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Jacek Lesnikowski

Politechnika Łódzka, Katedra Odzieżownictwa i Tekstroniki



Gallipoliti, Virginia A.
Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning - Exact Sciences and Surveying. . FAU: Las Heras No.
727 - (3500) Resistance - Chaco-. Tel: (54-722) 24114/26762 - Tel./Fax. +54 (03722)
425573/420088 - E - Mail:
Insulators are constructed with glass,
pastes or "compound" patented and
INTRODUCTION porcelain. For transmission lines
glass insulators only
The operation of a transmission line recommendable if they are built with
depends on large-scale isolation. In special heat resistant glass such as
good practice it requires that the arc Pyrex. Organic products, including
voltage dry complete insulators is compounds or pasta "compound" of
three to five times the rated operating organic origin, can not withstand the
voltage, and that the length of the line prolonged action of high voltages,
leak is approximately twice the especially if they are exposed to
shortest distance between points weather, so its use is limited to low
stresses the air. Modern orientations voltage installations inside buildings.
tend toward the upper limits,
especially when it comes to very high Support insulators or rigid
voltages. Special cases of fog, salt, insulators
powders or chemically laden air must
be studied separately. These insulators are constructed for
arc voltages up to 200 kV at 60 Hz,
DEVELOPMENT while it is rare to use arc voltages
above 180 kV (rated voltage 75 kv).
Insulators must not only have The reduced margin of isolation and
sufficient mechanical strength to the risk of applying such high
withstand a wide margin the loads stresses on a single insulator,
due to ice and wind that can relatively fragile, makes these
reasonably be expected, but should isolators are not used with voltages
be constructed to withstand severe greater than 66 kV.
mechanical conditions, lightning and
arc fed by stream service, without Suspension insulators
dropping the driver.
These isolators are used almost
Flashovers by contour isolator exclusively in lines over 66 kv, on
should be avoided in all cases, with long spans and heavy voltage
the exception of the beam, whatever conductors. Modern disks drives or
the conditions of humidity, cap and stem have been very
temperature, rain or snow, and the successful and have gradually
amount of dust commonly adopted to meet the needs of higher
accumulates to be cleaned by rain. voltages and heavier construction,
with simplicity and economy.
INSULATING MATERIALS Voltage arc contour chains
suspension insulators is almost
proportional to the distance to ground
in the air and approximately equal to
the arc voltage between rods with the
same distance, 60 hz and
overvoltages originating from the

In practice, the number of drives or

forming the insulator string is
approximately proportional to the
voltage, with a slight increase for
higher voltages and with some
margin in the length of each unit.
For 66 kv voltage used 4 to 5 units to
110 kv 7 to 8 for 8 to 132 kv 10 kv to
Suspension insulator, cementation,
154 9 to 11 220 14 to 20 kv.
ball type or kneecap.
Units or more modern drives have a
In Figure 1 represents a chain of two
maximum strength of 15,000 lbs
insulators type cap and cemented
(6800 Kg). The average starting any
stem, the type 15,000 lbs (6,800 kg)
of these discs usually withstands a
and latch hinge in Figure 2SE
tensile test of 15,000 lbs (6800 Kg)
represents the type of ball and
and many units reach 25% more than
socket. The choice between the two
that figure.
types is a matter of personal
preference, although the ball and
Probably one of these discs, well
socket type, also called kneecap, is
built, withstand a load of 10,000 to
most popular for its advantages in
12,000 pounds (5,400 kg of to 4 536)
urgent work.
for several days without fail. a
maximum load up to 6000 lbs 5000
isolator pirex
(2270-2700 kg) is recommended,
which represents a safety factor of 2
The suspension insulator and pin cap
on the minimum load-time test.
with Pyrex disk, a metal alloy used to
replace cement. Builders say that by
studying the stress distribution,
which is only possible for the
transparency of such materials and
also by careful heat treatment, these
insulators reach efforts next traction
twice those achieved with current
insulators type cap and bolt.

Isolators tension or tie

A set of suspension units arranged

end or end of a line, in a structure,
called isolator or clamping voltage.
These insulators must withstand the
Suspension insulator, cementation full tensile and must be calculated
flapper type. with a large safety factor for the
maximum ice and wind pressure; the
maximum stress that can withstand
insulators and fittings should be
matched to the driver, in order to take Transport, Pages 1508; 1509; 1511;
into account possible external loads 1512.
greater than those assumed in the [6] Information extracted from the
overall project. It is common practice book "Energy Transportation Lines"
to protect mooring chains or end of Luis Maria Checa, chapter 8, page
line, especially against deterioration 285, 286.287 and 288.
due to arcs using two or three [11] Information extracted from the
additional discs and installing horns book "Energy Transportation Lines"
or guard rings. Luis Maria Checa, Chapter 0, page
In cases of very high stress or very
heavy conductors, double and triple
chains are arranged in parallel by
special parts (cylinder heads) steel
(well-known by its English name
"yoke"). parts of this class for double
and triple chain, as accessories or
hardware flows insulators are
constructed. For greater efforts
would require a special study.

Figure 3

In figure 3 you can see a damaged

insulator, such problems can be
solved using thermography, which is
the only method by which to detect
such problems before them as in the
figure, sometimes insulators are
accessible to make the
thermography measurements
places, sometimes, for example, as
often happens with the transmission
lines, insulators are at a distance too
large to effect standard
measurement in this case can be
used the thermography
measurements using helicopter

[5] Standard Electrical Engineer
Manual, Section 13, Energy