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Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Madras

Assignment -1 (Governing equations) Due: Feb 14, 2013

Note: The assignments will be individually evaluated and penalized if found to be copied from
colleagues.

1) Derive the continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates by applying the law of

conservation of mass to an elemental control volume of dimensions r, r, and z in r,
 and z directions, respectively.
2) Derive the energy equation (in terms of temperature) in cylindrical coordinates without
involving the viscous dissipation terms.
(Hint: The contribution of pressure and viscous forces towards mechanical energy and
work can be neglected.)
3) Derive the momentum equation for an arbitrary control volume based on tensor
notation using Reynolds transport theorem.
(Hint: First apply Newton’s second law for an arbitrary closed system (control mass).
Then apply Reynolds transport theorem to transform the conservation equation to that for
a control volume.)
4) For a 3-D control volume oriented along the Cartesian x,y,z directions, Derive the energy
equation (in terms of temperature) for a viscous compressible fluid. Show that it can be
expressed in a coordinate free representation as

Show all the terms of viscous dissipation,

(Hint: Once the equation for conservation of internal energy is derived, apply continuity
equation and the relation between enthalpy and internal energy to write the equation for
conservation of enthalpy. Then use the relationship dh = cpdT for a perfect gas.)
5) Starting from the dimensional form, derive the non-dimensional form of energy equation
for an incompressible fluid including viscous dissipation in 2-D Cartesian coordinates.
Explain the significance of the non-dimensional numbers involved.
6) Consider two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow over a flat isothermal plate. Very
close to the surface, the velocity components are very small. If the pressure changes are
assumed to be negligible in the floe being considered, derive an expression for the
temperature distribution near the wall in terms of wall shear stress and wall heat flux.
Viscous dissipation effects should be included in the analysis.
7) Consider the Couette flow between two parallel plates separated by a gap of width H and
moving with a speed U relative to one another. A temperature difference T is imposed
between the two plates. Estimate the rate of entropy generation per unit volume in this
flow. What relationship must exist between H, U, T, and the fluid properties  and k for
the entropy generation to be dominated by the irreversibility due to fluid friction (viscous
dissipation)?