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ISBN 978-1-84626-xxx-x

Proceedings of 2013 International Seminar on Climate Change and Food Security


(ISCCFS 2012)
Palembang, South Sumatra-Indonesia, 24-25 October, 2013, pp. xxx-xxx

THE FARMER CHOICES IN UTILIZING ORGANIC FERTILIZERS :


TIDAL SWAMP RICE FARMERS CASE
Siti Komariah Hildayanti1, Andy Mulyana2, Sriati2, and Nuni Gofar2
1
Doctoral Student of Agribisnis, Sriwijaya University
2
Lecturer at Sriwijaya University

Abstract. Rice farming in the tidal wet land requires its own cultivation techniques, because soil and
environmental conditions are not similar to irrigated land. Cultivation problem can causing crop and canal so
damage the land and environment. The rapid changing of climate could cause the loss of production. One of
way to minimize the loss was by introducing use of organic fertilizer to improve the soil fertility. This article
tries to elaborate the probability of farmers to use the organic fertilizer under some factors influence in a case
swamp tidal land at Banyuasin District, South Sumatera. The probability of rice farmers to use or not use
organic fertilizers is affected by some aspects could be valued by binary choice model or Logit Model. The
results show that the land size, experience, a ratio of fertilizer price to the price of rice were effect on the
odds partially farmers use organic fertilizers. Also, education and market access influence the opportunities
of farmers using organic fertilizer even not sensitive.

Keywords: farmer choice, organic fertilizers, rice, tidal swamp.

1. Introduction
Intensive use of inorganic fertilizers has led to the decline in soil organic matter. This situation
lowers the productivity of land. To improve land productivity in a sustainable manner required breakthroughs
that lead to farm efficiency by utilizing local resource. Las et. al. (1999) stated that in increasing rice
production needs to be done preservation of the production environment, including maintaining soil organic
matter content by using organic fertilizer in cultivation. The wetland lower soil fertility which is related to its
own characteristics. Cultivation problem can causing crop and canal so damage the land and environment.
The rapid changing of climate could cause the loss of production. Ones of way to minimize the loss was by
introducing use of organic fertilizer to improve the soil fertility.
Current level of use of organic fertilizer in Indonesia is still low. The low levels of organic matter in
Indonesia is the need for organic fertilizer in large quantities. There are many farmers who do not
understand the technology of organic agriculture itself. These are caused by some factors (Indraningsih et.
al., 2005) namely age, experience, land size, ratio of own capital to total operational capital, market access,
family number and ratio of input price. This article tries to elaborate the probability of farmers to use the
organic fertilizer under some factors influence in a case swamp tidal land at Banyuasin District, South
Sumatera Province.

2. Methodology
The research was conducted in districts Banyuasin, they are Air Saleh, Makarti Jaya, Muara Telang,
Tanjung Lago, and Banyuasin I. This location was determined purposively which is production center of
tidal swamp rice in South Sumatra. The data was collected from rice farmer in June 2013 to September 2013.
Techniques used in Disproportionate Stratified Random Sampling (Darwan, 2000; Firdaus et. al., 2008),
where the population is divided into homogeneous group of rice farmers who already use organic fertilizer

1
PhD Candidate at UNSRI Post Graduate
2
Professor at UNSRI Post Graduate
and rice farmers who use in organic fertilizers. Totally, there are 95 samples consist of 6 fully organic, 44
semi-organic and 45 inorganic rice farmers.
The probability of rice farmers to use or not use organic fertilizers is affected by some aspects. It
could be valued under binary choice model known as Logit Model (Gujarati, 1991) the empirical decision
model in this research was :

Pi
K = Ln _______ = α - β1 U+ β2 LL+ β3 Ex+ β4 Ed+ β5 JAK + β6 AP+
1 - Pi β7 RM - β8RH + e.............................................. (1)

where :
K = farmer decision use or not to use organic fertilizer, where 1 isdecision to use organic fertilizer
and 0 is decision not use it.
U = age (year)
LL = land size (ha)
Ex = experience (year)
Ed = education (year)
JAK = Family (man)
AP = market access
RM = Capital ratio
RH = Input price ratio
e = Galat

Likelihood test was used to assess the fit of model to describe the data better. While, the influence of
each independent variables to the dependent variable was tested by (t-test) at significance level of 5%.

3. Results and Discussion


3.1.The Use of Organic Fertilizer Level

Type of fertilizer used rice farmers vary. Farmers to use Solid organic fertilizer and liquid organic
fertilizer ( POC ) and complementary liquid fertilizer ( PPC ). PPC usage is greater than the use of POC. The
use of fertilizers to farmers is dominated by semi - organic fertilizer coop / petro , urea , SP - 36 and PPC .
The use of urea fertilizer and petro fertilizers is higher than other types of fertilizers are respectively 72
percent and 19 percent. Using farmers dominated by the use of inorganic fertilizer is urea and SP - 36.
Percentage of urea reached 79 percent and the SP - 36 to 21 percent of the total fertilizer used in rice farmers
Banyuasin district.

Table 1. The average use of production inputs on Organic, Semi-Organic and Inorganic in Banyuasin.

Usage
Input Unit
Organic Semi-Organic Inorganic

Fertilizer

1. Urea kg/ha 0 323,30 188,22


2. SP-36 kg/ha 0 40,11 50,56
3. POP kg/ha 0 0 0
4. POC kg/ha 6,75 0 0
5. PPC Bottle /ha 7,08 1,39 0
6. Coop /Petro kg/ha 0 83,18 0
Microorganisms liter/ha 63,75 0 0
Pesticide
1. PO Liter/ha 85 0 0
2. Insecticide Liter/ha 0 0 0
3. Herbicide Liter/ha 0 1.39 31,44
Seed kg/ha 70,83 34,09 51,44
Labor man /ha 25 10,63 12,75
JOK/ha/MT 198,33 85 102
Notes : POP : Organic Fertilizer Solid , POC : Liquid Organic Fertilizer , PPC : Supplementary Liquid
Fertilizer , MOL : Local Microorganisms , PO : Organic Pesticides , SEAT : The Working Hours

The Probability of Farmer to Use Organic Fertilizer

The influence of these variables with the opportunities of farmers using organic fertilizers assessed
by testing the equation logit, who was twice the value of Nagelkerke R 2 statistic is equal to 0459, thus it can
be concluded that the ability of independent variables to explain the model is at 45.9 percent or statistical
values of log-likelihood 91 365 .

Table 3. Logit model coefficients opportunities rice farmers use organic fertilizers in the district Banyuasin

No Variable Β S.E. Wald Sig. Exp (β)


1 Age (year) -0,005 0,036 0,021 0,886 0,995
2 Land Size (hectare) -1,284 0,456 7,943 0,005a 0,277
3 Experience (year) 0,065 0,033 3,823 0,051b 1,067
4 Education (year) 0,181 0,113 2,541 0,111c 1,198
5 Family Number (man) 0,196 0,255 0,589 0,443 1,216
6 Market Access 0,936 0,716 1,710 0,191c 2,550
7 Capital Ratio 0,004 0,012 0,110 0,740 1,004
8 Input Price Ratio -0,065 0,021 9,949 0,002a 0,937
Constant 11,216 2,300 0,279 0,597 0,296

Notes: a : very obvious at the level of 1 % , significant at the level of 5 % , and significant at 15 % level

Value - the value of such statistics are presented in Table 3 shows the logistic regression coefficient
(Logit), Wald, and significance tests for each variable according to the original allegation (a priori). The
effect of each of these variables on the chances of farmers using organic fertilizers are described below.
Experience significant effect on the level of 1 percent. Age coefficient indicates that when other
variables are assumed constant ( ceteris paribus ) more opportunities young inexperienced farmers use
organic fertilizers 0.07 times higher than the farmers have not experienced or otherwise inexperienced
farmers use organic fertilizers 0.07 times lower rate of use of organic fertilizers compared to more
experienced farmers.
Extensive wetland will reduce the chances of getting farmers to use organic fertilizer by 1.28 times
higher than farmers with an area of wetland is relatively narrow. The average land area of 1.64 acres of
paddy farmers, where farmer organic fertilizer user average area of only 1.4 hectares lower. For farmers
producing organic fertilizer independently with the materials available in the surrounding rice fields such as
straw, and manure and decomposing organisms then it takes more manpower that need workers in larger
numbers. The average family size rice farmers 4. Shortage of labor in the family farmers met through labor
outside the family with a certain wage level. With the high level of labor costs is IDR.65.000 –IDR.70.000
per day.
Opportunities of organic fertilizer use by farmers become larger with the decrease in fertilizer prices.
Increase the odds of 0.07 times higher than when fertilizer prices experienced price declines. Instead farmers
use organic fertilizers chance is even greater for rice price high. Pure rice farmers using organic fertilizer is
relatively small 6.32 percent , the biggest part of rice farmers using organic and inorganic fertilizers together
as much as 46.32 percent , and farmers use inorganic fertilizers such as urea and pure SP -36 47.37 percent.
Effective use of organic and inorganic fertilizers simultaneously deliver higher production compared to the
use of organic fertilizer or inorganic fertilizer alone.
Improve educational opportunities for farmers to use organic fertilizers 0.18 times higher with the
higher education rice farmers. Average rice farmer education studying for 8 years or equivalent secondary
school. Pure organic farmers fertilizer users have higher education for 10 years or the equivalent of high
school. Organic fertilizer application requires specific knowledge of fertilizer production process, the process
of mixing different types of organic fertilizers and so on. Farmers require additional education or training.
Market access has a positive effect on increasing the chances of farmers using organic fertilizer. It
means that the availability of ready-made organic fertilizer or material - material for organic fertilizer such as
microorganisms on the market or stall - stall or stall - stall of agricultural inputs that are close to production
centers encourage increased use of organic fertilizers by rice farmers. Market access will increase probability
of farmers use organic fertilizers by 0.93 times higher when a more open market access.

4. Conclusion
Usage of input production specially in fertilizers were vary. The most use of organic fertilizers was
Solid Organic Fertilizer (SOF), Liquid Organic Fertilizer ( LOF ) and Complementary Liquid Fertilizer
( CLF). The SOF usage is greater than the use of LOF. But, the use of Urea, Petro, SP-36 and CLF fertilizers
is less.
The land size, experience, a ratio of fertilizer price to the price of rice were effect on the odds
partially farmers use organic fertilizers. Also, education and market access influence the opportunities of
farmers using organic fertilizer even not sensitive. It is quite different when compared with the variables that
affect the chances of farmers using organic fertilizer in the district OKUT, then the variable price ratio and
the number of family members had no significant effect on the chances of farmers using organic fertilizer in
Banyuasin district.

References
[1] Danim, Sudarwan. 2000. Research Method for Behaviour Science. Bumi Aksara, Jakarta.

[2] Firdaus. M, Farid. M.A. 2008. Selected Quantitative Method for Management and Business IPB Press: Bogor.
[3] Gujarati, D. N. 1991. Basic Econometric. Second Edition. Erlangga, Jakarta.
[4] Indraningsih, K.S., W.K. Sejati, and S. Wahyuni. 2005. Farmer Preferences analysis to Characteristics of
Upland Rice Technology (case in Middle and South Lampung, Lampung Province). PSE, Bogor.
[5] Las, I., A.K. Makarim, Sumarno, S. Purba, M. Mardikarini and S. Kartaatmadja. 1999. Pola IP-300, Conception
and Prospect of Implementation of Agricultural Management System Based on Local Resources. Badan Litbang
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