Google Earth. The
noise levels to plot are specified through the same mask shown for the thermal impact
part in paragraph 7.5.2 (Output > Thermal impact).

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7.6 Help

The Help menu item allows to carry out the operations described in the following list.

Opens the FLARES User's Guide (this document)

Opens the Registration form, which can be used for obtaining an evaluation
license and for buying the software. See paragraph 5 (Registration) for
additional information.

Checks for software updates connecting to the Enviroware internet site.

Send a feedback or report an error via email. Note that the message subject is
automatically prepared for containing software name, version and date (e.g.
Feedback for: Flares 2.1.43.0 (2015-10-05))

Opens the Enviroware internet site.

Opens the about form containing some information on the software.

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8. CONTACTS
If you need additional information about FLARES, please contact us:

Enviroware srl
via Dante 142
20863 Concorezzo (MB)
Italy

Email: info@enviroware.com
URL: http://www.enviroware.com

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