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Big Bazaar is a chain of hypermarkets in India, with more than 100 stores in operation.

It is a
subsidiary of Pantaloon Retail India Ltd's, Future Group, and follows the business
model of United States-based Wal-Mart.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bazaar
Big Bazaar, the hypermarket of Pantaloon Retail, has come out with a breakfast cereal range under its private
label, Tasty Treat. Big Bazaar already sells noodles, pasta, vermicelli, soups, namkeens, chips, toast, khari,
papads, jams, pickles, carbonated drinks, ketchup and fruit beverages under the brand. It has now added
breakfast cereals to the range.

Also Read
Related Stories News
Now

- Analysts' corner
- Pantaloon Retail to raise Rs 500
cr via QIP
- Pantaloon QIP to start today
- Pantaloon: A new format
- Experts stress on tapping retail
sector
- Future group draws out
expansion plans

The breakfast cereals will be available in three variants — plain cornflakes, chocolate-flavoured Choco Gols and
honey-flavoured Honey Circles. There are two reasons for launching the product, says Pantaloon Retail’s head of
private brands, Devendra Chawla. “One is that private brands give us far higher margins, and the second is that
cornflakes as a category is under-penetrated and has a lot of scope to grow.”

The market for breakfast cereals is still small. While the packaged food market is valued at Rs 33,234 crore, the
organised breakfast cereal market is just Rs 250 crore — less than one per cent. But the market is growing fast,
given the growing health consciousness in the country, especially the urban middle class. Kelloggs monopolises
the market for breakfast cereals with its range of flakes. Some other multinational players have also shown keen
interest in this market. PepsiCo has already entered with its bestseller brand, Quaker Oates. Heinz India, which
has a hugely strong bond with households because of its Complan health drinks, too has joined the bandwagon.

In spite of the presence of a large number of players in the branded packaged food segment, Tasty Treat is
growing at about 70 per cent. This perhaps has given Big Bazaar the confidence to try its luck in breakfast
cereals as well.

In a recent development, Pantaloon Retail, promoted by Kishore Biyani, has boycotted Kelloggs at all its retail
formats for turning down its demand for higher margins. Not surprisingly, Big Bazaar is pushing its own brand of
cornflakes now. This is not the first time Big Bazaar is doing this. A while back Cadburys and PepsiCo owned
snack food brand Frito Lay had to bear the brunt.

As an introductory offer, the cornflakes brand will be priced at Rs 99 along with a free bowl worth Rs 60.

According to Chawla, the brand will provide 10 to 15 per cent value when compared to rivals. “We have the
option of pricing it lower as we don’t have to pay intermediaries and can pass on that advantage to consumers,”
says Chawla.

http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/big-bazaar-private-label-
push/378124/
Private branding is when a large distribution channel member (usually a retailer), buys from a
manufacturer in bulk and puts its own name on the product. This strategy is only practical when the
retailer does very high levels of volume. The advantages to the retailer are:

 more freedom and flexibility in pricing


 more control over product attributes and quality
 higher margins (or lower selling price)
 eliminates much of the manufacturer's promotional costs

The advantages to the manufacturer are:

 reduced promotional costs


 stability of sales volume (at least while the contract is operative)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_brand

The concept of private brands has been around for many decades. As early as the middle of the 19th
century, there is evidence of the first major department stores contracting with suppliers to private
label some of the goods that were sold on store shelves. The trend has continued on to this day, with
some of the most well-known retailing entities sometimes attracting customers based on the quality of
their house or store brands as well as their selection of national brands.

Retailers who market private brands benefit from the activity in several ways. First, there is no need to
establish manufacturing facilities in order to produce the goods or services offered. The retailer does
not have to hire additional employees, deal with the acquisition of raw materials, or arrange for
storage space for finished goods until they are sold to a customer. Because someone else is dealing
with details of that type, the overhead for the retailer is significantly less than if the business attempted
to produce the goods on its own.

Another advantage to the use of private brands is that the retailer does not have to sink a great deal
of time and money into the research and development of new product lines. The manufacturers who
produce the goods and arrange for the private labeling engage in that type of activity, then offer the
retailer the opportunity to private brand any new products or services the supplier decides to market.
Often, the retailer is made privy to the results of field testing and the identification of the niche market
where the good or service is likely to generate interest, and can determine if they wish to go after that
particular market sector.

For the manufacturer, private brands also provide another outlet for distributing their products or
services. By producing the same goods as for their national brand distribution and labeling them with
private brands for various clients, the volume of production is often higher than it would be otherwise.
This translates into more net profit for the manufacturer in the long run, helping the business to remain
stable even in tough economic times.

While many people automatically think of supermarket products when they hear of private branding,
the fact is that many different industries routinely use private brands. Resellers of electronic
equipment,telecommunication services, pharmaceuticals, and even garments often contract to sell
name brand products under their own private brand name.
big Bazaar to source its in-store apparel brands from
Arvindhttp://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2004/03/27/stories/200403270182
0600.htm

Purvita Chatterjee

Mumbai , March 26

APART from Big Bazaar retailing Arvind Brands' Ruf & Tuf jeans, the discount retail
chain is planning to source apparel from Arvind for its about to be launched in-store
labels. Speaking to Business Line, Mr Kishore Biyani, Managing Director, Pantaloon
Retail, said, "We are planning to launch about eight in-store brands and intend
sourcing some of these products from Arvind."

Some of the in-store brands would include names such as Knighthood (for shirts),
AFL (for all technology-driven apparel such as `wrinkle-free'), Shyla (for
womanswear), Pink & Blue (for children's apparel), DJ&C (for denim wear), Shatranj
(for ethnic apparel), Priviledge Club and Studio NYX (for evening wear).

"Its going to be a two-way arrangement. While we will retail the Ruf & Tuf brand for
Arvind, the latter will supply us with some of the products for our in-store brands,"
says Mr Biyani.

For instance, the Knighthood brand of shirts will be sourced from Arvind brands.

Considering Big Bazaar intends launching its denim brand in future under the DJ& C
brand, its pricing and range is to be kept different from the Ruf & Tuf offerings. Adds
Mr Biyani, "We will make sure that there is a different pricing policy adopted for our
in-store denim brand so that it does not clash with Ruf & Tuf."

In spite of speculation regarding in-store brands being favoured over the private
labels by retailers, Mr Darshan Mehta, President, Arvind Brands, says, "It is possible
for private labels and in-store brands to co-exist."

Arvind, however, does not intend retailing more of its brands through Big Bazaar. In
spite of having brands such as Newport in the value for money segment, there are
no plans to introduce more brands through the discount chain.

More Stories on : Retailing | Readymade Garments

http://www.coolavenues.com/know/mktg/ravi-big-bazaar-5.php

Pantaloon Retail Announces Launch of Big Bazaar in Ahmednagar |


INRnews
Ahmednagar, December 21, 2007: Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited, part
of the Future Group, today announced the launch of its flagship
hypermarket format - Big Bazaar – in Ahmednagar. With today’s launch,
the company has further enhanced its reach to the masses in
Maharashtra, with Ahmednagar Big Bazaar being the 18th store in the
State, while overall tally goes upto 76 Big Bazaar stores in the country.
As part of the launch offer, customers shopping for a minimum of Rs
499/- on a single bill will get sugar on a discount prize of Rs 4.99/- per Kg
(maximum 5 kg). The offer will be valid till December 31st 2007.
Big Bazaar, which displays around 1.6 lakh products under various
categories, is widely known for its unbelievable pricing and unmatched
offers throughout the year and is a source for mega cost savings for every
home. Spread over an area of around 31,000 sq.ft, Big Bazaar located at
Sarda Tower, Sarda Mill Compound, Savedi Road is Ahmednagar’s first
biggest hypermarket store which will cater to every single household
needs for the citizens, under one roof.
Trusted by millions of family across the country, Big Bazaar will bring
value to customers shopping, with its unmatched offers, discounts and
unbelievable round the year promotions on all categories be it personal
care products, garments, footwear, toys, home décor, home utilities,
kitchen utilities, packed food, pulses, fruits or vegetables, groceries and
many more.
The Ahmednagar Big Bazaar will also house Navaras – a national brand
known for fine 22 carat pure gold and diamond jewellery. Navaras offers
a wide range of designs in gold and diamond jewellery other than
providing nine unique benefits like BIS Hallmarked jewellery, free
cleaning and polishing, insurance cover against theft & burglary,
transparent making charges, zero percent weight loss, buyback,
karatmeter check etc.
Says Mr. Sharad Venkata, Business Manager, West Zone, Big Bazaar, "Big
Bazaar will bring convenience plus rich shopping experience to the people
of Ahmednagar. We are a consumer-driven company and this is evident in
every aspect of Big Bazaar. We ensure that all our Big Bazaar stores will
fulfill the needs of the entire household under one roof.
“Big Bazaar maintains stringent procurement norms and quality control
measures to ensure quality products sold at every Big Bazaar stores. We
are confident of our offerings both in quality and competitive pricing,
which has earned us the trust of millions of family across the country,
added Mr. Vankata.”
The Ahmednagar Big Bazaar will also have following section devoted to
specific product categories:
Food Bazaar: All food items, pulses, grains, fruits, vegetables, utensils,
ready-to-eat food.
M-Bazaar: A mobile shop offering latest and affordable handsets.
Star & Sitara : Beauty products for men and woman.
Depot : Book shop offering novels, cassettes & CDs, stationeries, books.
Navaras : A fine 22 carat pure gold & diamond jewellery brand shop.
Furniture Bazaar: Offers an entire range of Home Furniture at affordable
pricing.
Electronic Bazaar : Offers the best deals in branded electronic goods &
appliances.
Apparel : For Ladies, Mens, Kids for all season. Western, ethnic, casuals &
formals.
Appliances: All Kitchen Appliances like Mixer Grander, Toster, Microwave,
Juicer etc
GM-Home: Entire range of kitchen need, Utensils, Plasticswear, Home-
linen.
GM-Fashion: Accessories, Luggage, Gift items and many more…
About Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited
Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited is a leading retailer with a turnover of
over Rs. 3550 crore for the financial year 2006-07. Headquartered in
Mumbai, the company operates through primarily the ‘Lifestyle’ and
‘Value’ formats through multiple delivery mechanisms and lines of
business - some of them being, fashion, food, general merchandise,
home, leisure and entertainment, financial services, communications and
wellness. The company has stores in 45 cities across the country,
constituting over 6 million square feet of retail space. The company
caters to the ‘Lifestyle’ segment through its 35 Pantaloons Stores and 5
Central Malls, as well as its other concepts. In ‘Value’ retailing it is
present through 76 Big Bazaar hypermarkets, 110 Food Bazaars and other
delivery formats.
• Corporate News

Big Bazaar to move into grocery stores segment


Pantaloon to open 1,000 outlets in three years; supermarkets,catalogue stores planned to cash in
on popular brand

Rasul Bailay

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New Delhi: India’s biggest publicly traded retailer, Pantaloon Retail (India) Ltd, plans to open up to 1,000
grocery stores under its Big Bazaar brand in the next three years.

It also plans to launch catalogue stores and supermarkets in an initiative to cash in on its popular flagship
brand.

Pantaloon prototype: If its Big Bazaar Best Deals store in


Kandivali, Mumbai—that stocks items of daily use —is
successful, the company plans to open such stores
nationwide. (Photo: Ashesh Shah/Mint)

Pantaloon is testing a prototype of a convenience store


called Big Bazaar Best Deals in Mumbai’s Kandivali suburb.
If the pilot programme succeeds, it plans to open such
stores nationwide, managing director Big Bazaar said. “That
is a concept we are working on.”

Another Pantaloon official, who declined to be named, said the company opened the store last month and will
test it for three months. “If the prototype is successful, we will go ahead and open such stores in other
catchments.”

The company is still not sure whether it will name the grocery shops Big Bazaar Best Deals when it goes for an
actual roll-out, this person said. He added that the retailer plans to open 150-200 such stores, each covering
an area of 2,000 sq. ft, in the next 18 months.

“It is better late than never that people have realized that this (smaller format) is the best suited form of retail
in India,” says R. Subramanian, managing director of Subhiksha Trading Services Ltd, which operates India’s
largest chain of convenience stores. It, too, is aggressively ramping up the number of shops.

A host of Indian retailers, including Reliance Retail Ltd, Bharti Retail Ltd, Aditya Birla Retail Ltd and HyperCity
Retail (India) Pvt. Ltd, are fighting a fierce battle in the grocery store space, with plans to open thousands of
such shops. The retailers are focusing on smaller stores in a bid to gain scale, and overcome high rentals by
getting reasonably priced real estate in residential locations.

Subramanian is unfazed by the increasing competition in its bread-and-butter smaller format stores. “Imitation
is the best form of flattery, as everybody wants to be like us.”

Pantaloon made a late entry into the smaller format last year with a neighbourhood discount chain called KB’s
Fair Price store. Currently it has more than 100 such shops and plans to open another 1,400 in the next three
years.

It also plans to roll out supermarket outlets called Big Bazaar Express in two-three months that would each
have a floor area of 15,000-20,000 sq. ft, according to the official who did not wish to be named. This
compares with the 50,000 sq. ft Big Bazaar hypermarkets and 200,000 sq. ft Big Bazaar Supercentre.

Pantaloon plans to open about 100 Big Bazaar Express supermarkets in the next two years and the roll-out will
start either in the National Capital Region—which comprises New Delhi and its satellite cities—or Chennai. The
official declined to share investment figures for expanding Big Bazaar into smaller formats.
Pantaloon is also planning catalogue stores, to be called Big Bazaar Unlimited, in association with its electronic
commerce unit, FutureBazaar India Ltd, and take this format to small towns. These small shops would display
catalogues from which customers can order merchandise to be delivered at home.

It is also going ahead with its aggressive strategy for the hypermarket format. Currently, it operates 91 Big
Bazaar hypermarkets and plans to double that number in the next one year.

“Big Bazaar is a much bigger brand than what we physically are on the floor,” said the official. “We are looking
at different formats to see how we can make the bran stronger.”

Big Bazaar is the biggest revenue and profit generator for Pantaloon. The company announced revenues of
Rs3,236 crore for the fiscal year ended June 2007 with a net profit of Rs120 crore. Pantaloon begins its fiscal
year in July.

Edelweiss Securities Ltd expects Pantaloon’s revenue to jump to Rs5,755 crore in the fiscal year to June this
year. The Mumbai-based brokerage firm expects Pantaloon to achieve a significant jump in its profit as well.

The company is expected to announce its annual results in September.

Pantaloon expects Big Bazaar and its existing Food Bazaar supermarkets chain to clock $1 billion (Rs4,250
crore) of revenue for the fiscal year that just ended. It projects the revenue to go up to $1.5 billion next year
and to almost $4 billion in four years if the division maintains its current growth pace, Biyani had said earlier
this year.

The company is also planning to spin off Big Bazaar and take it public.

“It’s a good strategy. If you were to spin off that brand which is across multiple formats, it would be valued
higher. Therefore, you can unlock greater value throughout the group,” said Jayant Kochar, managing director
of retail consultancy firm Go Fish Retail Solutions.

Priya Ayyar, an analyst who tracks Pantaloon at Edelweiss, said Big Bazaar has already reached a “critical
mass” and the listing is about time. Branching into smaller format is the right thing to do, she added. Smaller
formats are “the best place to cater to your everyday needs, while Big Bazaar hypermarket is for your weekly
purchases”, Ayyar said. “Also, its quicker to roll out as you don’t have to wait for a mall to be built.”

http://www.livemint.com/2008/08/01003857/Big-Bazaar-to-move-into-
grocer.html?d=1

the economics times

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-
industry/services/retailing/Future-Group-may-hive-off-Big-Bazaar-
Biyani/articleshow/503447.cms

Future Group may hive off Big Bazaar: Biyani


20 Sep 2009, 2128 hrs IST, PTI
EW DELHI: Future Group chief Kishore Biyani is looking to hive off hypermarket chain Big Bazaar and list it to

unlock value as part of ambitious


restructuring and growth plans to become a Rs 25,000-crore group in four years.
Future Group is looking at adding 18 million sq.ft. of retail space across various formats by 2013-14 and is
looking at various options to raise money for expansion -- listing of the value retail chain Big Bazaar being one of
them.

"There are opportunities which we are looking at, including whether one should knock-off Big Bazaar into a
separate company and probably look at listing or a follow up offer on that," Future Group Chief Executive Officer
Kishore Biyani told PTI.

"There are possibilities (on hiving off Big Bazaar) but nothing is on the cards at this moment. It depends on the
fund raising exercise," he added.

The possibility of hiving-off Big Bazaar assumes importance at a time when Future Group is aiming to become a
Rs 25,000 conglomerate in 3-4 years, with a total retail space of 30 million square feet.

The group has currently a turnover of Rs 10,000 crore and Biyani had earlier this week said it is looking to grow
by two and half times

the hindu

. http://www.thehindu.com/2009/11/07/stories/2009110759620300.htm

Big Bazaar second anniversary bonanza

Staff Reporter

VIJAYAWADA: Big Bazaar, one of the largest hypermarket chain and a part of the Future Group, is
celebrating the 2nd anniversary of its city store by offering attractive packages on items of all categories
from Saturday to November 15.

Arcot Sravankumar, head of AP operations, said the city store had been a huge success in the past two
years and that the very good public patronage was evident from the jam-packed floors of the store on
Saturdays and Sundays. He announced a bonanza of great offers, assured gifts and exciting prizes for
the visitors during the anniversary celebrations. Mr. Sravan told reporters on Friday that in view of the
tremendous reception from the city people, they made the second anniversary a nine-day-long bonanza.
During these days, all those who shop for Rs. 499 and above will have a chance to participate in a lucky
draw. Store manager Ravi Kumar and assistant manager Bhanu Prakash said there would be early bird
customers’ gifts for the first 200 visitors.

Big Bazaar: Private label push

Byravee Iyer / Mumbai December 1, 2009, 20:00 IST

Big Bazaar, the hypermarket of Pantaloon Retail, has come out with a breakfast cereal range under its private
label, Tasty Treat. Big Bazaar already sells noodles, pasta, vermicelli, soups, namkeens, chips, toast, khari,
papads, jams, pickles, carbonated drinks, ketchup and fruit beverages under the brand. It has now added
breakfast cereals to the range.
Also Read

Related Stories News


Now

- Analysts' corner

- Pantaloon Retail to raise Rs 500


cr via QIP

- Pantaloon QIP to start today

- Pantaloon: A new format

- Experts stress on tapping retail


sector

- Future group draws out


expansion plans

The breakfast cereals will be available in three variants — plain cornflakes, chocolate-flavoured Choco Gols and
honey-flavoured Honey Circles. There are two reasons for launching the product, says Pantaloon Retail’s head of
private brands, Devendra Chawla. “One is that private brands give us far higher margins, and the second is that
cornflakes as a category is under-penetrated and has a lot of scope to grow.”

The market for breakfast cereals is still small. While the packaged food market is valued at Rs 33,234 crore, the
organised breakfast cereal market is just Rs 250 crore — less than one per cent. But the market is growing fast,
given the growing health consciousness in the country, especially the urban middle class. Kelloggs monopolises
the market for breakfast cereals with its range of flakes. Some other multinational players have also shown keen
interest in this market. PepsiCo has already entered with its bestseller brand, Quaker Oates. Heinz India, which
has a hugely strong bond with households because of its Complan health drinks, too has joined the bandwagon.

In spite of the presence of a large number of players in the branded packaged food segment, Tasty Treat is
growing at about 70 per cent. This perhaps has given Big Bazaar the confidence to try its luck in breakfast
cereals as well.

In a recent development, Pantaloon Retail, promoted by Kishore Biyani, has boycotted Kelloggs at all its retail
formats for turning down its demand for higher margins. Not surprisingly, Big Bazaar is pushing its own brand of
cornflakes now. This is not the first time Big Bazaar is doing this. A while back Cadburys and PepsiCo owned
snack food brand Frito Lay had to bear the brunt.

As an introductory offer, the cornflakes brand will be priced at Rs 99 along with a free bowl worth Rs 60.

According to Chawla, the brand will provide 10 to 15 per cent value when compared to rivals. “We have the
option of pricing it lower as we don’t have to pay intermediaries and can pass on that advantage to consumers,”
says Chawla.

http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/big-bazaar-private-label-
push/378124/
Title:

Do consumers perceive differences among national brands,


international private labels and local private labels? The case of
Taiwan

Author(s):

Julian Ming-Sung Cheng, Lily Shui-Lien Chen, Julia Ying-Chao Lin, Edward Shih-
Tse Wang

Journal:

Journal of Product & Brand Management

Year:

2007

Volume:

16

Issue:

Page:

368 - 376

ISSN:

1061-0421

DOI:
10.1108/10610420710823735

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – This research attempts to investigate the differences of consumer


perceptions on product quality, price, brand leadership and brand personality among
national brands, international private labels and local private labels. It aims to use
product categories as the moderator of the preceding perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected outside the entrances of the


main rail station of Taipei, Taiwan. A systematic sampling was adopted and 254
questionnaires were eventually collected.

Findings – The findings revealed that on the whole national brands were perceived
as significantly superior to international private labels, while international private
labels were perceived as being superior to local private labels in terms of all
perceptions except price perception. The findings also revealed that product
categories moderated price and brand personality perceptions across the three
brand types, while product categories failed to moderate the effect of the three
brands types on quality and brand leadership perceptions.

2
Article Information:

Title:

The effect of perceived product characteristics on private brand


purchases

Author(s):

Kyoung-Nan Kwon, Mi-Hee Lee, Yoo Jin Kwon

Journal:

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Year:

2008

Volume:

25

Issue:

Page:

105 - 114

ISSN:

0736-3761

DOI:

10.1108/07363760810858846

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited


Document Access:

Existing customers:

Please login above.

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of perceived


product characteristics (i.e. involvement, product type, and switching cost) and
consumer value consciousness on private brand purchase intent.

Design/methodology/approach – A college student sample was surveyed to


measure product characteristic perceptions for six product categories and to
evaluate private brand purchase intent. Analysis of covariance was conducted for
hypothesis testing.

Findings – Support existed for the significant effects of all three product
characteristics on the intent to purchase private brands. A moderating effect by value
consciousness on the product type (search versus experience) emerged.

Practical implications – It is critical that retailers identify appropriate product


categories as they develop private brands. Private brand marketing strategies should
be designed to reduce the level of product involvement and switching cost, and to
increase consumer perception of search properties.

Originality/value – The research is one of the few studies to test the effects of
product characteristics extensively and to provide related marketing implications.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=7325C7F
8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=857776
Title:

The effect of personal involvement on the decision to buy store


brands

Author(s):

Salvador Miquel, Eva M. Caplliure, Joaquin Aldas-Manzano

Journal:

Journal of Product & Brand Management

Year:

2002

Volume:

11

Issue:

Page:

6 - 18

ISSN:

1061-0421

DOI:

10.1108/10610420210419513

Publisher:

MCB UP Ltd
Document Access:

Existing customers:

Please login above.

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Abstract:

Store brands are appearing in an ever-increasing number of categories and their


acceptance by consumers is unquestionable. The purpose of this paper is to model
the decision process involved in a purchase which the consumer goes through when
choosing store brands over national brands. The model provided allows us to explain
why the same consumer may choose a store brand in one product category and not
in another. We have taken personal product involvement as the principal point of
reference.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=7325C7F
8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1669121

Article Information:

Title:

Manufacturer's characteristics that determine the choice of


producing store brands

Author(s):
Monica Gomez, Natalia Rubio Benito

Journal:

European Journal of Marketing

Year:

2008

Volume:

42

Issue:

1/2

Page:

154 - 177

ISSN:

0309-0566

DOI:

10.1108/03090560810840952

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Document Access:

Existing customers:

Please login above.

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Price payable: GBP £13.00
plus handling charge of GBP £1.50 and VAT where applicable.
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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the rationale for the production of
store brands and the possible existence of different store brand manufacturer
segments according to their competitive position, size, advertising investment, sector
concentration and type of product.

Design/methodology/approach – The method to obtain information is a survey


developed in Spain and answered by manufacturers of consumer packaged goods.
The methods applied are descriptive (Crosstabs and Anova) and multivariate
techniques (correspondence analysis, chi-square automatic interaction detector
(CHAID), and cluster).

Findings – The article provides empirical evidence in favour of the rationale for the
production of store brands by non-leading medium to small-sized firms and against
this practice by leading manufacturers. It also shows the existence of different
manufacturer segments.

Research limitations/implications – The main disadvantages of this research are


based on their exploratory nature and on the method to obtain information (postal
survey): self-selection, small sample size and measuring of the variables (perceptual
bias). Additionally, the goodness of fit of the CHAID applications is not very high.

Practical implications – The insights presented here can be used by manufacturers


from other countries with a less developed store brands market, such as Eastern
European or Latin American. Leading manufacturers or mid-size manufacturers with
high advertising investment can still compete head to head with store brands. The
other manufacturers must adapt their strategies to collaborate with retailers in order
to produce store brands.

Originality/value – There are no previous studies that empirically assess the


rationale for the production of store brands. Moreover, no empirical research has
focused on the manufacturers' group identification regarding their decision to
produce store brands. This study determines the most significant variables in the
identification of manufacturer groups.

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1801248
Article Information:

Title:

Perceptual categorization of private labels and national brands

Author(s):

Magda Nenycz-Thiel, Jenni Romaniuk

Journal:

Journal of Product & Brand Management

Year:

2009

Volume:

18

Issue:

Page:

251 - 261

ISSN:

1061-0421

DOI:

10.1108/10610420910972774

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – This paper seeks to compare how brand users and non-brand users
currently position private labels and national brands in three packaged goods
categories. It aims to provide guidelines for positioning strategies for both private
labels and national brands through the outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected in a telephone survey of 600


randomly recruited primary shoppers. Binary logistic regression was used to
examine the informational cues consumers use to categorize private labels and
national brands. The memory structures of users and non-users of private labels
were then separately modelled.

Findings – Results suggest that the perceptual categorization into private label
brands and national brands differs once private labels have been purchased. Users
of private label brands did not see them as being any less trustworthy than national
brands. However, non-users of private labels did use trust to discriminate between
the two types of brands, and tended to use negative attribute information to
categorize the brands into groups. Regardless of experience, however, private labels
form a subgroup in consumers' memory, with low price and low quality as the main
drivers of this categorization.

Originality/value – This paper extends past studies by measuring the perceptions of


private labels as individual brands within a market, which more closely represents
actual consumer memory structures. It also uses both positive and negative product
attributes, which has not featured in prior work on private labels perceptions. The
findings have implications for retailers looking to launch and manage private labels
and manufacturers who need to compete with them.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=7325C7F
8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1816997

Title:
Consumer perceptions of own brands: international differences

Author(s):

John R. Anchor, Terezie Kour?ilova

Journal:

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Year:

2009

Volume:

26

Issue:

Page:

437 - 449

ISSN:

0736-3761

DOI:

10.1108/07363760910988256

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how relatively little is known about
the consumer perceptions of own brands in the newly emerging markets of central
and eastern Europe. The paper attempts to fill a gap in knowledge by investigating
various aspects of consumer perceptions of Tesco own brands in the Czech
Republic.

Design/methodology/approach – The key data for this research were collected by


structured questionnaires from Tesco supermarket customers in the Czech Republic
and the UK. Non-probability quota sampling was used and the sample was stratified
according to gender, age and income.

Findings – The results of the research indicate that the general view of Tesco own
brands is slightly less positive among Czech than among British customers.
However, significant differences emerge when these are examined in terms of
income. Increases in income lead to a decrease in the favourability with which own
brands are viewed in the Czech Republic – the opposite to the position in the UK.
The age of consumers was also found to be significant, although there is no linear
trend. No strong correlation was found to exist between gender and any of the
characteristics under investigation.

Research limitations/implications – The sample was limited in size (n=100 in each


country). In-depth interviewing would be necessary to assess consumer attitudes
further.

Practical implications – The results of the research may help Tesco in relation to
its general expansion in central and eastern Europe and its brand building in
particular.

Originality/value – The originality of the paper relates to its study of consumer


behaviour in one of the emerging markets of central and eastern Europe.

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1509848
Article Information:

Title:

Consumer perceptions of store brands versus national brands

Author(s):

Kristof De Wulf, Gaby Odekerken-Schroder, Frank Goedertier, Gino Van Ossel

Journal:

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Year:

2005

Volume:

22

Issue:

Page:

223 - 232

ISSN:

0736-3761

DOI:

10.1108/07363760510605335

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – The objective of this study is threefold. First, the authors want to use
taste tests to assess how four store brands that are differently positioned compare to
one national brand in terms of perceived brand equity. Second, the authors want to
investigate whether brand equity of store versus national brands is determined by
current brand loyalty towards these brands. Third, they want to find out whether store
patronage has an influence on perceived brand equity of store versus national
brands.

Design/methodology/approach – A total of 225 consumers were involved in a


repeated measures design involving two within-subject factors: a blind and non-blind
taste test of five orange juice brands. Across our three objectives, we describe the
impact of the retailers' positioning strategies on the results generated.

Findings – The results confirm the common belief that private label products can
offer the same or even better quality than national brands, but at a lower price.

Originality/value – Until now, hardly any study incorporates the differences in


positioning objectives of retailers and national brand manufacturers. Nevertheless,
as is true for any brand, positioning of a store brand can exert an important influence
on its performance.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=7325C7F
8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1556618

Article Information:

Title:

The role of private branding in improving service quality

Author(s):
Ram Herstein, Eyal Gamliel

Journal:

Managing Service Quality

Year:

2006

Volume:

16

Issue:

Page:

306 - 319

ISSN:

0960-4529

DOI:

10.1108/09604520610663516

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine the potential contribution of


private branding to the service sector, and to integrate private branding into the
SERVQUAL model.

Design/methodology/approach – A total of 300 customers of a health maintenance


organization (HMO) were asked about the five dimensions of the service-quality
model and about several aspects of their HMO's private brand.

Findings – The study finds that satisfaction with service quality among subjects who
were aware of the HMO's private brand was higher than that of unaware subjects
when asked directly. In addition, a positive relationship was found between the
perceptions of service quality in the HMO and the evaluation of a private brand in the
HMO those customers who were aware of the private brand. The data analysis
suggests that private branding constitutes an additional (sixth) dimension in the
SERVQUAL model.

Research limitations/implications – This research was conducted during the initial


stages of the market penetration of the HMO's private brand.

Practical implications – HMOs, and other service providers, should consider


private branding as a pivotal strategy in reinforcing service quality.

Originality/value – This research is of importance for service providers because it


identifies private branding strategy as having significant marketing potential for
improving service quality.

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=856375

Article Information:

Title:

Co-branding: brand equity and trial effects

Author(s):
Judith H. Washburn, Brian D. Till, Randi Priluck

Journal:

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Year:

2000

Volume:

17

Issue:

Page:

591 - 604

ISSN:

0736-3761

DOI:

10.1108/07363760010357796

Publisher:

MCB UP Ltd

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Abstract:

Co-branding is an increasingly popular technique marketers use in attempting to


transfer the positive associations of the partner (constituent) brands to a newly
formed co-brand (composite brand). This research examines the effects of co-
branding on the brand equity of both the co-branded product and the constituent
brands that comprise it, both before and after product trial. It appears that co-
branding is a win/win strategy for both co-branding partners regardless of whether
the original brands are perceived by consumers as having high or low brand equity.
Although low equity brands may benefit most from co-branding, high equity brands
are not denigrated even when paired with a low equity partner. Further, positive
product trial seems to enhance consumers’ evaluations of co-branded products,
particularly those with a low equity constituent brand. Co-branding strategies may be
effective in exploiting a product performance advantage or in introducing a new
product with an unfamiliar brand name.

10

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1602866

Article Information:

Title:

Customers' willingness to purchase new store brands

Author(s):

Stephan Zielke, Thomas Dobbelstein

Journal:

Journal of Product & Brand Management

Year:

2007

Volume:
16

Issue:

Page:

112 - 121

ISSN:

1061-0421

DOI:

10.1108/10610420710739982

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing customers'


willingness to purchase new store brands.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops a 3×3 design to investigate
the impact of price and quality positioning on the willingness to purchase new store
brands in five product groups. A total of 990 respondents completed a questionnaire
about store brand perception, aspects of purchasing behavior and willingness to buy.
Data are analyzed with analysis of variance and partial least squares.

Findings – The paper finds that customers' willingness to buy new store brands
differs between different product groups. It is lowest for product groups associated
with high social risk. Accordingly, premium store brands are preferred for these
categories. The influence of price is small and nonlinear. Furthermore, the attitude
towards a specific store brand has a large impact on customers' willingness to
purchase, while the attitude toward store brands in general is less important. The
drivers influencing customers' attitude towards specific store brands depend on the
respective product group.

Practical implications – The results indicate that price is not the only factor
influencing customers' willingness to buy new store brands. Therefore, the results
encourage retailers to position store brands also in premium segments, especially for
product groups where social acceptance is important.

Originality/value – This paper differs from other papers in the literature in that it
analyses factors influencing the success of new store brands. Furthermore, it
analyzes many different potential influencing factors, namely product group, price
and quality positioning, store brand perceptions, attitudes and aspects of purchasing
behavior.

11

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1742014

Title:

Studying Chinese generation Y consumers' involvement in fashion


clothing and perceived brand status

Author(s):

Aron O'Cass, Eric Choy

Journal:

Journal of Product & Brand Management

Year:

2008

Volume:
17

Issue:

Page:

341 - 352

ISSN:

1061-0421

DOI:

10.1108/10610420810896095

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to examine Chinese generation Y


consumers' fashion clothing involvement effects on specific brand related consumer
responses including brand status, brand attitude and willingness to pay a premium
for a specific brand.

Design/methodology/approach – A self-completion questionnaire survey was


administered in China to university students aged between 18 and 25.

Findings – A consumer's level of involvement was found to have positive effect on


brand related responses such as perception of brand status and brand attitude.
Further brand status and brand attitude were found to have positive impacts on
consumer's willingness to pay a premium for a specific brand.

Research limitations/implications – First, based on the student sample used for


study it may not be possible to generalize the effects found to non-students. Second,
the findings from this study focusing on fashion clothing brands are perhaps limited
in their generalisability to other product categories.

Practical implications – An important finding that is beneficial to marketing


practitioners in China, especially for those in the fashion industry, is the findings that
maintaining the status of a brand would be more effective with highly involved
consumers leading to an overall more positive attitude. Marketing initiatives with
status building objectives are therefore essential for enabling brands to command
higher prices.

Originality/value – This paper expands understanding of consumer behaviour


related to Chinese generation Y consumer behaviour, fashion clothing involvement
and status branding.

12

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1509848

ation:

Title:

Consumer perceptions of store brands versus national brands

Author(s):

Kristof De Wulf, Gaby Odekerken-Schroder, Frank Goedertier, Gino Van Ossel

Journal:

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Year:

2005
Volume:

22

Issue:

Page:

223 - 232

ISSN:

0736-3761

DOI:

10.1108/07363760510605335

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Document Access:

Existing customers:

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Abstract:
Purpose – The objective of this study is threefold. First, the authors want to use
taste tests to assess how four store brands that are differently positioned compare to
one national brand in terms of perceived brand equity. Second, the authors want to
investigate whether brand equity of store versus national brands is determined by
current brand loyalty towards these brands. Third, they want to find out whether store
patronage has an influence on perceived brand equity of store versus national
brands.

Design/methodology/approach – A total of 225 consumers were involved in a


repeated measures design involving two within-subject factors: a blind and non-blind
taste test of five orange juice brands. Across our three objectives, we describe the
impact of the retailers' positioning strategies on the results generated.

Findings – The results confirm the common belief that private label products can
offer the same or even better quality than national brands, but at a lower price.

Originality/value – Until now, hardly any study incorporates the differences in


positioning objectives of retailers and national brand manufacturers. Nevertheless,
as is true for any brand, positioning of a store brand can exert an important influence
on its performance.

13

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=7325C7F
8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1801248

Title:

Perceptual categorization of private labels and national brands

Author(s):

Magda Nenycz-Thiel, Jenni Romaniuk

Journal:

Journal of Product & Brand Management

Year:

2009

Volume:

18

Issue:

4
Page:

251 - 261

ISSN:

1061-0421

DOI:

10.1108/10610420910972774

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Document Access:

Existing customers:

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Abstract:

Purpose – This paper seeks to compare how brand users and non-brand users
currently position private labels and national brands in three packaged goods
categories. It aims to provide guidelines for positioning strategies for both private
labels and national brands through the outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected in a telephone survey of 600


randomly recruited primary shoppers. Binary logistic regression was used to
examine the informational cues consumers use to categorize private labels and
national brands. The memory structures of users and non-users of private labels
were then separately modelled.

Findings – Results suggest that the perceptual categorization into private label
brands and national brands differs once private labels have been purchased. Users
of private label brands did not see them as being any less trustworthy than national
brands. However, non-users of private labels did use trust to discriminate between
the two types of brands, and tended to use negative attribute information to
categorize the brands into groups. Regardless of experience, however, private labels
form a subgroup in consumers' memory, with low price and low quality as the main
drivers of this categorization.

Originality/value – This paper extends past studies by measuring the perceptions of


private labels as individual brands within a market, which more closely represents
actual consumer memory structures. It also uses both positive and negative product
attributes, which has not featured in prior work on private labels perceptions. The
findings have implications for retailers looking to launch and manage private labels
and manufacturers who need to compete with them.

14

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=7325C7F
8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1816961

rticle Information:

Title:

Consequences of competition between national brands and private


labels: Empirical results from different German outlet formats

Author(s):

Rainer Olbrich, Gundula Grewe

Journal:

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

Year:

2009

Volume:

37

Issue:
11

Page:

933 - 951

ISSN:

0959-0552

DOI:

10.1108/09590550910999361

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – A proliferation of private labels in European food retailing has been


evident for several years now. Against this background, the purpose of this paper is
to analyse the impact of competition between national brands and private labels on
product variety, prices and turnover.

Design/methodology/approach – Within the empirical study, a product group from


the ready-meals category is analysed over a total period of six years (between 2000
and 2005) based on scanner data from different German outlet formats. The
empirical study contains time series as well as regression analyses.

Findings – The empirical results indicate that, in all studied outlet formats, there is
evidence of decreasing product variety and increasing prices over time. Moreover,
the results show that the turnover in the supermarkets and especially in the
hypermarkets is in decline. A positive turnover trend can only be found in the
discount stores.

Originality/value – This empirical study is the first that covers such a long period of
time (six years) and several outlet formats. Previous studies have mostly been static
or short-term and predominantly only covered one outlet format.

15

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1656125

Article Information:

Title:

Examination of brand personality and brand attitude within the


apparel product category

Author(s):

Hye-Shin Kim

Journal:

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management

Year:

2000

Volume:

Issue:

Page:

243 - 252
ISSN:

1361-2026

DOI:

10.1108/eb022593

Publisher:

MCB UP Ltd

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Abstract:

Apparel brands are heavily reliant on emotional appeal and creation of imagery to
achieve consumer recognition and interest. This study examines how US female
consumers compare and form impressions of competing national apparel brands.
More specifically, this study examines consumer perceptions of five brand
personality traits for various apparel brands and the relationship between brand
personality and brand preference. Findings from this study show that although
personality expectations for apparel brands differ, brands with favourable brand
attitude have favourable competent ratings. Also, for brands with similar personality
patterns, similarities could be found for such characteristics as product lines offered,
brand image, retailing format, etc.

17
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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1711300

Article Information:

Title:

Exploring the relationships between retail brands and consumer


store loyalty

Author(s):

Anne-Sophie Binninger

Journal:

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

Year:

2008

Volume:

36

````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````
`````````````````` Issue:

Page:

94 - 110

ISSN:

0959-0552

DOI:

10.1108/09590550810853057`````

Publisher:
Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – Retail brands (RBs) have become a strategic feature of the grocery
industry. Their role in building consumer loyalty is usually taken for granted and yet
has not been completely identified. The purpose of this paper is to raise the question
of the relationship between RBs and store loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach – Correlations, simple and multiple regressions


were carried out, and the mediating and moderating nature of two variables was
verified according to Baron and Kenny's recommendations.

Findings – The results show that the increase in RB satisfaction and loyalty
influences store loyalty, and that attitude toward RB products has a moderating
effect on the relat

18

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1572891

Article Information:

Title:

The impact of brand trust and satisfaction on retailer repurchase


intentions

Author(s):
James J. Zboja, Clay M. Voorhees

Journal:

Journal of Services Marketing

Year:

2006

Volume:

20

Issue:

Page:

381 - 390

ISSN:

0887-6045

DOI:

10.1108/08876040610691275

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate spill-over effects from


customer perceptions of trust in and satisfaction with a brand to customer
evaluations of a retailer and, ultimately, repurchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual model is developed and tested


using structural equation modeling. Specifically, recent procedures for assessing
direct and mediated effects are adoped.

Findings – The findings demonstrate that customer trust in and satisfaction with a
retailer mediate the effects of brand trust and satisfaction on customer repurchase
intentions.

Research limitations/implications – This research provides a preliminary


examination of the relationship between brands, retailers, and consumers. The
results suggest that halo effects exist between customer perceptions of brands and
retailers. Future research could attempt to discern how this transference from brand
to retailer occurs and replicate these findings in other industries or product types.

Practical implications – The findings suggest that managers must realize that
perceptions of brands are transferred to the retailers that carry these products.
However, in order for customers to return, a retailer must satisfy them and earn their
trust, since the effects of brands are indirect.

Originality/value – This paper extends findings of transference in retail service


settings by demonstrating that customer evaluations of brands can spill over and
influence customer perceptions of a retailer.

19

Article Information:

Title:

Integrating effect of consumer perception factors in predicting


private brand purchase in a Korean discount store context

Author(s):

Byoungho Jin, Yong Gu Suh


Journal:

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Year:

2005

Volume:

22

Issue:

Page:

62 - 71

ISSN:

0736-3761

DOI:

10.1108/07363760510589226

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – Despite proven strategic significance and wide acceptance of private


label products (PB), our understanding of PB in international markets is limited. The
purposes of this study are to propose a model that integrates four consumer
characteristic variables (price consciousness, value consciousness, perceived price
variation, and consumer innovativeness) toward PB attitude and purchase intention,
and to test the model in two product categories, grocery and home appliances, in a
South Korean discount store context.

Design/methodology/approach – A total of 168 usable data (87 for food and 81 for
home appliances were collected using mall intercept method from female shoppers
at one Korean discount store in Seoul, Korea.

Findings – The findings revealed that, depending on the product category,


contribution of the factors varies. Among four consumer characteristics, only three in
each category exhibited direct and indirect association with PB purchase intention.
Perceived quality variability in a food category and price consciousness in a home
appliance category did not show any relationship with PB purchase intention nor with
PB attitude. In both product categories, only two variables, value consciousness and
consumer innovativeness, predicted PB attitude. Overall, consumer innovativeness
was the strongest factor predicting Korean shoppers’ PB attitude.

Originality/value – Important theoretical contributions of this study are finding the


relative importance of the variables on PB attitude and purchase intention, and
differing roles of consumer variables by product characteristics. Further significance
of this study lies in understanding the differing impact of consumer perceptual
variables in predicting PB attitude and purchase intention simultaneously.
Managerial implications of these results were discussed.

20

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=172

Article Information:

Title:

Consumer perceptions of brand architecture in financial services


Author(s):

James F. Devlin, Sally McKechnie

Journal:

European Journal of Marketing

Year:

2008

Volume:

42

Issue:

5/6

Page:

654 - 666

ISSN:

0309-0566

DOI:

10.1108/03090560810862561

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Acknowledgements:

This research was funded by the Financial Services Research Forum.


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Abstract:

Purpose – “Brand architecture” is an organisation's approach to the design and


management of its brand portfolio. Previous research, focused on the views of
practitioners, identified a “multi-corporate” approach in financial services, where a
“family of main brands” was incorporated into an organisation's brand portfolio, often
in the form of brands traditionally associated with separate companies. The current
study seeks to provide contrasting insights from consumer data and to highlight the
conceptual and practical implications of the findings.

Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative methodology was adopted for the


study incorporating six focus groups containing an average of nine participants.

Findings – The findings from the current study offer empirical support for the
conceptualisation of the corporate brand playing a predominant role in services
markets. In doing so, the findings also suggest that the alternative conceptualization
of a “multi-corporate” approach advocated by practitioners and identified previously
is not validated by consumer-based research.

Research limitations/implications – The context of the study reported may be


limited by its restriction to a single category, financial services.

Practical implications – Practitioners' rationales for maintaining multiple brands


are, in the main, undermined by the views of consumers. Organisations should
consider rationalising their brand architecture in order to benefit from significant cost
savings.

Originality/value – The consumer perspective on brand architecture is significantly


under-researched and as a result this paper provides valuable insights, and a
significant contribution to existing literature.

21
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jsessionid=7325C7F8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?
contentType=Article&contentId=1626314Article Information:

Title:

Corporate social responsibility and the positioning of grocery


brands: An exploratory study of retailer and manufacturer brands
at point of purchase

Author(s):

Johan Anselmsson, Ulf Johansson

Journal:

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

Year:

2007

Volume:

35

Issue:

10

Page:

835 - 856

ISSN:

0959-0552

DOI:

10.1108/09590550710820702

Publisher:
Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – This study aims to enhance the understanding of what significance


consumers place on different aspects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) when
evaluating and purchasing grocery brands and products.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper builds on existing literature and


theories on CSR and marketing, as well as literature on consumers' perceptions of
CSR related issues. The Swedish empirical study has two parts; the first explorative
stage based on qualitative method and in-store face-to-face interviews through which
important consumer attitude-based attributes of social responsibility are identified in
a grocery context. The second quantitative part is based on questionnaires that
describe the grocery brand positions and performances along these attributes.

Findings – Results point to three general attitude-based dimensions for CSR


positioning and that retail brands can indeed, in relation to leading national brands,
build a CSR image. Further, this image is shown to have an impact on consumers'
intention to buy. This is also the case for “me-too” retail brands. The CSR dimension
of greatest impact on overall CSR image is product responsibility, whereas human
responsibility influences the customer purchase intentions the most. Environmental
responsibility, perhaps the most commonly used CSR dimension, is in this study
recognised to exert least impact on both overall CSR image and on purchase
intentions.

Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to a Swedish context and


to one specific purchase situation. Future studies could involve validation of factor
structure, relationship between CSR and preference, and ability to positioning in
another market, perhaps in more mature markets in terms of well-developed
structures of CSR and health/organic organic products (e.g. the UK). A postal survey
would allow the use of longer and evaluated measurement scales previously used in
organic food research.

Originality/value – This study substantiates that retailer brands can indeed be


distinctly positioned according to aspects other than price, e.g. as here exemplified,
the concept of CSR. This relationship has hitherto not been identified outside the UK.
The finding that CSR is less clearly connected to the expected dimension of
environmental responsibility entails new added knowledge to this research field. The
analysis has, moreover, resulted in more a simplified description of the basic
dimensions of CSR containing three instead of, as often in the literature, six
dimensions.

22

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=7325C7F
8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1742399

Title:

Building online brands through brand alliances in internet

Author(s):

Elena Delgado-Ballester, Miguel Hernandez-Espallardo

Journal:

European Journal of Marketing

Year:

2008

Volume:

42

Issue:

9/10

Page:

954 - 976

ISSN:
0309-0566

DOI:

10.1108/03090560810891091

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Acknowledgements:

This research was funded by a grant SEJ2005-09358 from the Spanish Ministry of
Science and Technology and FEDER.

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the consequences that brand
alliances have on a new and unknown online brand in terms of attitude to its web
site, brand trust, brand equity and consumer's willingness to engage in online
transactions.

Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 367 subjects participated in an


online experiment of buying a travel package from an unknown travel agency which
is allied with other known and well-reputed brands. The information provided by the
participants in different online designs of brand alliances was used to test the
theoretical model proposed in the paper. This model was tested and compared with
other alternative models using conventional maximum likelihood estimation
techniques.

Findings – The results show that attitude toward brand alliance represents a
strategic marketing opportunity to help an unknown online brand to leverage a
favourable first impression from consumers in terms of brand trust and attitude
toward the brand's web site. Furthermore, online brand trust does not exert a fully-
mediated role between the brand alliance's evaluation and subsequent consumers'
reactions to the online brand.

Research limitations/implications – The limitations of the study are those typically


applied to the experimental methodology. Specifically, a single product category was
used which limits the generalizability of the results. No actual behaviour was
measured but just intentions and perceptions.

Practical implications – Partnering with well-known and reputed brands improves


the equity of the new online brand which, in turn, enhance consumers' disposition to
engage in online transactions with the online brand.

Originality/value – Despite the popularity of brands as a symbol that can build trust
and enhance the perception of value and quality, to date, the authors have not found
research about the use of well-known and reputed brand names as a mechanism of
helping new and unknown online brands to persuade consumers to engage in online
transactions. The results of this paper add to the growing literature on brand alliance
which has been generally focused on an off-line context.

23

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1628215

Article Information:

Title:

Asymmetric quality-tier competition: an alternative explanation

Author(s):

K. Sivakumar

Journal:

Journal of Product & Brand Management

Year:

2007

Volume:
16

Issue:

Page:

415 - 421

ISSN:

1061-0421

DOI:

10.1108/10610420710823771

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – This paper aims to offer an alternative explanation for asymmetric


quality-tier competition.
Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework based on quality-price
tradeoff is used in the study to derive research hypotheses and scanner panel data
are used for empirical validation.

Findings – The paper finds that the concept of tradeoffs offers a simple explanation
for asymmetric competition in favor of high quality brands; as the quality differential
increases, asymmetry increases; as the price differential increases, the asymmetry
decreases.

Practical implications – The framework and findings can inform pricing strategies
for brands in different quality tiers.

Originality/value – The paper offers an alternative explanation for asymmetric


competition.

24

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8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=857772

Title:

Packaging communication: attentional effects of product imagery

Author(s):

Robert L. Underwood, Noreen M. Klein, Raymond R. Burke

Journal:

Journal of Product & Brand Management

Year:

2001

Volume:

10

Issue:

Page:

403 - 422
ISSN:

1061-0421

DOI:

10.1108/10610420110410531

Publisher:

MCB UP Ltd

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Abstract:

This article provides a theoretical framework for understanding the communicative


effects of product imagery on attention to the brand, specifically, the attentional
effects of incorporating a picture or illustration of the product on the packaging of the
product. Empirical results from a virtual reality simulation show that package pictures
increase shoppers’ attention to the brand. However this effect is contingent,
occurring only for low familiarity brands (private-label brands) within product
categories that offer a relatively high level of experiential benefits. These results
suggest that package pictures may be especially useful for private label brands
and/or lesser tier national brands whose strategic objectives are to improve
consumers’ perceptions of the brand and enter the consideration set.

25

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=7325C7F
8BBD163AB2F0DE0FA93BBE09E?contentType=Article&contentId=1537432
itle:

Private label brand image: its relationship with store image and
national brand

Author(s):

Archna Vahie, Audhesh Paswan

Journal:

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

Year:

2006

Volume:

34

Issue:

Page:

67 - 84

ISSN:

0959-0552

DOI:

10.1108/09590550610642828

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of empirical study is to focus on the relationship between


perceived private label brand (PLB) image, and perceived store image (SI) and
feeling associated with the presence of national brand (NB).

Design/methodology/approach – The data are collected using a self administered


questionnaire from respondents belonging to generation Y in their 20s. The focal
product was apparels sold at department stores.

Findings – The results indicate that the store atmosphere and store quality
positively influence the perception of PLB's quality, whereas, the congruence
between national brand and store image (NBSI) has a negative influence on PLB's
quality. In comparison, the store quality, store convenience, store price/value, and
the congruence between NB and PLB have a positive influence on the affective
dimension of the PLB image, whereas, the congruence between NBSI has a
negative influence.

Research limitations/implications – A key limitation of this study is the sampling


frame. Future studies should replicate this study in different contexts and with
different target population.

Practical implications – To boost the image of their PLBs, stores need to focus on
the store quality dimension, since it affects both quality and affective dimensions of
PLB. Other SI dimensions that have a significant effect on either PLB-quality or PLB-
affective dimensions are store atmosphere, convenience, and price/value
dimensions. Regarding the presence of NBs in a store, even if it is in congruence
with the SI, it has a detrimental effect on both the quality and affective dimension of
PLB, unless the PLB image and NB image are seen as congruent. Managers should
ensure that the NBs carried by their store harmonize with their own PLB image.

Originality/value – This study provides answers to a crucial question – “How to


improve the consumer perception of private label brand?”
26

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4CC19FD3049DA204DFF3C71CF?contentType=Article&contentId=17

Article Information:

Title:

A comparison of brand personality and brand user-imagery


congruence

Author(s):

Brian T. Parker

Journal:

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Year:

2009

Volume:

26

Issue:

Page:

175 - 184

ISSN:

0736-3761

DOI:
10.1108/07363760910954118

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare the brand personality and brand
user-imagery constructs in congruity theory to examine their relationship in the
image congruence model as a basis of modeling brand attitudes for publicly and
privately consumed brands.

Design/methodology/approach – A total of 272 surveys measured subjects' self-


image perceptions and subjects' perceptions of brand personality and user-imagery.
Congruence measures were used as indicators of the difference between
respondent self-image and each brand's image, and served as independent
variables in stepwise regressions with brand attitude as the dependent variable.

Findings – The results indicated that, for publicly consumed brands, user-imagery-
based congruence measures contributed more often to the explanatory power of the
model. For privately consumed brands, brand personality congruity produced
significant regressions but did not account for a large portion of explained variance,
while user-imagery only entered one private brand model.

Originality/value – Brand personality and brand user-imagery are often used


interchangeably in self-congruity theory research. Although both constructs have
received past research attention, no studies have compared them in the same study.
The study fills the gap in the literature and enhances the usefulness of the self-brand
congruity model, providing a knowledge base for determining an overall brand
positioning strategy.
27

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4CC19FD3049DA204DFF3C71CF?contentType=Article&contentId=1816959

Article Information:

Title:

Consumer-factors moderating private label brand success: further


empirical results

Author(s):

Mark S. Glynn, Shaoshan Chen

Journal:

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

Year:

2009

Volume:

37

Issue:

11

Page:

896 - 914

ISSN:

0959-0552

DOI:

10.1108/09590550910999343
Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the category-level differences of


both risk perception and brand loyalty effects on consumer proneness towards
buying private label brands (PLBs).

Design/methodology/approach – This paper extends the work of Batra and Sinha


by also examining the PLB effects of brand loyalty and price-quality by product
category using a mall-intercept survey.

Findings – The results indicate that quality variability, price consciousness, price-
quality association and brand loyalty influence consumer proneness to buy PLBs. In
addition, income, education and household size are moderators of PLB purchasing.

Research limitations/implications – This research confirms the importance of price


consciousness and quality variability on PLB purchasing. The importance of these
determinants depends on both the product category and the PLB market share
within the category.

Practical implications – Retailers and manufacturers need to consider the effects


of PLB in relation to the product category. For retailers, the value of a PLB is less
relevant in some categories but appealing to the price conscious consumer is
important. Manufacturers should note in some categories that brand loyalty is
important but not as much as price consciousness. Customer income is still an
important determinant of PLB purchasing.

Originality/value – The paper shows that it is important to consider product


category differences which make it more difficult to generalize about PLB
purchasing.

28

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4CC19FD3049DA204DFF3C71CF?contentType=Article&contentId=1821844

Article Information:

Title:

Cognitive dissonance: The implicit explication in low-income


consumers' shopping behaviour for “low-involvement” grocery
products

Author(s):

Ayantunji Gbadamosi

Journal:

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

Year:

2009

Volume:

37

Issue:

12

Page:

1077 - 1095

ISSN:

0959-0552

DOI:
10.1108/09590550911005038

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Acknowledgements:

The author gratefully acknowledges the valuable comments and support of Professor
Roger Mason during the period of conducting this study.

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to conduct an exploratory analysis of low-


income women consumers' consumption of low-involvement grocery products, and
to explore the relevance of cognitive dissonance in this consumption.

Design/methodology/approach – One focus group discussion and 30 in-depth


interviews are conducted with low-income women consumer at Salford area of the
north-west of England to explore their salient beliefs, motivations, attitudes and
behaviours in respect of their consumption of low-involvement grocery products.

Findings – Findings suggest that low-income women consumers engage in habitual


purchasing and are not loyal to brands of grocery products. However, they often buy
stores' own value-range brands as they believe that these products are similar to
manufacturers' brands. They do not perceive price to be an indication of quality,
rather they attribute basic differences between the stores' own value-range and
manufacturers' brands as “expensive packaging” and the popularity of the brand
name. Value for money is revealed as a key motivation underlying their purchasing
of grocery products. Consequently, they are very sensitive to sales promotions and
actively engage in making comparisons between the promotions in different stores
within their locality. These confirm the incidence of cognitive dissonance in their
consumption of these products.

Originality/value – This paper shows that generalisation in consumer behaviour


without due reference to the contextual factors identified among low-income women
consumers provides a limited understanding of their decision making and purchase
behaviour. It also supplements the limited empirical information on low-income
consumers, and consequently will be of interest to marketing practitioners, as it will
reveal potential directions for low-involvement product strategies in respect of the
low-income consumer.

29

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4CC19FD3049DA204DFF3C71CF?contentType=Article&contentId=1839274

Title:

The effects of risk reducing strategies on consumer perceived risk


and on purchase likelihood: a modelling approach

Author(s):

Dr. Ruth M W Yeung, Dr. Wallace M S Yee, Prof. Joe Morris

Journal:

British Food Journal

Year:

2010

Volume:

112

Issue:

ISSN:
0007-070X

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Emerald EarlyCite articles are not offered on a Pay Per View basis

This is a pre-print of a paper and is subject to change before publication. This pre-
print is made available with the understanding that it will not be reproduced or stored
in a retrieval system without the permission of Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Abstract:

Purpose - Consumer perception of risk and its impacts on purchasing behaviour are
critical aspects of food safety. Consumer risk management strategies influence, and
respond to, the risk management strategies adopted by the food industry. This
research, using poultry product as the focus, attempts to identify the consumer risk
reducing strategies and their impact on perception of food safety-related risk and
then on purchase behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach - By adopting a quantitative research paradigm


with a quota sample of 200 respondents, A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM)
model was built to assess the direct and indirect effects of strategies taken by
consumers to reduce perceived risk and the consequences for purchase likelihood,
utilising LISREL 8.30.

Findings - The research reveals brand, information and quality assurance as


influential risk reducing strategies to reduce consumer perception of food safety risk
and subsequently to facilitate purchase likelihood during a period concern about
microbiological contamination in chicken meat.

Practical implications - The results provide guidance of both proactive and


remedial actions that the food industry can follow and also help to evaluate the
effectiveness of its marketing activities.

Originality/value - The research provides an insight in assisting government


agencies and the food industry to develop appropriate food related risk management
strategies to serve both the interest of consumers and producers.

30
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4CC19FD3049DA204DFF3C71CF?contentType=Article&contentId=1775844

Title:

Dilution of brand extensions: a study

Author(s):

Isita Lahiri, Amitava Gupta

Journal:

International Journal of Commerce and Management

Year:

2009

Volume:

19

Issue:

Page:

45 - 57

ISSN:

1056-9219

DOI:

10.1108/10569210910939663

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited


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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine situations in which brand


extensions are likely to dilute beliefs associated with family brands.

Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses are developed and tested in a


consumer survey that included experimental and control groups.

Findings – The findings show the congruity of the extension with the family brand is
an important factor, the absence of which increases the chances of dilution of the
family brand. Perceived success/failure of the extension is a more important factor
that also enhances or dilutes the image of the family brand.

Research limitations/implications – Brand names can be hurt by brand


extensions, which contain attributes incompatible with or negating favorable family
brand beliefs.

Practical implications – If managers feel the dilution is occurring because of an


extension, they can increase perceptions that the extension is atypical of the family
brand.

31

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4CC19FD3049DA204DFF3C71CF?contentType=Article&contentId=1823852

Title:

Renaming effect of brand value: state-owned enterprises

Author(s):
Yen-Chun Jim Wu

Journal:

Management Decision

Year:

2009

Volume:

47

Issue:

10

Page:

1555 - 1581

ISSN:

0025-1747

DOI:

10.1108/00251740911004682

Publisher:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Acknowledgements:

The author would like to express gratitude to two anonymous reviewers for their
insightful comments. A special thanks also goes to Mr Perry Cheng of Chinese
Petroleum Corporation for his valuable assistance in data collection and analysis.

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Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the renaming effect of brand
value of state-owned corporations in Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach – This study aims to evaluate and analyze the


value of the CPC brand by: using the Interbrand and Hirose models, and analyzing
empirically the difference-comparison of the results.

Findings – For the state-run corporations, the practical application of the Hirose and
Interbrand models, the main target market, and the business orientation categories,
which the corporations belonged to are illustrated in a two-dimensional four-quadrant
framework.

Research limitations/implications – This study presumes that Chinese Petroleum


Corp. will be affected in various ways after being renamed CPC Corp., Taiwan, and
the fluctuations in value will be reflected in related profit/cost data. It is also assumed
that the brand will bring value to the company. However, there are constraints in
doing this research despite the completeness and objectivity of the study subject.

Originality/value – Research on brand equity is still in a state of evolution. This


study makes two major contributions. First, it suggests that choosing the more
applicable valuation model depends on the enterprises' industrial characteristics.
Second, the differentiation of the applications of brand value models is based on: the
orientation characteristics of the various valuation models, the target markets, and
business orientatss