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NAME ___ANSWER KEY_____________________________________ CH.

10 STUDY GUIDE-REGULAR

SECTION 1: MEIOSIS
In your textbook, read about meiosis I and meiosis II.
Label the diagrams below. Use these choices:

anaphase I anaphase II interphase metaphase I metaphase II


prophase I prophase II telophase I telophase II

1. prophase I 2. prophase II 3. telophase II 4. interphase 5. anaphase I

6. telophase I 7. anaphase II 8. metaphase I 9. metaphase II

10. Using the pictures & phases above, describe what is happening in each phase:

a. Interphase: G1 – cell grows; S-DNA is duplicated; G2 – cells grows & makes sure all the
organelles are duplicated.

b. Prophase I: nuclear membrane breaks down; nucleolus disappears; centrioles begin to migrate
to opposite sides of the cell; spindle fibers begin to form; homologous chromosomes form;
crossing over occurs

c. Metaphase I: homologous chromosomes are lined up down the middle of the cell

d. Anaphase I: homologous chromosomes are pulled apart & sister chromatids are pulled to
opposite sides of the cell, cell has gone from diploid to haploid

e. Telophase I: nuclear membrane reforms, nucleolus reappears; spindle fibers disappear; cell
divides in 2

f. Prophase II: nuclear membrane breaks down; nucleolus disappears; centrioles begin to migrate
to opposite sides of both cells; spindle fibers begin to form; sister chromatids form

g. Metaphase II: sister chromatids are lined up down the middle of both cells.

h. Anaphase II: sister chromatids are pulled apart & chromosomes are pulled to opposite sides of
both cells

i. Telophase II: nuclear membrane reforms in the 4 cells, nucleolus reappears; spindle fibers
disappear; cell divides into 4 genetically different cells
11. What stage of meiosis will the cell go from diploid (2n) to haploid (n)? anaphase I

12. What is fertilization? Where an egg & sperm cells join creating a diploid cell

13. What is crossing over? Draw a picture. Crossing over is the exchange of genetic
material between 2 homologous chromosomes

14. Explain how crossing over causes genetic variation. Creates different combinations of genes on
chromosomes

15. How many chromosomes are in a typical human body cell? 46

16. How many chromosomes are in a typical egg or sperm cell? 23 = egg; 23=sperm

17. What is the role of the spindle fibers? To move the chromosomes around the cell to allow meiosis to
take place

Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description.

Description Mitosis Meiosis

18. Involved in the production of gametes X

19. Involved in growth and repair X

20. Promotes genetic variation in organisms X

21. Consists of one nuclear division X

22. Produces daughter cells that are genetically identical X

23. Involves two sets of nuclear divisions X

24. Produces daughter cells that are not identical X

25. Results in four haploid gametes X

26. Also called reduction division X

SECTION 2: MENDELIAN GENETICS

In your textbook, read about how genetics began and the inheritance of traits.
Write the term or phrase that best completes each statement. Use these choices:

cross-pollination dominant gametes inherited


recessive self-fertilization trait

1. Mendel was the first person to succeed in predicting how traits are INHERITED from generation to
generation.
2. In peas, both male and female sex cells, which are called GAMETES, are in the same flower.
3. SELF-FERTILIZATION occurs when a male gamete fuses with a female gamete in the
same flower.
4. Mendel used the technique called CROSS-POLLINATION to breed one plant with another.
5. Mendel studied only one TRAIT at a time and analyzed his data mathematically.
6. In individuals with a heterozygous genotype, the RECESSIVE allele of a trait is hidden by the expression
of the other phenotype.
7. In individuals with a heterozygous genotype, the DOMINANT allele of a trait is visible in the phenotype.
8. Describe heterozygous. When an organism’s chromosomes contain 2 different alleles for a particular
trait

9. Explain why sexual reproduction is better in a frequently changing environment. When the
environment is changing having the greatest genetic diversity ensures that members of the population will
survive.

10. What is phenotype? The observable expression of a trait.

11. What is genotype? The allele pairs of an organism

12. Describe Mendel’s law of independent assortment. Mendelian law stating that a random distribution
of alleles occurs during the formation of gametes.

13. Describe Mendel’s law of segregation. Mendelian law stating that 2 alleles for each trait separate
during meiosis.
In your textbook, read about Punnett squares.
Complete the Punnett square by filling in the missing information.

A student crossed true-breeding pea plants that had purple Possible


flowers (P) with true-breeding pea plants that had white gametes 14. P p
flowers (p). All of the offspring had purple flowers. Then 16. 17.
the student crossed two plants from the F 1 generation. The
student’s Punnett square is shown at right. What information 15. P PP Pp
should the student put in each blank? Remember, the
dominant allele is always written first.
18.
Pp
p pp

In your textbook, read about the inheritance of traits and Punnett squares.
Use each of the terms below only once to complete the passage.

dihybrid gene genotypes monohybrid phenotypic ratio

A cross between plants that involves one characteristic is called a (19) MONOHYBRID
cross. Mendel also performed (20) DIHYBRID crosses, which involve two
(21) GENE pairs, with pea plants. When he crossed two pea plants that
were heterozygous for both seed shape (Rr) and for seed color (Yy), he observed a 9:3:3:1
(22) PHENOTYPIC RATIO among the seeds of the offspring. A Punnett square shows
the possible phenotypes and (23) GENOTYPES of the offspring.
Complete the Punnett square by filling in the missing information.
Possible RY Ry rY ry
gametes
24. 25.

RY RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy


round, yellow round, yellow round, yellow round, yellow

26. 27. 28. 29.


Ry RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy
round, yellow round, green round, yellow round, green

30. 31. 32.


rY RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy
round, yellow round, yellow wrinkled, yellowwrinkled, yellow

33. 34. 35. 36.


ry RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy
round, yellow round, green wrinkled, yellow wrinkled, green

In your textbook, read about probability.


Refer to the Punnett square above. Respond to the following statement.

37. Find the probability that a wrinkled, green seed will result. 1/16

SECTION 10.3 GENE LINKAGE & POLYPLODY

In your textbook, read about genetic recombination and gene linkage.


Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
Column B
C 38.genes that are located on the same chromosome
A. chromosome map
A 39.shows the location of several genes
B. genetic recombination
D 40.Drosophila melanogaster
C. linked genes
B 41.an outcome of independent assortment
D. fruit fly
For each statement below, write true or false.

F 42. Crossing over occurs more frequently between genes that are close
together on a chromosome.

F 43. Gene linkage was first studied by using garden peas.

T 44. Scientists call a drawing like the one shown above a chromosome map.

In your textbook, read about polyploidy.


Respond to each statement.

45. Recall the name for the occurrence of one or more extra sets of all the chromosomes
in an organism’s cells.
POLYPLOIDY